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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539439/contribution-of-human-lung-parenchyma-and-leukocyte-influx-to-oxidative-stress-and-immune-mediated-pathology-following-nipah-infection
#1
Olivier Escaffre, Tais B Saito, Terry L Juelich, Tetsuro Ikegami, Jennifer K Smith, David D Perez, Colm Atkins, Corri B Levine, Matthew B Huante, Rebecca J Nusbaum, Janice J Endsley, Alexander N Freiberg, Barry Rockx
Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic emerging paramyxovirus that can cause a fatal respiratory illness or encephalitis in humans. Despite many efforts, the molecular mechanisms of NiV-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remain unclear. We previously showed that NiV replicates to high titers in human lung grafts in NOD scid gamma mice, resulting in a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, these mice can undergo human immune system reconstitution by the Bone marrow, Liver, and Thymus (BLT) reconstitution method, in addition to lung tissue engraftment, giving altogether a realistic model to study human respiratory viral infections...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494343/gene-end-like-sequences-within-the-3-non-coding-region-of-the-nipah-virus-genome-attenuate-viral-gene-transcription
#2
Akihiro Sugai, Hiroki Sato, Misako Yoneda, Chieko Kai
The regulation of transcription during Nipah virus (NiV) replication is poorly understood. Using a bicistronic minigenome system, we investigated the involvement of non-coding regions (NCRs) in the transcriptional re-initiation efficiency of NiV RNA polymerase. Reporter assays revealed that attenuation of NiV gene expression was not constant at each gene junction, and that the attenuating property was controlled by the 3' NCR. However, this regulation was independent of the gene-end, gene-start and intergenic regions...
May 8, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468881/mutations-in-the-transmembrane-domain-and-cytoplasmic-tail-of-hendra-virus-fusion-protein-disrupt-virus-like-particle-assembly
#3
Nicolás Cifuentes-Muñoz, Weina Sun, Greeshma Ray, Phuong Tieu Schmitt, Stacy Webb, Kathleen Gibson, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Anthony P Schmitt
Hendra virus (HeV) is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes deadly illness in horses and humans. An intriguing feature of HeV is the utilization of endosomal protease for activation of the viral fusion protein (F). Here, we investigated how F endosomal trafficking impacts HeV assembly. We found that HeV matrix (M) and F proteins each induced particle release when expressed alone, but their co-expression led to coordinated assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) that were morphologically and physically distinct from M-alone or F-alone VLPs...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433050/zoonotic-potential-of-emerging-paramyxoviruses-knowns-and-unknowns
#4
Patricia A Thibault, Ruth E Watkinson, Andres Moreira-Soto, Jan F Drexler, Benhur Lee
The risk of spillover of enzootic paramyxoviruses and the susceptibility of recipient human and domestic animal populations are defined by a broad collection of ecological and molecular factors that interact in ways that are not yet fully understood. Nipah and Hendra viruses were the first highly lethal zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered in modern times, but other paramyxoviruses from multiple genera are present in bats and other reservoirs that have unknown potential to spillover into humans. We outline our current understanding of paramyxovirus reservoir hosts and the ecological factors that may drive spillover, and we explore the molecular barriers to spillover that emergent paramyxoviruses may encounter...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404679/evaluation-of-taqman-array-card-tac-for-the-detection-of-central-nervous-system-infections-in-kenya
#5
Clayton O Onyango, Vladimir Loparev, Shirley Lidechi, Vinod Bhullar, D Scott Schmid, Kay Radford, Michael K Lo, Paul Rota, Barbara W Johnson, Jorge Munoz, Martina Oneko, Deron Burton, Carolyn M Black, John Neatherlin, Joel M Montgomery, Barry Fields
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often acute with significant morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnosis of such infections is limited in developing countries and requires modern equipment in advanced laboratories that may be unavailable to a number of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a TaqMan Array Card (TAC) that detects multiple pathogens simultaneously from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The 21-pathogen TAC assays include two parasites (Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba), six bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Bartonella) and 13 viruses (parechovirus, dengue, nipah, varicella zoster, mumps, measles, lyssa, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, Epstein Barr virus, enterovirus, cytomegalovirus and chikungunya)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396467/offering-patients-more-how-the-west-africa-ebola-outbreak-can-shape-innovation-in-therapeutic-research-for-emerging-and-epidemic-infections
#6
REVIEW
Amanda M Rojek, Peter W Horby
Although, after an epidemic of over 28 000 cases, there are still no licensed treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD), significant progress was made during the West Africa outbreak. The pace of pre-clinical development was exceptional and a number of therapeutic clinical trials were conducted in the face of considerable challenges. Given the on-going risk of emerging infectious disease outbreaks in an era of unprecedented population density, international travel and human impact on the environment it is pertinent to focus on improving the research and development landscape for treatments of emerging and epidemic-prone infections...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388650/loss-in-lung-volume-and-changes-in-the-immune-response-demonstrate-disease-progression-in-african-green-monkeys-infected-by-small-particle-aerosol-and-intratracheal-exposure-to-nipah-virus
#7
Yu Cong, Margaret R Lentz, Abigail Lara, Isis Alexander, Christopher Bartos, J Kyle Bohannon, Dima Hammoud, Louis Huzella, Peter B Jahrling, Krisztina Janosko, Catherine Jett, Erin Kollins, Matthew Lackemeyer, Daniel Mollura, Dan Ragland, Oscar Rojas, Jeffrey Solomon, Ziyue Xu, Vincent Munster, Michael R Holbrook
Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus Henipavirus) that emerged in the late 1990s in Malaysia and has since been identified as the cause of sporadic outbreaks of severe febrile disease in Bangladesh and India. NiV infection is frequently associated with severe respiratory or neurological disease in infected humans with transmission to humans through inhalation, contact or consumption of NiV contaminated foods. In the work presented here, the development of disease was investigated in the African Green Monkey (AGM) model following intratracheal (IT) and, for the first time, small-particle aerosol administration of NiV...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381569/group-a-rotaviruses-in-chinese-bats-genetic-composition-serology-and-evidence-for-bat-to-human-transmission-and-reassortment
#8
Biao He, Xiaohong Huang, Fuqiang Zhang, Weilong Tan, Jelle Matthijnssens, Shaomin Qin, Lin Xu, Zihan Zhao, Ling'en Yang, Quanxi Wang, Tingsong Hu, Xiaolei Bao, Jianmin Wu, Changchun Tu
Bats are natural reservoirs for many pathogenic viruses and increasing evidence supports that bats can also harbor group A rotaviruses (RVA), important causative agents of diarrhea in children and young animals. Currently, 8 RVA strains have been identified from African and Chinese bats, possessing completely novel genotype constellations or genotypes possibly originating from other mammals. However, all these data were mainly based on detection of RVA RNA, only present during acute infections, which does not permit assessment of the true exposure of a bat population to RVA...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344321/broad-spectrum-antiviral-activity-for-paramyxoviruses-is-modulated-by-biophysical-properties-of-fusion-inhibitory-peptides
#9
Cyrille Mathieu, Marcelo T Augusto, Stefan Niewiesk, Branka Horvat, Laura M Palermo, Giuseppina Sanna, Silvia Madeddu, Devra Huey, Miguel A R B Castanho, Matteo Porotto, Nuno C Santos, Anne Moscona
Human paramyxoviruses include global causes of lower respiratory disease like the parainfluenza viruses, as well as agents of lethal encephalitis like Nipah virus. Infection is initiated by viral glycoprotein-mediated fusion between viral and host cell membranes. Paramyxovirus viral fusion proteins (F) insert into the target cell membrane, and form a transient intermediate that pulls the viral and cell membranes together as two heptad-repeat regions refold to form a six-helix bundle structure that can be specifically targeted by fusion-inhibitory peptides...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250132/cytoplasmic-motifs-in-the-nipah-virus-fusion-protein-modulate-virus-particle-assembly-and-egress
#10
Gunner P Johnston, Erik M Contreras, Jeffrey Dabundo, Bryce A Henderson, Keesha M Matz, Victoria Ortega, Alfredo Ramirez, Arnold Park, Hector C Aguilar
Nipah virus (NiV), a paramyxovirus in the genus Henipavirus, has a mortality rate in humans of approximately 75%. While several studies have begun our understanding of NiV particle formation, the mechanism of this process remains to be fully elucidated. For many paramyxoviruses, M proteins drive viral assembly and egress; however, some paramyxoviral glycoproteins have been reported as important or essential in budding. For NiV the matrix protein (M), the fusion glycoprotein (F) and, to a much lesser extent, the attachment glycoprotein (G) autonomously induce the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179007/global-research-trends-of-world-health-organization-s-top-eight-emerging-pathogens
#11
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: On December 8(th), 2015, World Health Organization published a priority list of eight pathogens expected to cause severe outbreaks in the near future. To better understand global research trends and characteristics of publications on these emerging pathogens, we carried out this bibliometric study hoping to contribute to global awareness and preparedness toward this topic. METHOD: Scopus database was searched for the following pathogens/infectious diseases: Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Rift valley, Crimean-Congo, Nipah, Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and Severe Respiratory Acute Syndrome (SARS)...
February 8, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103156/antibodies-against-henipa-like-viruses-in-brazilian-bats
#12
Jansen de Araujo, Michael K Lo, Azaibi Tamin, Tatiana L Ometto, Luciano M Thomazelli, Marcello S Nardi, Renata F Hurtado, Alessandra Nava, Christina F Spiropoulou, Paul A Rota, Edison L Durigon
Bats are reservoir hosts for many paramyxoviruses, some of which cause human and zoonotic diseases of public health importance. We developed a Nipah virus nucleoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect cross-reactive antibodies in serum samples from several bat species in Brazil. Our results warrant further investigation of henipa-like virus reservoirs in the Western hemisphere.
April 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088124/nipah-virus-transmission-of-a-zoonotic-paramyxovirus
#13
REVIEW
Bronwyn Anne Clayton
Nipah virus is a recently-recognised, zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes severe disease and high fatality rates in people. Outbreaks have occurred in Malaysia, Singapore, India and Bangladesh, and a putative Nipah virus was also recently associated with human disease in the Philippines. Worryingly, human-to-human transmission is common in Bangladesh, where outbreaks occur with near-annual frequency. Onward human transmission of Nipah virus in Bangladesh is associated with close contact with clinically-unwell patients or their infectious secretions...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077641/chikungunya-influenza-nipah-and-semliki-forest-chimeric-viruses-with-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-actions-in-the-brain
#14
Anthony N van den Pol, Guochao Mao, Anasuya Chattopadhyay, John K Rose, John N Davis
Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based chimeric viruses that include genes from other viruses show promise as vaccines and oncolytic viruses. However, the critical safety concern is the neurotropic nature conveyed by the VSV glycoprotein. VSVs that include the VSV glycoprotein (G) gene, even in most recombinant attenuated strains, can still show substantial adverse or lethal actions in the brain. Here, we test 4 chimeric viruses in the brain, including those in which glycoprotein genes from Nipah, chikungunya (CHIKV), and influenza H5N1 viruses were substituted for the VSV glycoprotein gene...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060559/understanding-the-interaction-between-henipaviruses-and-their-natural-host-fruit-bats-paving-the-way-toward-control-of-highly-lethal-infection-in-humans
#15
François Enchéry, Branka Horvat
Hendra virus and Nipah virus (NiV) are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses, from henipavirus genus, that have emerged in late 1990s in Australia and South-East Asia, respectively. Since their initial identification, numerous outbreaks have been reported, affecting both domestic animals and humans, and multiple rounds of person-to-person NiV transmission were observed. Widely distributed fruit bats from Pteropodidae family were found to be henipavirus natural reservoir. Numerous studies have reported henipavirus seropositivity in pteropid bats, including bats in Africa, thus expanding notably the geographic distribution of these viruses...
January 6, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056216/nuclear-localization-and-secretion-competence-are-conserved-among-henipavirus-matrix-proteins
#16
Elisabeth C McLinton, Kylie M Wagstaff, Alexander Lee, Gregory W Moseley, Glenn A Marsh, Lin-Fa Wang, David A Jans, Kim G Lieu, Hans J Netter
Viruses of the genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae are zoonotic pathogens, which have emerged in Southeast Asia, Australia and Africa. Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus are highly virulent pathogens transmitted from bats to animals and humans, while the henipavirus Cedar virus seems to be non-pathogenic in infection studies. The full replication cycle of the Paramyxoviridae occurs in the host cell's cytoplasm, where viral assembly is orchestrated by the matrix (M) protein. Unexpectedly, the NiV-M protein traffics through the nucleus as an essential step to engage the plasma membrane in preparation for viral budding/release...
April 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928918/characterization-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-new-bat-astroviruses-detected-in-gabon-central-africa
#17
V Rougeron, E Suquet, G D Maganga, D Jiolle, I M Mombo, M Bourgarel, P Motsch, C Arnathau, P Durand, F Drexler, C Drosten, F Renaud, F Prugnolle, E M Leroy
Astroviruses are emerging RNA viruses that cause enteropathogenic infections in humans and in other mammals. The identification of astroviruses in a wide range of animals highlights the zoonotic importance of these viruses. Bats can harbor many different viruses, among which some are highly pathogenic for humans (for instance, Nipah, Ebola and SARS coronavirus), and also several astroviruses. As some RNA viruses can be directly transmitted from bats to humans, it is crucial to collect data about their frequency, genetic diversity and phylogenetic characterization...
2016: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847355/crystal-structure-of-the-marburg-virus-vp35-oligomerization-domain
#18
Jessica F Bruhn, Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Sarah M Urata, Sheng Li, Ian J Tickle, Gérard Bricogne, Erica Ollmann Saphire
Marburg virus (MARV) is a highly pathogenic filovirus that is classified in a genus distinct from that of Ebola virus (EBOV) (genera Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus, respectively). Both viruses produce a multifunctional protein termed VP35, which acts as a polymerase cofactor, a viral protein chaperone, and an antagonist of the innate immune response. VP35 contains a central oligomerization domain with a predicted coiled-coil motif. This domain has been shown to be essential for RNA polymerase function. Here we present crystal structures of the MARV VP35 oligomerization domain...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812087/identifying-early-target-cells-of-nipah-virus-infection-in-syrian-hamsters
#19
Laura Baseler, Dana P Scott, Greg Saturday, Eva Horne, Rebecca Rosenke, Tina Thomas, Kimberly Meade-White, Elaine Haddock, Heinz Feldmann, Emmie de Wit
BACKGROUND: Nipah virus causes respiratory and neurologic disease with case fatality rates up to 100% in individual outbreaks. End stage lesions have been described in the respiratory and nervous systems, vasculature and often lymphoid organs in fatal human cases; however, the initial target organs of Nipah virus infection have not been identified. Here, we detected the initial target tissues and cells of Nipah virus and tracked virus dissemination during the early phase of infection in Syrian hamsters inoculated with a Nipah virus isolate from Malaysia (NiV-M) or Bangladesh (NiV-B)...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788234/a-generic-quantitative-risk-assessment-framework-for-the-entry-of-bat-borne-zoonotic-viruses-into-the-european-union
#20
Robin R L Simons, Verity Horigan, Paul Gale, Rowena D Kosmider, Andrew C Breed, Emma L Snary
Bat-borne viruses have been linked to a number of zoonotic diseases; in 2014 there have been human cases of Nipah virus (NiV) in Bangladesh and Ebola virus in West and Central Africa. Here we describe a model designed to provide initial quantitative predictions of the risk of entry of such viruses to European Union (EU) Member States (MSs) through four routes: human travel, legal trade (e.g. fruit and animal products), live animal movements and illegal importation of bushmeat. The model utilises available datasets to assess the movement via these routes between individual countries of the world and EU MSs...
2016: PloS One
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