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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934901/towards-peptide-vaccines-against-zika-virus-immunoinformatics-combined-with-molecular-dynamics-simulations-to-predict-antigenic-epitopes-of-zika-viral-proteins
#1
Muhammad Usman Mirza, Shazia Rafique, Amjad Ali, Mobeen Munir, Nazia Ikram, Abdul Manan, Outi M H Salo-Ahen, Muhammad Idrees
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in Brazil has developed to a global health concern due to its likely association with birth defects (primary microcephaly) and neurological complications. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a vaccine to prevent or a medicine to treat the infection. In this study, immunoinformatics approach was employed to predict antigenic epitopes of Zika viral proteins to aid in development of a peptide vaccine against ZIKV. Both linear and conformational B-cell epitopes as well as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes were predicted for ZIKV Envelope (E), NS3 and NS5 proteins...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927929/high-throughput-next-generation-sequencing-of-polioviruses
#2
Anna M Montmayeur, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Alexander Schmidt, Kun Zhao, Laura Magaña, Jane Iber, Christina J Castro, Qi Chen, Elizabeth Henderson, Edward Ramos, Jing Shaw, Roman L Tatusov, Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko, Marie Claire Endegue-Zanga, Johnson A Adeniji, M Steven Oberste, Cara C Burns
Poliovirus (PV) is currently targeted for worldwide eradication and containment. Sanger-based sequencing of the VP1 capsid region is the current standard method for PV surveillance; however, the whole genome sequence is sometimes needed for higher resolution global surveillance. In this study, we optimized whole genome sequencing protocols for poliovirus isolates and FTA cards using NGS, aiming for high sequence coverage, efficiency, and throughput. We found that DNase treatment of poliovirus RNA followed by random RT, amplification, and the Nextera XT DNA Library Preparation Kit produced significantly better results than other preparations...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927265/trends-and-risk-factors-for-human-q-fever-in-australia-1991-2014
#3
T S Sloan-Gardner, P D Massey, P Hutchinson, K Knope, E Fearnley
Australian abattoir workers, farmers, veterinarians and people handling animal birthing products or slaughtering animals continue to be at high risk of Q fever despite an effective vaccine being available. National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System data were analysed for the period 1991-2014, along with enhanced risk factor data from notified cases in the states of New South Wales and Queensland, to examine changes in the epidemiology of Q fever in Australia. The national Q fever notification rate reduced by 20% [incident rate ratio (IRR) 0·82] following the end of the National Q fever Management Program in 2006, and has increased since 2009 (IRR 1·01-1·34)...
December 8, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925844/a-two-dose-heterologous-prime-boost-vaccine-regimen-eliciting-sustained-immune-responses-to-ebola-zaire-could-support-a-preventive-strategy-for-future-outbreaks
#4
Georgi Shukarev, Benoit Callendret, Kerstin Luhn, Macaya Douoguih, The Ebovac Consortium
The consequences of the 2013-16 Ebola Zaire virus disease epidemic in West Africa were grave. The economies, healthcare systems and communities of Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia were devastated by over 18 months of active Ebola virus transmission, followed by sporadic resurgences potentially related to sexual transmission by survivors with viral persistence in body fluids following recovery. The need to develop and implement strategies to prevent and mitigate future outbreaks is now beyond dispute. The potential for unpredictable outbreaks of indeterminate duration, and control challenges posed by the possibility of sporadic re-emergence, mean that implementation of an effective vaccination programme for outbreak containment necessitates a vaccine providing durable immunity...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923501/influenza-a-virus-vaccines-for-swine
#5
Amy L Vincent, Daniel R Perez, Daniela Rajao, Tavis K Anderson, Eugenio J Abente, Rasna R Walia, Nicola S Lewis
Economic losses due to influenza A virus (IAV) infections are substantial and a global problem, ranking among the top three major health challenges in the swine industry. Currently, H1 and H3 subtypes circulate in pigs globally associated with different combinations of N1 and N2 subtypes; however, the origin, gene constellation, and antigenic makeup of IAV vary greatly on different continents. Vaccination is one means of mitigating the effects of IAV disease, and vaccines are most effective if the strains included closely match the currently circulating strains in pigs...
November 24, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919863/applying-multiple-data-collection-tools-to-quantify-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-communication-on-twitter
#6
Philip M Massey, Amy Leader, Elad Yom-Tov, Alexandra Budenz, Kara Fisher, Ann C Klassen
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. There are several vaccines that protect against strains of HPV most associated with cervical and other cancers. Thus, HPV vaccination has become an important component of adolescent preventive health care. As media evolves, more information about HPV vaccination is shifting to social media platforms such as Twitter. Health information consumed on social media may be especially influential for segments of society such as younger populations, as well as ethnic and racial minorities...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919630/knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-influenza-vaccination-of-health-care-workers-in-emergency-services
#7
Sébastien Hulo, Alexandra Nuvoli, Annie Sobaszek, Alexandra Salembier-Trichard
Annual vaccination rates among French health care workers (HCWs) are in decline even in Emergency Services to which patients at highest risk of influenza complications are admitted, and in which HCWs have the greatest risk of exposure to influenza from patients. We aimed here to identify knowledge and attitudes towards influenza vaccination of HCWs in Emergency Services. We collected 344 self-administered questionnaires of 1060 HCWs. Only 18% of HCWs were vaccinated against influenza. Physicians were vaccinated more often (55%) than nurses (16%) or aid nurses (11%)...
December 2, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902344/pre-infection-transcript-levels-of-fam26f-in-pbmcs-inform-about-overall-plasma-viral-load-in-acute-and-postacute-phase-after-siv-infection
#8
Aneela Javed, Nicole Leuchte, Gabriela Salinas, Lennart Opitz, Christiane Stahl-Hennig, Sieghart Sopper, Ulrike Sauermann
CD8+ cells from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected long-term non-progressors and some uninfected macaques can suppress viral replication in vitro without killing the infected cells. The aim of the study was to identify factors responsible for non-cytolytic viral suppression by transcriptional profiling and to investigate their potential impact on SIV-replication. Results of microarray experiments and further validation with cells from infected and uninfected macaques revealed that FAM26F RNA levels distinguished CD8+ cells of controllers and non-controllers (p=0...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902330/simian-immunodeficiency-virus-sivmac239-infection-and-simian-human-immunodeficiency-virus-shiv89-6p-infection-result-in-progression-to-aids-in-cynomolgus-macaques-from-asian-country-origin
#9
Tomotaka Okamura, Yusuke Tsujimura, Shogo Soma, Ichiro Takahashi, Kazuhiro Matsuo, Yasuhiro Yasutomi
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection models in cynomolgus macaques are important for analysis of the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency virus and for studies on the efficacy of new vaccine candidates. However, very little is known about the pathogenesis of SIV or simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in cynomolgus macaques from different Asian country origins. In the present study, we analyzed the infectivity and pathogenicity of CCR5-tropic SIVmac and those of dual-tropic SHIV89.6P inoculated in cynomolgus macaques of Indonesia, Malaysia or Philippines origin...
October 21, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901019/additives-for-vaccine-storage-to-improve-thermal-stability-of-adenoviruses-from-hours-to-months
#10
Maria Pelliccia, Patrizia Andreozzi, Jayson Paulose, Marco D'Alicarnasso, Valeria Cagno, Manuela Donalisio, Andrea Civra, Rebecca M Broeckel, Nicole Haese, Paulo Jacob Silva, Randy P Carney, Varpu Marjomäki, Daniel N Streblow, David Lembo, Francesco Stellacci, Vincenzo Vitelli, Silke Krol
Up to 80% of the cost of vaccination programmes is due to the cold chain problem (that is, keeping vaccines cold). Inexpensive, biocompatible additives to slow down the degradation of virus particles would address the problem. Here we propose and characterize additives that, already at very low concentrations, improve the storage time of adenovirus type 5. Anionic gold nanoparticles (10(-8)-10(-6) M) or polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight ∼8,000 Da, 10(-7)-10(-4) M) increase the half-life of a green fluorescent protein expressing adenovirus from ∼48 h to 21 days at 37 °C (from 7 to >30 days at room temperature)...
November 30, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890400/country-specific-predictions-of-the-cost-effectiveness-of-malaria-vaccine-rts-s-as01-in-endemic-africa
#11
Katya Galactionova, Fabrizio Tediosi, Flavia Camponovo, Thomas A Smith, Peter W Gething, Melissa A Penny
BACKGROUND: RTS,S/AS01 is a safe and moderately efficacious vaccine considered for implementation in endemic Africa. Model predictions of impact and cost-effectiveness of this new intervention could aid in country adoption decisions. METHODS: The impact of RTS,S was assessed in 43 countries using an ensemble of models of Plasmodium falciparum epidemiology. Informed by the 32months follow-up data from the phase 3 trial, vaccine effectiveness was evaluated at country levels of malaria parasite prevalence, coverage of control interventions and immunization...
November 24, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889034/human-immunodeficiency-virus-aids-human-papillomavirus-and-anal-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Chia-Ching J Wang, Joseph Sparano, Joel M Palefsky
Anal cancer is an increasingly common non-AIDS-defining cancer among individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV16 is the most common genotype detected in anal cancers. The HPV types detected in anal cancer are included in the 9-valent vaccine. HPV vaccines have demonstrated efficacy in reducing anal precancerous lesions in HIV-infected individuals. Standard treatment has been fluorouracil and mitomycin (or cisplatin) plus radiation...
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881837/systemic-and-mucosal-immune-responses-following-oral-adenoviral-delivery-of-influenza-vaccine-to-the-human-intestine-by-radio-controlled-capsule
#13
Leesun Kim, C Josefina Martinez, Katie A Hodgson, George R Trager, Jennifer R Brandl, Erik P Sandefer, Walter J Doll, Dave Liebowitz, Sean N Tucker
There are several benefits of oral immunization including the ability to elicit mucosal immune responses that may protect against pathogens that invade through a mucosal surface. Our understanding of human immune biology is hampered by the difficulty in isolating mucosal cells from humans, and the fact that animal models may or may not completely mirror human intestinal immunobiology. In this human pharmacodynamic study, a novel adenovirus vector-based platform expressing influenza hemagglutinin was explored...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881488/an-opsonic-phagocytosis-assay-for-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoites
#14
Ryan W J Steel, Brandon K Sack, Moriya Tsuji, Stefan H I Kappe
Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains the deadliest parasitic disease worldwide. Vaccines targeting the pre-erythrocytic sporozoite and liver stages have the potential to entirely prevent blood stage infection and disease, as well as onward transmission. Sporozoite surface and secreted proteins are leading candidates for inclusion in a pre-erythrocytic, antibody-based vaccine. Preclinical functional assays to identify humoral correlates of protection in vitro, and to validate novel sporozoite protein targets for inclusion in multi-subunit vaccines currently do not consider the interaction of sporozoite-targeting antibodies with other components of the immune system...
November 23, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871989/quality-by-design-qbd-approach-of-pharmacogenomics-in-drug-designing-and-formulation-development-for-optimization-of-drug-delivery-systems
#15
REVIEW
Sumeet Gupta, Vikas Jhawat
Conventional approaches of drug discovery are very complex, costly and time consuming. But after the completion of human genome project, applications of pharmacogenomics in this area completely revolutionize the drug discovery and development process to produce a quality by design (QbD) approach based products. The applications of two areas of pharmacogenomics i.e. structural and functional pharmacogenomics excel the drug discovery process by employing genomic data in drug target identification and evaluation, lead optimization via high throughput screening, evaluation of drug metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters and drug receptors using computer aided technique and bioinformatics library data base...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853459/immunosenescence-related-transcriptomic-and-immunologic-changes-in-older-individuals-following-influenza-vaccination
#16
Richard B Kennedy, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Iana H Haralambieva, Ann L Oberg, Michael T Zimmermann, Diane E Grill, Gregory A Poland
The goal of annual influenza vaccination is to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with this disease through the generation of protective immune responses. The objective of the current study was to examine markers of immunosenescence and identify immunosenescence-related differences in gene expression, gene regulation, cytokine secretion, and immunologic changes in an older study population receiving seasonal influenza A/H1N1 vaccination. Surprisingly, prior studies in this cohort revealed weak correlations between immunosenescence markers and humoral immune response to vaccination...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851981/panget-pan-genomics-tool
#17
Iyyappan Yuvaraj, Jayavel Sridhar, Daliah Michael, Kanagaraj Sekar
A decade after the concept of Pan-genome was first introduced; research in this field has spread its tentacles to areas such as pathogenesis of diseases, bacterial evolutionary studies and drug resistance. Gene content-based differentiation of virulent and a virulent strains of bacteria and identification of pathogen specific genes is imperative to understand their physiology and gain insights into the mechanism of genome evolution. Subsequently, this will aid in identifying diagnostic targets and in developing and selecting vaccines...
November 13, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851831/speeding-access-to-vaccines-and-medicines-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-case-for-change-and-a-framework-for-optimized-product-market-authorization
#18
Vincent Ahonkhai, Samuel F Martins, Alexandre Portet, Murray Lumpkin, Dan Hartman
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Millennium Development Goals galvanized global efforts to alleviate suffering of the world's poorest people through unprecedented public-private partnerships. Donor aid agencies have demonstrably saved millions of lives that might otherwise have been lost to disease through increased access to quality-assured vaccines and medicines. Yet, the introduction of these health interventions in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) continues to face a time lag due to factors which remain poorly understood...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851829/diversification-in-the-hiv-1-envelope-hyper-variable-domains-v2-v4-and-v5-and-higher-probability-of-transmitted-founder-envelope-glycosylation-favor-the-development-of-heterologous-neutralization-breadth
#19
S Abigail Smith, Samantha L Burton, William Kilembe, Shabir Lakhi, Etienne Karita, Matt Price, Susan Allen, Eric Hunter, Cynthia A Derdeyn
A recent study of plasma neutralization breadth in HIV-1 infected individuals at nine International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) sites reported that viral load, HLA-A*03 genotype, and subtype C infection were strongly associated with the development of neutralization breadth. Here, we refine the findings of that study by analyzing the impact of the transmitted/founder (T/F) envelope (Env), early Env diversification, and autologous neutralization on the development of plasma neutralization breadth in 21 participants identified during recent infection at two of those sites: Kigali, Rwanda (n = 9) and Lusaka, Zambia (n = 12)...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849632/malignancies-in-women-with-hiv-infection
#20
Nora T Oliver, Elizabeth Y Chiao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current knowledge of different cancer states affecting women with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: With improved survival of persons with HIV in the post-cART era, the landscape of malignancies in this population has greatly changed with fewer AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and a growing number of non-AIDS defining malignancies (NADM). Women, however, continue to represent a vulnerable population at risk for certain ADM and NADM such as cervical, anal, and breast cancer...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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