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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923052/filariae-retrovirus-co-infection-in-mice-is-associated-with-suppressed-virus-specific-igg-immune-response-and-higher-viral-loads
#1
Kirsten Katrin Dietze, Ulf Dittmer, Daniel Karim Koudaimi, Simone Schimmer, Martina Reitz, Minka Breloer, Wiebke Hartmann
Worldwide more than 2 billion people are infected with helminths, predominantly in developing countries. Co-infections with viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common due to the geographical overlap of these pathogens. Helminth and viral infections induce antagonistic cytokine responses in their hosts. Helminths shift the immune system to a type 2-dominated immune response, while viral infections skew the cytokine response towards a type 1 immune response. Moreover, chronic helminth infections are often associated with a generalized suppression of the immune system leading to prolonged parasite survival, and also to a reduced defence against unrelated pathogens...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923016/development-of-a-national-campaign-addressing-south-african-men-s-fears-about-hiv-counseling-and-testing-and-antiretroviral-treatment
#2
Neil Orr, Helen Hajiyiannis, Laura Myers, Mzamani Benjamin Makhubele, Tselisehang Matekane, Richard Delate, Lusanda Mahlasela, Brenda Goldblatt
INTRODUCTION: South African men are less likely to get tested for HIV than women and are more likely to commence antiretroviral treatment (ART) at later stages of disease, default on treatment, and to die from AIDS compared with women. The purpose of this study was to conduct formative research into the ideational and behavioral factors that enable or create obstacles to mens' uptake of HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and ART. The study consulted men with a goal of developing a communication campaign aimed at improving the uptake of HIV testing and ART initiation among men...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923015/project-shikamana-baseline-findings-from-a-community-empowerment-based-combination-hiv-prevention-trial-among-female-sex-workers-in-iringa-tanzania
#3
Deanna Kerrigan, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Sarah Beckham, Ard Mwampashi, Catherine Shembilu, Andrea Mantsios, Anna Leddy, Wendy Davis, Noya Galai
BACKGROUND: Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923014/potential-impact-of-integrated-stigma-mitigation-interventions-in-improving-hiv-aids-service-delivery-and-uptake-for-key-populations-in-senegal
#4
Carrie E Lyons, Sosthenes Ketende, Daouda Diouf, Fatou M Drame, Benjamin Liestman, Karleen Coly, Cheikh Ndour, Gnilane Turpin, Souleymane Mboup, Karim Diop, Coumba Toure-Kane, Delivette Castor, Nafissatou Leye-Diouf, Stefan Baral
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW) are consistently shown to have a higher burden of HIV compared with other adults in Senegal. This study, HIV Prevention 2.0, evaluates the impact of the 3-tiered integrated stigma mitigation interventions (ISMIs) approach to optimizing HIV service delivery for key populations in Senegal. METHODS: Baseline assessment includes a questionnaire and biological testing for HIV. A proportion of participants enrolled into a 24-month longitudinal cohort with questionnaires and biological testing every 3 months...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923013/community-mobilization-for-hiv-testing-uptake-results-from-a-community-randomized-trial-of-a-theory-based-intervention-in-rural-south-africa
#5
Sheri A Lippman, Torsten B Neilands, Catherine MacPhail, Dean Peacock, Suzanne Maman, Dumisani Rebombo, Rhian Twine, Amanda Selin, Hannah H Leslie, Kathleen Kahn, Audrey Pettifor
BACKGROUND: HIV testing uptake in South Africa is below optimal levels. Community mobilization (CM) may increase and sustain demand for HIV testing, however, little rigorous evidence exists regarding the effect of CM interventions on HIV testing and the mechanisms of action. METHODS: We implemented a theory-driven CM intervention in 11 of 22 randomly-selected villages in rural Mpumalanga Province. Cross-sectional surveys including a community mobilization measure were conducted before (n = 1181) and after (n = 1175) a 2-year intervention (2012-2014)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923011/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-health-communication-interventions-within-a-combination-intervention-strategy-for-improving-linkage-and-retention-in-hiv-care-in-mozambique
#6
Roberta Sutton, Maria Lahuerta, Fatima Abacassamo, Laurence Ahoua, Maria Tomo, Matthew R Lamb, Batya Elul
BACKGROUND: Challenges to ensuring timely linkage to and retention in HIV care are well documented. Combination intervention strategies can be effective in improving the HIV care continuum. Data on feasibility and acceptability of intervention types within intervention packages are limited. METHODS: The Engage4Health study assessed the effectiveness of a combination intervention strategy to increase linkage and retention among adults newly diagnosed with HIV in Mozambique...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923008/a-framework-for-health-communication-across-the-hiv-treatment-continuum
#7
Stella Babalola, Lynn M Van Lith, Elizabeth C Mallalieu, Zoe R Packman, Emily Myers, Kim Seifert Ahanda, Emily Harris, Tilly Gurman, Maria-Elena Figueroa
BACKGROUND: As test and treat rolls out, effective interventions are needed to address the determinants of outcomes across the HIV treatment continuum and ensure that people infected with HIV are promptly tested, initiate treatment early, adhere to treatment, and are virally suppressed. Communication approaches offer viable options for promoting relevant behaviors across the continuum. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: This article introduces a conceptual framework, which can guide the development of effective health communication interventions and activities that aim to impact behaviors across the HIV treatment continuum in low- and medium-income countries...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923007/health-communication-and-the-hiv-continuum-of-care
#8
Sten H Vermund, Elizabeth C Mallalieu, Lynn M Van Lith, Helen E Struthers
Health communication is a broad term that applies to the fundamental need for practitioners, policy makers, patients, and community members to understand one another around health promotion and health care issues. Whether in a consultation between nurse and patient, a health clinic director's engagement with the health ministry, or a community campaign for encouraging HIV testing, all have critical health communication elements. When people's needs are not perceived by them to be addressed or clients/patients do not understand what is being communicated, they are unmotivated to engage...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922857/comprehensive-assessment-of-the-arginine-pathway-and-its-relationship-to-inflammation-in-hiv
#9
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, S M Khurshid Alam, Abdus Sattar, Manjusha Kulkarni, Nicholas Funderburg, W H Wilson Tang, Grace A Mccomsey
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide helps maintain vascular function and is generated through the oxidation of arginine. Whether altered arginine metabolism may lead to elevated levels of inflammation in HIV is unclear. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected adults on stable ART with HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL and HIV-uninfected controls. We measured biomarkers in the arginine pathway, markers of systemic inflammation, and monocyte activation. T-tests, chi-square tests and propensity score matching analyses were used to compare markers by HIV status, and multiple linear regressions were used to assess associations of arginine metabolites with markers of inflammation...
December 5, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922055/limited-hiv-1-reactivation-in-resting-cd4-t-cells-from-aviremic-patients-under-protease-inhibitors
#10
Amit Kumar, Wasim Abbas, Sophie Bouchat, Jean-Stéphane Gatot, Sébastien Pasquereau, Kabamba Kabeya, Nathan Clumeck, Stéphane De Wit, Carine Van Lint, Georges Herbein
A latent viral reservoir that resides in resting CD4(+) T cells represents a major barrier for eradication of HIV infection. We test here the impact of HIV protease inhibitor (PI) based combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) over nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based cART on HIV-1 reactivation and integration in resting CD4(+) T cells. This is a prospective cohort study of patients with chronic HIV-1 infection treated with conventional cART with an undetectable viremia. We performed a seven-year study of 47 patients with chronic HIV-infection treated with cART regimens and with undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for at least 1 year...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921861/understanding-intra-vaginal-and-labia-minora-elongation-practices-among-women-heads-of-households-in-zamb%C3%A3-zia-province-mozambique
#11
Carolyn M Audet, Meridith Blevins, Charlotte Buehler Cherry, Lazaro González-Calvo, Ann F Green, Troy D Moon
Intra-vaginal drying and tightening and labia minora elongation are commonly practised in some parts of southern Africa. We sought to capture data on these practices among women living in Zambézia province, Mozambique. Information was gathered from 3543 female heads of household on > 500 variables, including vaginal practices, in 2014. Women who planned to use intra-vaginal tightening substances had 1.84 times higher odds of ever receiving an HIV test (p < 0.001) and 1.40 times higher odds of at least one antenatal care visit attended during last pregnancy (p = 0...
December 6, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920885/cloning-and-expression-of-soluble-recombinant-hiv-1-crf35-protease-hp-thioredoxin-fusion-protein
#12
Asaad Azarnezhad, Zohreh Sharifi, Rahmatollah Seyedabadi, Arshad Hosseini, Behrooz Johari, Mahsa Sobhani Fard
BACKGROUND: As a drug target and an antigenic agent, HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) is at the center of attention for designing anti-AIDS inhibitors and diagnostic tests. In previous studies, the production of the recombinant protease has been faced with several difficulties; therefore, the aims of this study were the easy production, purification of the soluble form of protease in E. coli and investigation of its immunoreactivity. METHODS: Protease coding region was isolated from the serum of an infected individual, amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into PTZ57R using TA-cloning...
October 2016: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920581/hiv-stigma-and-associated-factors-among-antiretroviral-treatment-clients-in-jimma-town-southwest-ethiopia
#13
Neno Nikus Fido, Mamusha Aman, Zewdie Brihnu
BACKGROUND: HIV stigma has an important role in the spread of the AIDS epidemic. It profoundly affects the lives of individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Fear of being identified as having HIV may discourage a person from getting tested, accessing medical services, and obtaining medications. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing HIV-related stigma and associated factors among antiretroviral treatment (ART) clients in Jimma town, Oromia region, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 11 to April 26, 2015, in ART clinics in Jimma town...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920564/prioritizing-health-system-and-disease-burden-factors-an-evaluation-of-the-net-benefit-of-transferring-health-technology-interventions-to-different-districts-in-zimbabwe
#14
Shepherd Shamu, Simbarashe Rusakaniko, Charles Hongoro
INTRODUCTION: Health-care technologies (HCTs) play an important role in any country's health-care system. Zimbabwe's health-care system uses a lot of HCTs developed in other countries. However, a number of local factors have affected the absorption and use of these technologies. We therefore set out to test the hypothesis that the net benefit regression framework (NBRF) could be a helpful benefit testing model that enables assessment of intra-national variables in HCT transfer. METHOD: We used an NBRF model to assess the benefits of transferring cost-effective technologies to different jurisdictions...
2016: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919843/non-adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-patients-infected-with-hiv-and-cryptococcal-meningitis-two-cases-at-the-lambar%C3%A3-n%C3%A3-hospital-center-in-gabon
#15
U D Kombila, J Iba Ba, G Tsoumbou-Bakana, J-B Moussavou Kombila
Cryptococcal meningitis is a serious infection occurring mainly in immunodepressed patients, especially those with AIDS. Its incidence is growing among people living with HIV/AIDS who interrupt their antiretroviral treatment. We report two cases that occurred in this situation and had lethal outcomes in the short term. Testing for cryptococcal antigen in serum (serum CRAG test) enables a reliable and early diagnosis, and its use should be promoted in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.
December 5, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919841/prevalence-of-non-adherence-to-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-and-its-related-clinical-and-therapeutic-factors-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#16
O Guira, D S R Kaboré, G Dao, N Zagré, T M Zohoncon, V Pietra, J Simporé
: Introduction : Non-adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy is deleterious in HIV/AIDS programs. This study contributes to the identification of its frequency and of the clinical and therapeutic factors that determine it. Material and methods : This cross-sectional study took place from December 15, 2013, to February 18, 2014, at the Saint Camille health care center and the Pietro Annigoni biomolecular research center in Ouagadougou. It includes adults who had been receiving antiretroviral therapy for at least three months and agreed to participate...
December 5, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919242/reducing-child-abuse-amongst-adolescents-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-pre-post-trial-in-south-africa
#17
Lucie Cluver, Franziska Meinck, Alexa Yakubovich, Jenny Doubt, Alice Redfern, Catherine Ward, Nasteha Salah, Sachin De Stone, Tshiamo Petersen, Phelisa Mpimpilashe, Rocio Herrero Romero, Lulu Ncobo, Jamie Lachman, Sibongile Tsoanyane, Yulia Shenderovich, Heidi Loening, Jasmina Byrne, Lorraine Sherr, Lauren Kaplan, Frances Gardner
BACKGROUND: No known studies have tested the effectiveness of child abuse prevention programmes for adolescents in low- or middle-income countries. 'Parenting for Lifelong Health' ( http://tiny.cc/whoPLH ) is a collaborative project to develop and rigorously test abuse-prevention parenting programmes for free use in low-resource contexts. Research aims of this first pre-post trial in South Africa were: i) to identify indicative effects of the programme on child abuse and related outcomes; ii) to investigate programme safety for testing in a future randomised trial, and iii) to identify potential adaptations...
July 13, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918880/racial-differences-in-hiv-and-hcv-risk-behaviors-transmission-and-prevention-knowledge-among-non-treatment-seeking-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder
#18
Verena E Metz, Maria A Sullivan, Jermaine D Jones, Elizabeth Evans, Rachel Luba, Jonathan Vogelman, Sandra D Comer
In light of New York's recently reinforced strategy to end the AIDS epidemic by expanding testing, treatment, and access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), we assessed drug use and sexual risk behaviors, along with HIV/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and prevention knowledge among non-treatment-seeking adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) in New York City. Over the course of 18 months, volunteers screening for research studies in the Opioid Laboratory at the New York State Psychiatric Institute completed a locally developed self-assessment questionnaire...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918612/generalized-semiparametric-varying-coefficient-model-for-longitudinal-data-with-applications-to-adaptive-treatment-randomizations
#19
Li Qi, Yanqing Sun, Peter B Gilbert
This article investigates a generalized semiparametric varying-coefficient model for longitudinal data that can flexibly model three types of covariate effects: time-constant effects, time-varying effects, and covariate-varying effects. Different link functions can be selected to provide a rich family of models for longitudinal data. The model assumes that the time-varying effects are unspecified functions of time and the covariate-varying effects are parametric functions of an exposure variable specified up to a finite number of unknown parameters...
December 5, 2016: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917890/a-network-intervention-that-locates-and-intervenes-with-recently-hiv-infected-persons-the-transmission-reduction-intervention-project-trip
#20
Georgios K Nikolopoulos, Eirini Pavlitina, Stephen Q Muth, John Schneider, Mina Psichogiou, Leslie D Williams, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Vana Sypsa, Gkikas Magiorkinis, Pavlo Smyrnov, Anya Korobchuk, Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Britt Skaathun, Melpomeni Malliori, Evangelos Kafetzopoulos, Angelos Hatzakis, Samuel R Friedman
Early treatment, soon after infection, reduces HIV transmissions and benefits patients. The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP) evaluated a network intervention to detect individuals recently infected (in the past 6 months). TRIP was conducted in Greece (2013-2015) and focused on drug injector networks. Based on HIV status, testing history, and the results of an assay to detect recent infections, TRIP classified drug injector "Seeds" into groups: Recent Seeds (RS), and Control Seeds with Long-term HIV infection (LCS)...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
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