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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922376/news-trends-and-web-search-query-of-hiv-aids-in-hong-kong
#1
Alice P Y Chiu, Qianying Lin, Daihai He
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic in Hong Kong has worsened in recent years, with major contributions from high-risk subgroup of men who have sex with men (MSM). Internet use is prevalent among the majority of the local population, where they sought health information online. This study examines the impacts of HIV/AIDS and MSM news coverage on web search query in Hong Kong. METHODS: Relevant news coverage about HIV/AIDS and MSM from January 1st, 2004 to December 31st, 2014 was obtained from the WiseNews databse...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919821/prevalence-of-fertility-desire-and-its-associated-factors-among-15-to-49-year-old-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study-design
#2
Takele Menna Adilo, Hirut Megerssa Wordofa
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of unprotected sex to satisfy the desire for fertility among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) may rise more due to the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in most HIV-affected countries. This could, however, have the risk of passing on HIV to sexual partners and children. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the magnitude and factors associated with the fertility desire of reproductive-age PLHIV in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for research-based and timely actions...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919720/text-messaging-to-decrease-tuberculosis-treatment-attrition-in-tb-hiv-coinfection-in-uganda
#3
Sabine M Hermans, Sawsan Elbireer, Harriet Tibakabikoba, Bas J Hoefman, Yukari C Manabe
BACKGROUND: Low tuberculosis (TB) treatment completion rates in sub-Saharan Africa are an important driver of multidrug resistance. Mobile technology-based interventions have been shown to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to test the effect of a short-message service (SMS) intervention on loss to follow-up (LFU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, all adult, literate, HIV-infected patients with mobile phone access diagnosed with TB between November 2010 and October 2011 in an urban clinic in Uganda were eligible to receive adherence and appointment reminders and educational quizzes during the first 8 weeks of TB treatment...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919338/diagnostic-accuracy-of-xpert-mtb-rif-ultra-for-tuberculous-meningitis-in-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Nathan C Bahr, Edwin Nuwagira, Emily E Evans, Fiona V Cresswell, Philip V Bystrom, Adolf Byamukama, Sarah C Bridge, Ananta S Bangdiwala, David B Meya, Claudia M Denkinger, Conrad Muzoora, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends Xpert MTB/RIF as initial diagnostic testing for tuberculous meningitis. However, diagnosis remains difficult, with Xpert sensitivity of about 50-70% and culture sensitivity of about 60%. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the new Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) for tuberculous meningitis. METHODS: We prospectively obtained diagnostic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens during screening for a trial on the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Mbarara, Uganda...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919303/acquisition-of-wild-type-hiv-1-infection-in-a-patient-on-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-with-high-intracellular-concentrations-of-tenofovir-diphosphate-a-case-report
#5
Elske Hoornenborg, Maria Prins, Roel C A Achterbergh, Lycke R Woittiez, Marion Cornelissen, Suzanne Jurriaans, Neeltje A Kootstra, Peter L Anderson, Peter Reiss, Henry J C de Vries, Jan M Prins, Godelieve J de Bree
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in dried blood spots. We report a case of wild-type HIV-1 infection despite consistent use of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. METHODS: The patient participated in the Amsterdam PrEP project, a demonstration project of daily and event-driven PrEP...
September 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918646/depletion-of-gut-resident-ccr5-cells-for-hiv-cure-strategies
#6
David Patrick Merriam, Connie Chen, Gema Mendez-Lagares, Kenneth Rogers, Anthony Michaels, Jiangli Yan, Paul Casaz, Keith Reimann, Francois Villenger, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor
The HIV reservoir forming at the earliest stages of infection is likely composed of CCR5+ cells, because these cells are the targets of transmissible virus. Restriction of the CCR5+ reservoir, particularly in gut, may be needed for subsequent cure attempts. Strategies for killing or depleting CCR5+ cells have been described, but none have been tested in vivo in non-human primates and the extent of achievable depletion from tissues is not known. Here we investigate the efficacy of two novel cytotoxic treatments for targeting and eliminating CCR5+ cells in young rhesus macaques...
September 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916898/a-strengths-based-case-management-intervention-to-reduce-hiv-viral-load-among-people-who-use-drugs
#7
Alex H Kral, Barrot H Lambdin, Megan Comfort, Christina Powers, Helen Cheng, Andrea M Lopez, Robert O Murdoch, Torsten B Neilands, Jennifer Lorvick
Engaging highly marginalized HIV positive people in sustained medical care is vital for optimized health and prevention efforts. Prior studies have found that strengths-based case management helps link people who use drugs to HIV care. We conducted a pilot to assess whether a strengths-based case management intervention may help people who use injection drugs (PWID) or smoke crack cocaine (PWSC) achieve undetectable HIV viral load. PWID and PWSC were recruited in Oakland, California using targeted sampling methods and referral from jails and were tested for HIV...
September 15, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916888/hiv-testing-among-foreign-born-men-and-women-in-the-united-states-results-from-a-nationally-representative-cross-sectional-survey
#8
Eduardo Valverde, Elizabeth DiNenno, Emeka Oraka, Gregory Bautista, Pollyanna Chavez
HIV disproportionately affects the foreign-born population in the United States. This analysis describes the prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals residing in the United States. Data from a national health survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized population was used to describe prevalence of ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born individuals by birth place. Multivariate logistic-regression procedures were used to determine factors associated with ever-testing for HIV among foreign-born men and women...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916145/accept-or-decline-deciding-factors-in-a-voluntary-hiv-testing-program-for-probationers-and-parolees
#9
John E Denton, Bronwen Lichtenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915919/project-lifeskills-a-randomized-controlled-efficacy-trial-of-a-culturally-tailored-empowerment-based-and-group-delivered-hiv-prevention-intervention-for-young-transgender-women-study-protocol
#10
Lisa M Kuhns, Matthew J Mimiaga, Sari L Reisner, Katie Biello, Robert Garofalo
BACKGROUND: Transgender women in the U.S. have an alarmingly high incidence rate of HIV infection; condomless anal and vaginal sex is the primary risk behavior driving transmission. Young transgender women are the subpopulation at the highest risk for HIV. Despite this, there are no published randomized controlled efficacy trials testing interventions to reduce sexual risk for HIV among this group. This paper describes the design of a group-based intervention trial to reduce sexual risk for HIV acquisition and transmission in young transgender women...
September 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915850/-love-me-parents-impact-evaluation-of-a-national-social-and-behavioral-change-communication-campaign-on-maternal-health-outcomes-in-tanzania
#11
Michelle R Kaufman, Jennifer J Harman, Marina Smelyanskaya, Jennifer Orkis, Robert Ainslie
BACKGROUND: Despite marked improvements over the last few decades, maternal mortality in Tanzania remains among the world's highest at 454 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Many factors contribute to this disparity, such as a lack of attendance at antenatal care (ANC) services and low rates of delivery at a health facility with a skilled provider. The Wazazi Nipendeni (Love me, parents) social and behavioral change communication campaign was launched in Tanzania in 2012 to improve a range of maternal health outcomes, including individual birth planning, timely ANC attendance, and giving birth in a healthcare facility...
September 15, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914669/infection-staging-and-incidence-surveillance-applications-of-high-dynamic-range-diagnostic-immuno-assay-platforms
#12
Eduard Grebe, Alex Welte, Jake Hall, Sheila M Keating, Shelley N Facente, Kara Marson, Jeffrey N Martin, Susan J Little, Matthew A Price, Esper G Kallas, Michael P Busch, Christopher D Pilcher, Gary Murphy
BACKGROUND: Custom HIV staging assays, including the Sedia™ HIV-1 Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA (LAg) and avidity modifications of the Ortho VITROS® anti-HIV-1+2 and Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assays, are used to identify 'recent' infections in clinical settings and for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation. However, the high dynamic range of chemiluminescent platforms allows differentiating recent and longstanding infection on signal intensity, and this raises the prospect of using unmodified diagnostic assays for infection timing and surveillance applications...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914169/development-of-an-algorithm-for-determination-of-the-likelihood-of-virological-failure-in-hiv-positive-adults-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-decentralized-care
#13
Anton Reepalu, Taye Tolera Balcha, Sten Skogmar, Per-Erik Isberg, Patrik Medstrand, Per Björkman
BACKGROUND: Early identification of virological failure (VF) limits occurrence and spread of drug-resistant viruses in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). Viral load (VL) monitoring is therefore recommended, but capacities to comply with this are insufficient in many low-income countries. Clinical algorithms might identify persons at higher likelihood of VF to allocate VL resources. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to construct a VF algorithm (the Viral Load Testing Criteria; VLTC) and compare its performance to the 2013 WHO treatment failure criteria...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914079/co-infection-of-human-herpesvirus-type-2-hhv-2-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-among-pregnant-women-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#14
Lyana Rodrigues Pinto Lima, Luis Eduardo Barros Costa Fernandes, Daniel A M Villela, Mariza Gonçalves Morgado, José Henrique Pilotto, Vanessa Salete de Paula
Pregnant women who are infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are particularly vulnerable to severe and recurrent infections with Human Herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2). Neonatal transmission of HHV-2 has been associated with malformations and neurological sequelae in infants, which makes it very important to perform antenatal monitoring for genital herpes. In the study, 134 pregnant women infected with HIV were tested for HHV-2 IgM and IgG using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and had HHV-2 DNA analyzed by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR)...
September 15, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912340/donor-recipient-identification-in-para-and-poly-phyletic-trees-under-alternative-hiv-1-transmission-hypotheses-using-approximate-bayesian-computation
#15
Ethan O Romero-Severson, Ingo Bulla, Nick Hengartner, Inês Bártolo, Ana Abecasis, José M Azevedo-Pereira, Nuno Taveira, Thomas Leitner
Diversity of the founding population of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) transmissions raises many important biological, clinical, and epidemiological issues. In up to 40% of sexual infections there is clear evidence for multiple founding variants, which can influence the efficacy of putative prevention methods and the reconstruction of epidemiologic histories. To infer who-infected-whom and to compute the probability of alternative transmission scenarios, while explicitly taking phylogenetic uncertainty into account, we created an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) method based on a set of statistics measuring phylogenetic topology, branch lengths, and genetic diversity...
September 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911765/prevalence-of-hepatitis-d-virus-infection-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Alexander J Stockdale, Mas Chaponda, Apostolos Beloukas, Richard Odame Phillips, Philippa C Matthews, Athanasios Papadimitropoulos, Simon King, Laura Bonnett, Anna Maria Geretti
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis D virus (also known as hepatitis delta virus) can establish a persistent infection in people with chronic hepatitis B, leading to accelerated progression of liver disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, where HBsAg prevalence is higher than 8%, hepatitis D virus might represent an important additive cause of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish the prevalence of hepatitis D virus among HBsAg-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We systematically reviewed studies of hepatitis D virus prevalence among HBsAg-positive populations in sub-Saharan Africa...
October 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911361/detecting-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-using-the-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-test-in-south-africa
#17
S Reddy, S Ntoyanto, Y Sakadavan, T Reddy, S Mahomed, M Dlamini, B Spooner, G Ramjee, A Coutsoudis, N Ngomane, K Naidoo, K Mlisana, P Kiepiela
SETTING: In South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal is the epicentre of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, where approximately 70% of people with tuberculosis (TB) are co-infected with HIV. Undiagnosed TB contributes to high mortality in HIV-infected patients. Delays in diagnosing TB and treatment initiation result in prolonged transmission and increased infectiousness. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the LoopampTM MTBC Detection kit (TB-LAMP; based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay), smear microscopy and Xpert test with the gold standard of mycobacterial culture...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911358/performance-of-nested-rt-pcr-on-csf-for-tuberculous-meningitis-diagnosis-in-hiv-infected-patients
#18
F A S Gualberto, M G Gonçalves, L O Fukasawa, A M Ramos Dos Santos, C T Sacchi, L H Harrison, D R Boulware, J E Vidal
SETTING: Timely diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a challenge. Despite the current scale-up of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay, other molecular diagnostic tools are necessary, particularly in referral centres in low- and middle-income countries without Xpert testing. OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic performance of nested real-time polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR) in HIV-infected TBM patients categorised according to standardised clinical case definitions...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911357/pulmonary-tuberculosis-diagnostic-practices-among-people-living-with-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-lesotho
#19
D E O'Connor, K Frederix, S Saito, L B Maama, Y Hirsch-Moverman, B Pitt, E Hayes-Larson, L Lebelo, M Shale, A A Howard
SETTING: Twelve health facilities in Berea District, Lesotho, that participated in the Start TB Patients on ART and Retain on Treatment (START) Study, a mixed-methods cluster-randomized trial evaluating a combination intervention package to improve early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and anti-tuberculosis treatment success among patients with tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). OBJECTIVE: To assess TB and HIV diagnostic practices among TB-HIV patients...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911355/latent-tuberculous-infection-testing-among-hiv-infected-persons-in-clinical-care-united-states-2010-2012
#20
E J Reaves, N S Shah, A M France, S B Morris, S Kammerer, J Skarbinski, H Bradley
SETTING: Current guidelines recommend latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) testing at the time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and annually thereafter for persons at high risk of LTBI. OBJECTIVES: To estimate LTBI testing prevalence and describe the characteristics of HIV-infected persons who would benefit from annual LTBI testing. DESIGN: We estimated the proportions of LTBI testing among a nationally representative sample of HIV-infected adults in care between 2010 and 2012, and compared the patient characteristics of those with a positive LTBI test result to those with a negative result using χ2 tests...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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