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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128927/toll-like-receptors-participate-in-naegleria-fowleri-recognition
#1
Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Leopoldo Santos-Argumedo, José Manuel Galván-Moroyoqui, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
Naegleria fowleri is a protozoan that invades the central nervous system and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. It has been reported that N. fowleri induces an important inflammatory response during the infection. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of Toll-like receptors in the recognition of N. fowleri trophozoites by human mucoepithelial cells, analyzing the expression and production of innate immune response mediators. After amoebic interactions with NCI-H292 cells, the expression and production levels of IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1β, and human beta defensin-2 were evaluated by RT-PCR, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and dot blot assays, respectively...
November 11, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114120/free-living-amoebae-in-the-water-resources-of-iran-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Ehsan Saburi, Toktam Rajaii, Asma Behdari, Mohammad Hasan Kohansal, Hossein Vazini
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are a group of protozoa with the capabilities of growth in the environment and invasion to the human body which have been isolated from different water sources. Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Balamuthia are the most important FLA. These cause a variety of severe complications of eye and central nervous system. Despite the fact that various studies have demonstrated the prevalence of FLA in different parts of Iran, there is no comprehensive evaluation and conclusion regarding the pollution of various water sources in Iran...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016297/case-series-of-naegleria-fowleri-primary-ameobic-meningoencephalitis-from-karachi-pakistan
#3
Najia K Ghanchi, Bushra Jamil, Erum Khan, Zeeshan Ansar, Azra Samreen, Afia Zafar, Zahra Hasan
Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) which is almost always fatal. Naegleria fowleri is waterborne, and its infections are usually associated with aquatic activities but it can also be transmitted via the domestic water supply. An increasing number of N. fowleri cases have been reported from Pakistan. Improved methods for diagnosis are required. We report the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of N. fowleri in patients suspected of PAM. One hundred and sixteen cases suspected of having PAM were examined...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988383/diversity-of-free-living-amoebae-in-soils-and-their-associated-human-opportunistic-bacteria
#4
Elodie Denet, Bénédicte Coupat-Goutaland, Sylvie Nazaret, Michel Pélandakis, Sabine Favre-Bonté
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous protozoa found worldwide in the environment. They feed by phagocytosis on various microorganisms. However, some bacteria, i.e., amoebae-resistant bacteria (ARB) or bacterial endocytobionts, can resist phagocytosis and even multiply inside FLA. This study investigated the diversity of culturable FLA in various soils from agricultural and mining sites and their bacterial endocytobionts. FLA were cultured on non-nutrient agar with alive Escherichia coli and identified by PCR and sequencing...
November 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979352/assessment-of-two-different-drinking-water-treatment-plants-for-the-removal-of-free-living-amoebae-egypt
#5
Ahmad Z Al-Herrawy, Mahmoud A Gad
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare between slow and rapid sand filters for the removal of free-living amoebae during drinking water treatment production. METHODS: Overall, 48 water samples were collected from two drinking water treatment plants having two different filtration systems (slow and rapid sand filters) and from inlet and outlet of each plant. Water samples were collected from Fayoum Drinking Water and Wastewater Holding Company, Egypt, during the year 2015...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954644/expression-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-naegleria-fowleri-and-their-role-in-invasion-of-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Charlton Lam, Melissa Jamerson, Guy Cabral, Ana Maris Carlesso, Francine Marciano-Cabral
Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba found in freshwater lakes and ponds and is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS). PAM occurs when amoebae attach to the nasal epithelium and invade the CNS, a process that involves binding to, and degradation of, extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This degradation is mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that have been described in other pathogenic protozoa, and that have been linked to their increased motility and invasive capability...
September 28, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933530/future-priorities-in-tackling-infections-due-to-brain-eating-amoebae
#7
Naveed Ahmed Khan, Ayaz Anwar, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui
Brain-eating amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri) can cause opportunistic infections involving the central nervous system. It is troubling that the mortality rate is more than 90% despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy over the last few decades. Here, we describe urgent key priorities for improving outcomes from infections due to brain-eating amoebae.
September 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919331/production-and-characterization-of-monoclonal-antibodies-against-cathepsin-b-and-cathepsin-b-like-proteins-of-naegleria-fowleri
#8
Gi-Sang Seong, Hae-Jin Sohn, Heekyoung Kang, Ga-Eun Seo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Ho-Joon Shin
Naegleria fowleri causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans and experimental animals. In previous studies, cathepsin B (nfcpb) and cathepsin B-like (nfcpb-L) genes of N. fowleri were cloned, and it was suggested that refolding rNfCPB and rNfCPB-L proteins could play important roles in host tissue invasion, immune response evasion and nutrient uptake. In this study, we produced anti-NfCPB and anti-NfCPB-L monoclonal antibodies (McAb) using a cell fusion technique, and observed their immunological characteristics...
September 14, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916458/molecular-identification-of-waterborn-free-living-amoebae-acanthamoeba-naegleria-and-vermamoeba-isolated-from-municipal-drinking-water-and-environmental-sources-north-half-of-iran
#9
Ehsan Javanmard, Maryam Niyyati, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Zohreh Lasjerdi, Hamed Behniafar, Hamed Mirjalili
The present study tested 80 samples of municipal, geothermal and recreational water samples for the occurrence of waterborn free living amoebae (FLA) including Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, Vahlkampfiids and Vermamoeba in Semnan province, North half of Iran. Four sets of primers including JDP1,2 primers, ITS1,2 primers (Vahlkampfiids), 16S rRNABal primers (Balamuthia mandrillaris) and NA1,2 primers (Vermamoeba) were used to confirm the morphological identification. From the 80 water samples tested in the present study, 16 (20%) were positive for the outgrowth of free living amoebae based on the morphological page key...
September 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811103/identification-and-phylogenetic-position-of-naegleria-spp-from-geothermal-springs-in-italy
#10
M Montalbano Di Filippo, A Novelletto, D Di Cave, F Berrilli
Naegleria spp. are free-living amoebae belonging to the family Vahlkampfiidae, in the class Heterolobosea. Among the recognized species, Naegleria fowleri causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), while two other species, Naegleria australiensis and Naegleria italica, have been reported as pathogenic in experimental animals. Due to the thermotolerance properties of some species, geothermal water sources including hot springs represent suitable habitats for their proliferation. The main aim of this study was a year-round sampling in two geothermal springs in Central Italy, to investigate the presence of Naegleria spp...
August 12, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793307/larrea-tridentata-a-novel-source-for-anti-parasitic-agents-active-against-entamoeba-histolytica-giardia-lamblia-and-naegleria-fowleri
#11
Bharat Bashyal, Linfeng Li, Trpta Bains, Anjan Debnath, Daniel V LaBarbera
Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764655/a-case-report-primary-amoebic-meningoencephalitis-in-a-young-zambian-adult
#12
Mashina Chomba, Luchenga A Mucheleng'anga, Sombo Fwoloshi, Joseph Ngulube, Mable M Mutengo
BACKGROUND: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant disease of the brain caused by Naegleria fowleri. Although the disease is rare, the case fatality rate is very high. In this report, we describe the first case of PAM in Zambia. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with sudden onset of seizures and fever on admission. On physical examination he was febrile, comatose and with a stiff neck. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collected on admission did not reveal any organism on microscopy or culture but showed elevated white cell count...
August 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761479/surveillance-and-molecular-identification-of-acanthamoeba-and-naegleria-species-in-two-swimming-pools-in-alexandria-university-egypt
#13
Ahmad Z Al-Herrawy, Mahmoud I Khalil, Soheir S El-Sherif, Fatima A E Omar, Wael M Lotfy
BACKGROUND: Swimming in contaminated water was reported to be associated with Acanthamoeba and N. fowleri human infections. The present study was carried out with the aim of isolation and identification of the different species of Acanthamoeba and Naegleria from two swimming pools in Alexandria University. METHODS: Samples were collected from the swimming pools of Alexandria University Stadium and Faculty of Agriculture-Alexandria University during the period from May 2012 to April 2013...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754142/development-and-validation-of-a-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-clinical-acanthamoebae
#14
Nessika Karsenti, Rachel Lau, Andrew Purssell, Ann Chong-Kit, Marlou Cunanan, Jason Gasgas, Jinfang Tian, Amanda Wang, Filip Ralevski, Andrea K Boggild
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal agreement between molecular assays for the detection of Acanthamoeba spp. in clinical specimens has been demonstrated, and poor assay sensitivity directly imperils the vision of those affected by amoebic keratitis (AK) through delayed diagnosis. We sought to develop and validate a single Taqman real time PCR assay targeting the Acanthamoeba 18S rRNA gene that could be used to enhance sensitivity and specificity when paired with reference assays. METHODS: Biobanked DNA from surplus delinked AK clinical specimens and 10 ATCC strains of Acanthamoeba was extracted...
July 28, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721850/amphotericin-b-induces-apoptosis-like-programmed-cell-death-in-naegleria-fowleri-and-naegleria-gruberi
#15
Roberto Cárdenas-Zúñiga, Angélica Silva-Olivares, José D' Artagnan Villalba-Magdaleno, Virginia Sánchez-Monroy, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria gruberi belong to the free-living amoebae group. It is widely known that the non-pathogenic species N. gruberi is usually employed as a model to describe molecular pathways in this genus, mainly because its genome has been recently described. However, N. fowleri is an aetiological agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, an acute and fatal disease. Currently, the most widely used drug for its treatment is amphotericin B (AmB). It was previously reported that AmB has an amoebicidal effect in both N...
July 18, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719947/efficient-liquid-media-for-encystation-of-pathogenic-free-living-amoebae
#16
Hae-Jin Sohn, Heekyoung Kang, Ga-Eun Seo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Suk-Yul Jung, Ho-Joon Shin
Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba castellanii, and Acanthamoeba polyphaga, are distributed worldwide. They are causative agents of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis or acanthamoebic keratitis in humans, respectively. Trophozoites encyst in unfavorable environments, such as exhausted food supply and desiccation. Until recently, the method of N. fowleri encystation used solid non-nutrient agar medium supplemented with heat-inactivated Escherichia coli; however, for the amoebic encystment of Acanthamoeba spp...
June 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608712/nf-gh-a-glycosidase-secreted-by-naegleria-fowleri-causes-mucin-degradation-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#17
Moisés Martínez-Castillo, Rosa Elena Cárdenas-Guerra, Rossana Arroyo, Anjan Debnath, Mario Alberto Rodríguez, Myrna Sabanero, Fernando Flores-Sánchez, Fernando Navarro-Garcia, Jesús Serrano-Luna, Mineko Shibayama
AIM: The aim of this work was to identify, characterize and evaluate the pathogenic role of mucinolytic activity released by Naegleria fowleri. MATERIALS & METHODS: Zymograms, protease inhibitors, anion exchange chromatography, MALDI-TOF-MS, enzymatic assays, Western blot, and confocal microscopy were used to identify and characterize a secreted mucinase; inhibition assays using antibodies, dot-blots and mouse survival tests were used to evaluate the mucinase as a virulence factor...
July 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605078/morphology-and-phylogenetic-analyses-of-three-novel-naegleria-isolated-from-freshwaters-on-jeju-island-korea-during-the-winter-period
#18
Woo Jun Khwon, Jong Soo Park
The genus Naegleria is one of the best known heterolobosean groups, and is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This group is rarely studied in temperate regions during winter. Here, three novel Naegleria were isolated from freshwaters on Jeju Island, Korea, during winter. Two isolates were amoeboflagellates, and one of the three amoebae did not undergo enflagellation. All amoebae had eruptive pseudopodia, and the layer of refractile granules around a large nucleus. They formed a cyst with ~2 pores in the cyst stage...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591260/presence-of-rotavirus-and-free-living-amoebae-in-the-water-supplies-of-karachi-pakistan
#19
Farzana Abubakar Yousuf, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Rotavirus and pathogenic free-living amoebae are causative agents of important health problems, especially for developing countries like Pakistan where the population has limited access to clean water supplies. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) in drinking water supplies of Karachi, Pakistan. Six water filtration plants that supply drinking water to the population of Karachi were investigated. Additionally, drinking water samples from households were analyzed for the presence of rotavirus and free-living amoebae...
June 1, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453770/mitochondrial-genome-evolution-and-a-novel-rna-editing-system-in-deep-branching-heteroloboseids
#20
Jiwon Yang, Tommy Harding, Ryoma Kamikawa, Alastair G B Simpson, Andrew J Roger
Discoba (Excavata) is an evolutionarily important group of eukaryotes that includes Jakobida, with the most bacterial-like mitochondrial genomes known, and Euglenozoa, many of which have extensively fragmented mitochondrial genomes. However, little is known about the mitochondrial genomes of Heterolobosea, the third main group of Discoba. Here, we studied two heteroloboseids-an undescribed amoeba "BB2" and Pharyngomonas kirbyi. Phylogenomic analysis revealed that they form a clade that is a sister group to all other Heterolobosea...
May 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
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