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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814058/towards-an-ankle-neuroprosthesis-for-hybrid-robotics-concepts-and-current-sources-for-functional-electrical-stimulation
#1
S Casco, I Fuster, R Galeano, J C Moreno, J L Pons, F Brunetti
Hybrid rehabilitation robotics combine neuro-prosthetic devices (close-loop functional electrical stimulation systems) and traditional robotic structures and actuators to explore better therapies and promote a more efficient motor function recovery or compensation. Although hybrid robotics and ankle neuroprostheses (NPs) have been widely developed over the last years, there are just few studies on the use of NPs to electrically control both ankle flexion and extension to promote ankle recovery and improved gait patterns in paretic limbs...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814046/adaptive-control-of-an-actuated-ankle-foot-orthosis
#2
Victor Arnez-Paniagua, Hala Rifai, Yacine Amirat, Samer Mohammed
This paper deals with the control of an active ankle foot orthosis (AAFO) to assist the gait of paretic patients. The AAFO system is driven by both, the residual human torque delivered by the muscles spanning the ankle joint and the AAFO's actuator's torque. A projection-based model reference adaptive control is proposed to assist dorsiflexion and plantar-flexion of the ankle joint during daily living walking activities. Unlike most classical model-based controllers, the proposed one does not require any prior estimation of the system's (foot-AAFO) parameters...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814020/piecewise-and-unified-phase-variables-in-the-control-of-a-powered-prosthetic-leg
#3
Dario J Villarreal, David Quintero, Robert D Gregg
Many control methods have been proposed for powered prosthetic legs, ranging from finite state machines that switch between discrete phases of gait to unified controllers that have a continuous sense of phase. In particular, recent work has shown that a mechanical phase variable can parameterize the entire gait cycle for controlling a prosthetic leg during steady rhythmic locomotion. However, the unified approach does not provide voluntary control over non-rhythmic motions like stepping forward and back. In this paper we present a phasing algorithm that uses the amputee's hip angle to control both rhythmic and non-rhythmic motion through two modes: 1) a piecewise (PW) function that provides users voluntary control over stance and swing in a piecewise manner, and 2) a unified function that continuously synchronizes the motion of the prosthetic leg with the amputee user at different walking speeds...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814000/preliminary-study-of-a-robotic-foot-ankle-prosthesis-with-active-alignment
#4
Andrew K LaPre, Ryan D Wedge, Brian R Umberger, Frank C Sup
Robotic prosthetic foot-ankle prostheses typically aim to replace the lost joint with revolute joints aimed at replicating normal joint biomechanics. In this paper, a previously developed robotic ankle prosthesis with active alignment is evaluated. It uses a four-bar mechanism to inject positive power into the gait cycle while altering the kinematics of the ankle joint and pylon segment to reduce loading on the residual limb. In a single-subject biomechanics analysis, there was a 10% reduction in peak limb pressures and evidence of greater gait symmetry in ground reaction forces when active alignment was implemented compared to walking with the daily use prosthesis...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813918/how-to-prepare-a-person-with-complete-spinal-cord-injury-to-use-surface-electrodes-for-fes-trike-cycling
#5
Raymond K Y Tong, Xiaojun Wang, Kenry W C Leung, Ginny T Y Lee, Cathy C Y Lau, H W Wai, Peter M K Pang, H C Leung
Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) cycling could benefit people with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). The FES cycling involves large muscle groups during the training, and thus improves the cardiovascular function, increases the muscle bulk and reduces the secondary complications. This study developed an outdoor FES exercise cycling system for complete SCI persons to exercise their lower limbs without putting extra load on upper extremities. The mechanical structure of the cycling system was specially redesigned to secure the SCI persons in the cycling system...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813868/relationship-between-assistive-torque-and-knee-biomechanics-during-exoskeleton-walking-in-individuals-with-crouch-gait
#6
Zachary F Lerner, Diane L Damiano, Thomas C Bulea
Crouch or "flexed knee" gait is a pathological gait pattern affecting many individuals with cerebral palsy. One proposed method to alleviate crouch is to provide robotic assistance to knee extension during walking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the magnitude of knee extensor torque affects knee kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity. Motion capture, ground reaction force and electromyography data were collected while four participants with crouch gait from cerebral palsy walked with assistance from a novel robotic exoskeleton on an instrumented treadmill...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813864/gait-assessment-system-based-on-novel-gait-variability-measures
#7
Xingchen Wang, Danijela Ristic-Durrant, Matthias Spranger, Axel Graser
In this paper, a novel gait assessment system based on measures of gait variability reflected through the variability of shapes of gait cycles trajectories is proposed. The presented gait assessment system is based on SVM (support vector machine) classifier and on gait variability-based features calculated from the hip and knee joint angle trajectories recorded using wearable IMUs during walking trials. A system classifier was trained to distinguish healthy gait patterns from the pathological ones. The features were extracted by calculating the distances between the joint trajectories of the individual gait cycles using 4 different distance functions...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813856/quantifying-the-benefit-of-the-kinetic-crutch-tip
#8
Fatemeh Rasouli, David Huizenga, Tim Hess, Ismet Handzic, Kyle B Reed
This research focuses on the difference between the Kinetic Crutch Tip (KCT) and a Standard Rubber Tip. Additionally, the effect of KCT stiffness on the crutch gait cycle and the reaction forces were investigated. This study also examined the maximum backward angle that a crutch is able to move forward without any external forces as well as the ratio of positive to negative horizontal forces were considered. The results were obtained in two ways: one by having subjects walk on the crutches and another to reduce the variability of human walking by measuring the resulting motion only using weights attached to the crutch tip...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813853/towards-human-knee-orthosis-interaction-based-on-adaptive-impedance-control-through-stiffness-adjustment
#9
Joana Figueiredo, Paulo Felix, Cristina P Santos, Juan C Moreno
Rehabilitation interventions involving powered, wearable lower limb orthoses that can provide high-challenging locomotor tasks for repetitive training sessions, mainly when assist-as-needed strategies, such as adaptive impedance control, are designed. In this study, the adaptive behavior was ensured by software control of the robotic stiffness involved in the human-knee orthosis interaction in function of the gait cycle and speed. To estimate the stiffness, we analyzed the interaction torque-angle characteristics with experimental data...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813833/an-integrated-gait-rehabilitation-training-based-on-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-and-overground-robotic-exoskeleton-in-complete-spinal-cord-injury-patients-preliminary-results
#10
S Mazzoleni, E Battini, A Rustici, G Stampacchia
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an integrated gait rehabilitation training based on Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in a group of seven complete spinal cord injury patients on spasticity and patient-robot interaction. They underwent a robot-assisted rehabilitation training based on two phases: n=20 sessions of FES-cycling followed by n= 20 sessions of robot-assisted gait training based on an overground robotic exoskeleton. The following clinical outcome measures were used: Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) on spasticity, Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS), Spinal Cord Independence Measure Scale (SCIM), NRS on pain and International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Data Set (ISCI)...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813831/the-influence-of-the-re-link-trainer-on-gait-symmetry-in-healthy-adults
#11
Sarah Ward, Lukas Wiedemann, Cathy Stinear, James Stinear, Andrew McDaid
Walking function post-stroke is characterized by asymmetries in gait cycle parameters and joint kinematics. The Re-Link Trainer is designed to provide kinematic constraint to the paretic lower limb, to guide a physiologically normal and symmetrical gait pattern. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the immediate influence of the Re-Link Trainer on measures of gait symmetry in healthy adults. Participants demonstrated a significantly lower cadence and a 62% reduction in walking speed in the Re-Link Trainer compared to normal walking...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813782/urea-cycle-pathway-targeted-therapeutic-action-of-naringin-against-ammonium-chloride-induced-hyperammonemic-rats
#12
Arumugam Ramakrishnan, Natesan Vijayakumar
Ammonia is a well-known neurotoxin that causes liver disease and urea cycle disorder. Excessive ammonia content in the blood leads to hyperammonemic condition and affects both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission including brain edema and coma. Naringin, a plant bioflavonoid present in various citrus fruits and mainly extracted from the grape fruit. This study was designed to assess the protective effect of naringin on ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) induced hyperammonemic rats. Experimental hyperammonemia was induced by intraperitoneal injections (i...
August 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813718/transgenic-mice-over-expressing-rbp4-have-rbp4-dependent-and-light-independent-retinal-degeneration
#13
Mei Du, Eric Phelps, Michael J Balangue, Aaron Dockins, Gennadiy Moiseyev, Younghwa Shin, Shelley Kane, Laura Otalora, Jian-Xing Ma, Rafal Farjo, Krysten M Farjo
Purpose: Transgenic mice overexpressing serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4-Tg) develop progressive retinal degeneration, characterized by microglia activation, yet the precise mechanisms underlying retinal degeneration are unclear. Previous studies showed RBP4-Tg mice have normal ocular retinoid levels, suggesting that degeneration is independent of the retinoid visual cycle or light exposure. The present study addresses whether retinal degeneration is light-dependent and RBP4-dependent by testing the effects of dark-rearing and pharmacological lowering of serum RBP4 levels, respectively...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813595/activation-of-a-nickel-based-oer-catalyst-on-a-hematite-photoanode-via-incorporation-of-cerium-for-photoelectrochemical-water-oxidation
#14
Hyungseob Lim, Jae Young Kim, Edward J Evans, Amritesh Rai, Jun-Hyuk Kim, Bryan R Wygant, Charles Buddie Mullins
There has been debate on whether Ni(OH)2 is truly catalytically active for the photo/-electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction. In this report, we have synthesized a Ni(OH)2 co-catalyst on a hematite photoanode and showed that, as has been proposed in other studies, the current density varies as a function of scan rate, which arise due to a photo-induced capacitive charging effect. We have discovered that this photo-induced charging of Ni2+/3+ can be overcome by mixing cerium nitrate into the Ni precursor solution...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813532/nitrogen-and-carbon-isotopic-dynamics-of-subarctic-soils-and-plants-in-southern-yukon-territory-and-its-implications-for-paleoecological-and-paleodietary-studies
#15
Farnoush Tahmasebi, Fred J Longstaffe, Grant Zazula, Bruce Bennett
We examine here the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of bulk soils (8 topsoil and 7 subsoils, including two soil profiles) and five different plant parts of 79 C3 plants from two main functional groups: herbs and shrubs/subshrubs, from 18 different locations in grasslands of southern Yukon Territory, Canada (eastern shoreline of Kluane Lake and Whitehorse area). The Kluane Lake region in particular has been identified previously as an analogue for Late Pleistocene eastern Beringia. All topsoils have higher average total nitrogen δ15N and organic carbon δ13C than plants from the same sites with a positive shift occurring with depth in two soil profiles analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813502/addressing-the-challenge-of-high-priced-prescription-drugs-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine-a-systematic-review-of-drug-life-cycles-therapeutic-drug-markets-and-regulatory-frameworks
#16
Toon van der Gronde, Carin A Uyl-de Groot, Toine Pieters
CONTEXT: Recent public outcry has highlighted the rising cost of prescription drugs worldwide, which in several disease areas outpaces other health care expenditures and results in a suboptimal global availability of essential medicines. METHOD: A systematic review of Pubmed, the Financial Times, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and the Guardian was performed to identify articles related to the pricing of medicines. FINDINGS: Changes in drug life cycles have dramatically affected patent medicine markets, which have long been considered a self-evident and self-sustainable source of income for highly profitable drug companies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813487/effect-of-masticatory-stimulation-on-the-quantity-and-quality-of-saliva-and-the-salivary-metabolomic-profile
#17
Nobuyuki Okuma, Makiko Saita, Noriyuki Hoshi, Tomoyoshi Soga, Masaru Tomita, Masahiro Sugimoto, Katsuhiko Kimoto
BACKGROUND: This study characterized the changes in quality and quantity of saliva, and changes in the salivary metabolomic profile, to understand the effects of masticatory stimulation. METHODS: Stimulated and unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 55 subjects and salivary hydrophilic metabolites were comprehensively quantified using capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. RESULTS: In total, 137 metabolites were identified and quantified...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813479/metabolomic-profiling-of-amines-in-sepsis-predicts-changes-in-nos-canonical-pathways
#18
Abel Tesfai, Niall MacCallum, Nicholas S Kirkby, Hime Gashaw, Nicola Gray, Elizabeth Want, Gregory J Quinlan, Sharon Mumby, James M Leiper, Mark Paul-Clark, Blerina Ahmetaj-Shala, Jane A Mitchell
RATIONALE: Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a biomarker/target in sepsis. NOS activity is driven by amino acids, which cycle to regulate the substrate L-arginine in parallel with cycles which regulate the endogenous inhibitors ADMA and L-NMMA. The relationship between amines and the consequence of plasma changes on iNOS activity in early sepsis is not known. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to apply a metabolomics approach to determine the influence of sepsis on a full array of amines and what consequence these changes may have on predicted iNOS activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813456/a-simple-molecular-mechanism-explains-multiple-patterns-of-cell-size-regulation
#19
Morgan Delarue, Daniel Weissman, Oskar Hallatschek
Increasingly accurate and massive data have recently shed light on the fundamental question of how cells maintain a stable size trajectory as they progress through the cell cycle. Microbes seem to use strategies ranging from a pure sizer, where the end of a given phase is triggered when the cell reaches a critical size, to pure adder, where the cell adds a constant size during a phase. Yet the biological origins of the observed spectrum of behavior remain elusive. We analyze a molecular size-control mechanism, based on experimental data from the yeast S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813453/metabolomics-reveals-that-vine-tea-ampelopsis-grossedentata-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolism-disorder-by-improving-glucose-homeostasis-in-rats
#20
Wenting Wan, Baoping Jiang, Le Sun, Lijia Xu, Peigen Xiao
BACKGROUND: Vine tea (VT), derived from Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) W.T. Wang, is an alternative tea that has been consumed widely in south China for hundreds of years. It has been shown that drinking VT on a daily basis improves hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. However, little is known about the preventive functions of VT for metabolic dysregulation and the potential pathological mechanisms involved. This paper elucidates the preventive effects of VT on the dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism using rats maintained on a high-fat-diet (HFD) in an attempt to explain the potential mechanisms involved...
2017: PloS One
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