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Emily K Herman, Lyto Yiangou, Diego M Cantoni, Christopher N Miller, Francine Marciano-Cabral, Erin Anthonyrajah, Joel B Dacks, Anastasios D Tsaousis
Although the Golgi apparatus has a conserved morphology of flattened stacked cisternae in most eukaryotes, it has lost the stacked organization in several lineages, raising the question of what range of morphologies is possible for the Golgi. In order to understand this diversity, it is necessary to characterise the Golgi in many different lineages. Here we identify the Golgi apparatus in Naegleria , the first description of an unstacked Golgi organelle in a non-parasitic eukaryote, other than fungi. We provide a comprehensive list of Golgi-associated membrane trafficking genes encoded in two species of Naegleria and show that nearly all are expressed in mouse-passaged N...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Natália Karla Bellini, Thomás Michelena Santos, Marco Túlio Alves da Silva, Otavio Henrique Thiemann
Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic amoeboflagellate most prominently known for its role as the etiological agent of the Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), a disease that afflicts the central nervous system and is fatal in more than 95% of the reported cases. Although being fatal and with potential risks for an increase in the occurrence of the pathogen in populated areas, the organism receives little public health attention. A great underestimation in the number of PAM cases reported is assumed, taking into account the difficulty in obtaining an accurate diagnosis...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Agnes Thiane Pereira Machado, Marcio Silva, Jorge Iulek
Naegleria gruberi is a free life amoeba believed to have more than one billion years of existence; it is not pathogenic and had its genome sequenced, which revealed a high complexity in the metabolic pathways. This paper presents the experimental structure of GAPDH from N. gruberi, the first one belonging to the phylum Percolozoa, comparisons to structures from various species and molecular dynamics studies of some particular features. The final refined structure presents Rcryst  = 15.54% and Rfree  = 19...
February 28, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jennifer R Cope, Jennifer Murphy, Amy Kahler, Daniel G Gorbett, Ibne Ali, Brandi Taylor, Lisa Corbitt, Shantanu Roy, Nicole Lee, Dawn Roellig, Scott Brewer, Vincent R Hill
Background: Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic ameba found in freshwater that causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) when it enters the nose and migrates to the brain. Patient exposure to water containing the ameba typically occurs in warm freshwater lakes and ponds during recreational water activities. In June 2016, an 18-year-old woman died of PAM after traveling to North Carolina, where she participated in rafting on an artificial whitewater river. Methods: We conducted an epidemiologic and environmental investigation to determine the water exposure that led to the death of this patient...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Haylea C Miller, Jason Wylie, Anna Kaksonen, David Sutton, Geoffrey J Puzon
Free living amoebae (FLA), including pathogenic Naegleria fowleri, can colonise and grow within pipe wall biofilms of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). Studies on the interactions between various FLA species in biofilms are limited. Understanding the interaction between FLA and the broader biofilm ecology could help better predict DWDS susceptibility to N. fowleri colonisation. The aim of this study was to determine if N. fowleri and other FLAs (Naegleria, Vermamoeba, Willaertia and Vahlkampfia spp...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Junji Matsuo, Shinji Nakamura, Torahiko Okubo, Manabu Fukui, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
A free-living amoeba, Naegleria is ubiquitously distributed in various natural environments. Since some Naegleria spp. are exclusively distributed in the Arctic and sub-Antarctic regions, we hypothesized that the amoeba may be useful to determine long-term survival of Naegleria in laboratory conditions at 4 °C. The main objective of the study is to determine that a species of an environmental amoebal isolated can live at low temperatures after a long time. Here, we therefore show long-term survival of an amoeba, Naegleria polaris isolated from a sediment sample, which was collected from Antarctica 10 years ago, and since stored at 4 °C...
January 29, 2018: Parasitology Research
Jennifer Weidhaas, Angela Anderson, Rubayat Jamal
Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are the basis for water quality regulations and are considered proxies for waterborne pathogens when conducting human health risk assessments. Direct detection of pathogens in water and simultaneous identification of the source of fecal contamination is possible with microarrays, circumventing drawbacks to FIB approaches. A multi-gene target microarray was used to assess the prevalence of waterborne pathogens in a fecally impaired, mixed use watershed. Results indicate that fecal coliforms have improved substantially in the watershed since its listing as a 303(d) impaired stream in 2002 and are now near United States recreational water criteria standards...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Abdul Mannan Baig, Nuzair Waliani, Saiqa Karim
Neurotropic parasitic amoebal infections have imposed an enormous challenge to chemotherapy in patients who fall victims to the infections caused by them. Conventional antibiotics that are given to treat these infections have a low patient compliance because of the serious adverse effects that are associated with their use. Additionally, the growing incidence of the development of drug resistance by the neurotropic parasites like Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Acanthamoeba spp has made the drug therapy more challenging...
December 29, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Anjan Debnath, Claudia M Calvet, Gareth Jennings, Wenxu Zhou, Alexander Aksenov, Madeline R Luth, Ruben Abagyan, W David Nes, James H McKerrow, Larissa M Podust
Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported) the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Almea Matanock, Jason M Mehal, Lindy Liu, Diana M Blau, Jennifer R Cope
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis is an acute, rare, typically fatal disease. We used epidemiologic risk factors and multiple cause-of-death mortality data to estimate the number of deaths that fit the typical pattern for primary amebic meningoencephalitis; we estimated an annual average of 16 deaths (8 male, 8 female) in the United States.
January 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
M M Carrasco-Yepez, R Campos-Rodríguez, A A Reséndiz-Albor, C Peña-Juárez, A Contis-Montes de Oca, I M Arciniega-Martínez, P Bonilla-Lemus, S Rojas-Hernandez
We investigated if intranasal immunization with amoebic lysates plus cholera toxin modified the populations of T and B lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells by flow cytometry from nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), cervical lymph nodes (CN), nasal passages (NP) and spleen (SP). In all immunized groups, the percentage of CD4 was higher than CD8 cells. CD45 was increased in B cells from mice immunized. We observed IgA-antibody forming cell (IgA-AFC) response, mainly in NALT and NP. Macrophages from NP and CN expressed the highest levels of CD80 and CD86 either in N...
December 15, 2017: Parasite Immunology
Monique Waso, Penelope Heather Dobrowsky, Kerry Ann Hamilton, Geoffrey Puzon, Haylea Miller, Wesaal Khan, Warish Ahmed
Roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) has been used as an alternative source of water in water scarce regions of many countries. The microbiological and chemical quality of RHRW has been questioned due to the presence of bacterial and protozoan pathogens. However, information on the occurrence of pathogenic amoeba in RHRW tank samples is needed due to their health risk potential and known associations with opportunistic pathogens. Therefore, this study aims to determine the quantitative occurrence of Naegleria fowleri in RHRW tank samples from Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia (AU), and the Kleinmond Housing Scheme located in Kleinmond, South Africa (SA)...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jia Xue, Frederica G Lamar, Bowen Zhang, Siyu Lin, Jennifer G Lamori, Samendra P Sherchan
Brackish water samples from Lake Pontchartrain in Louisiana were assessed for the presence of pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri, which causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). In our study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were used to determine N. fowleri, E. coli, and enterococci in water collected from Lake Pontchartrain. N. fowleri target sequence was detected in 35.4% (56/158) of the water samples from ten sites around the lake. Statistically significant positive correlations between N...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kavitha Rajendran, Ayaz Anwar, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
The overall aim of this study was to determine whether conjugation with silver nanoparticles enhances effects of available drugs against primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri. Amphotericin B, Nystatin, and Fluconazole were conjugated with silver nanoparticles, and synthesis was confirmed using UV-visible spectrophotometry. Atomic force microscopy determined their size in range of 20-100 nm. To determine amoebicidal effects, N. fowleri were incubated with drugs-conjugated silver nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles alone, and drugs alone...
December 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Leopoldo Santos-Argumedo, José Manuel Galván-Moroyoqui, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
Naegleria fowleri is a protozoan that invades the central nervous system and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. It has been reported that N. fowleri induces an important inflammatory response during the infection. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of Toll-like receptors in the recognition of N. fowleri trophozoites by human mucoepithelial cells, analyzing the expression and production of innate immune response mediators. After amoebic interactions with NCI-H292 cells, the expression and production levels of IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, and human beta defensin-2 were evaluated by RT-PCR, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and dot blot assays, respectively...
November 11, 2017: Parasitology Research
Ehsan Saburi, Toktam Rajaii, Asma Behdari, Mohammad Hasan Kohansal, Hossein Vazini
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are a group of protozoa with the capabilities of growth in the environment and invasion to the human body which have been isolated from different water sources. Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Balamuthia are the most important FLA. These cause a variety of severe complications of eye and central nervous system. Despite the fact that various studies have demonstrated the prevalence of FLA in different parts of Iran, there is no comprehensive evaluation and conclusion regarding the pollution of various water sources in Iran...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Najia K Ghanchi, Bushra Jamil, Erum Khan, Zeeshan Ansar, Azra Samreen, Afia Zafar, Zahra Hasan
Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) which is almost always fatal. Naegleria fowleri is waterborne, and its infections are usually associated with aquatic activities but it can also be transmitted via the domestic water supply. An increasing number of N. fowleri cases have been reported from Pakistan. Improved methods for diagnosis are required. We report the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of N. fowleri in patients suspected of PAM. One hundred and sixteen cases suspected of having PAM were examined...
November 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Elodie Denet, Bénédicte Coupat-Goutaland, Sylvie Nazaret, Michel Pélandakis, Sabine Favre-Bonté
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous protozoa found worldwide in the environment. They feed by phagocytosis on various microorganisms. However, some bacteria, i.e., amoebae-resistant bacteria (ARB) or bacterial endocytobionts, can resist phagocytosis and even multiply inside FLA. This study investigated the diversity of culturable FLA in various soils from agricultural and mining sites and their bacterial endocytobionts. FLA were cultured on non-nutrient agar with alive Escherichia coli and identified by PCR and sequencing...
November 2017: Parasitology Research
Ahmad Z Al-Herrawy, Mahmoud A Gad
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare between slow and rapid sand filters for the removal of free-living amoebae during drinking water treatment production. METHODS: Overall, 48 water samples were collected from two drinking water treatment plants having two different filtration systems (slow and rapid sand filters) and from inlet and outlet of each plant. Water samples were collected from Fayoum Drinking Water and Wastewater Holding Company, Egypt, during the year 2015...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Charlton Lam, Melissa Jamerson, Guy Cabral, Ana Maris Carlesso, Francine Marciano-Cabral
Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba found in freshwater lakes and ponds and is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS). PAM occurs when amoebae attach to the nasal epithelium and invade the CNS, a process that involves binding to, and degradation of, extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This degradation is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that have been described in other pathogenic protozoa, and that have been linked to their increased motility and invasive capability...
September 28, 2017: Microbiology
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