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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911443/transient-mitochondrial-dna-double-strand-breaks-in-mice-cause-accelerated-aging-phenotypes-in-a-ros-dependent-but-p53-p21-independent-manner
#1
Milena Pinto, Alicia M Pickrell, Xiao Wang, Sandra R Bacman, Aixin Yu, Aline Hida, Lloye M Dillon, Paul D Morton, Thomas R Malek, Siôn L Williams, Carlos T Moraes
We observed that the transient induction of mtDNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in cultured cells led to activation of cell cycle arrest proteins (p21/p53 pathway) and decreased cell growth, mediated through reactive oxygen species (ROS). To investigate this process in vivo we developed a mouse model where we could transiently induce mtDNA DSBs ubiquitously. This transient mtDNA damage in mice caused an accelerated aging phenotype, preferentially affecting proliferating tissues. One of the earliest phenotypes was accelerated thymus shrinkage by apoptosis and differentiation into adipose tissue, mimicking age-related thymic involution...
December 2, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911397/nanostructured-ag-zeolite-composites-as-luminescence-based-humidity-sensors
#2
Eduardo Coutino-Gonzalez, Wouter Baekelant, Bjorn Dieu, Maarten B J Roeffaers, Johan Hofkens
Small silver clusters confined inside zeolite matrices have recently emerged as a novel type of highly luminescent materials. Their emission has high external quantum efficiencies (EQE) and spans the whole visible spectrum. It has been recently reported that the UV excited luminescence of partially Li-exchanged sodium Linde type A zeolites [LTA(Na)] containing luminescent silver clusters can be controlled by adjusting the water content of the zeolite. These samples showed a dynamic change in their emission color from blue to green and yellow upon an increase of the hydration level of the zeolite, showing the great potential that these materials can have as luminescence-based humidity sensors at the macro and micro scale...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911390/a-method-for-extracting-pigments-from-squid-doryteuthis-pealeii
#3
Christopher W DiBona, Thomas L Williams, Sean R Dinneen, Stephanie F Jones Labadie, Leila F Deravi
Cephalopods can undergo rapid and adaptive changes in dermal coloration for sensing, communication, defense, and reproduction purposes. These capabilities are supported in part by the areal expansion and retraction of pigmented organs known as chromatophores. While it is known that the chromatophores contain a tethered network of pigmented granules, their structure-function properties have not been fully detailed. We describe a method for isolating the nanostructured granules in squid Doryteuthis pealeii chromatophores and demonstrate how their associated pigments can be extracted in acidic solvents...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911378/iridium-oxide-reduced-graphene-oxide-nanohybrid-thin-film-modified-screen-printed-electrodes-as-disposable-electrochemical-paper-microfluidic-ph-sensors
#4
Jiang Yang, Tae-Joon Kwak, Xiaodong Zhang, Robert McClain, Woo-Jin Chang, Sundaram Gunasekaran
A facile, controllable, inexpensive and green electrochemical synthesis of IrO2-graphene nanohybrid thin films is developed to fabricate an easy-to-use integrated paper microfluidic electrochemical pH sensor for resource-limited settings. Taking advantages from both pH meters and strips, the pH sensing platform is composed of hydrophobic barrier-patterned paper micropad (µPAD) using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), screen-printed electrode (SPE) modified with IrO2-graphene films and molded acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic holder...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911276/the-mtor-inhibitor-everolimus-in-combination-with-azacitidine-in-patients-with-relapsed-refractory-acute-myeloid-leukemia-a-phase-ib-ii-study
#5
Peter Tan, Ing Soo Tiong, Shaun Fleming, Giovanna Pomilio, Nik Cummings, Mark Droogleever, Julie McManus, Anthony Schwarer, John Catalano, Sushrut Patil, Sharon Avery, Andrew Spencer, Andrew Wei
Therapeutic options are limited in relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and preliminary efficacy of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, everolimus (days 5-21) in combination with azacitidine 75 mg/m2 subcutaneously (days 1-5 and 8-9 every 28 days) in 40 patients with relapsed (n = 27), primary refractory (n = 11) or elderly patients unfit for intensive chemotherapy (n = 2). MTD was not reached following everolimus dose escalation (2.5, 5 or 10 mg; n = 19) to the 10 mg dose level which was expanded (n = 21)...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911138/phase-1-dose-escalation-study-of-oral-abexinostat-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-relapsed-refractory-higher-risk-myelodysplastic-syndromes-acute-myeloid-leukemia-or-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#6
Norbert Vey, Thomas Prebet, Claire Thalamas, Aude Charbonnier, Jerome Rey, Ioana Kloos, Emily Liu, Ying Luan, Remus Vezan, Thorsten Graef, Christian Recher
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor abexinostat is under investigation for the treatment of various cancers. Epigenetic changes including aberrant HDAC activity are associated with cancers, including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this phase 1 dose-escalation study, 17 patients with relapsed/refractory higher-risk MDS, AML, or ALL received oral abexinostat (60, 80 [starting dose], 100, or 120 mg) twice daily (bid) on Days 1-14 of 21-day cycles...
December 2, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910998/aurora-a-shines-on-t-cell-activation-through-the-regulation-of-lck
#7
Noelia Blas-Rus, Eugenio Bustos-Morán, Noa B Martín-Cófreces, Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
Different protein kinases control signaling emanating from the T cell receptor (TCR) during antigen-specific T cell activation. Mitotic kinases, e.g. Aurora-A, have been widely studied in the context of mitosis due to their role during microtubule (MT) nucleation, becoming critical regulators of cell cycle progression. We have recently described a specific role for Aurora-A kinase in antigenic T cell activation. Blockade of Aurora-A in T cells severely disrupts the dynamics of MTs and CD3ζ-bearing signaling vesicles during T cell activation...
December 2, 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910984/enzyme-immobilized-clay-nanotube-chitosan-membranes-with-sustainable-biocatalytic-activities
#8
Jiajia Sun, Raghuvara Yendluri, Kai Liu, Ying Guo, Yuri Lvov, Xuehai Yan
We have developed a simple and effective strategy to prepare an enzymatic membrane by the admixing of a halloysite clay nanotube-lipase complex and a chitosan solution. The loading of 3 wt% lipase into the lumen of halloysite clay nanotubes was enhanced with an electrostatic interaction. 10 wt% of lipase-nanotubes were dispersed in an aqueous chitosan solution and cast as a coating. The enzymatic chitosan-halloysite membranes displayed increased pH, temperature stability and long-term usability for the catalytic decomposition of lipids: 90% of the initial activity was preserved at 80 °C, 70% of the functionality remained at the high pH of 9, and 85% of the activity was sustained after ten continuous cycles of use...
December 2, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910895/arabidopsis-thaliana-as-a-suitable-model-host-for-research-on-interactions-between-plant-and-foliar-nematodes-parasites-of-plant-shoot
#9
Dong-Wei Wang, Xiao-Fang Peng, Hui Xie, Chun-Ling Xu, De-Qiang Cheng, Jun-Yi Li, Wen-Jia Wu, Ke Wang
The rice white tip nematode (RWTN), Aphelenchoides besseyi and the chrysanthemum foliar nematode (CFN), Aphelenchoides ritzemabosi are migratory plant parasitic nematodes that infect the aboveground parts of plants. In this research, Arabidopsis thaliana was infected by RWTN and CFN under indoor aseptic cultivation, and the nematodes caused recognizable symptoms in the leaves. Furthermore, RWTN and CFN completed their life cycles and proliferated. Therefore, A. thaliana was identified as a new host of RWTN and CFN...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910855/l-type-calcium-channels-regulate-filopodia-stability-and-cancer-cell-invasion-downstream-of-integrin-signalling
#10
Guillaume Jacquemet, Habib Baghirov, Maria Georgiadou, Harri Sihto, Emilia Peuhu, Pierre Cettour-Janet, Tao He, Merja Perälä, Pauliina Kronqvist, Heikki Joensuu, Johanna Ivaska
Mounting in vitro, in vivo and clinical evidence suggest an important role for filopodia in driving cancer cell invasion. Using a high-throughput microscopic-based drug screen, we identify FDA-approved calcium channel blockers (CCBs) as potent inhibitors of filopodia formation in cancer cells. Unexpectedly, we discover that L-type calcium channels are functional and frequently expressed in cancer cells suggesting a previously unappreciated role for these channels during tumorigenesis. We further demonstrate that, at filopodia, L-type calcium channels are activated by integrin inside-out signalling, integrin activation and Src...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910776/molecular-pathology-of-malignant-transformation-of-oral-submucous-fibrosis
#11
Amit Chattopadhyay, Jay Gopal Ray
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is prevalent mostly in Southeast Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent. Chewing betel nuts and betel leaves, with or without tobacco, has been associated with OSF. Betel quid contents including guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, and chavibetol are considered to play an important part in the occurrence of OSF. Transformation of OSF to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is variable, but up to 13% conversion of OSF to SCC has been reported. Various genetic and molecular mechanisms impact the malignant transformation of OSF, causing changes in the cell cycle, DNA, keratinocytes, and keratin; tumor-cell proliferation and survival; angiogenesis; fibrosis through epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), and tissue hypoxia...
2016: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910770/addition-of-zeolites-to-improve-the-functional-characteristics-of-the-hen-of-the-wood-or-maitake-medicinal-mushroom-grifola-frondosa-agaricomycetes
#12
Jovana Vunduk, Anita Klaus, Maja Kozarski, Radovan Dordevic, Zoran Miladinovic, Ljubinko Jovanovic, Miomir Niksic, Leonardus Johannes Lambertus Donatus Van Griensven
Kaolinite and the modified natural zeolite minazel plus (M+) were used as supplements in substrate used for the production of the medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa. Growth stimulation, expressed as yield and biological efficiency, was observed when M+ (1%) was added. The production cycle was shortened by half as a result of the zeolites' ion-exchange ability, stimulation of enzyme activity, and water retain capacity. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry of fruiting bodies showed the absence of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, and lead), whereas the concentration of calcium increased greatly and the concentrations of iron, magnesium, and zinc increased moderately under the influence of M+...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910711/endometrial-injury-for-rif-patients-undergoing-ivf-icsi-a-prospective-nonrandomized-controlled-trial
#13
Charalampos Siristatidis, Maria Kreatsa, Nikoleta Koutlaki, George Galazios, Vasileios Pergialiotis, Nikolaos Papantoniou
To evaluate the effect of endometrial injury on clinical outcomes in subfertile women with repeated implantation failures (RIF) undergoing assisted reproduction. In this prospective nonrandomized controlled trial, 103 subfertile women with RIF were included. Fifty-one underwent endometrial injury through hysteroscopy in the early follicular phase of the previous cycle and 52 underwent the standard protocol without any intervention. Live birth and miscarriage were the primary outcomes. Clinical and in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle characteristics, were also compared between groups...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910600/development-of-a-neural-network-technique-for-kstar-thomson-scattering-diagnostics
#14
Seung Hun Lee, J H Lee, I Yamada, Jae Sun Park
Neural networks provide powerful approaches of dealing with nonlinear data and have been successfully applied to fusion plasma diagnostics and control systems. Controlling tokamak plasmas in real time is essential to measure the plasma parameters in situ. However, the χ(2) method traditionally used in Thomson scattering diagnostics hampers real-time measurement due to the complexity of the calculations involved. In this study, we applied a neural network approach to Thomson scattering diagnostics in order to calculate the electron temperature, comparing the results to those obtained with the χ(2) method...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910375/high-precision-measurement-of-magnetic-penetration-depth-in-superconducting-films
#15
X He, A Gozar, R Sundling, I Božović
The magnetic penetration depth (λ) in thin superconducting films is usually measured by the mutual inductance technique. The accuracy of this method has been limited by uncertainties in the geometry of the solenoids and in the film position and thickness, by parasitic coupling between the coils, etc. Here, we present several improvements in the apparatus and the method. To ensure the precise thickness of the superconducting layer, we engineer the films at atomic level using atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910220/inverse-vulcanization-of-sulfur-with-natural-dienes-as-sustainable-materials-for-lithium-sulfur-batteries
#16
David Mecerreyes, Iñaki Gomez, Alberto Blazquez, Olatz Leonet
Lithium sufur batteries are among the most promising next generation battery systems due to the high capacity properties of sulfur as cathodic material. Beyond its interesting intrinsic properties, sulfur possesses a very low conductivity and complex electrochemistry which involves the high solubility of the lithium sulfides in the electrolyte. These two characteristics trigger a series of limitations on its performance as active cathode material which leads to batteries with low cyclability. Recently, inverse vulcanizated sulfur has shown to retain capacity far better than elemental sulfur leading to batteries with excellent cyclability...
December 2, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910201/meal-insulin-cycle-a-visual-summary-of-the-biochemical-events-between-meals
#17
Stavros Kalogiannis
In the present article, a scheme that summarizes the biochemical events occurring in the human body after the consumption of a meal is proposed. The scheme illustrates the metabolic sequence as a series of counteracting components occupying opposite positions in a cycle, indicating their opposite actions or physiological states, such as meal versus energy consumption, increase versus decrease of blood glucose levels, and excretion of insulin versus excretion of glucagon. Furthermore, the cycle is complemented by a table indicating the acceleration or inhibition of selected metabolic pathways and actions...
December 2, 2016: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910087/menstrual-migraine-and-treatment-options-review
#18
REVIEW
Kasra Maasumi, Stewart J Tepper, Jennifer S Kriegler
OBJECTIVE: A review of treatment options for menstrual migraine. BACKGROUND: Migraine affects ∼30 million people in the US. A subset of female migraineurs have migraines that are mainly associated with menstruation. Menstrual migraine (MM) is divided into pure MM and menstrually related migraine. Pure MM attacks occur only with menstruation and have a prevalence of 1%. Menstrually related migraine has a prevalence of 6-7%, and occurs both during menstruation as well as during the rest of the cycle...
December 2, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910068/endometrial-carcinoma-specific-targeted-pathways
#19
Nuria Eritja, Andree Yeramian, Bo-Juen Chen, David Llobet-Navas, Eugenia Ortega, Eva Colas, Miguel Abal, Xavier Dolcet, Jaume Reventos, Xavier Matias-Guiu
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the western world with more than 280,000 cases per year worldwide. Prognosis for EC at early stages, when primary surgical resection is the most common initial treatment, is excellent. Five-year survival rate is around 70 %.Several molecular alterations have been described in the different types of EC. They occur in genes involved in important signaling pathways. In this chapter, we will review the most relevant altered pathways in EC, including PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, Tyrosine kinase, WNT/β-Catenin, cell cycle, and TGF-β signaling pathways...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910021/quantitative-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization-qfish
#20
Ivan Y Iourov
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has a wide spectrum of applications in current molecular cytogenetic and cancer research. This is a unique technique that can be used for chromosomal DNA analysis in all cell types, at all stages of the cell cycle, and at molecular resolution. Recent developments in microscopy and imaging systems have allowed quantification of digital FISH images (quantitative FISH or QFISH) and have provided a new way for molecular cytogenetic analysis at single-cell level. QFISH can be applied for studying chromosome imbalances in interphase nuclei or metaphase spreads, measuring relative DNA content at chromosomal loci and identifying parental origin of homologous chromosomes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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