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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188454/a-narrative-review-of-the-impact-of-interventions-in-acute-kidney-injury
#1
REVIEW
Lynne Sykes, Rob Nipah, Philip Kalra, Darren Green
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is independently associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and is thus an important challenge facing physicians in modern healthcare. This narrative review assesses the impact of strategies employed to tackle AKI following the 2009 NCEPOD report on acute kidney injury (Sterwart et al. Acute kidney injury: adding insult to injury, pp 1-22, 2009). There is scarce and heterogeneous research into hard end points such as mortality and AKI progression for AKI interventions. This review found that e-alerts have varying effects on mortality and AKI progression, but decrease the incidence of contrast-induced AKI...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092793/proteomic-composition-of-nipah-virus-like-particles
#2
Natalia Mara Vera-Velasco, Maria Jesús García-Murria, Manuel M Sánchez Del Pino, Ismael Mingarro, Luis Martinez-Gil
Virions are often described as virus-only entities with no cellular components with the exception of the lipids in their membranes. However, advances in proteomics are revealing substantial amounts of host proteins in the viral particles. In the case of Nipah virus (NiV), the viral components in the virion have been known for some time. Nonetheless, no information has been obtained regarding the cellular proteins in the viral particles. To address this question, we produced Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) for NiV by expressing the F, G and M proteins in human-derived cells...
October 29, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083948/chimpanzee-adenoviral-vectors-as-vaccines-for-outbreak-pathogens
#3
Katie Ewer, Sarah Sebastian, Alexandra J Spencer, Sarah Gilbert, Adrian V S Hill, Teresa Lambe
The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the potential for large disease outbreaks caused by emerging pathogens and has generated considerable focus on preparedness for future epidemics. Here we discuss drivers, strategies and practical considerations for developing vaccines against outbreak pathogens. Chimpanzee adenoviral (ChAd) vectors have been developed as vaccine candidates for multiple infectious diseases and prostate cancer. ChAd vectors are safe and induce antigen-specific cellular and humoral immunity in all age groups, as well as circumventing the problem of pre-existing immunity encountered with human Ad vectors...
October 30, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035743/transmission-of-henipaviruses
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Weatherman, Heinz Feldmann, Emmie de Wit
The genus Henipavirus has expanded rapidly in geographic range, number of species, and host range. Hendra and Nipah virus are two henipaviruses known to cause severe disease in humans with a high case-fatality rate. Pteropid spp. bats are the natural reservoir of Hendra and Nipah virus. From these bats, virus can be transmitted to an amplifying host, horses and pigs, and from these hosts to humans, or the virus can be transmitted directly to humans. Although the main route of shedding varies between host species, close contact is required for transmission in all hosts...
October 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984239/variability-of-interferon-%C3%AE-induction-and-antiviral-activity-in-nipah-virus-infected-differentiated-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-of-two-human-donors
#5
Lucie Sauerhering, Helena Müller, Laura Behner, Mareike Elvert, Sarah Katharina Fehling, Thomas Strecker, Andrea Maisner
Highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV) generally causes severe encephalitis in humans. Respiratory symptoms are infrequently observed, likely reflecting variations in infection kinetics in human airways. Supporting this idea, we recently identified individual differences in NiV replication kinetics in cultured airway epithelia from different human donors. As type III interferons (IFN-λ) represent major players in the defence mechanism against viral infection of the respiratory mucosa, we studied IFN-λ induction and antiviral activity in NiV-infected primary differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs) cultured under air-liquid interface conditions...
October 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974687/monomeric-ephrinb2-binding-induces-allosteric-changes-in-nipah-virus-g-that-precede-its-full-activation
#6
Joyce J W Wong, Tracy A Young, Jiayan Zhang, Shiheng Liu, George P Leser, Elizabeth A Komives, Robert A Lamb, Z Hong Zhou, Joshua Salafsky, Theodore S Jardetzky
Nipah virus is an emergent paramyxovirus that causes deadly encephalitis and respiratory infections in humans. Two glycoproteins coordinate the infection of host cells, an attachment protein (G), which binds to cell surface receptors, and a fusion (F) protein, which carries out the process of virus-cell membrane fusion. The G protein binds to ephrin B2/3 receptors, inducing G conformational changes that trigger F protein refolding. Using an optical approach based on second harmonic generation, we show that monomeric and dimeric receptors activate distinct conformational changes in G...
October 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972216/the-henipavirus-v-protein-is-a-prevalently-unfolded-protein-with-a-zinc-finger-domain-involved-in-binding-to-ddb1
#7
Edoardo Salladini, Vincent Delauzun, Sonia Longhi
Henipaviruses are severe human pathogens within the Paramyxoviridae family. Beyond the P protein, the Henipavirus P gene also encodes the V protein which shares with P its N-terminal, intrinsically disordered region (PNT) and possesses a unique C-terminal domain predicted to be folded and to bind zinc (ZnFD). Henipavirus V proteins antagonize IFN signaling through PNT-mediated binding to STAT1, and several paramyxoviral V proteins promote STAT1 degradation through binding to DDB1. Structural and molecular information on Henipavirus V proteins is lacking, and their ability to interact with DDB1 has not been documented yet...
October 24, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905152/a-controlled-trial-to-reduce-the-risk-of-human-nipah-virus-exposure-in-bangladesh
#8
Nazmun Nahar, Repon C Paul, Rebeca Sultana, Shariful Amin Sumon, Kajal Chandra Banik, Jaynal Abedin, Mohammad Asaduzzaman, Fernando Garcia, Susan Zimicki, Mahmudur Rahman, Emily S Gurley, Stephen P Luby
Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection, often fatal in Bangladesh, is primarily transmitted by drinking raw date palm sap contaminated by Pteropus bats. We assessed the impact of a behavior change communication intervention on reducing consumption of potentially NiV-contaminated raw sap. During the 2012-2014 sap harvesting seasons, we implemented interventions in two areas and compared results with a control area. In one area, we disseminated a "do not drink raw sap" message and, in the other area, encouraged only drinking sap if it had been protected from bat contamination by a barrier ("only safe sap")...
September 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904190/exploring-the-human-nipah-virus-protein-protein-interactome
#9
Luis Martinez-Gil, Natalia M Vera-Velasco, Ismael Mingarro
Nipah virus is an emerging, highly pathogenic, zoonotic virus of the Paramyxoviridae family. Human transmission occurs by close contact with infected animals, the consumption of contaminated food, or, occasionally, via other infected individuals. Currently, we lack therapeutic or prophylactic treatments for Nipah virus. To develop these agents we must now improve our understanding of the host-virus interactions that underpin a productive infection. This aim led us to perform the present work, in which we identified 101 human-Nipah virus protein-protein interactions (PPIs), most of which (88) are novel...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883102/tackling-nipah-virus-%C3%A2-2-36-million-grant-awarded-to-pirbright-to-create-vaccine
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835499/nipah-and-hendra-virus-nucleoproteins-inhibit-nuclear-accumulation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-1-stat1-and-stat2-by-interfering-with-their-complex-formation
#11
Akihiro Sugai, Hiroki Sato, Ikuyo Takayama, Misako Yoneda, Chieko Kai
Henipaviruses, such as Nipah (NiV) and Hendra (HeV) viruses, are highly pathogenic zoonotic agents within the Paramyxoviridae family. The phosphoprotein (P) gene products of the paramyxoviruses have been well characterized for their interferon (IFN) antagonist activity and their contribution to viral pathogenicity. In this study, we demonstrated that the nucleoprotein (N) of henipaviruses also prevents the host IFN signaling response. Reporter assays demonstrated that the NiV and HeV N proteins (NiV-N and HeV-N, respectively) dose-dependently suppressed both type I and type II IFN responses and that the inhibitory effect was mediated by their core domains...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820130/convergence-of-humans-bats-trees-and-culture-in-nipah-virus-transmission-bangladesh
#12
Emily S Gurley, Sonia T Hegde, Kamal Hossain, Hossain M S Sazzad, M Jahangir Hossain, Mahmudur Rahman, M A Yushuf Sharker, Henrik Salje, M Saiful Islam, Jonathan H Epstein, Salah U Khan, A Marm Kilpatrick, Peter Daszak, Stephen P Luby
Preventing emergence of new zoonotic viruses depends on understanding determinants for human risk. Nipah virus (NiV) is a lethal zoonotic pathogen that has spilled over from bats into human populations, with limited person-to-person transmission. We examined ecologic and human behavioral drivers of geographic variation for risk of NiV infection in Bangladesh. We visited 60 villages during 2011-2013 where cases of infection with NiV were identified and 147 control villages. We compared case villages with control villages for most likely drivers for risk of infection, including number of bats, persons, and date palm sap trees, and human date palm sap consumption behavior...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767708/physiological-stress-and-hendra-virus-in-flying-foxes-pteropus-spp-australia
#13
Lee McMichael, Daniel Edson, Craig Smith, David Mayer, Ina Smith, Steven Kopp, Joanne Meers, Hume Field
Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural reservoir of Hendra virus, an emergent paramyxovirus responsible for fatal infection in horses and humans in Australia. Pteropus alecto (the Black flying-fox) and the paraphyletic P. conspicillatus (the Spectacled flying-fox) appear to be the primary reservoir hosts. Previous studies have suggested that physiological and ecological factors may underpin infection dynamics in flying-foxes, and subsequent spillover to horses and in turn humans. We sought to examine temporal trends in urinary cortisol concentration in wild Australian flying-fox populations, to elucidate the putative relationship between Hendra virus infection and physiological stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756915/in-silico-identification-and-characterization-of-common-epitope-based-peptide-vaccine-for-nipah-and-hendra-viruses
#14
Chayan Kumar Saha, Md Mahbub Hasan, Md Saddam Hossain, Md Asraful Jahan, Abul Kalam Azad
OBJECTIVE: To explore a common B- and T-cell epitope-based vaccine that can elicit an immune response against encephalitis causing genus Henipaviruses, Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV). METHODS: Membrane proteins F, G and M of HeV and NiV were retrieved from the protein database and subjected to different bioinformatics tools to predict antigenic B-cell epitopes. Best B-cell epitopes were then analyzed to predict their T-cell antigenic potentiality. Antigenic B- and T-cell epitopes that shared maximum identity with HeV and NiV were selected...
June 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714870/antiviral-lipopeptide-cell-membrane-interaction-is-influenced-by-peg-linker-length
#15
Marcelo T Augusto, Axel Hollmann, Matteo Porotto, Anne Moscona, Nuno C Santos
A set of lipopeptides was recently reported for their broad-spectrum antiviral activity against viruses belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, including human parainfluenza virus type 3 and Nipah virus. Among them, the peptide with a 24-unit PEG linker connecting it to a cholesterol moiety (VG-PEG24-Chol) was found to be the best membrane fusion inhibitory peptide. Here, we evaluated the interaction of the same set of peptides with biomembrane model systems and isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
July 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710271/novel-alphacoronaviruses-and-paramyxoviruses-cocirculate-with-type-1-and-severe-acute-respiratory-system-sars-related-betacoronaviruses-in-synanthropic-bats-of-luxembourg
#16
Maude Pauly, Jacques B Pir, Catherine Loesch, Aurélie Sausy, Chantal J Snoeck, Judith M Hübschen, Claude P Muller
Several infectious disease outbreaks with high mortality in humans have been attributed to viruses that are thought to have evolved from bat viruses. In this study from Luxembourg, the genetic diversity and epidemiology of paramyxoviruses and coronaviruses shed by the bat species Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Myotis emarginatus were evaluated. Feces collection (n = 624) was performed longitudinally in a mixed-species colony in 2015 and 2016. In addition, feces (n = 254) were collected cross-sectionally from six Myotis emarginatus colonies in 2016...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706276/kanyawara-virus-a-novel-rhabdovirus-infecting-newly-discovered-nycteribiid-bat-flies-infesting-previously-unknown-pteropodid-bats-in-uganda
#17
Tony L Goldberg, Andrew J Bennett, Robert Kityo, Jens H Kuhn, Colin A Chapman
Bats are natural reservoir hosts of highly virulent pathogens such as Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and SARS coronavirus. However, little is known about the role of bat ectoparasites in transmitting and maintaining such viruses. The intricate relationship between bats and their ectoparasites suggests that ectoparasites might serve as viral vectors, but evidence to date is scant. Bat flies, in particular, are highly specialized obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that incidentally bite humans. Using next-generation sequencing, we discovered a novel ledantevirus (mononegaviral family Rhabdoviridae, genus Ledantevirus) in nycteribiid bat flies infesting pteropodid bats in western Uganda...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680971/hendra-and-nipah-virus-infection-in-cultured-human-olfactory-epithelial-cells
#18
Viktoriya Borisevich, Mehmet Hakan Ozdener, Bilal Malik, Barry Rockx
Henipaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses and causative agents of encephalitis in humans. However, the mechanisms of entry into the central nervous system (CNS) in humans are not known. Here, we evaluated the possible role of olfactory epithelium in virus entry into the CNS. We characterized Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) infection of primary human olfactory epithelial cultures. We show that henipaviruses can infect mature olfactory sensory neurons. Henipaviruses replicated efficiently, resulting in cytopathic effect and limited induction of host responses...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674944/a-functional-genomics-approach-to-henipavirus-research-the-role-of-nuclear-proteins-micrornas-and-immune-regulators-in-infection-and-disease
#19
Cameron R Stewart, Celine Deffrasnes, Chwan Hong Foo, Andrew G D Bean, Lin-Fa Wang
Hendra and Nipah viruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus) are zoonotic RNA viruses that cause lethal disease in humans and are designated as Biosafety Level 4 (BSL4) agents. Moreover, henipaviruses belong to the same group of viruses that cause disease more commonly in humans such as measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial virus. Due to the relatively recent emergence of the henipaviruses and the practical constraints of performing functional genomics studies at high levels of containment, our understanding of the henipavirus infection cycle is incomplete...
July 4, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651646/a-large-scale-behavior-change-intervention-to-prevent-nipah-transmission-in-bangladesh-components-and-costs
#20
Nazmun Nahar, Mohammad Asaduzzaman, Rebeca Sultana, Fernando Garcia, Repon C Paul, Jaynal Abedin, Hossain M S Sazzad, Mahmudur Rahman, Emily S Gurley, Stephen P Luby
BACKGROUND: Nipah virus infection (NiV) is a bat-borne zoonosis transmitted to humans through consumption of NiV-contaminated raw date palm sap in Bangladesh. The objective of this analysis was to measure the cost of an NiV prevention intervention and estimate the cost of scaling it up to districts where spillover had been identified. METHODS: We implemented a behavior change communication intervention in two districts, testing different approaches to reduce the risk of NiV transmission using community mobilization, interpersonal communication, posters and TV public service announcements on local television during the 2012-2014 sap harvesting seasons...
June 26, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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