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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791440/cost-effectiveness-of-dog-rabies-vaccination-programs-in-east-africa
#1
Rebekah H Borse, Charisma Y Atkins, Manoj Gambhir, Eduardo A Undurraga, Jesse D Blanton, Emily B Kahn, Jessie L Dyer, Charles E Rupprecht, Martin I Meltzer
BACKGROUND: Dog rabies annually causes 24,000-70,000 deaths globally. We built a spreadsheet tool, RabiesEcon, to aid public health officials to estimate the cost-effectiveness of dog rabies vaccination programs in East Africa. METHODS: RabiesEcon uses a mathematical model of dog-dog and dog-human rabies transmission to estimate dog rabies cases averted, the cost per human rabies death averted and cost per year of life gained (YLG) due to dog vaccination programs (US 2015 dollars)...
May 23, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789565/the-wide-utility-of-rabbits-as-models-of-human-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Pedro J Esteves, Joana Abrantes, Hanna-Mari Baldauf, Lbachir BenMohamed, Yuxing Chen, Neil Christensen, Javier González-Gallego, Lorenzo Giacani, Jiafen Hu, Gilla Kaplan, Oliver T Keppler, Katherine L Knight, Xiang-Peng Kong, Dennis K Lanning, Jacques Le Pendu, Ana Lemos de Matos, Jia Liu, Shuying Liu, Ana M Lopes, Shan Lu, Sheila Lukehart, Yukari C Manabe, Fabiana Neves, Grant McFadden, Ruimin Pan, Xuwen Peng, Patricia de Sousa-Pereira, Ana Pinheiro, Masmudur Rahman, Natalie Ruvoën-Clouet, Selvakumar Subbian, Maria Jesús Tuñón, Wessel van der Loo, Michael Vaine, Laura E Via, Shixia Wang, Rose Mage
Studies using the European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus contributed to elucidating numerous fundamental aspects of antibody structure and diversification mechanisms and continue to be valuable for the development and testing of therapeutic humanized polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Additionally, during the last two decades, the use of the European rabbit as an animal model has been increasingly extended to many human diseases. This review documents the continuing wide utility of the rabbit as a reliable disease model for development of therapeutics and vaccines and studies of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying many human diseases...
May 22, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785215/mycobacteriosis-and-tuberculosis-laboratory-diagnosis
#3
REVIEW
Davood Azadi, Tahereh Motallebirad, Kazem Ghaffari, Hasan Shojaei
Background: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases that has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. With Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent of the disease, his sanitary and hygienic measures, which were based on his discovery and the development of a vaccine against tuberculosis by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1921, an attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain, bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and the discovery of the first antibiotic against tuberculosis, streptomycin by Selman Waksman in 1943, soon led to the opinion that appropriate control measures had become available for tuberculosis and it had been assumed that the disease could ultimately be eradicated...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781359/rhabdoviruses-as-vaccine-platforms-for-infectious-disease-and-cancer
#4
Franz Zemp, Jahanara Rajwani, Douglas J Mahoney
The family Rhabdoviridae (RV) comprises a large, genetically diverse collection of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses from the order Mononegavirales. Several RV members are being developed as live-attenuated vaccine vectors for the prevention or treatment of infectious disease and cancer. These include the prototype recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (rVSV) and the more recently developed recombinant Maraba Virus, both species within the genus Vesiculoviridae. A relatively strong safety profile in humans, robust immunogenicity and genetic malleability are key features that make the RV family attractive vaccine platforms...
May 21, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776594/gearing-up-t-cell-immunotherapy-in-cervical-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Shilpa Raghuvanshi Chauhan, Mausumi Bharadwaj
The World Health Organization estimates more than 270,000 deaths annually by cervical cancer. Present vaccines are prophylactic in nature which cannot treat huge bulk of cervical cancer patients worldwide. Available therapies like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are not effective in high-grade lesion, and hence, there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. T cells play a significant role in cervical cancer pathogenesis as human papilloma virus uses multiple mechanisms that dodge host T-cell immune-surveillance aiding in persistence of infection and establishment of cancer...
April 22, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775667/identification-of-novel-hla-a11-restricted-t-cell-epitopes-in-the-ebola-virus-nucleoprotein
#6
Dan Li, Pei Li, Nianping Song, Yuting Jiang, Yang Zeng, Guangyu Zhao, Yunzhi Fa, Huahu Ye, Yuchun Lone, Yusen Zhou, Shihui Sun, Lin Zeng
The Ebola virus (EBOV) is a very contagious virus that is highly fatal in humans and animals. The largest epidemic was in West Africa in 2014, in which over 11,000 people died. However, to date, there are no licensed vaccines against it. Studies show that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, especially cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses, play key roles in protecting individuals from EBOV infection. Since HLA-restricted epitope vaccines are likely to be effective and safe immunization strategies for infectious diseases, the present study screened for CTL epitopes in the EBOV-nucleoprotein that are restricted by HLA-A11 (a common allele in Chinese people)...
May 15, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769351/protein-phosphatase-1%C3%AE-interacts-with-venezuelan-equine-encephalitis-virus-capsid-protein-and-regulates-viral-replication-through-modulation-of-capsid-phosphorylation
#7
Brian D Carey, Tatiana Ammosova, Chelsea Pinkham, Xionghao Lin, Weidong Zhou, Lance A Liotta, Sergei Nekhai, Kylene Kehn-Hall
Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase which has been implicated in the regulation of a number of viruses including HIV-1, Ebolavirus and Rift Valley fever virus. Catalytic subunits of PP1 (PP1α, PP1β, or PP1γ) interact with a host of regulatory subunits and target a wide variety of cellular substrates through a combination of short binding motifs, including an RVxF motif present in the majority of PP1 regulatory subunits. Targeting the RVxF interacting site on PP1 with the small molecule, 1E7-03 inhibits HIV-1, Ebolavirus, and Rift Valley fever virus replication...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768401/near-real-time-forecasting-for-cholera-decision-making-in-haiti-after-hurricane-matthew
#8
Damiano Pasetto, Flavio Finger, Anton Camacho, Francesco Grandesso, Sandra Cohuet, Joseph C Lemaitre, Andrew S Azman, Francisco J Luquero, Enrico Bertuzzo, Andrea Rinaldo
Computational models of cholera transmission can provide objective insights into the course of an ongoing epidemic and aid decision making on allocation of health care resources. However, models are typically designed, calibrated and interpreted post-hoc. Here, we report the efforts of a team from academia, field research and humanitarian organizations to model in near real-time the Haitian cholera outbreak after Hurricane Matthew in October 2016, to assess risk and to quantitatively estimate the efficacy of a then ongoing vaccination campaign...
May 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762678/using-statistical-anomaly-detection-models-to-find-clinical-decision-support-malfunctions
#9
Soumi Ray, Dustin S McEvoy, Skye Aaron, Thu-Trang Hickman, Adam Wright
Objective: Malfunctions in Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems occur due to a multitude of reasons, and often go unnoticed, leading to potentially poor outcomes. Our goal was to identify malfunctions within CDS systems. Methods: We evaluated 6 anomaly detection models: (1) Poisson Changepoint Model, (2) Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Model, (3) Hierarchical Divisive Changepoint (HDC) Model, (4) Bayesian Changepoint Model, (5) Seasonal Hybrid Extreme Studentized Deviate (SHESD) Model, and (6) E-Divisive with Median (EDM) Model and characterized their ability to find known anomalies...
May 11, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762161/anti-hiv-igm-protects-against-mucosal-shiv-transmission
#10
Siqi Gong, Khamis Tomusange, Viraj Kulkarni, Opeyemi S Adeniji, Samir K Lakhashe, Dinesh Hariraju, Amanda Strickland, Elizabeth Plake, Patrice A Frost, Sarah J Ratcliffe, Liping Wang, Eileen M Lafer, Ruth M Ruprecht
OBJECTIVE: Worldwide, most new HIV infections occur through mucosal exposure. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is the first antibody class generated in response to infectious agents; IgM is present in the systemic circulation and in mucosal fluids as secretory IgM. We sought to investigate for the first time the role of IgM in preventing AIDS virus acquisition in vivo. DESIGN: Recombinant polymeric monoclonal IgM was generated from the neutralizing monoclonal IgG1 antibody 33C6-IgG1, tested in vitro, and given by passive intrarectal (i...
May 11, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761457/eupathdb-the-eukaryotic-pathogen-genomics-database-resource
#11
Susanne Warrenfeltz, Evelina Y Basenko, Kathryn Crouch, Omar S Harb, Jessica C Kissinger, David S Roos, Achchuthan Shanmugasundram, Fatima Silva-Franco
Fighting infections and developing novel drugs and vaccines requires advanced knowledge of pathogen's biology. Readily accessible genomic, functional genomic, and population data aids biological and translational discovery. The Eukaryotic Pathogen Database Resources ( http://eupathdb.org ) are data mining resources that support hypothesis driven research by facilitating the discovery of meaningful biological relationships from large volumes of data. The resource encompasses 13 sites that support over 170 species including pathogenic protists, oomycetes, and fungi as well as evolutionarily related nonpathogenic species...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755620/human-genomic-loci-important-in-common-infectious-diseases-role-of-high-throughput-sequencing-and-genome-wide-association-studies
#12
REVIEW
Gerald Mboowa, Ivan Sserwadda, Marion Amujal, Norah Namatovu
HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria are 3 major global public health threats that undermine development in many resource-poor settings. Recently, the notion that positive selection during epidemics or longer periods of exposure to common infectious diseases may have had a major effect in modifying the constitution of the human genome is being interrogated at a large scale in many populations around the world. This positive selection from infectious diseases increases power to detect associations in genome-wide association studies (GWASs)...
2018: Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753164/a-novel-approach-of-virulome-based-reverse-vaccinology-for-exploring-and-validating-peptide-based-vaccine-candidates-against-the-most-troublesome-nosocomial-pathogen-acinetobacter-baumannii
#13
Sajjad Ahmad, Syed Sikander Azam
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the major cause of nosocomial infections around the globe. The emergence of hyper-virulent strains of the pathogen greatly narrows down therapeutic options for patients infected with this red alert superbug. Development of a peptide-based vaccine can offers an alternative, attractive, and cost-effective remedy for multidrug-resistant A. baumannii associated complications. Herein, we introduced a novel virulome based Reverse Vaccinology for screening peptide based vaccine candidates against A...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744628/impact-of-sylvatic-plague-vaccine-on-non-target-small-rodents-in-grassland-ecosystems
#14
Gebbiena M Bron, Katherine L D Richgels, Michael D Samuel, Julia E Poje, Faye Lorenzsonn, Jonathan P Matteson, Jesse T Boulerice, Jorge E Osorio, Tonie E Rocke
Oral vaccination is an emerging management strategy to reduce the prevalence of high impact infectious diseases within wild animal populations. Plague is a flea-borne zoonosis of rodents that often decimates prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) colonies in the western USA. Recently, an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) was developed to protect prairie dogs from plague and aid recovery of the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). Although oral vaccination programs are targeted toward specific species, field distribution of vaccine-laden baits can result in vaccine uptake by non-target animals and unintended indirect effects...
May 9, 2018: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739922/bordetella-pertussis-isolates-vary-in-their-interactions-with-human-complement-components
#15
Charlotte Brookes, Irene Freire-Martin, Breeze Cavell, Frances Alexander, Stephen Taylor, Ruby Persaud, Norman Fry, Andrew Preston, Dimitri Diavatopoulos, Andrew Gorringe
Whooping cough is a re-emerging respiratory tract infection. It has become clear that there is a need for better understanding of protective immune responses and variation between Bordetella pertussis strains to aid the development of improved vaccines. In order to survive in the host, B. pertussis has evolved mechanisms to evade complement-mediated killing, including the ability to bind complement-regulatory proteins. Here we evaluate the variation in interactions with the complement system among recently isolated strains...
May 9, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739721/trends-in-influenza-vaccination-coverage-rates-in-south-korea-from-2005-to-2014-effect-of-public-health-policies-on-vaccination-behavior
#16
Jeongmin Seo, Juwon Lim
BACKGROUND: Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Annual vaccination is effective in its prevention and is recommended especially in susceptible populations such as the elderly over 65 years, children younger than 5, pregnant women, and people with chronic diseases. Overall, South Korea has a high vaccination rate owing to its National Immunization Program, although the method and extent of its coverage varies among the target subgroups. The aim of this study is to assess the trend of influenza vaccination coverage between 2005 and 2014 in South Korea to address the influence of sociodemographic and disease factors on vaccination behavior...
May 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720698/exploring-leptospiral-proteomes-to-identify-potential-candidates-for-vaccine-design-against-leptospirosis-using-an-immunoinformatics-approach
#17
Kumari Snehkant Lata, Swapnil Kumar, Vibhisha Vaghasia, Priyanka Sharma, Shivarudrappa B Bhairappanvar, Subhash Soni, Jayashankar Das
Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease, estimated to cause severe infection in more than one million people each year, particularly in developing countries of tropical areas. Several factors such as variable and nonspecific clinical manifestation, existence of large number of serovars and asymptomatic hosts spreading infection, poor sanitation and lack of an effective vaccine make prophylaxis difficult. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop an effective vaccine to halt its spread all over the world...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720179/structural-patterns-of-selection-and-diversity-for-plasmodium-vivax-antigens-dbp-and-ama1
#18
Andrew J Guy, Vashti Irani, Jack S Richards, Paul A Ramsland
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is a significant contributor to the global malaria burden, and a vaccine targeting vivax malaria is urgently needed. An understanding of the targets of functional immune responses during the course of natural infection will aid in the development of a vaccine. Antibodies play a key role in this process, with responses against particular epitopes leading to immune selection pressure on these epitopes. A number of techniques exist to estimate levels of immune selection pressure on particular epitopes, with a sliding window analysis often used to determine particular regions likely to be under immune pressure...
May 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715318/computational-identification-characterization-and-validation-of-potential-antigenic-peptide-vaccines-from-hrhpvs-e6-proteins-using-immunoinformatics-and-computational-systems-biology-approaches
#19
Abbas Khan, Muhammad Junaid, Aman Chandra Kaushik, Arif Ali, Syed Shujait Ali, Aamir Mehmood, Dong-Qing Wei
High-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) are the most prevalent viruses in human diseases including cervical cancers. Expression of E6 protein has already been reported in cervical cancer cases, excluding normal tissues. Continuous expression of E6 protein is making it ideal to develop therapeutic vaccines against hrHPVs infection and cervical cancer. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis of multiple hrHPVs to predict the most potential prophylactic peptide vaccines. In this study, immunoinformatics approach was employed to predict antigenic epitopes of hrHPVs E6 proteins restricted to 12 Human HLAs to aid the development of peptide vaccines against hrHPVs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707828/enhanced-immunity-in-intradermal-vaccination-by-novel-hollow-microneedles
#20
N Ogai, I Nonaka, Y Toda, T Ono, S Minegishi, A Inou, M Hachiya, H Fukamizu
BACKGROUND: The intradermal (ID) route for vaccination represents an effective alternative to subcutaneous (SC)/intramuscular administration to induce protective immunity. However, a critical issue associated with ID vaccination is the precise delivery of solution in the upper dermis, which ensures enhanced immunity. METHODS: We fabricated a hollow microneedle unit made of poly-glycolic acid by injection molding and bonding, and created a dedicated prototype injector...
April 29, 2018: Skin Research and Technology
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