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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820130/convergence-of-humans-bats-trees-and-culture-in-nipah-virus-transmission-bangladesh
#1
Emily S Gurley, Sonia T Hegde, Kamal Hossain, Hossain M S Sazzad, M Jahangir Hossain, Mahmudur Rahman, M A Yushuf Sharker, Henrik Salje, M Saiful Islam, Jonathan H Epstein, Salah U Khan, A Marm Kilpatrick, Peter Daszak, Stephen P Luby
Preventing emergence of new zoonotic viruses depends on understanding determinants for human risk. Nipah virus (NiV) is a lethal zoonotic pathogen that has spilled over from bats into human populations, with limited person-to-person transmission. We examined ecologic and human behavioral drivers of geographic variation for risk of NiV infection in Bangladesh. We visited 60 villages during 2011-2013 where cases of infection with NiV were identified and 147 control villages. We compared case villages with control villages for most likely drivers for risk of infection, including number of bats, persons, and date palm sap trees, and human date palm sap consumption behavior...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767708/physiological-stress-and-hendra-virus-in-flying-foxes-pteropus-spp-australia
#2
Lee McMichael, Daniel Edson, Craig Smith, David Mayer, Ina Smith, Steven Kopp, Joanne Meers, Hume Field
Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, an emergent paramyxovirus responsible for fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Pteropus alecto (the Black flying-fox) and the paraphyletic P. conspicillatus (the Spectacled flying-fox) appear to be the primary reservoir hosts. Previous studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may underpin infection dynamics in flying-foxes, and subsequent spillover to horses and in turn humans. We sought to examine temporal trends in urinary cortisol concentration in wild Australian flying-fox populations, to elucidate the putative relationship between Hendra virus infection and physiological stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756915/in-silico-identification-and-characterization-of-common-epitope-based-peptide-vaccine-for-nipah-and-hendra-viruses
#3
Chayan Kumar Saha, Md Mahbub Hasan, Md Saddam Hossain, Md Asraful Jahan, Abul Kalam Azad
OBJECTIVE: To explore a common B- and T-cell epitope-based vaccine that can elicit an immune response against encephalitis causing genus Henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV). METHODS: Membrane proteins F, G and M of HeV and NiV were retrieved from the protein database and subjected to different bioinformatics tools to predict antigenic B-cell epitopes. Best B-cell epitopes were then analyzed to predict their T-cell antigenic potentiality. Antigenic B- and T-cell epitopes that shared maximum identity with HeV and NiV were selected...
June 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714870/antiviral-lipopeptide-cell-membrane-interaction-is-influenced-by-peg-linker-length
#4
Marcelo T Augusto, Axel Hollmann, Matteo Porotto, Anne Moscona, Nuno C Santos
A set of lipopeptides was recently reported for their broad-spectrum antiviral activity against viruses belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, including human parainfluenza virus type 3 and Nipah virus. Among them, the peptide with a 24-unit PEG linker connecting it to a cholesterol moiety (VG-PEG24-Chol) was found to be the best membrane fusion inhibitory peptide. Here, we evaluated the interaction of the same set of peptides with biomembrane model systems and isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
July 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710271/novel-alphacoronaviruses-and-paramyxoviruses-co-circulate-with-type-1-and-sars-related-betacoronaviruses-in-synanthropic-bats-in-luxembourg
#5
Maude Pauly, Jacques B Pir, Catherine Loesch, Aurélie Sausy, Chantal J Snoeck, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller
Several infectious disease outbreaks with high mortality in humans have been attributed to viruses that are thought to have evolved from bat viruses. In this study from Luxembourg, the genetic diversity and epidemiology of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses shed by the bat species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Myotis emarginatus was evaluated. Faeces collection (n= 624) was performed longitudinally in a mixed-species colony in 2015 and 2016. In addition, faeces (n= 254) were collected cross-sectionally from six Myotis emarginatus colonies in 2016...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706276/kanyawara-virus-a-novel-rhabdovirus-infecting-newly-discovered-nycteribiid-bat-flies-infesting-previously-unknown-pteropodid-bats-in-uganda
#6
Tony L Goldberg, Andrew J Bennett, Robert Kityo, Jens H Kuhn, Colin A Chapman
Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680971/hendra-and-nipah-virus-infection-in-cultured-human-olfactory-epithelial-cells
#7
Viktoriya Borisevich, Mehmet Hakan Ozdener, Bilal Malik, Barry Rockx
Henipaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses and causative agents of encephalitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) in humans are not known. Here, we evaluated the possible role of olfactory epithelium in virus entry into the CNS. We characterized Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) infection of primary human olfactory epithelial cultures. We show that henipaviruses can infect mature olfactory sensory neurons. Henipaviruses replicated efficiently, resulting in cytopathic effect and limited induction of host responses...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674944/a-functional-genomics-approach-to-henipavirus-research-the-role-of-nuclear-proteins-micrornas-and-immune-regulators-in-infection-and-disease
#8
Cameron R Stewart, Celine Deffrasnes, Chwan Hong Foo, Andrew G D Bean, Lin-Fa Wang
Hendra and Nipah viruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus) are zoonotic RNA viruses that cause lethal disease in humans and are designated as Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4) agents. Moreover, henipaviruses belong to the same group of viruses that cause disease more commonly in humans such as measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial virus. Due to the relatively recent emergence of the henipaviruses and the practical constraints of performing functional genomics studies at high levels of containment, our understanding of the henipavirus infection cycle is incomplete...
July 4, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651646/a-large-scale-behavior-change-intervention-to-prevent-nipah-transmission-in-bangladesh-components-and-costs
#9
Nazmun Nahar, Mohammad Asaduzzaman, Rebeca Sultana, Fernando Garcia, Repon C Paul, Jaynal Abedin, Hossain M S Sazzad, Mahmudur Rahman, Emily S Gurley, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: Nipah virus infection (NiV) is a bat-borne zoonosis transmitted to humans through consumption of NiV-contaminated raw date palm sap in Bangladesh. The objective of this analysis was to measure the cost of an NiV prevention intervention and estimate the cost of scaling it up to districts where spillover had been identified. METHODS: We implemented a behavior change communication intervention in two districts, testing different approaches to reduce the risk of NiV transmission using community mobilization, interpersonal communication, posters and TV public service announcements on local television during the 2012-2014 sap harvesting seasons...
June 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631270/comparison-of-in-vivo-toxicity-antioxidant-and-immunomodulatory-activities-of-coconut-nipah-and-pineapple-juice-vinegars
#10
Nurul Elyani Mohamad, Swee Keong Yeap, Boon Keen Beh, Muhammad Firdaus Romli, Hamidah Mohd Yusof, Ye Wen Kristeen-Teo, Shaiful Adzni Sharifuddin, Kamariah Long, Noorjahan Banu Alitheen
BACKGROUND: Vinegar is widely used as a food additive, in food preparation and as a food supplement. This study compared the phenolic acid profiles and in vivo toxicities, and antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice vinegars, which were respectively prepared via a two-step fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae 7013 INRA and Acetobacter aceti vat Europeans. RESULTS: Pineapple juice vinegar, which had the highest total phenolic acid content, also exhibited the greatest in vitro antioxidant capacity compared to coconut juice and nipah juice vinegars...
June 20, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629988/4-azidocytidine-r1479-inhibits-henipaviruses-and-other-paramyxoviruses-with-high-potency
#11
Anne L Hotard, Biao He, Stuart T Nichol, Christina F Spiropoulou, Michael K Lo
The henipaviruses Nipah virus and Hendra virus are highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxoviruses which have caused fatal outbreaks of encephalitis and respiratory disease in humans. Despite the availability of a licensed equine Hendra virus vaccine and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody shown to be efficacious against henipavirus infections in non-human primates, there remains no approved therapeutics or vaccines for human use. To explore the possibility of developing small-molecule nucleoside inhibitors against henipaviruses, we evaluated the antiviral activity of 4'-azidocytidine (R1479), a drug previously identified to inhibit flaviviruses, against henipaviruses along with other representative members of the family Paramyxoviridae...
June 17, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601688/structure-and-organization-of-paramyxovirus-particles
#12
REVIEW
Robert M Cox, Richard K Plemper
The paramyxovirus family comprises major human and animal pathogens such as measles virus (MeV), mumps virus (MuV), the parainfluenzaviruses, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and the highly pathogenic zoonotic hendra (HeV) and nipah (NiV) viruses. Paramyxovirus particles are pleomorphic, with a lipid envelope, nonsegmented RNA genomes of negative polarity, and densely packed glycoproteins on the virion surface. A number of crystal structures of different paramyxovirus proteins and protein fragments were solved, but the available information concerning overall virion organization remains limited...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600653/how-order-and-disorder-within-paramyxoviral-nucleoproteins-and-phosphoproteins-orchestrate-the-molecular-interplay-of-transcription-and-replication
#13
REVIEW
Sonia Longhi, Louis-Marie Bloyet, Stefano Gianni, Denis Gerlier
In this review, we summarize computational and experimental data gathered so far showing that structural disorder is abundant within paramyxoviral nucleoproteins (N) and phosphoproteins (P). In particular, we focus on measles, Nipah, and Hendra viruses and highlight both commonalities and differences with respect to the closely related Sendai virus. The molecular mechanisms that control the disorder-to-order transition undergone by the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (NTAIL) of their N proteins upon binding to the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the homologous P proteins are described in detail...
September 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539439/contribution-of-human-lung-parenchyma-and-leukocyte-influx-to-oxidative-stress-and-immune-system-mediated-pathology-following-nipah-virus-infection
#14
Olivier Escaffre, Tais B Saito, Terry L Juelich, Tetsuro Ikegami, Jennifer K Smith, David D Perez, Colm Atkins, Corri B Levine, Matthew B Huante, Rebecca J Nusbaum, Janice J Endsley, Alexander N Freiberg, Barry Rockx
Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic emerging paramyxovirus that can cause fatal respiratory illness or encephalitis in humans. Despite many efforts, the molecular mechanisms of NiV-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remain unclear. We previously showed that NiV replicates to high titers in human lung grafts in NOD-SCID/γ mice, resulting in a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, these mice can undergo human immune system reconstitution by the bone marrow, liver, and thymus (BLT) reconstitution method, in addition to lung tissue engraftment, giving altogether a realistic model to study human respiratory viral infections...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494343/gene-end-like-sequences-within-the-3-non-coding-region-of-the-nipah-virus-genome-attenuate-viral-gene-transcription
#15
Akihiro Sugai, Hiroki Sato, Misako Yoneda, Chieko Kai
The regulation of transcription during Nipah virus (NiV) replication is poorly understood. Using a bicistronic minigenome system, we investigated the involvement of non-coding regions (NCRs) in the transcriptional re-initiation efficiency of NiV RNA polymerase. Reporter assays revealed that attenuation of NiV gene expression was not constant at each gene junction, and that the attenuating property was controlled by the 3' NCR. However, this regulation was independent of the gene-end, gene-start and intergenic regions...
August 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468881/mutations-in-the-transmembrane-domain-and-cytoplasmic-tail-of-hendra-virus-fusion-protein-disrupt-virus-like-particle-assembly
#16
Nicolás Cifuentes-Muñoz, Weina Sun, Greeshma Ray, Phuong Tieu Schmitt, Stacy Webb, Kathleen Gibson, Rebecca Ellis Dutch, Anthony P Schmitt
Hendra virus (HeV) is a zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes deadly illness in horses and humans. An intriguing feature of HeV is the utilization of endosomal protease for activation of the viral fusion protein (F). Here we investigated how endosomal F trafficking affects HeV assembly. We found that the HeV matrix (M) and F proteins each induced particle release when they were expressed alone but that their coexpression led to coordinated assembly of virus-like particles (VLPs) that were morphologically and physically distinct from M-only or F-only VLPs...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433050/zoonotic-potential-of-emerging-paramyxoviruses-knowns-and-unknowns
#17
Patricia A Thibault, Ruth E Watkinson, Andres Moreira-Soto, Jan F Drexler, Benhur Lee
The risk of spillover of enzootic paramyxoviruses and the susceptibility of recipient human and domestic animal populations are defined by a broad collection of ecological and molecular factors that interact in ways that are not yet fully understood. Nipah and Hendra viruses were the first highly lethal zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered in modern times, but other paramyxoviruses from multiple genera are present in bats and other reservoirs that have unknown potential to spillover into humans. We outline our current understanding of paramyxovirus reservoir hosts and the ecological factors that may drive spillover, and we explore the molecular barriers to spillover that emergent paramyxoviruses may encounter...
2017: Advances in Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404679/evaluation-of-a-taqman-array-card-for-detection-of-central-nervous-system-infections
#18
Clayton O Onyango, Vladimir Loparev, Shirley Lidechi, Vinod Bhullar, D Scott Schmid, Kay Radford, Michael K Lo, Paul Rota, Barbara W Johnson, Jorge Munoz, Martina Oneko, Deron Burton, Carolyn M Black, John Neatherlin, Joel M Montgomery, Barry Fields
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are often acute, with significant morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnosis of such infections is limited in developing countries and requires modern equipment in advanced laboratories that may be unavailable to a number of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. We developed a TaqMan array card (TAC) that detects multiple pathogens simultaneously from cerebrospinal fluid. The 21-pathogen CNS multiple-pathogen TAC (CNS-TAC) assay includes two parasites (Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba), six bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Bartonella), and 13 viruses (parechovirus, dengue virus, Nipah virus, varicella-zoster virus, mumps virus, measles virus, lyssavirus, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, enterovirus, cytomegalovirus, and chikungunya virus)...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396467/offering-patients-more-how-the-west-africa-ebola-outbreak-can-shape-innovation-in-therapeutic-research-for-emerging-and-epidemic-infections
#19
REVIEW
Amanda M Rojek, Peter W Horby
Although, after an epidemic of over 28 000 cases, there are still no licensed treatments for Ebola virus disease (EVD), significant progress was made during the West Africa outbreak. The pace of pre-clinical development was exceptional and a number of therapeutic clinical trials were conducted in the face of considerable challenges. Given the on-going risk of emerging infectious disease outbreaks in an era of unprecedented population density, international travel and human impact on the environment it is pertinent to focus on improving the research and development landscape for treatments of emerging and epidemic-prone infections...
May 26, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388650/loss-in-lung-volume-and-changes-in-the-immune-response-demonstrate-disease-progression-in-african-green-monkeys-infected-by-small-particle-aerosol-and-intratracheal-exposure-to-nipah-virus
#20
Yu Cong, Margaret R Lentz, Abigail Lara, Isis Alexander, Christopher Bartos, J Kyle Bohannon, Dima Hammoud, Louis Huzella, Peter B Jahrling, Krisztina Janosko, Catherine Jett, Erin Kollins, Matthew Lackemeyer, Daniel Mollura, Dan Ragland, Oscar Rojas, Jeffrey Solomon, Ziyue Xu, Vincent Munster, Michael R Holbrook
Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus (genus Henipavirus) that emerged in the late 1990s in Malaysia and has since been identified as the cause of sporadic outbreaks of severe febrile disease in Bangladesh and India. NiV infection is frequently associated with severe respiratory or neurological disease in infected humans with transmission to humans through inhalation, contact or consumption of NiV contaminated foods. In the work presented here, the development of disease was investigated in the African Green Monkey (AGM) model following intratracheal (IT) and, for the first time, small-particle aerosol administration of NiV...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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