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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440707/recent-developments-in-nanocarrier-aided-mucosal-vaccination
#1
Olga Kammona, Vassilis Bourganis, Theodora Karamanidou, Costas Kiparissides
To date, most of the licensed vaccines for mucosal delivery are based on live-attenuated viruses which carry the risk of regaining their pathogenicity. Therefore, the development of efficient nonviral vectors allowing the induction of potent humoral and cell-mediated immunity is regarded as an imperative scientific challenge as well as a commercial breakthrough for the pharma industries. For a successful translation to the clinic, such nanocarriers should protect the antigens from mucosal enzymes, facilitate antigen uptake by microfold cells and allow the copresentation of robust, safe for human use, mucosal adjuvants to antigen-presenting cells...
April 25, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439022/structure-of-a-protective-epitope-of-group-b-streptococcus-type-iii-capsular-polysaccharide
#2
Filippo Carboni, Roberto Adamo, Monica Fabbrini, Riccardo De Ricco, Vittorio Cattaneo, Barbara Brogioni, Daniele Veggi, Vittoria Pinto, Irene Passalacqua, Davide Oldrini, Rino Rappuoli, Enrico Malito, Immaculada Y Ros Margarit, Francesco Berti
Despite substantial progress in the prevention of group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease with the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, this pathogen remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. Capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines have been tested in phase I/II clinical studies, showing promise for further development. Mapping of epitopes recognized by protective antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanism of action of vaccines and for enabling antigen design. In this study, we report the structure of the epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody with opsonophagocytic activity and representative of the protective response against type III GBS polysaccharide...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433580/description-of-a-novel-multiplex-avidity-assay-for-evaluating-hpv-antibodies
#3
Allison M Brady, Elizabeth R Unger, Gitika Panicker
Limited data exists regarding antibody avidity for human papillomavirus (HPV). We describe development of a multiplex electrochemiluminescent avidity ELISA for four HPV types (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18) by adding a dissociating step to our established multiplex HPV VLP ELISA. Initial experiments exploring ammonium thiocyanate, sodium thiocyanate and guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) as dissociating agents identified GuHCl as most promising. Dissociation conditions with GuHCl were varied (concentration, incubation time, temperature) to select conditions with minimal impact on VLP integrity as measured with monoclonal antibodies to conformational epitopes...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429162/involvement-of-methylated-hbha-expressed-from-mycobacterium-smegmatis-in-an-ifn-%C3%AE-release-assay-to-aid-discrimination-between-latent-infection-and-active-tuberculosis-in-bcg-vaccinated-populations
#4
H-L Wen, C-L Li, G Li, Y-H Lu, H-C Li, T Li, H-M Zhao, K Wu, D B Lowrie, J-X Lv, S-H Lu, X-Y Fan
IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) based on region of difference 1 (RD1) antigens have improved diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection. However, IGRAs with these antigens cannot discriminate between active tuberculosis (ATB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). M. tb heparin-binding-hemagglutinin (HBHA) induces relatively high IFN-γ responses in LTBI individuals and low responses in ATB patients, but purification of the native methylated HBHA from cultures of M. tb for immunological tests is complex and time-consuming...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424696/spirochetal-lipoproteins-and-immune-evasion
#5
REVIEW
Alexei Christodoulides, Ani Boyadjian, Theodoros Kelesidis
Spirochetes are a major threat to public health. However, the exact pathogenesis of spirochetal diseases remains unclear. Spirochetes express lipoproteins that often determine the cross talk between the host and spirochetes. Lipoproteins are pro-inflammatory, modulatory of immune responses, and enable the spirochetes to evade the immune system. In this article, we review the modulatory effects of spirochetal lipoproteins related to immune evasion. Understanding lipoprotein-induced immunomodulation will aid in elucidating innate pathogenesis processes and subsequent adaptive mechanisms potentially relevant to spirochetal disease vaccine development and treatment...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424682/interactions-between-type-1-interferons-and-the-th17-response-in-tuberculosis-lessons-learned-from-autoimmune-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Bas C Mourik, Erik Lubberts, Jurriaan E M de Steenwinkel, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Pieter J M Leenen
The classical paradigm of tuberculosis (TB) immunity, with a central protective role for Th1 responses and IFN-γ-stimulated cellular responses, has been challenged by unsatisfactory results of vaccine strategies aimed at enhancing Th1 immunity. Moreover, preclinical TB models have shown that increasing IFN-γ responses in the lungs is more damaging to the host than to the pathogen. Type 1 interferon signaling and altered Th17 responses have also been associated with active TB, but their functional roles in TB pathogenesis remain to be established...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423342/a-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-targets-the-dynamic-hiv-envelope-trimer-apex-via-a-long-rigidified-and-anionic-%C3%AE-hairpin-structure
#7
Jeong Hyun Lee, Raiees Andrabi, Ching-Yao Su, Anila Yasmeen, Jean-Philippe Julien, Leopold Kong, Nicholas C Wu, Ryan McBride, Devin Sok, Matthias Pauthner, Christopher A Cottrell, Travis Nieusma, Claudia Blattner, James C Paulson, Per Johan Klasse, Ian A Wilson, Dennis R Burton, Andrew B Ward
Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to HIV delineate vaccine targets and are prophylactic and therapeutic agents. Some of the most potent bnAbs target a quaternary epitope at the apex of the surface HIV envelope (Env) trimer. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we solved the atomic structure of an apex bnAb, PGT145, in complex with Env. We showed that the long anionic HCDR3 of PGT145 penetrated between glycans at the trimer 3-fold axis, to contact peptide residues from all three Env protomers, and thus explains its highly trimer-specific nature...
April 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421425/the-role-of-alaska-s-tribal-health-workers-in-supporting-families
#8
Miriam Chernoff, Katie Cueva
Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps) are often the sole medical workers in their communities in rural Alaska, and are instrumental in providing healthcare services and education to otherwise underserved individuals. This qualitative study explored how CHA/Ps support healthy families. Six CHA/Ps from two rural communities in western Alaska were interviewed about their scope of practice, interactions with mothers, infants, families, and teens, relationship to other medical providers, and perceptions of their work...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413739/genetic-modulation-therapy-through-stem-cell-transplantation-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-infection
#9
REVIEW
Varshil Mehta, Divya Chandramohan, Shivika Agarwal
Highly active anti-retroviral treatment has changed the dimensions of the outcomes for patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However, HIV infection is still an ailment which is spreading throughout the world extensively. Given the confinements of the present restorative methodologies and the non-availability of any strategic vaccination against HIV, there is a squeezing need to build a therapeutic treatment. Viral tropism for HIV includes CD4+ cells, macrophages, and microglial cells, and it is through binding with co-receptors C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4)...
March 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406414/review-of-poxvirus-emergence-of-monkeypox
#10
A Morand, S Delaigue, J J Morand
This article reviews the different types of poxvirus infections. Smallpox, although eradicated, must continue to be monitored because of the potential risk of accidental or voluntary (by bioterrorism) reintroduction. Monkeypox and cowpox viruses are considered to be emergent today ; their high risk of dissemination is due to the increase in international transport as well as trends for new animals as pets and the loss of vaccinal protection against smallpox. Molluscum contagiosum (molluscipoxvirus) causes mild infections, is particularly frequent in children ; in adults it is a marker of the risk of sexually transmitted infections and can, in cases with profuse lesions, reveal AIDS...
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406406/cervical-cancer-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-emerging-and-preventable-disease-associated-with-oncogenic-human-papillomavirus
#11
R S Mboumba Bouassa, T Prazuck, T Lethu, J F Meye, L Bélec
Highly oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are responsible for 7.7 % of cancers in developing countries, mainly cervical cancer. The incidence of this emerging cancer is steadily increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, with more than 75,000 new cases and close to 50,000 deaths a year, a toll further increased by HIV infection. According to the World Health Organization, cervical cancer will kill more than 443,000 women per year worldwide by 2030, nearly 90 % of them in sub-Saharan Africa. This increase in cervical cancer incidence in Africa is now counteracting the progress made by African women in reducing maternal mortality and increasing longevity...
February 1, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405623/bcg-vaccination-induces-hiv-target-cell-activation-in-hiv-exposed-infants-in-a-randomized-trial
#12
Melanie A Gasper, Anneke C Hesseling, Isaac Mohar, Landon Myer, Tali Azenkot, Jo-Ann S Passmore, Willem Hanekom, Mark F Cotton, I Nicholas Crispe, Donald L Sodora, Heather B Jaspan
BACKGROUND. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered at birth to protect infants against tuberculosis throughout Africa, where most perinatal HIV-1 transmission occurs. We examined whether BCG vaccination alters the levels of activated HIV target T cells in HIV-exposed South African infants. METHODS. HIV-exposed infants were randomized to receive routine (at birth) or delayed (at 8 weeks) BCG vaccination. Activated and CCR5-expressing peripheral blood CD4(+) T cell, monocyte, and NK cell frequencies were evaluated by flow cytometry and immune gene expression via PCR using Biomark (Fluidigm)...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392566/assembly-structure-function-and-regulation-of-type-iii-secretion-systems
#13
REVIEW
Wanyin Deng, Natalie C Marshall, Jennifer L Rowland, James M McCoy, Liam J Worrall, Andrew S Santos, Natalie C J Strynadka, B Brett Finlay
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are protein transport nanomachines that are found in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Resembling molecular syringes, T3SSs form channels that cross the bacterial envelope and the host cell membrane, which enable bacteria to inject numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytoplasm and establish trans-kingdom interactions with diverse hosts. Recent advances in cryo-electron microscopy and integrative imaging have provided unprecedented views of the architecture and structure of T3SSs...
April 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387654/ending-aids-as-a-public-health-threat-by-2030-scientific-developments-from-the-2016-interest-conference-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#14
Catherine A Hankins, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Peter Kilmarx, Guido Ferrari, Mauro Schechter, Coumba Touré Kane, François Venter, Charles Ab Boucher, Anna-Laura Ross, Debrework Zewdie, Serge Paul Eholié, Elly Katabira
The underpinning theme of the 2016 INTEREST Conference held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, 3-6 May 2016 was ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. Focused primarily on HIV treatment, pathogenesis and prevention research in resource-limited settings, the conference attracted 369 active delegates from 34 countries, of which 22 were in Africa. Presentations on treatment optimization, acquired drug resistance, care of children and adolescents, laboratory monitoring and diagnostics, implementation challenges, HIV prevention, key populations, vaccine and cure, hepatitis C, mHealth, financing the HIV response and emerging pathogens, were accompanied by oral, mini-oral and poster presentations...
April 7, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384158/accurate-predictions-of-population-level-changes-in-sequence-and-structural-properties-of-hiv-1-env-using-a-volatility-controlled-diffusion-model
#15
Orlando DeLeon, Hagit Hodis, Yunxia O'Malley, Jacklyn Johnson, Hamid Salimi, Yinjie Zhai, Elizabeth Winter, Claire Remec, Noah Eichelberger, Brandon Van Cleave, Ramya Puliadi, Robert D Harrington, Jack T Stapleton, Hillel Haim
The envelope glycoproteins (Envs) of HIV-1 continuously evolve in the host by random mutations and recombination events. The resulting diversity of Env variants circulating in the population and their continuing diversification process limit the efficacy of AIDS vaccines. We examined the historic changes in Env sequence and structural features (measured by integrity of epitopes on the Env trimer) in a geographically defined population in the United States. As expected, many Env features were relatively conserved during the 1980s...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381568/impact-of-antibodies-and-strain-polymorphisms-on-cytomegalovirus-entry-and-spread-in-fibroblasts-and-epithelial-cells
#16
Xiaohong Cui, Daniel C Freed, Dai Wang, Ping Qiu, Fengsheng Li, Tong-Ming Fu, Lawrence M Kauvar, Michael A McVoy
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) entry into fibroblasts differs from entry into epithelial cells. CMV also spreads cell-to-cell and can induce syncytia. To gain insights into these processes, 27 antibodies targeting epitopes in CMV virion glycoprotein complexes, including gB, gH/gL, and the pentamer, were evaluated for their effects on viral entry and spread. No antibodies inhibited CMV spread in fibroblasts, including those with potent neutralizing activity against fibroblast entry, while all antibodies that neutralized epithelial entry also inhibited spread in epithelial cells and a correlation existed between the potencies of these two activities...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359736/hla-a-b-drb1-dqa1-dqb1-alleles-and-haplotype-frequencies-in-dene-and-cree-cohorts-in-manitoba-canada
#17
Linda A Larcombe, Leigh Anne Shafer, Peter W Nickerson, Andrew M Lodge, Jodie S Brown, Leisel C Milligan, Denise Pochinco, Lynnette Beaudin, Brian Arundel, Jacqueline Wong, Joe Dantouze, Lizette Denechezhe, Pamela H Orr
BACKGROUND: First Nations in the Canadian province of Manitoba have disproportionately high rates of epidemic and endemic TB. Gene polymorphisms that modulate HLA Class I and II antigens are among the risk markers for TB, along with other biologic, and social determinants of health. HLA-A, B, DRB1, DQA1, DQB1 were typed in two Manitoba First Nation indigenous groups to identify and compare the frequency of gene polymorphisms that may influence susceptibility or resistance to TB. METHODS: Participants who self-identified as either Dene or Cree enrolled into the study from two First Nation communities in Manitoba, Canada...
March 27, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357381/recent-insights-into-the-hiv-aids-pandemic
#18
REVIEW
Juan C Becerra, Lukas S Bildstein, Johannes S Gach
Etiology, transmission and protection: Transmission of HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, occurs predominantly through bodily fluids. Factors that significantly alter the risk of HIV transmission include male circumcision, condom use, high viral load, and the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases. Pathology/Symptomatology: HIV infects preferentially CD4(+) T lymphocytes, and Monocytes. Because of their central role in regulating the immune response, depletion of CD4(+) T cells renders the infected individual incapable of adequately responding to microorganisms otherwise inconsequential...
September 5, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351419/new-var-reconstruction-algorithm-exposes-high-var-sequence-diversity-in-a-single-geographic-location-in-mali
#19
Antoine Dara, Elliott F Drábek, Mark A Travassos, Kara A Moser, Arthur L Delcher, Qi Su, Timothy Hostelley, Drissa Coulibaly, Modibo Daou, Ahmadou Dembele, Issa Diarra, Abdoulaye K Kone, Bourema Kouriba, Matthew B Laurens, Amadou Niangaly, Karim Traore, Youssouf Tolo, Claire M Fraser, Mahamadou A Thera, Abdoulaye A Djimde, Ogobara K Doumbo, Christopher V Plowe, Joana C Silva
BACKGROUND: Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. METHODS: We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data...
March 28, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351337/zika-virus-ns5-protein-potential-inhibitors-an-enhanced-in-silico-approach-in-drug-discovery
#20
Pritika Ramharack, Mahmoud E S Soliman
The re-emerging Zika virus is an arthropod-borne virus that has been described to have explosive potential as a worldwide pandemic. The initial transmission of the virus was through a mosquito vector, however, evolving modes of transmission has allowed the spread of the disease over continents. The virus has already been linked to irreversible chronic central nervous system (CNS) conditions. The concerns of the scientific and clinical community are the consequences of Zika viral mutations, thus suggesting the urgent need for viral inhibitors...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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