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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637387/immunopathology-of-chikungunya-virus-infection-lessons-learned-from-patients-and-animal-models
#1
Lisa F P Ng
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that causes acute and chronic arthritis. The virus reemerged in the Indian Ocean islands in 2005-2006 and is responsible for outbreaks in the Caribbean islands and the Americas since late 2013. Despite the wealth of research over the past 10 years, there are no commercially available antiviral drugs or vaccines. Treatment usually involves analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care. Most studies have been focused on understanding the pathogenesis of CHIKV infection through clinical observation and with animal models...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630076/what-are-the-primary-limitations-in-b-cell-affinity-maturation-and-how-much-affinity-maturation-can-we-drive-with-vaccination-is-affinity-maturation-a-self-defeating-process-for-eliciting-broad-protection
#2
Christopher T Stamper, Patrick C Wilson
Vaccinations are one of the greatest success stories of modern medicine, saving millions of lives since their widespread adoption. However, several diseases continue to elude highly effective vaccination strategies. Chief among these are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and influenza (flu), both of which will require vaccines that can guide the creation of highly mutated, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). The generation of bnAbs is hindered by our inability to effectively drive the high levels of affinity maturation required to achieve them in a large number of cells...
June 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619230/innovative-financing-instruments-for-global-health-2002-15-a-systematic-analysis
#3
Rifat Atun, Sachin Silva, Felicia M Knaul
Development assistance for health (DAH), the value of which peaked in 2013 and fell in 2015, is unlikely to rise substantially in the near future, increasing reliance on domestic and innovative financing sources to sustain health programmes in low-income and middle-income countries. We examined innovative financing instruments (IFIs)-financing schemes that generate and mobilise funds-to estimate the quantum of financing mobilised from 2002 to 2015. We identified ten IFIs, which mobilised US$8·9 billion (2·3% of overall DAH) in 2002-15...
July 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619153/identification-of-candidate-protein-markers-of-bovine-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-infection-using-an-in-vitro-model
#4
Darren W Gray, Michael D Welsh, Simon Doherty, Mark H Mooney
Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 (BPI3V) infections are often asymptomatic, causing respiratory tissue damage and immunosuppression, predisposing animals to severe bacterial pneumonia, the leading cause of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) mortality. As with many pathogens, routine BPI3V serology does not indicate the presence of damaged respiratory tissue or active infection. In vitro proteomic marker screening using disease relevant cell models could help identify markers of infection and tissue damage that are also detectable during in vivo infections...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617335/zno-nano-rod-devices-for-intradermal-delivery-and-immunization
#5
Tapas R Nayak, Hao Wang, Aakansha Pant, Minrui Zheng, Hans Junginger, Wei Jiang Goh, Choon Keong Lee, Shui Zou, Sylvie Alonso, Bertrand Czarny, Gert Storm, Chorng Haur Sow, Chengkuo Lee, Giorgia Pastorin
Intradermal delivery of antigens for vaccination is a very attractive approach since the skin provides a rich network of antigen presenting cells, which aid in stimulating an immune response. Numerous intradermal techniques have been developed to enhance penetration across the skin. However, these methods are invasive and/or affect the skin integrity. Hence, our group has devised zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-rods for non-destructive drug delivery. Chemical vapour deposition was used to fabricate aligned nano-rods on ZnO pre-coated silicon chips...
June 15, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598790/croi-2017-advances-in-antiretroviral-therapy
#6
Joyce Jones, Barbara S Taylor, Hong-Van Tieu, Timothy J Wilkin
The 2017 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) featured exciting preclinical data on investigational antiretroviral agents with good in vitro efficacy and long half-lives. Investigational medications, including bictegravir, demonstrated excellent efficacy and tolerability, as did dual-agent therapy with dolutegravir paired with rilpivirine or with lamivudine. Dolutegravir monotherapy proved inadvisable due to virologic failure and resistance. The gap between high- and low-income settings along the HIV care continuum is narrowing, with Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Zambia approaching the 90-90-90 targets established by the joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), whereas communities in the Southern United States are falling behind...
May 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598249/recall-and-decay-of-consent-information-among-parents-of-infants-participating-in-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial-using-an-audio-visual-tool-in-the-gambia
#7
Robert B Mboizi, Muhammed O Afolabi, Michael Okoye, Beate Kampmann, Anna Roca, Olubukola T Idoko
Communicating essential research information to low literacy research participants in Africa is highly challenging, since this population is vulnerable to poor comprehension of consent information. Several supportive materials have been developed to aid participant comprehension in these settings. Within the framework of a pneumococcal vaccine trial in The Gambia, we evaluated the recall and decay of consent information during the trial which used an audio-visual tool called 'Speaking Book', to foster comprehension among parents of participating infants...
June 9, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597270/-vaccines-for-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#8
REVIEW
Ulrich Seybold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596134/a-critical-role-of-zinc-importer-adcabc-in-group-a-streptococcus-host-interactions-during-infection-and-its-implications-for-vaccine-development
#9
Nishanth Makthal, Kimberly Nguyen, Hackwon Do, Maire Gavagan, Pete Chandrangsu, John D Helmann, Randall J Olsen, Muthiah Kumaraswami
Bacterial pathogens must overcome host immune mechanisms to acquire micronutrients for successful replication and infection. Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), is a human pathogen that causes a variety of clinical manifestations, and disease prevention is hampered by lack of a human GAS vaccine. Herein, we report that the mammalian host recruits calprotectin (CP) to GAS infection sites and retards bacterial growth by zinc limitation. However, a GAS-encoded zinc importer and a nuanced zinc sensor aid bacterial defense against CP-mediated growth inhibition and contribute to GAS virulence...
June 2, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591681/structural-features-of-glycan-recognition-among-viral-pathogens
#10
REVIEW
Sreejesh Shanker, Liya Hu, Sasirekha Ramani, Robert L Atmar, Mary K Estes, B V Venkataram Prasad
Recognition and binding to host glycans present on cellular surfaces is an initial and critical step in viral entry. Diverse families of host glycans such as histo-blood group antigens, sialoglycans and glycosaminoglycans are recognized by viruses. Glycan binding determines virus-host specificity, tissue tropism, pathogenesis and potential for interspecies transmission. Viruses including noroviruses, rotaviruses, enteroviruses, influenza, and papillomaviruses have evolved novel strategies to bind specific glycans often in a strain-specific manner...
June 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584981/immunoinformatics-as-a-tool-for-new-antifungal-vaccines
#11
Rupanjali Chaudhuri, Srinivasan Ramachandran
Immunoinformatics aids in screening for vaccine candidates, which can be experimentally tested for their efficacy. This chapter describes methods to use immunoinformatics to screen fungal vaccines candidates. Surface-localized molecules called adhesins could elicit immune response and serve as efficient vaccine candidates. The screening process is patterned on two steps, namely, a First Layer screen mostly used for value addition and prioritization based on characteristics of known antigens and a Second Layer highly focussed on core immunoinformatics analysis involving the binding and interactions of the molecules of the immune system...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582800/regulation-of-cd4-t-cells-and-their-effects-on-immunopathological-inflammation-following-viral-infection
#12
Mitra Bhattacharyya, Patrick Madden, Nathan Henning, Shana Gregory, Malika Aid, Amanda Martinot, Dan H Barouch, Pablo Penaloza-MacMaster
CD4 T cells help immune responses, but knowledge of how memory CD4 T cells are regulated and how they regulate adaptive immune responses and induce immunopathology is limited. Using adoptive transfer of virus-specific CD4 T cells, we show that naïve CD4 T cells undergo substantial expansion following infection, but can induce lethal TH1-driven inflammation. In contrast, memory CD4 T cells exhibit a biased proliferation of T follicular helper (Tfh) cell subsets and were able to improve adaptive immune responses in the context of minimal tissue damage...
June 5, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579170/vaccination-coverage-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-receiving-care-at-an-aids-outpatient-clinic-in-esp%C3%A3-rito-santo-brazil
#13
Lauro Ferreira da Silva Pinto Neto, Julia Vescovi Vieira, Nathália Rossoni Ronchi
This cross-sectional study assessed the immunization status of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving care at an outpatient clinic in Brazil. The sociodemographic characteristics, CD4 count and HIV viral load of 281 out of 612 adult outpatients were analyzed. A total of 331 patients were excluded because of no availability of vaccination cards. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used. Immunization coverage was higher for diphtheria/tetanus (59.79%) and hepatitis B (56.7%), and lowest for hepatitis A (6...
June 1, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577855/quantitative-analyses-reveal-distinct-sensitivities-of-the-capture-of-hiv-1-primary-viruses-and-pseudoviruses-to-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#14
Jiae Kim, Ousman Jobe, Kristina K Peachman, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Mangala Rao, Venigalla B Rao
Development of vaccines capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is a key goal to controlling the global AIDS epidemic. To be effective, bNAbs must block the capture of HIV-1 to prevent viral acquisition and establishment of reservoirs. However, the role of bNAbs, particularly during initial exposure of primary viruses to host cells, has not been fully examined. Using a sensitive, quantitative, and high-throughput qRT-PCR assay, we found that primary viruses were captured by host cells and converted into a trypsin-resistant form in less than five minutes...
May 31, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570272/immunity-against-fungi
#15
REVIEW
Michail S Lionakis, Iliyan D Iliev, Tobias M Hohl
Pathogenic fungi cause a wide range of syndromes in immune-competent and immune-compromised individuals, with life-threatening disease primarily seen in humans with HIV/AIDS and in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies for cancer, autoimmunity, and end-organ failure. The discovery that specific primary immune deficiencies manifest with fungal infections and the development of animal models of mucosal and invasive mycoses have facilitated insight into fungus-specific recognition, signaling, effector pathways, and adaptive immune responses...
June 2, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549522/pathobiology-of-human-papillomaviruses-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-persons
#16
REVIEW
Uma Krishnamurti, Elizabeth R Unger
There is a complex interrelationship between human papillomaviruses (HPV) and human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) that has been recognized from the start of the HIV epidemic. Cervical cancer was used as a surveillance indicator for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) before definitive identification of the viral etiology of either condition were known. Careful epidemiologic studies combined with clinical and laboratory measures of HPV, HPV-associated disease, and HIV have helped us understand many aspects of the relationship between these two virus groups; however, questions remain...
July 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538254/acute-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-as-presentation-of-hereditary-neuropathy-with-liability-to-pressure-palsies-in-a-patient-who-exercised-regularly-in-the-army
#17
Malathi Perugula, Gulshan Uppal, Miguel Chuquilin
Acute generalized neuropathy as the presenting manifestation of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is rare. We report a 19-year-old Army recruit who exercised regularly for 9 months and presented with 2 weeks of numbness, tingling, and weakness in both upper and lower extremities, starting 2 weeks after influenza vaccination and 1 day after vigorous exercise. Based on acute onset, clinical examination and electrophysiological findings, Guillain-Barre syndrome was diagnosed, and intravenous immunoglobulin was administered with minimal improvement...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536674/anti-idiotypic-antibodies-specific-to-prm-monoantibody-prevent-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-dengue-virus-infection
#18
Miao Wang, Fan Yang, Dana Huang, Yalan Huang, Xiaomin Zhang, Chao Wang, Shaohua Zhang, Renli Zhang
Dengue virus (DENV) co-circulates as four serotypes (DENV1-4). Primary infection only leads to self-limited dengue fever. But secondary infection with another serotype carries a higher risk of increased disease severity, causing life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Serotype cross-reactive antibodies facilitate DENV infection in Fc-receptor-bearing cells by promoting virus entry via Fcγ receptors (FcγR), a process known as antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). Most studies suggested that enhancing antibodies were mainly specific to the structural premembrane protein (prM) of DENV...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535854/influenza-a-world-of-discoveries-outbreaks-and-controversy
#19
Wendy S Barclay
Working in an area such as influenza is a free ticket into science communication, a pathway aided amply by the amazing evolutionary powers of the virus; regular outbreaks keep the media engaged and the audience keen. Everyone has heard of flu, and they probably already have an opinion: 'I don't take the vaccine, it gives me the flu anyway.' 'Didn't the government waste loads of money on that Tamiflu drug that doesn't work?' 'I've never had flu because I eat a banana every day and sleep with a boiled onion when I've sat next to someone on the train who was coughing...
May 23, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535267/the-plasma-and-mucosal-igm-iga-and-igg-responses-to-the-vibrio-cholerae-o1-protein-immunome-in-adults-with-cholera-in-bangladesh
#20
Richelle C Charles, Rie Nakajima, Li Liang, Al Jasinskas, Amanda Berger, Daniel T Leung, Meagan Kelly, Peng Xu, Pavol Kovác, Samantha R Giffen, James D Harbison, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful I Khan, Stephen B Calderwood, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Jason B Harris, Philip L Felgner, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T Ryan
Background.: Cholera is a severe dehydrating illness of humans caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139. Identification of immunogenic V. cholerae antigens could lead to a better understanding of protective immunity in human cholera. Methods.: We probed microarrays containing 3652 V. cholerae antigens with plasma and antibody-in-lymphocyte supernatant (ALS, a surrogate marker of mucosal immune responses) from patients with severe cholera caused by V...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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