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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817643/peripheral-clinic-versus-centralized-laboratory-based-xpert-mtb-rif-performance-experience-gained-from-a-pragmatic-stepped-wedge-trial-in-botswana
#1
Tefera Agizew, Rosanna Boyd, Ndwapi Ndwapi, Andrew Auld, Joyce Basotli, Sambayawo Nyirenda, Zegabriel Tedla, Anikie Mathoma, Unami Mathebula, Chawangwa Lesedi, Sherri Pals, Anand Date, Heather Alexander, Thomas Kuebrich, Alyssa Finlay
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the Botswana National Tuberculosis Program adopted World Health Organization guidelines and introduced Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay to support intensified case finding among people living with HIV enrolling in care. An evaluation was designed to assess performance under operational conditions to inform the national Xpert scale-up. METHODS: Xpert was implemented from August 2012 through November 2014 with 13 GeneXpert instruments (GeneXpert) deployed in a phased approach over nine months: nine centralized laboratory and four point-of-care (POC) peripheral clinics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817570/increased-hepatotoxicity-among-hiv-infected-adults-co-infected-with-schistosoma-mansoni-in-tanzania-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Amon I Marti, Soledad Colombe, Peter J Masikini, Samuel E Kalluvya, Luke R Smart, Bahati M Wajanga, Hyasinta Jaka, Robert N Peck, Jennifer A Downs
INTRODUCTION: Little is known about hepatotoxicity in patients with schistosome and HIV co-infections. Several studies have reported increased liver enzymes and bilirubin levels associated with schistosome infection. We investigated whether HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy who had S. mansoni co-infection had a higher prevalence of hepatotoxicity than those without. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the presence and grade of hepatotoxicity among 305 HIV-infected outpatients who had been on medium-term (3-6 months) and long-term (>36 months) antiretroviral therapy in a region of northwest Tanzania where S...
August 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816863/management-of-retinoblastoma-with-hiv-seropositivity
#3
Abhinav Dhami, Anita Ramesh, Vikas Khetan
PURPOSE: To report a case of retinoblastoma with concomitant association with HIV seropositivity and its management. METHODS: A retrospective case report of a 3-year-old male child presenting with right eye Group B and left eye Group E retinoblastoma with simultaneous positivity for HIV1 antibody. The parents were also tested positive for HIV and were referred for initiating antiretroviral therapy. RESULTS: The child was managed with focal laser therapy for the right eye and six cycles of systemic chemotherapy, and the left eye was planned for enucleation with ball implant...
August 14, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816417/docking-field-based-qsar-and-pharmacophore-studies-on-the-substituted-pyrimidine-derivatives-targeting-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase
#4
Ningning Fan, Shuang Zhang, Tao Sheng, Liang Zhao, Zhenming Liu, Junyi Liu, Xiaowei Wang
HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) is one of the most important enzymes required for viral replication, thus acting as an attractive target for anti-retroviral therapy. Pyrimidine analogues reportedly have selective inhibition on HIV-1 RT with favorable antiviral activities in our previous study. To further explore the relationship between inhibitory activity and pharmacophoric characteristics, field-based QSAR models were generated and validated using Schrodinger Suite (correlation coefficient of 0.8078, cross-validated value of 0...
August 17, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815822/hepatitis-c-virus-related-complications-are-increasing-in-women-veterans-a-national-cohort-study
#5
J R Kramer, H B El-Serag, T J Taylor, D L White, S M Asch, S M Frayne, Y Cao, D L Smith, F Kanwal
There are gender-specific variations in the epidemiology and clinical course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, few long-term longitudinal studies have examined trends in the incidence and prevalence of serious liver complications among women compared with men with HCV infection. We used the Veterans Administration Corporate Data Warehouse to identify all veterans with positive HCV viraemia from January 2000 to December 2013. We calculated gender-specific annual incidence and prevalence rates of cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC) adjusting for age, diabetes, HIV and alcohol use...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815325/stumbling-blocks-at-the-clinic-experiences-of-seeking-hiv-treatment-and-care-in-south-africa
#6
Brendan Maughan-Brown, Caroline Kuo, Omar Galárraga, Philip Smith, Mark N Lurie, Linda-Gail Bekker, Abigail Harrison
Prompt antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation maximises the therapeutic and prevention benefits of a treat-all strategy for HIV therapy. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews with men and women 18 years and older (N = 41), who were highly motivated and seeking treatment, this study examined salient factors that were associated with delays in treatment access and initiation. Results revealed clinic-related barriers including an onerous, inefficient multi-step process to initiate ART. Participants experienced additional delays due to difficulties accessing care (e...
August 16, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814592/fever-and-generalised-lymphadenopathy-in-an-hiv-positive-patient-a-diagnostic-challenge
#7
Bernardo Neves, Pedro Raimundo, Pedro Farinha
Fever and generalised lymphadenopathy is a common presentation of a variety of diseases and a thorough investigation is often necessary for appropriate diagnosis.We present a 53-year-old male patient admitted with fever, weight loss of 15 kg in 3 months and abdominal discomfort. Examination was only remarkable for axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. Blood tests showed normocytic normochromic anaemia, cholestasis and a previously unknown HIV-1 infection with lymphocyte CD4 +count of 239 cells/mm(3) and viral load 3...
August 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814388/the-impact-of-poxvirus-vector-priming-protein-co-administration-and-vaccine-intervals-on-hiv-gp120-vaccine-elicited-antibody-magnitude-and-function-in-infant-macaques
#8
Bonnie Phillips, Genevieve G Fouda, Josh Eudailey, Justin Pollara, Alan D Curtis, Erika Kunz, Maria Dennis, Xiaoying Shen, Camden Bay, Michael Hudgens, David Pickup, S Munir Alam, Amir Ardeshir, Pamela A Kozlowski, Koen K A Van Rompay, Guido Ferrari, M Anthony Moody, Sallie Permar, Kristina De Paris
Despite success in reducing vertical HIV transmission by maternal antiretroviral therapy, several obstacles limit its efficacy during breastfeeding, and breast-milk transmission is now the dominant mode of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV in infants. Thus, a pediatric vaccine is needed to eradicate oral HIV infections in newborns and infants. Utilizing the infant rhesus macaque model, we compared 3 different vaccine regimens: (i) HIV Env protein only; (ii) a poxvirus vector (MVA)-HIV Env prime/HIV Env protein boost, and (iii) co-administration of HIV Env protein and MVA-HIV Env at all time points...
August 16, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814313/a-mixed-methods-study-of-hiv-related-services-in-buprenorphine-treatment
#9
Hannah K Knudsen, Jennifer Cook, Michelle R Lofwall, Sharon L Walsh, Jamie L Studts, Jennifer R Havens
BACKGROUND: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a major risk factor in the acquisition and transmission of HIV. Clinical practice guidelines call for the integration of HIV services in OUD treatment. This mixed methods study describes the integration of HIV services in buprenorphine treatment and examines whether HIV services vary by prescribers' medical specialty and across practice settings. METHODS: Data were obtained via qualitative interviews with buprenorphine experts (n = 21) and mailed surveys from US buprenorphine prescribers (n = 1174)...
August 16, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814161/significant-rates-of-risky-sexual-behaviours-among-hiv-infected-patients-failing-first-line-art-a-sub-study-of-the-europe-africa-research-network-for-the-evaluation-of-second-line-therapy-trial
#10
Jane N Wanyama, Maria S Nabaggala, Bonnie Wandera, Agnes N Kiragga, Barbara Castelnuovo, Ivan K Mambule, Josephine Nakajubi, Andrew D Kambugu, Nicholas I Paton, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Robert Colebunders, Philippa Easterbrook
There are limited data on the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours in individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and changes in sexual behaviour after switch to second-line ART. We undertook a sexual behaviour sub-study of Ugandan adults enrolled in the Europe-Africa Research Network for the Evaluation of Second-line Therapy trial. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect sexual behaviour data and, in particular, risky sexual behaviours (defined as additional sexual partners to main sexual partner, inconsistent use of condoms, non-disclosure to sexual partners, and exchange of money for sex)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814121/perceptions-of-iranian-female-drug-users-toward-hiv-testing-a-qualitative-content-analysis
#11
Mansoureh Jamshidimanesh, Effat Merghati Khoie, Seyed Abbas Mousavi, Afsaneh Keramat, Mohammad Hassan Emamian
BACKGROUND: Drug-dependent women are the vulnerable population deprived of access to health services and also have particular relevance to public health perspective because they are important bridge population for driving HIV/AIDS epidemic. This qualitative study aimed to explore the perception of drug-dependent women regarding HIV testing. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we approached 23 women with substance use disorders in 2 of the selected drop-in centers in the south Tehran...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813527/hiv-self-testing-values-and-preferences-among-sex-workers-fishermen-and-mainland-community-members-in-rakai-uganda-a-qualitative-study
#12
Virginia M Burke, Neema Nakyanjo, William Ddaaki, Caitlin Payne, Naadiya Hutchinson, Maria J Wawer, Fred Nalugoda, Caitlin E Kennedy
HIV self-testing may encourage greater uptake of testing, particularly among key populations and other high-risk groups, but local community perceptions will influence test uptake and use. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions with healthcare providers and community members in high-risk fishing communities (including sex workers and fishermen) and lower-risk mainland communities in rural Uganda to evaluate values and preferences around HIV self-testing. While most participants were unfamiliar with HIV self-testing, they cited a range of potential benefits, including privacy, convenience, and ability to test before sex...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813503/detectable-hiv-rna-in-semen-of-hiv-controllers
#13
Marie-Laure Chaix, Faroudy Boufassa, Candice Meyzer, Marianne Leruez-Ville, Nadia Mahjoub, Marie-Laure Nere, Philippe Genet, Claudine Duvivier, Caroline Lascoux-Combes, Olivier Lambotte, Jade Ghosn
BACKGROUND: Whether spontaneous low levels of HIV-1 RNA in blood plasma correlate with low levels of HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma has never been investigated in HIV controller (HIC) men so far. METHODS: HIC men enrolled in the ANRS CODEX cohort were eligible for the present study if they had no symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Two paired samples of blood and semen were collected four weeks apart. HIV-RNA was quantified in blood plasma (bpVL) and in seminal plasma (spVL), and cell-associated HIV-DNA was quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in non-sperm cells (NSC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813449/influenza-virus-infections-among-patients-attending-emergency-department-according-to-main-reason-to-presenting-to-ed-a-3-year-prospective-observational-study-during-seasonal-epidemic-periods
#14
Enrique Casalino, Stephanie Antoniol, Nadhira Fidouh, Christophe Choquet, Jean-Christophe Lucet, Xavier Duval, Benoit Visseaux, Laurent Pereira
OBJECTIVE: The role of influenza virus in patients presenting at ED during seasonal-epidemic periods has not previously been specified. Our objective was to determine its frequency according to clinical presentation. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study conducted during three-consecutive seasonal Influenza epidemics (2013-2015), including patients presenting i) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); ii) severe acute symptoms (SAS): respiratory failure (RF), hemodynamic failure (HF), cardiac failure (CF), and miscellaneous symptoms (M); iii) symptoms suggesting influenza (PSSI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812250/miv-150-and-zinc-acetate-combination-provides-potent-and-broad-activity-against-hiv-1
#15
Olga Mizenina, Mayla Hsu, Ninochka Jean-Pierre, Meropi Aravantinou, Keith Levendosky, Gabriela Paglini, Thomas M Zydowsky, Melissa Robbiani, José A Fernández-Romero
We previously showed that the combination of the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 with zinc acetate (ZA) formulated in a carrageenan (CG; MZC) gel provided macaques significant protection against vaginal simian-human immunodeficiency virus-RT (SHIV-RT) challenge, better than either MIV-150/CG or ZA/CG. The MZC gel was shown to be safe in a phase 1 clinical trial. Herein, we used in vitro approaches to study the antiviral properties of ZA and the MIV-150/ZA combination, compared to other NNRTIs...
August 15, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811694/estimation-of-upper-limit-of-normal-for-serum-alanine-transaminase-in-healthy-south-indian-population
#16
Pazhanivel Mohan, Varun Sundar, Emmanuel Bhaskar, Syluvai Anthony
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is the most common and cost effective screening test for asymptomatic liver disease. There is paucity of data on normal ALT among healthy individuals in India. An observational cross sectional study was conducted from January to July 2013 to estimate the upper limit of normal for ALT in healthy south Indian population. Adults undergoing voluntary or pre-employment health screening were included. Those with current and past alcoholism or smoking, acute illness or hospitalization during preceding 12 months, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory or over the counter medication use within a month, current or past intake of herbal medications, any chronic medical illness, abnormal body mass index (BMI), fatty liver in ultrasound, abnormality in haemoglobin, platelet count, blood sugar, creatinine, lipid profile and thyroid function test and positive serology (Hepatitis B, C or HIV) were excluded...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811543/4-e-p-tolylimino-methylbenzene-1-2-diol-timbd-suppresses-hiv1-gp120-mediated-production-of-il6-and-il8-but-not-ccl5
#17
Fatma Abdalla, Anantha Nookala, Subhash B Padhye, Anil Kumar, Hari K Bhat
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been associated with inflammatory effects that may potentially result in neurodegenerative changes and a number of newer chemotherapeutic agents are being tested to ameliorate these effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of a novel resveratrol analog 4-(E)-{(p-tolylimino)-methylbenzene-1,2-diol} (TIMBD) against HIV1-gp120 induced neuroinflammation in SVG astrocytes. SVG astrocytic cells were pretreated with TIMBD or resveratrol (RES) and then transfected with a plasmid encoding HIV1-gp120...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810840/the-association-between-tuberculosis-and-the-development-of-insulin-resistance-in-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-western-sub-district-of-the-cape-metropole-region-south-africa-a-combined-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#18
Lauren Philips, Janicke Visser, Daan Nel, Renée Blaauw
BACKGROUND: The existence of a bi-directional relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and insulin resistance (IR)/diabetes has been alluded to in literature. Although diabetes has been linked to increased tuberculosis risk, the relationship between tuberculosis as a causative factor for IR remains unclear. The study aimed to determine if an association existed between tuberculosis and IR development in adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis at baseline. It was additionally aimed to document changes in IR status during TB follow-up periods...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810838/violence-and-depression-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-tanzania
#19
Lucy R Mgopa, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Pedro Pallangyo
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be at an increased risk of Violence, HIV transmission and Mental Disorders such as depression on top of many other bio-psycho-socio challenges they face as a result of their sexual orientation. METHODS: We recruited 345 MSM using a respondent driven sampling technique. Revised Conflict Tactic Scale, PHQ-9 and questions adapted from the TDHS 2010 were used to assess for violence, depression and HIV-risk behaviors respectively...
August 15, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810431/-when-it-comes-to-hiv-that-s-when-you-find-out-the-genuinity-of-that-love-the-experience-of-disclosing-a-hiv-status-to-an-intimate-partner
#20
Charlotte Smith, Rachel Cook, Poul Rohleder
Despite a medical discourse of the 'normalisation' of HIV, it remains a highly stigmatising condition and makes the issue of disclosing one's HIV status particularly complex. This article reports on the experience of 18 people living with HIV in the United Kingdom of disclosing their HIV+ status in arguably their most important relationship, their intimate partnership. Five main themes arose: disclosure as the battlefield, preparing psychologically to disclose, disclosure as a test of the partner's love, disclosure as an opportunity for the partner to know them more deeply and the renegotiation of the relationship narrative...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
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