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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339428/mucosal-infections-and-invasive-potential-of-nonencapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-are-enhanced-by-oligopeptide-binding-proteins-alic-and-alid
#1
Jessica L Bradshaw, Haley R Pipkins, Lance E Keller, James K Pendarvis, Larry S McDaniel
Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp) is an emerging human pathogen that colonizes the nasopharynx and is associated with noninvasive diseases such as otitis media (OM), conjunctivitis, and nonbacteremic pneumonia. Since capsule expression was previously thought to be necessary for establishment of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), serotype-specific polysaccharide capsules are targeted by currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines. Yet, NESp expressing oligopeptide binding proteins AliC and AliD have been isolated during IPD...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336697/understanding-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-toward-west-nile-virus-prevention-a-survey-of-high-risk-adults-in-maryland
#2
Kimberly C Mitchell, Patricia Ryan, Donna E Howard, Katherine A Feldman
OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward West Nile virus (WNV) prevention among Maryland adults ≥60 years old who are at increased risk of severe WNV disease utilizing the health belief model. METHODS: Using a stratified random sample of households from zip codes with ≥2 human WNV cases, we conducted a telephone survey of 211 Maryland adults ≥60 years old between October and December 2012. RESULTS: Participants expressing worry about WNV were over thrice more likely to use insect repellent in the prior 90 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3...
January 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329259/extreme-overvalued-beliefs-how-violent-extremist-beliefs-become-normalized
#3
Tahir Rahman
Extreme overvalued beliefs (EOB) are rigidly held, non-deusional beliefs that are the motive behind most acts of terrorism and mass shootings. EOBs are differentiated from delusions and obsessions. The concept of an overvalued idea was first described by Wernicke and later applied to terrorism by McHugh. Our group of forensic psychiatrists (Rahman, Resnick, Harry) refined the definition as an aid in the differential diagnosis seen in acts of violence. The form and content of EOBs is discussed as well as group effects, conformity, and obedience to authority...
January 12, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316047/parainfluenza-virus-5-vectored-vaccines-against-human-and-animal-infectious-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Zhenhai Chen
Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5), known as canine parainfluenza virus in the veterinary field, is a negative-sense, nonsegmented, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. Parainfluenza virus 5 is an excellent viral vector and has been used as a live vaccine for kennel cough for many years in dogs without any safety concern. It can grow to high titers in many cell types, and its genome is stable even in the presence of foreign gene insertions. So far, PIV5 has been used to develop vaccines against influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rabies virus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, demonstrating its ability to elicit robust and protective immune responses in preclinical animal models...
January 5, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310975/influence-of-birth-origin-and-risk-factor-profile-on-hepatitis-b-mortality-philadelphia-pa-2003-2013
#5
Dana C Higgins, Danica E Kuncio, Caroline C Johnson, Kendra M Viner
PURPOSE: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects specific subpopulations in the United States, including individuals born in HBV-endemic countries and persons engaging in high-risk behaviors. METHODS: The 2003-2013 HBV registry data and surveillance investigations for Philadelphia, PA were matched to death certificate data to examine demographic, risk factor, and cause of death characteristics among HBV-infected populations. Bivariate analysis compared investigated foreign-born (FB) and US-born chronic HBV individuals...
December 22, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302127/census-independent-population-mapping-in-northern-nigeria
#6
Eric M Weber, Vincent Y Seaman, Robert N Stewart, Tomas J Bird, Andrew J Tatem, Jacob J McKee, Budhendra L Bhaduri, Jessica J Moehl, Andrew E Reith
Although remote sensing has long been used to aid in the estimation of population, it has usually been in the context of spatial disaggregation of national census data, with the census counts serving both as observational data for specifying models and as constraints on model outputs. Here we present a framework for estimating populations from the bottom up, entirely independently of national census data, a critical need in areas without recent and reliable census data. To make observations of population density, we replace national census data with a microcensus, in which we enumerate population for a sample of small areas within the states of Kano and Kaduna in northern Nigeria...
January 2018: Remote Sensing of Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298888/rapid-cloning-of-novel-rhesus-adenoviral-vaccine-vectors
#7
Peter Abbink, Marinela Kirilova, Michael Boyd, Noe Mercado, Zhenfeng Li, Ramya Nityanandam, Ovini Nanayakkara, Rebecca Peterson, Rafael A Larocca, Malika Aid, Lawrence Tartaglia, Tinaye Mutetwa, Eryn Blass, David Jetton, Lori F Maxfield, Erica N Borducchi, Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh, Scott Handley, Guoyan Zhao, Herbert W Virgin, Menzo J Havenga, Dan H Barouch
Human and chimpanzee adenovirus vectors are being developed to circumvent pre-existing antibodies against common adenovirus vectors such as Ad5. However, baseline immunity to these vectors still exists in human populations. Traditional cloning of new adenovirus vaccine vectors is a long and cumbersome process that takes two months or more and that requires rare unique restriction enzyme sites. Here we describe a novel, restriction enzyme-independent method for rapid cloning of new adenovirus vaccine vectors that reduces the total cloning procedure to 1 week...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294575/-prevalence-and-related-factors-of-hiv-hbv-coinfection-among-hiv-aids-patients
#8
D Feng, T Yao, Y P Cheng, M H Pan, C X Li, J Wang, Y L Feng, J Shi, H L Huang, H Y Lu, G H Lan, S P Wang, Y W Zhang
Objective: To reveal the prevalence and the related factors of hepatitis B (HepB) virus infection among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in two HIV clinics, affiliated to local Centers of Disease Control and Prevention in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Regional. A face-to-face interview, with questionnaire was conducted to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, drug use, and sexual behavior. Blood samples were used to test HBsAg. χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test and unconditional logistic regression models were used to identify the influencing factors...
December 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291591/proteome-scale-identification-of-leishmania-infantum-for-novel-vaccine-candidates-a-hierarchical-subtractive-approach
#9
Bahareh Vakili, Navid Nezafat, Gholam Reza Hatam, Bijan Zare, Nasrollah Erfani, Younes Ghasemi
Vaccines are one of the most significant achievements in medical science. However, vaccine design is still challenging at all stages. The selection of antigenic peptides as vaccine candidates is the first and most important step for vaccine design. Experimental selection of antigenic peptides for the design of vaccines is a time-consuming, labor-intensive and expensive procedure. More recently, in the light of computer-aided biotechnology and reverse vaccinology, the precise selection of antigenic peptides and rational vaccine design against many pathogens have developed...
December 24, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289384/the-vaccine-hesitancy-scale-psychometric-properties-and-validation
#10
Gilla K Shapiro, Ovidiu Tatar, Eve Dube, Rhonda Amsel, Barbel Knauper, Anila Naz, Samara Perez, Zeev Rosberger
INTRODUCTION: The SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy developed a vaccine hesitancy measure, the Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (VHS). This scale has the potential to aid in the advancement of research and immunization policy but has not yet been psychometrically evaluated. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, we collected self-reported survey data from a large national sample of Canadian parents from August to September 2016. An online questionnaire was completed in English or French...
December 27, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282882/recent-progress-in-immune-based-interventions-to-prevent-hiv-1-transmission-to-children
#11
Yegor Voronin, Ilesh Jani, Barney S Graham, Coleen K Cunningham, Lynne M Mofenson, Philippa M Musoke, Sallie R Permar, Gabriella Scarlatti
Globally, 150,000 new paediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections occurred in 2015. There remain complex challenges to the global elimination of paediatric HIV-1 infection. Thus, for the global community to achieve elimination of new paediatric HIV-1 infections, innovative approaches need to be explored. Immune-based approaches to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) may help fill some of the remaining gaps and provide new opportunities to achieve an AIDS-free generation. Immune-based interventions to prevent MTCT of HIV-1 may include paediatric HIV vaccines and passive immunization approaches...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280955/immune-modulation-of-nyvac-based-hiv-vaccines-by-combined-deletion-of-viral-genes-that-act-on-several-signalling-pathways
#12
Carmen Elena Gómez, Beatriz Perdiguero, Cristina Sánchez-Corzo, Carlos Oscar S Sorzano, Mariano Esteban
An HIV-1 vaccine continues to be a major target to halt the AIDS pandemic. The limited efficacy of the RV144 phase III clinical trial with the canarypox virus-based vector ALVAC and a gp120 protein component led to the conclusion that improved immune responses to HIV antigens are needed for a more effective vaccine. In non-human primates, the New York vaccinia virus (NYVAC) poxvirus vector has a broader immunogenicity profile than ALVAC and has been tested in clinical trials. We therefore analysed the HIV immune advantage of NYVAC after removing viral genes that act on several signalling pathways (Toll-like receptors-TLR-interferon, cytokines/chemokines), as well as genes of unknown immune function...
December 27, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277848/low-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-vaccination-among-patients-receiving-medical-care-for-hiv-infection-in-the-united-states-2009-to-2012
#13
John Weiser, Alejandro Perez, Heather Bradley, Hope King, R Luke Shouse
Background: Persons with HIV infection are at increased risk for hepatitis B virus infection. In 2016, the World Health Organization resolved to eliminate hepatitis B as a public health threat by 2030. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B vaccination among U.S. patients receiving medical care for HIV infection ("HIV patients"). Design: Nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Setting: United States...
December 26, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275464/the-role-of-tumor-microenvironment-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
Timothy Frankel, Mirna Perusina Lanfranca, Weiping Zou
The field of tumor immunology and immunotherapy has undergone a renaissance in the past decade do in large part to a better understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment. After suffering countless successes and setbacks in the twentieth century, immunotherapy has now come to the forefront of cancer research and is recognized as an important tool in the anti-tumor armamentarium. The goal of therapy is to aid the immune system in recognition and destruction of tumor cells by enhancing its ability to react to tumor antigens...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250325/modern-biotechnology-based-therapeutic-approaches-against-hiv-infection
#15
Muhammad Imran, Yasir Waheed, Ayesha Ghazal, Sajjad Ullah, Sher Zaman Safi, Muhsin Jamal, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Atif, Muhammad Imran, Farman Ullah
The causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since its discovery before 30 years, a number of drugs known as highly active antiretroviral therapy have been developed to suppress the life cycle of the virus at different stages. With the current therapeutic approaches, ending AIDS means providing treatment to 35 million individuals living with HIV for the rest of their lives or until a cure is developed. Additionally, therapy is associated with various other challenges such as potential of drug resistance, toxicity and presence of latent viral reservoir...
December 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248266/serotype-specific-immune-responses-to-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-among-children-are-significantly-correlated-by-individual-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trial-data
#16
Marc Lipsitch, Lucy M Li, Scott Patterson, James Trammel, Christine Juergens, William C Gruber, Daniel A Scott, Ron Dagan
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of an individual's serotype-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has been associated with the vaccine's protective efficacy against carriage of pneumococci of that serotype, though the relationship with other serotypes needs to be understood. METHODS: Using immunogenicity data collected during a trial comparing the 7-valent (PCV7) and 13-valent (PCV13) vaccines, we measured associations between serotype-specific IgG levels, and used multiple regressions to identify demographic predictors of response...
December 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247051/viruses-causing-lower-respiratory-symptoms-in-young-children-findings-from-the-orchid-birth-cohort
#17
Mohinder Sarna, Stephen B Lambert, Theo P Sloots, David M Whiley, Asma Alsaleh, Lebogang Mhango, Seweryn Bialasiewicz, David Wang, Michael D Nissen, Keith Grimwood, Robert S Ware
INTRODUCTION: Viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs) cause substantial child morbidity. Sensitive molecular-based assays aid virus detection, but the clinical significance of positive tests remains uncertain as some viruses may be found in both acutely ill and healthy children. We describe disease-pathogen associations of respiratory viruses and quantify virus-specific attributable risk of ARIs in healthy children during the first 2 years of life. METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight term newborn babies in Brisbane, Australia, were recruited progressively into a longitudinal, community-based, birth cohort study conducted between September 2010 and October 2014...
December 15, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246401/applications-of-chemokines-as-adjuvants-for-vaccine-immunotherapy
#18
REVIEW
Teena Mohan, Wandi Zhu, Ye Wang, Bao-Zhong Wang
Vaccinations are expected to aid in building immunity against pathogens. This objective often requires the addition of an adjuvant with certain vaccine formulations containing weakly immunogenic antigens. Adjuvants can improve antigen processing, presentation, and recognition, thereby improving the immunogenicity of a vaccine by simulating and eliciting an immune response. Chemokines are a group of small chemoattractant proteins that are essential regulators of the immune system. They are involved in almost every aspect of tumorigenesis, antitumor immunity, and antimicrobial activity and also play a critical role in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses...
December 8, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246158/a-deep-sequencing-approach-to-estimate-plasmodium-falciparum-complexity-of-infection-coi-and-explore-apical-membrane-antigen-1-diversity
#19
Robin H Miller, Nicholas J Hathaway, Oksana Kharabora, Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Antoinette Tshefu, Steven R Meshnick, Steve M Taylor, Jonathan J Juliano, V Ann Stewart, Jeffrey A Bailey
BACKGROUND: Humans living in regions with high falciparum malaria transmission intensity harbour multi-strain infections comprised of several genetically distinct malaria haplotypes. The number of distinct malaria parasite haplotypes identified from an infected human host at a given time is referred to as the complexity of infection (COI). In this study, an amplicon-based deep sequencing method targeting the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (pfama1) was utilized to (1) investigate the relationship between P...
December 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241646/hiv-population-level-adaptation-can-rapidly-diminish-the-impact-of-a-partially-effective-vaccine
#20
Joshua T Herbeck, Kathryn Peebles, Paul T Edlefsen, Morgane Rolland, James T Murphy, Geoffrey S Gottlieb, Neil Abernethy, James I Mullins, John E Mittler, Steven M Goodreau
BACKGROUND: Development of an HIV vaccine might be essential to ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. However, vaccines can result in the emergence and spread of vaccine-resistant strains. Indeed, analyses of breakthrough infections in the HIV phase 3 vaccine trial RV144 identified HIV genotypes with differential rates of transmission in vaccine and placebo recipients. We hypothesized that, for HIV vaccination programs based on partially effective vaccines similar to RV144, HIV adaptation will rapidly diminish the expected vaccine impact...
December 11, 2017: Vaccine
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