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AIDS Vaccine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820298/surveillance-for-hemorrhagic-septicemia-in-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-as-an-aid-to-range-expansion-of-the-javan-rhinoceros-rhinoceros-sondaicus-in-ujung-kulon-national-park-indonesia
#1
Kurnia Oktavia Khairani, Daryl Nydam, M Julia Felippe, Pat McDonough, Jason Barry, Rois Mahmud, M Haryono, Robin W Radcliffe
The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus) of Ujung Kulon National Park (UKNP) is the crown jewel of Indonesia's rich natural history. The park lies on a peninsula surrounded by coastline and agriculture-dominated landscapes. The invasion of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) into the park carries a substantial health risk to the Javan rhinoceros and threatens plans to establish a new population outside of its only current range in UKNP. Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS), known locally as septicemia epizootica and caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2, could thwart Indonesia's efforts to expand the range of the Javan rhinoceros...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819703/novel-prostate-cancer-immunotherapy-with-a-dna-encoded-anti-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-monoclonal-antibody
#2
Kar Muthumani, Liron Marnin, Sagar B Kudchodkar, Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Hyeree Choi, Sangya Agarwal, Veronica L Scott, Emma L Reuschel, Faraz I Zaidi, Elizabeth K Duperret, Megan C Wise, Kimberly A Kraynyak, Kenneth E Ugen, Niranjan Y Sardesai, J Joseph Kim, David B Weiner
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is expressed at high levels on malignant prostate cells and is likely an important therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate carcinoma. Current immunotherapy approaches to target PSMA include peptide, cell, vector or DNA-based vaccines as well as passive administration of PSMA-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb). Conventional mAb immunotherapy has numerous logistical and practical limitations, including high production costs and a requirement for frequent dosing due to short mAb serum half-life...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819634/cervical-cancer-control-in-hiv-infected-women-past-present-and-future
#3
REVIEW
Rahel G Ghebre, Surbhi Grover, Melody J Xu, Linus T Chuang, Hannah Simonds
Since the initial recognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1981, an increased burden of cervical cancer was identified among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women. Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) decreased risks of opportunistic infections and improved overall survival. HIV-infected women are living longer. Introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, cervical cancer screening and early diagnosis provide opportunities to reduce cervical cancer associated mortality...
August 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819261/modified-vaccinia-virus-ankara-preferentially-targets-antigen-presenting-cells-in-vitro-ex-vivo-and-in-vivo
#4
Arwen F Altenburg, Carolien E van de Sandt, Bobby W S Li, Ronan J MacLoughlin, Ron A M Fouchier, Geert van Amerongen, Asisa Volz, Rudi W Hendriks, Rik L de Swart, Gerd Sutter, Guus F Rimmelzwaan, Rory D de Vries
Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a promising vaccine vector with an excellent safety profile. However, despite extensive pre-clinical and clinical testing, surprisingly little is known about the cellular tropism of MVA, especially in relevant animal species. Here, we performed in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments with recombinant MVA expressing green fluorescent protein (rMVA-GFP). In both human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and mouse lung explants, rMVA-GFP predominantly infected antigen presenting cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811170/zika-virus-research-models
#5
REVIEW
Jessica L Kublin, James B Whitney
The 2015 Brazilian Zika virus outbreak sparked a rapid response to control the spread of the virus. What was first understood to be a mild self-resolving infection is now linked to significant neurological defects in both neonates, and adults. The WHO declared the 2016 Zika epidemic a public health emergency and issued an unprecedented recommendation to women in affected regions to delay pregnancy until the risks surrounding Zika virus could be understood, or the epidemic contained. Since that time, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding Zika transmission and pathogenesis to aid the development of drugs and vaccines...
August 12, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802127/investigations-on-the-molecular-mode-of-action-of-the-novel-immunostimulator-zelnate-activation-of-the-cgas-sting-pathway-in-mammalian-cells
#6
Thomas Ilg
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is usually prevented or treated with vaccines and/or antibiotics. The use of antibiotics is, however, of concern due to the potential promotion of microbial resistance and the occurrence of residues. Recently an alternative aid in the treatment of BRD, the cationic lipid/bacterial plasmid DNA liposome-based immunomodulator ZelNate, has entered the veterinary market. In the present study, we provide data on the molecular mode of action of ZelNate. Despite the presence of numerous non-methylated CpG motifs in its plasmid DNA, ZelNate proved to be inactive on human and mouse toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in cell culture, in both recombinant and natural cellular receptor settings...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797115/ranking-93-health-interventions-for-low-and-middle-income-countries-by-cost-effectiveness
#7
Susan Horton, Hellen Gelband, Dean Jamison, Carol Levin, Rachel Nugent, David Watkins
BACKGROUND: Cost-effectiveness rankings of health interventions are useful inputs for national healthcare planning and budgeting. Previous comprehensive rankings for low- and middle- income countries were undertaken in 2005 and 2006, accompanying the development of strategies for the Millennium Development Goals. We update the rankings using studies published since 2000, as strategies are being considered for the Sustainable Development Goals. METHODS: Expert systematic searches of the literature were undertaken for a broad range of health interventions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780407/microneedles-for-enhanced-transdermal-and-intraocular-drug-delivery
#8
REVIEW
Kurtis Moffatt, Yujing Wang, Thakur Raghu Raj Singh, Ryan F Donnelly
Microneedle mediated delivery based research has garnered great interest in recent years. In the past, the initial focus was delivery of macromolecules of biological origin, however the field has now broadened its scope to include transdermal delivery of conventional low molecular weight drug molecules. Great success has been demonstrated utilising this approach, particularly in the field of vaccine delivery. Current technological advances have permitted an enhancement in design formulation, allowing delivery of therapeutic doses of small molecule drugs and biomolecules, aided by larger patch sizes and scalable manufacture...
August 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771107/hla-dqb1-06-and-breadth-of-nef-core-region-specific-t-cell-response-are-associated-with-slow-disease-progression-in-antiretroviral-therapy-naive-chinese-hiv-1-subtype-b-patients
#9
Weihua Li, Chuanyun Li, Wei Xia, Xiuhui Li
Vaccines still are an important way to prevent and treat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (1) For developing an effective T cell-based AIDS vaccine, it is critical to define the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type and epitope that elicit the most potent responses. This study involved 29 antiretroviral therapy-naive and chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 subtype B-infected individuals. A polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer was used to detect the HLA typing, and the enzyme-linked immunospot assay to quantify the T-cell immune function...
August 3, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761600/-evaluation-of-knowledge-attitudes-practices-of-the-populations-in-the-health-districts-of-benoye-laoukassy-moundou-and-south-n-djamena-towards-canine-rabies-in-chad
#10
Rolande Mindekem, Monique Lechenne, Idriss Oumar Alfaroukh, Daugla Doumagoum Moto, Jakob Zinsstag, Laurent Tinoaga Ouedraogo, Sahidou Salifou
INTRODUCTION: Canine rabies remains a concern in Africa as well as in Chad. Our study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the populations towards the appropriate management of people exposed to canine rabies and effective fight against it. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study in four health districts in Chad in July and in September 2015. Data were collected from households recruited by three-stage random sampling by means of a questionnaire...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760729/using-digital-technologies-in-clinical-hiv-research-real-world-applications-and-considerations-for-future-work
#11
Jessica Andriesen, Sheana Bull, Janan Dietrich, Jessica E Haberer, Barbara Van Der Pol, Yegor Voronin, Kristin M Wall, Christopher Whalen, Frances Priddy
BACKGROUND: Digital technologies, especially if used in novel ways, provide a number of potential advantages to clinical research in trials related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and may greatly facilitate operations as well as data collection and analysis. These technologies may even allow answering questions that are not answerable with older technologies. However, they come with a variety of potential concerns for both the participants and the trial sponsors...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750853/human-papillomavirus-vaccination-and-risk-of-autoimmune-diseases-a-large-cohort-study-of-over-2million-young-girls-in-france
#12
Sara Miranda, Christophe Chaignot, Cédric Collin, Rosemary Dray-Spira, Alain Weill, Mahmoud Zureik
BACKGROUND: Whether human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination could induce or trigger autoimmune diseases (AID) has been questioned, and potentially contributes to low immunization coverage in France. This study evaluated the association between HPV vaccination and the risk of AID using routinely collected data sources. METHODS: All girls aged 13-16years between 2008 and 2012, covered by the general health insurance scheme and without history of HPV vaccination or AID, were included and followed using French nationwide databases...
July 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747913/family-history-of-early-infant-death-correlates-with-earlier-age-at-diagnosis-but-not-shorter-time-to-diagnosis-for-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#13
Anderson Dik Wai Luk, Pamela P Lee, Huawei Mao, Koon-Wing Chan, Xiang Yuan Chen, Tong-Xin Chen, Jian Xin He, Nadia Kechout, Deepti Suri, Yin Bo Tao, Yong Bin Xu, Li Ping Jiang, Woei Kang Liew, Orathai Jirapongsananuruk, Tassalapa Daengsuwan, Anju Gupta, Surjit Singh, Amit Rawat, Amir Hamzah Abdul Latiff, Anselm Chi Wai Lee, Lynette P Shek, Thi Van Anh Nguyen, Tek Jee Chin, Yin Hsiu Chien, Zarina Abdul Latiff, Thi Minh Huong Le, Nguyen Ngoc Quynh Le, Bee Wah Lee, Qiang Li, Dinesh Raj, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche, Meow-Keong Thong, Maria Carmen D Ang, Xiao Chuan Wang, Chen Guang Xu, Hai Guo Yu, Hsin-Hui Yu, Tsz Leung Lee, Felix Yat Sun Yau, Wilfred Hing-Sang Wong, Wenwei Tu, Wangling Yang, Patrick Chun Yin Chong, Marco Hok Kung Ho, Yu Lung Lau
BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is fatal unless treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delay in diagnosis is common without newborn screening. Family history of infant death due to infection or known SCID (FH) has been associated with earlier diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features that affect age at diagnosis (AD) and time to the diagnosis of SCID. METHODS: From 2005 to 2016, 147 SCID patients were referred to the Asian Primary Immunodeficiency Network...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739221/structure-and-computation-in-immunoreagent-design-from-diagnostics-to-vaccines
#14
REVIEW
Louise Gourlay, Claudio Peri, Martino Bolognesi, Giorgio Colombo
Novel immunological tools for efficient diagnosis and treatment of emerging infections are urgently required. Advances in the diagnostic and vaccine development fields are continuously progressing, with reverse vaccinology and structural vaccinology (SV) methods for antigen identification and structure-based antigen (re)design playing increasingly relevant roles. SV, in particular, is predicted to be the front-runner in the future development of diagnostics and vaccines targeting challenging diseases such as AIDS and cancer...
July 21, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729359/the-%C3%AE-defensin-retrocyclin-101-inhibits-tlr4-and-tlr2-dependent-signaling-and-protects-mice-against-influenza-infection
#15
Daniel Prantner, Kari Ann Shirey, Wendy Lai, Wuyuan Lu, Alexander M Cole, Stefanie N Vogel, Alfredo Garzino-Demo
Despite widespread use of annual influenza vaccines, seasonal influenza-associated deaths number in the thousands each year, in part because of exacerbating bacterial superinfections. Therefore, discovering additional therapeutic options would be a valuable aid to public health. Recently, TLR4 inhibition has emerged as a possible mechanism for protection against influenza-associated lethality and acute lung injury. Based on recent data showing that rhesus macaque θ-defensins could inhibit TLR4-dependent gene expression, we tested the hypothesis that a novel θ-defensin, retrocyclin (RC)-101, could disrupt TLR4-dependent signaling and protect against viral infection...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715423/antibody-trapping-a-novel-mechanism-of-parasite-immune-evasion-by-the-trematode-echinostoma-caproni
#16
Alba Cortés, Javier Sotillo, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Javier Molina-Durán, J Guillermo Esteban, Rafael Toledo
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, causing an enormous impact in global health and the socioeconomic growth of developing countries. In this context, the study of helminth biology, with emphasis on host-parasite interactions, appears as a promising approach for developing new tools to prevent and control these infections. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The role that antibody responses have on helminth infections is still not well understood...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710100/biomarker-for-antitumor-immunity-identified
#17
(no author information available yet)
Investigators have discovered that a certain type of immune cell in tumors, known as tissue-resident memory cells, are associated with a strong immune response and improved prognosis in lung cancer. The findings may aid in selecting appropriate immunotherapies and developing more effective vaccines for a wide range of cancers.
July 14, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707669/-planar-molecular-arrangements-aid-the-design-of-mhc-class-ii-binding-peptides
#18
A Cortés, J Coral, C McLachlan, R Benítez, L Pinilla
The coupling between peptides and MHC-II proteins in the human immune system is not well understood. This work presents an evidence-based hypothesis of a guiding intermolecular force present in every human MHC-II protein (HLA-II). Previously, we examined the spatial positions of the fully conserved residues in all HLA-II protein types. In each one, constant planar patterns were revealed. These molecular planes comprise of amino acid groups of the same chemical species (for example, Gly) distributed across the protein structure...
May 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706763/comparison-of-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-educated-and-uneducated-adults-regarding-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-karachi-pakistan
#19
Zainab Ahmad, Sara Sadiq, Mariam Asghar, Alizay Rashid Khan, Omer Arif, Syed Hamza Shah, Shahrukh Nadeem, Yamna Waseem, Rafi Aibani, Ammar Salman Syed, Rabia M Mustafa, Zainab Abdulrahman, Kaneez Fatima
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Pakistan, no prior work has been done to specifically highlight the importance of education as a social vaccine against HIV. Therefore, our study focuses on differences in knowledge and practices regarding HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among educated and uneducated adults. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was carried out in which data was collected from all over Karachi...
June 12, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701393/hiv-1-env-and-vpu-specific-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-responses-associated-with-elite-control-of-hiv
#20
Vijaya Madhavi, Bruce D Wines, Janaki Amin, Sean Emery, Ester Lopez, Anthony Kelleher, Rob J Center, P Mark Hogarth, Amy W Chung, Stephen J Kent, Ivan Stratov
Studying HIV-infected individuals who control HIV replication (elite controllers, ECs) enable exploration of effective anti-HIV immunity. HIV Env- and non-Env-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) may contribute to protection from progressive HIV infection but the evidence is limited. We recruited 22 ECs and matched them with 44 viremic subjects. HIV Env- and Vpu-specific ADCC responses were studied in sera using a novel ELISA-based dimeric recombinant soluble (rs) FcγRIIIa-binding assay, surface plasmon resonance, antibody-dependent natural killer (NK) cell activation assays and ADCC-mediated killing assays...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
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