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Kenneth S Jensen, Ricky Adams, Richard S Bennett, John Bernbaum, Peter B Jahrling, Michael R Holbrook
Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus that can result in severe pulmonary disease and fatal encephalitis in humans and is responsible for outbreaks in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore, India and possibly the Philippines. NiV has a negative-sense RNA genome that contains six genes and serves as a template for production of viral mRNA transcripts. NiV mRNA transcripts are subsequently translated into viral proteins. Traditionally, NiV quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays have relied on using primer sets that amplify a target (N that encodes the nucleocapsid) within the coding region of the viral gene that also amplifies viral mRNA...
2018: PloS One
Olivier Escaffre, Terence Hill, Tetsuro Ikegami, Terry L Juelich, Jennifer K Smith, Lihong Zhang, David E Perez, Colm Atkins, Arnold Park, William S Lawrence, Satheesh K Sivasubramani, Jennifer E Peel, Johnny W Peterson, Benhur Lee, Alexander N Freiberg
Background: Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus henipavirus) that can cause severe respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Transmission occurs through consumption of NiV-contaminated foods, and contact with NiV-infected animals or human body fluids. However, it is unclear whether aerosols derived from aforesaid sources or others also contribute to transmission, and current knowledge on NiV-induced pathogenicity after small particle aerosol exposure is still limited. Methods: infectivity, pathogenicity and real-time dissemination of aerosolized NiV in Syrian hamsters was evaluated using NiV-Malaysia (NiV-M) and/or its recombinant expressing firefly luciferase (rNiV-Fluc NP)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2018: Lancet
Halsie Donaldson, Daniel Lucey
The Nipah virus has been reported to be transmitted from person-to-person following close contact in non-urban parts of India (including Kerala as of May 2018),Bangladesh, and the Philippines. It can cause encephalitis and pneumonia, and has a high case fatality rate. Nipah is a prime example of a One Health zoonotic emerging and reemerging infectious disease with consistent links to fruit bats, and sometimes pigs or horses. We argue for anticipating larger rural, and urban, outbreaks of Nipah, and preparing for them by accelerating development and testing of countermeasures: antiviral drugs,immunotherapeutic antibodies, vaccines, rapid diagnostics, personal protective equipment(PPE) for health workers and online WHO training by experts from Bangladesh, India and elsewhere...
June 4, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Victoria Ortega, Jacquelyn A Stone, Erik M Contreras, Ronald M Iorio, Hector C Aguilar
Glycosylation is a biologically important protein modification process by which a carbohydrate chain is enzymatically added to a protein at a specific amino acid residue. This process plays roles in many cellular functions, including intracellular trafficking, cell-cell signaling, protein folding, and receptor binding. While glycosylation is a common host cell process, it is utilized by many pathogens as well. Protein glycosylation is widely employed by viruses for both host invasion and evasion of host immune responses...
June 6, 2018: Glycobiology
Owen Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Shotaro Uchida, Ryo Horie, Hiroki Sato, Chieko Kai, Misako Yoneda
Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes lethal encephalitis in humans. We previously reported that the V protein, one of the three accessory proteins encoded by the P gene, is one of the key determinants of the pathogenesis of NiV in a hamster infection model. Satterfield B.A. et al. have also revealed that V protein is required for the pathogenicity of henipavirus in a ferret infection model. However, the complete functions of NiV V have not been clarified. In this study, we identified UBX domain-containing protein 1 (UBXN1), a negative regulator of RIG-I-like receptor signaling, as a host protein that interacts with NiV V...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brian E Dawes, Birte Kalveram, Tetsuro Ikegami, Terry Juelich, Jennifer K Smith, Lihong Zhang, Arnold Park, Benhur Lee, Takashi Komeno, Yousuke Furuta, Alexander N Freiberg
Nipah and Hendra viruses are recently emerged bat-borne paramyxoviruses (genus Henipavirus) causing severe encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans with fatality rates ranging from 40-75%. Despite the severe pathogenicity of these viruses and their pandemic potential, no therapeutics or vaccines are currently approved for use in humans. Favipiravir (T-705) is a purine analogue antiviral approved for use in Japan against emerging influenza strains; and several phase 2 and 3 clinical trials are ongoing in the United States and Europe...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kerstin Fischer, Sandra Diederich, Greg Smith, Sven Reiche, Vinicius Pinho Dos Reis, Eileen Stroh, Martin H Groschup, Hana M Weingartl, Anne Balkema-Buschmann
Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) belong to the genus Henipavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Henipavirus infections were first reported in the 1990's causing severe and often fatal outbreaks in domestic animals and humans in Southeast Asia and Australia. NiV infections were observed in humans in Bangladesh, India and in the first outbreak in Malaysia, where pigs were also infected. HeV infections occurred in horses in the North-Eastern regions of Australia, with singular transmission events to humans...
2018: PloS One
Xu Shang, Wenting Chu, Xiakun Chu, Liufang Xu, Sonia Longhi, Jin Wang
Henipavirus, including Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), is a newly discovered human pathogen genus. The nucleoprotein of Henipavirus contains an α-helical molecular recognition element (α-MoRE) that folds upon binding to the X domain (XD) of the phosphoprotein (P). In order to explore the conformational dynamics of free α-MoREs and the underlying binding-folding mechanism with XD, atomic force field-based and hybrid structure-based MD simulations were carried out. In our empirical force field-based simulations, characteristic structures and helicities of α-MoREs reveal the co-existence of partially structured and disordered conformations, as in the case of the well characterized cognate measles virus (MeV) α-MoRE...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Laura Behner, Louisa Zimmermann, Marc Ringel, Michael Weis, Andrea Maisner
Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are highly pathogenic henipaviruses originating from fruit bats in Australia and Asia that can cause severe infections in livestock and humans. In recent years, also African bat henipaviruses were identified at the nucleic acid level. To assess their potential to replicate in non-bat species, several studies were performed to characterize the two surface glycoproteins required for virus entry and spread by cell-cell fusion. It has been shown that surface expression and fusion-helper function of the receptor-binding G protein of Kumasi virus (KV), the prototypic Ghanaian bat henipavirus, is reduced compared to other non-African henipavirus G proteins...
May 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Brenda S P Ang, Tchoyoson C C Lim, Linfa Wang
Nipah virus, a paramyxovirus related to Hendra virus, first emerged in Malaysia in 1998. Clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic infection to fatal encephalitis. Malaysia has had no more cases since 1999, but outbreaks continue to occur in Bangladesh and India. In the Malaysia-Singapore outbreak, transmission occurred primarily through contact with pigs, whereas in Bangladesh and India, it is associated with ingestion of contaminated date palm sap and human-to-human transmission. Bats are the main reservoir for this virus, which can cause disease in humans and animals...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Michael K Lo, Paul C Jordan, Sarah Stevens, Yuen Tam, Jerome Deval, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou
Ebolaviruses, marburgviruses, and henipaviruses are zoonotic pathogens belonging to the Filoviridae and Paramyxoviridae families. They exemplify viruses that continue to spill over into the human population, causing outbreaks characterized by high mortality and significant clinical sequelae in survivors of infection. There are currently no approved small molecule therapeutics for use in humans against these viruses. In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of the nucleoside analog 4'-azidocytidine (4'N3 -C, R1479) and its 2'-monofluoro- and 2'-difluoro-modified analogs (2'F-4'N3 -C and 2'diF-4'N3 -C) against representative paramyxoviruses (Nipah virus, Hendra virus, measles virus, and human parainfluenza virus 3) and filoviruses (Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Ravn virus)...
May 2018: Antiviral Research
Eric D Laing, Moushimi Amaya, Chanakha K Navaratnarajah, Yan-Ru Feng, Roberto Cattaneo, Lin-Fa Wang, Christopher C Broder
BACKGROUND: Hendra virus and Nipah virus are zoonotic viruses that have caused severe to fatal disease in livestock and human populations. The isolation of Cedar virus, a non-pathogenic virus species in the genus Henipavirus, closely-related to the highly pathogenic Hendra virus and Nipah virus offers an opportunity to investigate differences in pathogenesis and receptor tropism among these viruses. METHODS: We constructed full-length cDNA clones of Cedar virus from synthetic oligonucleotides and rescued two replication-competent, recombinant Cedar virus variants: a recombinant wild-type Cedar virus and a recombinant Cedar virus that expresses a green fluorescent protein from an open reading frame inserted between the phosphoprotein and matrix genes...
March 27, 2018: Virology Journal
Cyrille Mathieu, Matteo Porotto, Tiago Figueira, Branka Horvat, Anne Moscona
Background: The emerging zoonotic paramyxovirus Nipah virus (NiV) causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans, with high fatality rates. NiV can be transmitted via person-to-person contact, posing a high risk for epidemic outbreaks. However, a broadly applicable approach for human NiV outbreaks in field settings is lacking. Methods: We engineered new antiviral lipopeptides and analyzed in vitro fusion inhibition to identify an optimal candidate for prophylaxis of NiV infection in the lower respiratory tract, and assessed antiviral efficiency in two different animal models...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Scott A Dee, Fernando V Bauermann, Megan C Niederwerder, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Marcelo de Lima, Craig Long, Gilbert Patterson, Maureen A Sheahan, Ana M M Stoian, Vlad Petrovan, Cassandra K Jones, Jon De Jong, Ju Ji, Gordon D Spronk, Luke Minion, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Jeff J Zimmerman, Raymond R R Rowland, Eric Nelson, Paul Sundberg, Diego G Diel
The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV)...
2018: PloS One
Alberto J Leon, Viktoriya Borisevich, Nahal Boroumand, Robert Seymour, Rebecca Nusbaum, Olivier Escaffre, Luoling Xu, David J Kelvin, Barry Rockx
Henipavirus infection causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in humans that can be fatal. To characterize the pathogenic mechanisms of henipavirus infection in vivo, we performed experimental infections in ferrets followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis of lung and brain tissues. The Hendra, Nipah-Bangladesh, and Nipah-Malaysia strains caused severe respiratory and neurological disease with animals succumbing around 7 days post infection. Despite the presence of abundant viral shedding, animal-to-animal transmission did not occur...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Stephen R Welch, Ayan K Chakrabarti, Lisa Wiggleton Guerrero, Harley M Jenks, Michael K Lo, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou, César G Albariño
Sosuga virus (SOSV) is a recently discovered zoonotic paramyxovirus isolated from a single human case in 2012; it has been ecologically and epidemiologically associated with transmission by the Egyptian rousette bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). Bats have long been recognized as sources of novel zoonotic pathogens, including highly lethal paramyxoviruses like Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV). The ability of SOSV to cause severe human disease supports the need for studies on SOSV pathogenesis to better understand the potential impact of this virus and to identify effective treatments...
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
M M Jamil Al-Obaidi, A Bahadoran, S M Wang, R Manikam, Ch S Raju, S D Sekaran
The blood brain barrier consisting of astrocytes, pericytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of neurotropic viruses by controlling the access of circulating molecules, immune cells or viruses into the central nervous system (CNS). However, this barrier is not impenetrable and neuroviruses have evolved to disrupt and evade it. This review aims to describe the underlying entry mechanisms of several neuroviruses such as (Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Nipah virus (NiV), Rabies virus (RABV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) into the CNS through BBB disruption...
2018: Acta Virologica
Emma E Glennon, Olivier Restif, Silke Riesle Sbarbaro, Romain Garnier, Andrew A Cunningham, Richard D Suu-Ire, Richard Osei-Amponsah, James L N Wood, Alison J Peel
Bat-borne viruses carry undeniable risks to the health of human beings and animals, and there is growing recognition of the need for a 'One Health' approach to understand their frequently complex spill-over routes. While domesticated animals can play central roles in major spill-over events of zoonotic bat-borne viruses, for example during the pig-amplified Malaysian Nipah virus outbreak of 1998-1999, the extent of their potential to act as bridging or amplifying species for these viruses has not been characterised systematically...
March 2018: Veterinary Journal
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