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AIDS Vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715423/antibody-trapping-a-novel-mechanism-of-parasite-immune-evasion-by-the-trematode-echinostoma-caproni
#1
Alba Cortés, Javier Sotillo, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Javier Molina-Durán, J Guillermo Esteban, Rafael Toledo
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, causing an enormous impact in global health and the socioeconomic growth of developing countries. In this context, the study of helminth biology, with emphasis on host-parasite interactions, appears as a promising approach for developing new tools to prevent and control these infections. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The role that antibody responses have on helminth infections is still not well understood...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710100/biomarker-for-antitumor-immunity-identified
#2
(no author information available yet)
Investigators have discovered that a certain type of immune cell in tumors, known as tissue-resident memory cells, are associated with a strong immune response and improved prognosis in lung cancer. The findings may aid in selecting appropriate immunotherapies and developing more effective vaccines for a wide range of cancers.
July 14, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707669/-planar-molecular-arrangements-aid-the-design-of-mhc-class-ii-binding-peptides
#3
A Cortés, J Coral, C McLachlan, R Benítez, L Pinilla
The coupling between peptides and MHC-II proteins in the human immune system is not well understood. This work presents an evidence-based hypothesis of a guiding intermolecular force present in every human MHC-II protein (HLA-II). Previously, we examined the spatial positions of the fully conserved residues in all HLA-II protein types. In each one, constant planar patterns were revealed. These molecular planes comprise of amino acid groups of the same chemical species (for example, Gly) distributed across the protein structure...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706763/comparison-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-educated-and-uneducated-adults-regarding-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-karachi-pakistan
#4
Zainab Ahmad, Sara Sadiq, Mariam Asghar, Alizay Rashid Khan, Omer Arif, Syed Hamza Shah, Shahrukh Nadeem, Yamna Waseem, Rafi Aibani, Ammar Salman Syed, Rabia M Mustafa, Zainab Abdulrahman, Kaneez Fatima
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Pakistan, no prior work has been done to specifically highlight the importance of education as a social vaccine against HIV. Therefore, our study focuses on differences in knowledge and practices regarding HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among educated and uneducated adults. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was carried out in which data was collected from all over Karachi...
June 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701393/hiv-1-env-and-vpu-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-responses-associated-with-elite-control-of-hiv
#5
Vijaya Madhavi, Bruce D Wines, Janaki Amin, Sean Emery, Ester Lopez, Anthony Kelleher, Rob J Center, P Mark Hogarth, Amy W Chung, Stephen J Kent, Ivan Stratov
Studying HIV-infected individuals who control HIV replication (elite controllers, ECs) enable exploration of effective anti-HIV immunity. HIV Env- and non-Env-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) may contribute to protection from progressive HIV infection but the evidence is limited. We recruited 22 ECs and matched them with 44 viremic subjects. HIV Env- and Vpu-specific ADCC responses were studied in sera using a novel ELISA-based dimeric recombinant soluble (rs) FcγRIIIa-binding assay, surface plasmon resonance, antibody-dependent natural killer (NK) cell activation assays and ADCC-mediated killing assays...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701368/kunkel-lecture-fundamental-immunodeficiency-and-its-correction
#6
REVIEW
Carl Nathan
"Fundamental immunodeficiency" is the inability of the encoded immune system to protect an otherwise healthy host from every infection that could threaten its life. In contrast to primary immunodeficiencies, fundamental immunodeficiency is not rare but nearly universal. It results not from variation in a given host gene but from the rate and extent of variation in the genes of other organisms. The remedy for fundamental immunodeficiency is "adopted immunity," not to be confused with adaptive or adoptive immunity...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697610/phylogenetic-analysis-of-a-partial-l1-gene-from-bovine-papillomavirus-type-1-isolated-from-naturally-occurring-papilloma-cases-in-the-northwestern-region-of-turkey
#7
M Ozkan Timurkan, M Eray Alcigir
This study was aimed at the molecular characterisation of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) isolated from papilloma cases in the northwestern region of Turkey. BPV-1 is a widely occurring oncogenic virus in cattle and is associated with benign epithelial neoplasia which causes significant economic losses in dairy and beef cattle because of treatment costs. In this study, 29 suspected papilloma specimens were collected from cattle in northwestern Turkey. These samples underwent molecular characterisation via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis as well as macroscopic and histopathological examination...
June 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695368/an-interaction-of-lps-and-rsv-infection-in-augmenting-the-ahr-and-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#8
Na Zhou, Wei Li, Luo Ren, Xiaohong Xie, Enmei Liu
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in children under 5 years of age, especially infants with severe bronchiolitis. Our preliminary clinical experiments showed that bacterial colonization was commonly observed in children with virus-induced wheezing, particularly in those with recurrent wheezing, suggesting that bacterial colonization with an accompanying viral infection may contribute to disease severity. In most cases, RSV-infected infants were colonized with pathogenic bacteria (mainly Gram-negative bacteria)...
July 10, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695289/the-role-of-mhc-class-i-gene-products-in-siv-infection-of-macaques
#9
REVIEW
Zachary A Silver, David I Watkins
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains among the most significant public health threats worldwide. Despite three decades of research following the discovery of HIV, a preventive vaccine remains elusive. The study of HIV elite controllers has been crucial to elaborate the genetic and immunologic determinants that underlie control of HIV replication. Coordinated studies of elite control in humans have, however, been limited by variability among infecting viral strains, host genotype, and the uncertainty of the timing and route of infection...
July 10, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692209/the-science-of-durban-aids-2016
#10
Chris Beyrer, Olive Shisana, Stefan D Baral, Koleka Milsana, Kenneth H Mayer, Anton Pozniak, Bruce D Walker, Souleman Mboup, Annette H Sohn, David Serwadda, Helen Rees, Sergii Dvoriak, Mitchell Warren, Safiatou Thiam, Wafaa M El-Sadr, Xavier Hospital, Owen Ryan, Nicolas Thomson, Linda-Gail Bekker
INTRODUCTION: The science presented at the 21st International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa, in July 2016, addressed the state of the field across basic, clinical, prevention, law and policy and implementation science. METHODS AND RESULTS: The AIDS response has seen remarkable achievements in scientific advances, in translation of those advances into prevention, treatment and care for affected individuals and communities, and in large scale implementation - reaching 18 million people with antiviral therapy by mid-year 2016...
June 30, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688731/informed-decision-making-in-the-context-of-childhood-immunization
#11
Birthe A Lehmann, Hester E de Melker, Daniëlle R M Timmermans, Liesbeth Mollema
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess informed decision making about childhood immunization by measuring knowledge, deliberation and value-consistency. Additionally, we investigated whether informed decision making is different for parents who accept and parents who decline vaccination. METHODS: Parents of at least one child between 3 months and 3,5 years of age were randomly selected from a vaccination register and were asked to fill in an online questionnaire measuring informed decision making...
June 26, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680086/host-age-and-expression-of-genes-involved-in-red-blood-cell-invasion-in-plasmodium-falciparum-field-isolates
#12
Aida Valmaseda, Quique Bassat, Pedro Aide, Pau Cisteró, Alfons Jiménez, Aina Casellas, Sonia Machevo, Ruth Aguilar, Betuel Sigaúque, Virander S Chauhan, Christine Langer, James Beeson, Chetan Chitnis, Pedro L Alonso, Deepak Gaur, Alfredo Mayor
Plasmodium falciparum proteins involved in erythrocyte invasion are main targets of acquired immunity and important vaccine candidates. We hypothesized that anti-parasite immunity acquired upon exposure would limit invasion-related gene (IRG) expression and affect the clinical impact of the infection. 11 IRG transcript levels were measured in P. falciparum isolates by RT-PCR, and IgG/IgM against invasion ligands by Luminex®, in 50 Mozambican adults, 25 children with severe malaria (SM) and 25 with uncomplicated malaria (UM)...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679760/co-operation-between-strain-specific-and-broadly-neutralizing-responses-limited-viral-escape-and-prolonged-exposure-of-the-broadly-neutralizing-epitope
#13
Colin Anthony, Talita York, Valerie Bekker, David Matten, Philippe Selhorst, Roux-Cil Ferreria, Nigel J Garrett, Salim S Abdool Karim, Lynn Morris, Natasha T Wood, Penny L Moore, Carolyn Williamson
V3-glycan targeting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are a focus of HIV-1 vaccine development. Understanding the viral dynamics that stimulate the development of these antibodies can provide insights for immunogen design. We used a deep sequencing approach, together with neutralization phenotyping, to investigate the rate and complexity of escape from V3-glycan directed bNAbs, compared to overlapping early strain-specific neutralizing antibody (ssNAb) responses to the V3/C3 region in donor CAP177. Escape from the ssNAb response occurred rapidly, via a N334 to N332 glycan switch, which took just 7...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679759/mutational-analysis-of-lassa-virus-glycoprotein-highlights-regions-required-for-alpha-dystroglycan-utilization
#14
Marissa Acciani, Jacob T Alston, Guohui Zhao, Hayley Reynolds, Afroze M Ali, Brian Xu, Melinda A Brindley
Lassa virus (LASV) is an enveloped RNA virus endemic to West Africa and responsible for severe cases of hemorrhagic fever. Virus entry is mediated by the glycoprotein complex consisting of a stable signal peptide, a receptor-binding subunit GP1, and a viral-host membrane fusion subunit GP2. Several cellular receptors can interact with the GP1 subunit and mediate viral entry, including alpha-dystroglycan (αDG) and lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1). In order to define the regions within GP1 that interact with the cellular receptors, we implemented insertional mutagenesis, carbohydrate shielding, and alanine scanning mutagenesis...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679291/promising-investigational-drug-candidates-in-phase-i-and-phase-ii-clinical-trials-for-mesothelioma
#15
Alice Guazzelli, Emyr Bakker, Kun Tian, Constantinos Demonacos, Marija Krstic-Demonacos, Luciano Mutti
Malignant mesothelioma is a rare and lethal malignancy primarily affecting the pleura and peritoneum. Mesothelioma incidence is expected to increase worldwide and current treatments remain ineffective, leading to poor prognosis. Within this article potential targets to improve the quality of life of the patients and assessment of further avenues for research are discussed. Areas covered: This review highlights emerging therapies currently under investigation for malignant mesothelioma with a specific focus on phase I and phase II clinical trials...
July 6, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674640/in-silico-prediction-and-modeling-of-the-entamoeba-histolytica-proteins-serine-rich-entamoeba-histolytica-protein-and-29%C3%A2-kda-cysteine-rich-protease
#16
Kumar Manochitra, Subhash Chandra Parija
BACKGROUND: Amoebiasis is the third most common parasitic cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in countries with poor hygienic settings. There exists an ambiguity in the diagnosis of amoebiasis, and hence there arises a necessity for a better diagnostic approach. Serine-rich Entamoeba histolyticaprotein (SREHP), peroxiredoxin and Gal/GalNAc lectin are pivotal in E. histolyticavirulence and are extensively studied as diagnostic and vaccine targets. For elucidating the cellular function of these proteins, details regarding their respective quaternary structures are essential...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669593/pathogen-mimicking-vaccine-delivery-system-designed-with-a-bioactive-polymer-inulin-acetate-for-robust-humoral-and-cellular-immune-responses
#17
Hemachand Tummala, Sunny Kumar, Siddharth S Kesharwani, Bhimanna Kuppast, Mohammed Ali Bakkari
New and improved vaccines are needed against challenging diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, Ebola, influenza, AIDS, and cancer. The majority of existing vaccine adjuvants lack the ability to significantly stimulate the cellular immune response, which is required to prevent the aforementioned diseases. This study designed a novel particulate based pathogen-mimicking vaccine delivery system (PMVDS) to target antigen-presenting-cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells. The uniqueness of PMVDS is that the polymer used to prepare the delivery system, Inulin Acetate (InAc), activates the innate immune system...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660356/community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-hiv-infected-patients-on-antiretroviral-therapy-predictors-in-a-contemporary-cohort-study
#18
Cristiane C Lamas, Lara E Coelho, Beatriz J Grinsztejn, Valdilea G Veloso
Community-acquired pneumonia represents the most frequent bacterial infection in patients with HIV/AIDS. PURPOSE: We aimed to assess variables associated with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among HIV-infected adults using ART. METHODS: A cohort study of HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years, enrolled from 2000 to 2015, on ART for at least 60 days, with primary outcome as the 1st episode of LRTI during follow-up. The independent variables included were sex at birth, age, race/skin color, educational level, tobacco smoking, alcohol use, cocaine use, diabetes mellitus, CD4 count, HIV viral load, influenza and pneumococcal vaccination...
June 28, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651892/construction-of-a-recombinant-full-length-membrane-associated-igg-library
#19
Zehua Sun, Shiqiang Lu, Zheng Yang, Jingjing Li, Mei-Yun Zhang
HIV/AIDS has become a global pandemic. Development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine eliciting broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnmAbs) remains a big challenge. Before an effective vaccine comes out, passive treatment for prevention and protection of HIV-1 infection may alleviate the burden caused by the pandemic. Numerous bnmAbs have been isolated against different epitopes in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein via phage/yeast display, EBV-immortalization, single cell sorting and micro neutralization. Recombinant antibody library with extended diversity and enlarged size of units are applicable by phage/yeast display and mammalian cell display for monoclonal antibody isolation...
June 24, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649869/hivr4p-2016-partnering-for-prevention-conference-summary-and-highlights
#20
Barbara L Shacklett, Cynthia A Derdeyn, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Raphael Landovitz, Colin Anthony, Anna-Janina Behrens, Thomas Hope, Elise Landais, Lorna Leal, Jeanne M Marrazzo, Lynn Morris, Nelly Mugo, Kenneth Ngure, Veronica Noseda, Srinika Ranasinghe, Damien C Tully, Yegor Voronin, Mitchell Warren, Constantinos Kurt Wibmer, Irene Y Xie, Gabriella Scarlatti, Bargavi Thyagarajan
HIV Research for Prevention: AIDS Vaccine, Microbicide and ARV-based Prevention Science (HIVR4P) was built upon a growing consensus that effective HIV prevention requires a combination of approaches and that understanding, analyzing and debating the cross-cutting issues that impact prevention research are all essential to combat the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. To that end, the biennial HIVR4P conference is dedicated to all biomedical HIV prevention research approaches, including HIV vaccines, microbicides, PrEP and treatment as prevention...
June 24, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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