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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538254/acute-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-as-presentation-of-hereditary-neuropathy-with-liability-to-pressure-palsies-in-a-patient-who-exercised-regularly-in-the-army
#1
Malathi Perugula, Gulshan Uppal, Miguel Chuquilin
Acute generalized neuropathy as the presenting manifestation of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is rare. We report a 19-year-old Army recruit who exercised regularly for 9 months and presented with 2 weeks of numbness, tingling, and weakness in both upper and lower extremities, starting 2 weeks after influenza vaccination and 1 day after vigorous exercise. Based on acute onset, clinical examination and electrophysiological findings, Guillain-Barre syndrome was diagnosed, and intravenous immunoglobulin was administered with minimal improvement...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536674/anti-idiotypic-antibodies-specific-to-prm-monoantibody-prevent-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-dengue-virus-infection
#2
Miao Wang, Fan Yang, Dana Huang, Yalan Huang, Xiaomin Zhang, Chao Wang, Shaohua Zhang, Renli Zhang
Dengue virus (DENV) co-circulates as four serotypes (DENV1-4). Primary infection only leads to self-limited dengue fever. But secondary infection with another serotype carries a higher risk of increased disease severity, causing life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Serotype cross-reactive antibodies facilitate DENV infection in Fc-receptor-bearing cells by promoting virus entry via Fcγ receptors (FcγR), a process known as antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). Most studies suggested that enhancing antibodies were mainly specific to the structural premembrane protein (prM) of DENV...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535854/influenza-a-world-of-discoveries-outbreaks-and-controversy
#3
Wendy S Barclay
Working in an area such as influenza is a free ticket into science communication, a pathway aided amply by the amazing evolutionary powers of the virus; regular outbreaks keep the media engaged and the audience keen. Everyone has heard of flu, and they probably already have an opinion: 'I don't take the vaccine, it gives me the flu anyway.' 'Didn't the government waste loads of money on that Tamiflu drug that doesn't work?' 'I've never had flu because I eat a banana every day and sleep with a boiled onion when I've sat next to someone on the train who was coughing...
May 23, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535267/the-plasma-and-mucosal-igm-iga-and-igg-responses-to-the-vibrio-cholerae-o1-protein-immunome-in-adults-with-cholera-in-bangladesh
#4
Richelle C Charles, Rie Nakajima, Li Liang, Al Jasinskas, Amanda Berger, Daniel T Leung, Meagan Kelly, Peng Xu, Pavol Kovác, Samantha R Giffen, James D Harbison, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful I Khan, Stephen B Calderwood, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Jason B Harris, Philip L Felgner, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T Ryan
Background.: Cholera is a severe dehydrating illness of humans caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139. Identification of immunogenic V. cholerae antigens could lead to a better understanding of protective immunity in human cholera. Methods.: We probed microarrays containing 3652 V. cholerae antigens with plasma and antibody-in-lymphocyte supernatant (ALS, a surrogate marker of mucosal immune responses) from patients with severe cholera caused by V...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530684/tackling-hiv-and-aids-contributions-by-non-human-primate-models
#5
Koen K A Van Rompay
During the past three decades, non-human primate (NHP) models have gained an increasing importance in HIV basic and translational research. In contrast to natural host models, infection of macaques with virulent simian or simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SIV, SHIV) results in a disease that closely resembles HIV infection and AIDS. Although there is no perfect animal model, and each of the available models has its benefits and limitations, carefully designed NHP studies with selection of experimental variables have unraveled important questions of basic pathogenesis and have provided the tools to explore and screen intervention strategies...
May 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527534/austerity-and-the-sector-wide-approach-to-health-the-mozambique-experience
#6
James Pfeiffer, Sarah Gimbel, Baltazar Chilundo, Stephen Gloyd, Rachel Chapman, Kenneth Sherr
Fiscal austerity policies imposed by the IMF have reduced investments in social services, leaving post-independence nations like Mozambique struggling to recover from civil war and high disease burden. By 2000, a sector-wide approach (SWAp) was promoted to maximize aid effectiveness. 'Like-minded' bilateral donors, from Europe and Canada, promoted a unified approach to health sector support focusing on joint planning, common basket funding, and streamlined monitoring and evaluation to improve sector coordination, amplify country ownership, and build sustainable health systems...
May 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521748/contextualizing-willingness-to-participate-recommendations-for-engagement-recruitment-enrolment-of-kenyan-msm-in-future-hiv-prevention-trials
#7
Monika Doshi, Lisa Avery, Ronnie P Kaddu, Mary Gichuhi, Gloria Gakii, Elsabé du Plessis, Sumit Dutta, Shamshad Khan, Joshua Kimani, Robert R Lorway
BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) continues to expand globally. The addition of an efficacious, prophylactic vaccine to combination prevention offers immense hope, particularly in low- and middle- income countries which bear the greatest global impact. However, in these settings, there is a paucity of vaccine preparedness studies that specifically pertain to MSM. Our study is the first vaccine preparedness study among MSM and female sex workers (FSWs) in Kenya...
May 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516082/multifocal-recurrent-osteomyelitis-and-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-a-boy-with-partial-dominant-ifn-%C3%AE-r1-deficiency-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Aidé Tamara Staines-Boone, Caroline Deswarte, Edna Venegas Montoya, Luz María Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge Alberto García Campos, Teodoro Muñiz-Ronquillo, Jacinta Bustamante, Francisco J Espinosa-Rosales, Saul Oswaldo Lugo Reyes
Mutations in the genes coding for cytokines, receptors, second messengers, and transcription factors of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) immunity cause Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). We report the case of a 7-year-old male patient with partial dominant (PD) IFN-γ receptor 1 deficiency who had suffered from multifocal osteomyelitis attributable to bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination since the age of 18 months. He developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a hyper-inflammatory complication, and died with multiorgan dysfunction, despite having been diagnosed and treated relatively early...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516052/whole-body-mri-of-the-non-human-primate-using-a-clinical-3t-scanner-initial-experiences
#9
Chun-Xia Li, Xiaodong Zhang
With the advent of parallel imaging MRI techniques, whole-body MRI is being increasingly used in clinical diagnosis. However, its application in preclinical research using large animals remains very limited. In the present study, the whole-body MRI techniques for adult macaque monkeys were explored using a conventional clinic 3T scanner. The T1, T2 anatomical images, and MR angiography of adult macaque whole bodies were illustrated. The preliminary results suggest whole-body MRI can be a robust tool to examine multiple organs of non-human primate (NHP) models from head to toe non-invasively and simultaneously using a conventional clinical setting...
April 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512091/conformational-flexibility-in-the-immunoglobulin-like-domain-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-glycoprotein-e2
#10
Ieva Vasiliauskaite, Ania Owsianka, Patrick England, Abdul Ghafoor Khan, Sarah Cole, Dorothea Bankwitz, Steven K H Foung, Thomas Pietschmann, Joseph Marcotrigiano, Felix A Rey, Arvind H Patel, Thomas Krey
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoprotein E2 is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and is therefore highly relevant for vaccine design. Its structure features a central immunoglobulin (Ig)-like β-sandwich that contributes to the binding site for the cellular receptor CD81. We show that a synthetic peptide corresponding to a β-strand of this Ig-like domain forms an α-helix in complex with the anti-E2 antibody DAO5, demonstrating an inside-out flip of hydrophobic residues and a secondary structure change in the composite CD81 binding site...
May 16, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511091/molecular-cloning-and-characterization-of-dngr-1-in-rhesus-macaques
#11
Wen-Rong Yao, Lei Yu, Dong Li, Gui-Bo Yang
DC, NK lectin group receptor-1 (DNGR-1), also known as C-type lectin domain family 9 member A (CLEC9A), is a promising target for immunological therapeutics and vaccination against tumors and viruses. However, little is known about its property in rhesus macaques. In this study, we cloned rhesus macaque DNGR-1 cDNA, and found that its coding region could encode a 241-amino acid polypeptide with 91.7% sequence identity and similar antigenicity to that of humans. Both free and cell surface rhesus macaque DNGR-1 expressed in vitro could bind to apoptotic/dead cells induced by serum deprivation or freeze-thaw, and to pyroptotic cells stimulated with PMA and LPS...
May 13, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507073/antibodies-against-in-vivo-expressed-antigens-are-sufficient-to-protect-against-lethal-aerosol-infection-with-burkholderia-mallei-and-burkholderia-pseudomallei
#12
Shawn M Zimmerman, Jeremy S Dyke, Tomislav P Jelesijevic, Frank Michel, Eric R Lafontaine, Robert J Hogan
Burkholderia mallei, a facultative intracellular bacterium and Tier 1 biothreat, causes the fatal zoonotic disease glanders. The organism possesses multiple genes encoding autotransporter proteins, which represent important virulence factors and targets for developing countermeasures in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. In the present study, we investigated one of these autotransporters, BatA, and demonstrate that it displays lipolytic activity, aids in intracellular survival, is expressed in vivo, elicits production of antibodies during infection, and contributes to pathogenicity in a mouse aerosol challenge model...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506058/differential-protein-analysis-of-ipec-j2-cells-infected-with-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-pandemic-and-classical-strains-elucidates-the-pathogenesis-of-infection
#13
Huixing Lin, Bin Li, Lei Chen, Zhe Ma, Kongwang He, Hongjie Fan
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) re-emerged in China in late 2010 and has now become widespread. Accumulated evidence indicates that this large-scale outbreak of diarrhea was caused by variants of the highly virulent porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). A pandemic PEDV YC2014 strain (YC2014) was isolated from clinical samples. An iTRAQ-based comparative quantitative proteomic study of IPEC-J2 cells infected with YC2014 and a classical CV777 strain (CV777) was performed to determine the differences between pandemic and classical PEDV strain infection...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500445/genetic-diversity-and-evolutionary-characteristics-of-type-2-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-southeastern-china-from-2009-to-2014
#14
Jiankui Liu, Xia Zhou, Junqiong Zhai, Bing Li, Chunhua Wei, Ailing Dai, Xiaoyan Yang, Manlin Luo
The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus circulating in Fujian province (southeastern China). Based on 53 ORF5 nucleotide sequences collected from nine sites, both highly pathogenic (sublineage 8.7) and lineage 1 strains were circulating in Fujian in 2009-2014 along with lineages 3 and 5.1. Notably, the lineage 1 strains were closely related to the NADC30 strain circulating in North America and were the predominant strains in 2014...
May 12, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489886/bystander-activation-of-irrelevant-cd4-t-cells-following-antigen-specific-vaccination-occurs-in-the-presence-and-absence-of-adjuvant
#15
Susan van Aalst, Irene S Ludwig, Ruurd van der Zee, Willem van Eden, Femke Broere
Autoimmune and other chronic inflammatory diseases (AID) are prevalent diseases which can severely impact the quality of life of those that suffer from the disease. In most cases, the etiology of these conditions have remained unclear. Immune responses that take place e.g. during natural infection or after vaccination are often linked with the development or exacerbation of AID. It is highly debated if vaccines induce or aggravate AID and in particular adjuvants are mentioned as potential cause. Since vaccines are given on a large scale to healthy individuals but also to elderly and immunocompromised individuals, more research is warranted...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479111/co-utilization-of-a-tlr5-agonist-and-nano-formulation-of-hiv-1-vaccine-candidate-leads-to-increased-vaccine-immunogenicity-and-decreased-immunogenic-dose-a-preliminary-study
#16
Hajar Rostami, Masoumeh Ebtekar, Mehdi Shafiee Ardestani, Mohammad Hossein Yazdi, Mehdi Mahdavi
Vaccines currently available for AIDS show poor efficiency, demonstrating the need for new strategies to increase their immunogenicity. In this study, the HIV-1P24-Nef peptide was used as a model vaccine, followed by utilization of a novel strategy to increase its immunogenicity. There is a growing interest in using TLR agonists for vaccine formulations. Such molecules bind to their receptors on immune cells, especially the cell surface of antigen presenting cells, thereby activating these cells and inflammatory responses...
May 4, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474962/effects-of-anti-versus-pro-vaccine-narratives-on-responses-by-recipients-varying-in-numeracy-a-cross-sectional-survey-based-experiment
#17
Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Annika Wallin, Andrew M Parker, JoNell Strough, Janel Hanmer
BACKGROUND: To inform their health decisions, patients may seek narratives describing other patients' evaluations of their treatment experiences. Narratives can provide anti-treatment or pro-treatment evaluative meaning that low-numerate patients may especially struggle to derive from statistical information. Here, we examined whether anti-vaccine (v. pro-vaccine) narratives had relatively stronger effects on the perceived informativeness and judged vaccination probabilities reported among recipients with lower (v...
April 1, 2017: Medical Decision Making: An International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473819/metabolic-profiles-in-cell-lines-infected-with-classical-swine-fever-virus
#18
Hongchao Gou, Mingqiu Zhao, Jin Yuan, Hailuan Xu, Hongxing Ding, Jinding Chen
Viruses require energy and biosynthetic precursors from host cells for replication. An understanding of the metabolic interplay between classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and host cells is important for exploring the complex pathological mechanisms of classical swine fever (CSF). In the current study, and for the first time, we utilized an approach involving gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to examine the metabolic profiles within PK-15 and 3D4/2 cells infected with CSFV. The differential metabolites of PK-15 cells caused by CSFV infection mainly included the decreased levels of glucose 6-phosphate [fold change (FC) = -1...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472614/serotype-changes-and-antimicrobial-nonsusceptibility-rates-of-invasive-and-non-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates-after-implementation-of-10-valent-pneumococcal-nontypeable-haemophilus-influenzae-protein-d-conjugate-vaccine-phid-cv-in-bulgaria
#19
Lena Setchanova, Marianna Murdjeva, Iglika Stancheva, Alexandra Alexandrova, Maria Sredkova, Temenuga Stoicheva, Magda Yoneva, Anna Kurchatova, Ivan Mitov
The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) has been included in Bulgarian Childhood Immunization Program since 2010. This study aimed to assess serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of 198 invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that had been isolated in Bulgaria during 2011-2016 from patients with invasive (IPD) and non-invasive (NIPD) pneumococcal diseases. The most common invasive serotypes were 3 (10.1%), 19F (4.0%), and 7F (3.0%). A significant decrease in the proportion of invasive vaccine types (VTs) from 64...
May 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469988/polio-in-syria-problem-still-not-solved
#20
Ahmad Al-Moujahed, Fares Alahdab, Heba Abolaban, Leo Beletsky
The reappearance of polio in Syria in mid-2013, 18 years after it was eliminated from the country, manifests the public health catastrophe brought on by the civil war. Among the lessons learned, this outbreak emphasizes the importance of increasing the international financial and logistical support for vaccine and immunization efforts, especially in countries suffering from conflicts. The lack of access to polio accredited laboratory or outright lack of laboratories in settings of conflict should be recognized allowing international surveillance to be strengthened by supplementing the laboratory definition with the clinical definition...
April 2017: Avicenna Journal of Medicine
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