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Edouard Louis
Biologic treatments have revolutionized the way we treat inflammatory bowel disease patients (IBD). Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies are superior to conventional therapies to achieve sustained remission without steroids and mucosal healing. The objective of IBD treatment has evolved from symptom alleviation to a combination of absence of symptoms and intestinal healing. Nevertheless, biologics are expensive and are associated with an increased risk of infections and possibly skin cancers. Therefore, the duration of these treatments may be questioned, and stopping them may be contemplated by some patients and clinicians, while it is sometimes even imposed by some jurisdictions across the world...
March 14, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Attila Kiss, Huaqing Shu, Ouafa Hamza, David Santer, Eva Verena Tretter, Shanglong Yao, Klaus Markstaller, Seth Hallström, Bruno K Podesser, Klaus Ulrich Klein
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies demonstrated that preconditioning with argon gas provided a marked reduction in inflammation and apoptosis and increased myocardial contractility in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR). There is substantial evidence that myocardial IR injury following cardioplegic arrest is associated with the enhancement of apoptosis and inflammation, which is considered to play a role in cardiac functional impairment. Therefore, the present study was designed to clarify whether preconditioning with argon gas enhances recovery of cardiac function following cardioplegic arrest...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Jiang He, Yuzu Zhao, Erhu Zhao, Xianxing Wang, Zhen Dong, Yibiao Chen, Liqun Yang, Hongjuan Cui
Background: The cancer-testis specific gene Opa interacting protein 5 (OIP5) is a testis-specific gene that is reactivated in many human cancers, but its functions in glioblastoma remain unclear. Here, we assessed the significance of OIP5 in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of glioblastoma for the first time. Methods: An immunohistochemistry assay was performed to detect OIP5 expression changes in glioblastoma patients. Overall survival analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of OIP5...
March 14, 2018: Neuro-oncology
Igor S Pessi, Yannick Lara, Benoit Durieu, Pedro de C Maalouf, Elie Verleyen, Annick Wilmotte
The terrestrial Antarctic Realm has recently been divided into 16 Antarctic Conservation Biogeographic Regions (ACBRs) based on environmental properties and the distribution of biota. Despite their prominent role in the primary production and nutrient cycling in Antarctic lakes, cyanobacteria were only poorly represented in the biological dataset used to delineate these ACBRs. Here we provide a first high-throughput sequencing (HTS) insight into the spatial distribution of benthic cyanobacterial communities in Antarctic lakes located in four distinct, geographically distant ACBRs and covering a range of limnological conditions...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Giorgio Vilardi, Thanasis Mpouras, Dimitris Dermatas, Nicola Verdone, Angeliki Polydera, Luca Di Palma
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) particles, as well as two nanocomposites based on these novel nanomaterials, were employed as nano-adsorbents for the removal of hexavalent chromium, selenium and cobalt, from aqueous solutions. Nanomaterials characterization included the determination of their point of zero charge and particle size distribution. CNTs were further analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy to determine their morphology and structural properties...
March 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Ana M Molina, Thomas E Hutson, Dmitry Nosov, Piotr Tomczak, Oleg Lipatov, Cora N Sternberg, Robert Motzer, Tim Eisen
BACKGROUND: Tivozanib is a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1, 2 and 3 tyrosine kinases. This open-label, crossover clinical study (AV-951-09-902) provided access to tivozanib for patients who progressed on sorafenib in TIVO-1, comparing tivozanib with sorafenib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: Patients enrolled in this single-arm, phase 2 crossover study were previously randomised to sorafenib on TIVO-1, progressed and then crossed over to tivozanib...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
H Lindman, M Andersson, J Ahlgren, E Balslev, A Sverrisdottir, S B Holmberg, N O Bengtsson, E H Jacobsen, A B Jensen, J Hansen, M K Tuxen, L Malmberg, K Villman, H Anderson, B Ejlertsen, J Bergh, C Blomqvist
STUDY AIM: Retrospective studies have demonstrated a worse outcome in breast cancer patients not developing leukopenia during adjuvant chemotherapy. The SBG 2000-1 is the first randomised trial designed to compare individually dosed chemotherapy without G-CSF support based on grade of toxicity to standard-dosed chemotherapy based on body surface area (BSA). METHODS: Patients with early breast cancer were included and received the first cycle of standard FEC (fluorouracil 600 mg/m2 , epirubicin 60 mg/m2 , cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 )...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Asmaa E Kassab, Ehab M Gedawy
As we are interested in synthetizing biologically active leads with dual anticancer and antibacterial activity, we adopted biology oriented drug synthesis (BIODS) strategy to synthesize a series of novel ciprofloxacin (CP) hybrids. The National Cancer Institute (USA) selected seventeen newly synthesized compounds for anticancer evaluation against 59 different human tumor cell lines. Five compounds 3e, 3f, 3h, 3o and 3p were further studied through determination of IC50 values against the most sensitive cancer cell lines...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Judy F C Chow, William S B Yeung, Vivian C Y Lee, Estella Y L Lau, Ernest H Y Ng
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the applicability of a commonly used next generation sequencing workflow in detecting unbalanced meiotic segregation products for reciprocal translocation and inversion carriers. STUDY DESIGN: All preimplantation genetic testing treatment cycles performed for reciprocal translocation or inversion carriers from 2012 to April 2017 were included. Three hundreds and forty-two archived whole genome amplified DNA, which had previously analyzed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), were retrospectively analyzed by next generation sequencing (NGS)...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Aniko Krumbholz, Martin Schönfelder, Hande Hofmann, Detlef Thieme
BACKGROUND: The endogenous glucocorticosteroid cortisol (F) and its metabolite cortisone (E) are known to be involved in stress adaption and anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory effects. The ratios of F to E in the matrices serum, hair and saliva are different. The shift of this ratio by the enzyme activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, which inactivates cortisol, was often discussed. The aim of our study was to calculate the contribution of the plasma protein binding (PPB) to this shift...
February 26, 2018: Forensic Science International
Osnat Israelsohn-Azulay, Yigal Zidon, Tsadok Tsach
A shooting event involved several types of ammunition that were all shot from a single firearm. GSR analysis of samples taken from the suspect's hands, hair and from his clothes was carried out. Mixed compositions particles were found among other GSR particles, attributed to the weapon memory effect. SEM/EDX analysis of these particles highlighted a particle with defined domains containing distinct groups of elements. Some of these elements were absent in the primers mixtures of the ammunition used in the shooting event...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Sandra Schöniger, Hilke Gräfe, Franziska Richter, Heinz-Adolf Schoon
The enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) acts immunomodulatory and restricts bacterial growth. In the uterus of women and mice, it likely contributes to tissue homeostasis and disease pathogenesis. Pregnancy failure in mares is often caused by endometritis and endometrosis. The pathogenesis of nonsuppurative endometritis and endometrosis is still uncertain. To the authors' knowledge, no information on IDO1 expression in the equine endometrium is published. Aim of this study was to examine the presence of IDO1 as transcripts and proteins in the healthy and diseased endometrium of 25 mares and to determine its cellular expression...
March 5, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
María Victoria Repetto, Matthew J Winters, Alan Bush, Wolfgang Reiter, David Maria Hollenstein, Gustav Ammerer, Peter M Pryciak, Alejandro Colman-Lerner
We report an unanticipated system of joint regulation by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), involving collaborative multi-site phosphorylation of a single substrate. In budding yeast, the protein Ste5 controls signaling through a G1 arrest pathway. Upon cell-cycle entry, CDK inhibits Ste5 via multiple phosphorylation sites, disrupting its membrane association. Using quantitative time-lapse microscopy, we examined Ste5 membrane recruitment dynamics at different cell-cycle stages...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Cheng Jin, Jianjiang Feng, Lei Wang, Heng Yu, Jiang Liu, Jiwen Lu, Jie Zhou
In this paper, we present an approach for left atrial appendage (LAA) multi-phase fast segmentation and quantitative assisted diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) based on 4D-CT data. We take full advantage of the temporal dimension information to segment the living, flailed LAA based on a parametric max-flow method and graph-cut approach to build 3-D model of each phase. To assist the diagnosis of AF, we calculate the volumes of 3-D models, and then generate a "volume-phase" curve to calculate the important dynamic metrics: ejection fraction, filling flux, and emptying flux of the LAA's blood by volume...
March 9, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Hendrik Göddeke, M Hadi Timachi, Cedric A Hutter, Laura Galazzo, Markus A Seeger, Mikko Karttunen, Enrica Bordignon, Lars V Schäfer
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are ATP-driven molecular machines, in which ATP binding and hydrolysis in the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) is chemo-mechanically coupled to large-scale, alternating access conformational changes in the transmembrane domains (TMDs), ultimately leading to the translocation of substrates across biological membranes. The precise nature of the structural dynamics behind the large-scale conformational transition as well as the coupling of NBD and TMD motions is still unresolved...
March 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Hajime Ohno, Hirokazu Sato, Yasuhiro Fukushima
To achieve the goals of Paris Agreement, global society is directing much effort in substantially reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition to energy-related efforts, prevention of carbon release into the atmosphere with carbon capture and storage (CCS) and/or utilization of biomass resources is considered indispensable to achieving the global objective. In this study, considering carbon-containing goods as carbon reservoirs in our society similar to forests and reservoirs enabling CCS, the flow of materially utilized carbon was quantified by input-output-based material flow analysis (IO-MFA)...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jianliang Sun, Lianghai Li, Guangying Zhou, Xue Wang, Liang Zhang, Yueping Liu, Jierui Yang, Xianghong Lü, Feng Jiang
The conventional flue gas treatment technologies require high capital investments and chemical costs, which limit their application in industrial sectors. This study developed a sulfur-cycling technology to integrate sulfide production by biological sulfur reduction and simultaneous catalytic desulfurization and denitrification with H2 S (H2 S-SCDD) for flue gas treatment and sulfur recovery. In a packed bed reactor, high-rate sulfide production (1.63 ± 0.16 kg S/m3 -d) from biological sulfur reduction was achieved using organics in wastewater as electron donors at pH around 5...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Charalampos S Siristatidis, Eleni Sertedaki, Dennis Vaidakis, Christos Varounis, Marialena Trivella
BACKGROUND: In order to overcome the low effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and the high incidence of multiple births, metabolomics is proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity, and facilitate a targeted subfertility treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of metabolomic assessment of oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity for improving live birth or ongoing pregnancy rates in women undergoing ART, compared to conventional methods of assessment...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Danny Mangual, Luis A Bisbal-Matos, Ricardo Jiménez-Lee, Román Vélez, Miguel Noy
The case of a 27-year-old Hispanic female who presented with an occipito-parietal tumor after suffering trauma to the area. A physical examination revealed no tenderness to palpation and with evidence of healing ulcerations. The biopsy was consistent with a synovial sarcoma. A wide excision of the mass (15cm x 14cm x 6cm) followed by a pericranial flap was performed. A follow-up CT showed recurrence involving the parietal sagittal sinus. After a second biopsy the mass was determined to be a small-cell sarcoma, consistent with Ewing's sarcoma...
March 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
Hossein Sojoudi, Hadi Arabnejad, Asif Raiyan, Siamack A Shirazi, Gareth H McKinley, Karen K Gleason
Ice formation and accumulation on surfaces can result in severe problems for solar photovoltaic installations, offshore oil platforms, wind turbines and aircrafts. In addition, blockage of pipelines by formation and accumulation of clathrate hydrates of natural gases has safety and economical concerns in oil and gas operations, particularly at high pressures and low temperatures such as those found in subsea or arctic environments. Practical adoption of icephobic/hydrate-phobic surfaces requires mechanical robustness and stability under harsh environments...
March 16, 2018: Soft Matter
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