keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Synaptic activity

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030082/adx-47273-a-mglu5-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator-attenuates-deficits-in-cognitive-flexibility-induced-by-withdrawal-from-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-in-rats
#1
Marta Marszalek-Grabska, Ewa Gibula-Bruzda, Anna Bodzon-Kulakowska, Piotr Suder, Kinga Gawel, Sylwia Talarek, Joanna Listos, Ewa Kędzierska, Wojciech Danysz, Jolanta H Kotlinska
Repeated exposure to and withdrawal from ethanol induces deficits in spatial reversal learning. Data indicate that metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors are implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These receptors functionally interact with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and activation of one type results in the activation of the other. We examined whether (S)-(4-fluorophenyl)(3-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-piperidin-1-yl (ADX-47273), a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of mGlu5 receptor, attenuates deficits in reversal learning induced by withdrawal (11-13days) from 'binge-like' ethanol input (5...
October 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029315/7-8-dihydroxyflavone-rescues-lead-induced-impairment-of-vesicular-release-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-lead-intoxicated-children
#2
Xiao-Lei Zhang, Jennifer L McGlothan, Omid Miry, Kirstie H Stansfield, Meredith K Loth, Patric K Stanton, Tomás R Guilarte
Childhood lead (Pb2+) intoxication is a public health problem of global proportion. Lead exposure during development produces multiple effects on the central nervous system including impaired synapse formation, altered synaptic plasticity, and learning deficits.In primary hippocampal neurons in culture and hippocampal slices, Pb2+ exposure inhibits vesicular release and reduces the number of fast-releasing sites, an effect associated with Pb2+ inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated trans-synaptic Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling...
October 4, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028949/pyramidal-cell-subtypes-and-their-synaptic-connections-in-layer-5-of-rat-frontal-cortex
#3
Yasuo Kawaguchi
The frontal cortical areas make a coordinated response that generates appropriate behavior commands, using individual local circuits with corticostriatal and corticocortical connections in longer time scales than sensory areas. In secondary motor cortex (M2), situated between the prefrontal and primary motor areas, major subtypes of layer 5 corticostriatal cells are crossed-corticostriatal (CCS) cells innervating both sides of striatum, and corticopontine (CPn) cells projecting to the ipsilateral striatum and pontine nuclei...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028209/digital-implementation-of-the-two-compartmental-pinsky-rinzel-pyramidal-neuron-model
#4
Elahe Rahimian, Soheil Zabihi, Mahmood Amiri, Bernabe Linares-Barranco
It is believed that brain-like computing system can be achieved by the fusion of electronics and neuroscience. In this way, the optimized digital hardware implementation of neurons, primary units of nervous system, play a vital role in neuromorphic applications. Moreover, one of the main features of pyramidal neurons in cortical areas is bursting activities that has a critical role in synaptic plasticity. The Pinsky-Rinzel model is a nonlinear two-compartmental model for CA3 pyramidal cell that is widely used in neuroscience...
October 12, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028183/non-synaptic-signaling-from-cerebellar-climbing-fibers-modulates-golgi-cell-activity
#5
Angela K Nietz, Jada H Vaden, Luke T Coddington, Linda Overstreet-Wadiche, Jacques I Wadiche
Golgi cells are the principal inhibitory neurons at the input stage of the cerebellum, providing feedforward and feedback inhibition through mossy fiber and parallel fiber synapses. In vivo studies have shown that Golgi cell activity is regulated by climbing fiber stimulation, yet there is little functional or anatomical evidence for synapses between climbing fibers and Golgi cells. Here, we show that glutamate released from climbing fibers activates ionotropic and metabotropic receptors on Golgi cells through spillover-mediated transmission...
October 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027056/curcumin-affords-neuroprotection-and-inhibits-%C3%AE-synuclein-aggregation-in-lipopolysaccharide-induced-parkinson-s-disease-model
#6
Neha Sharma, Bimla Nehru
Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology is characterized by the abnormal accumulation and aggregation of the pre-synaptic protein α-synuclein in the dopaminergic neurons as Lewy bodies (LBs). Curcumin, which plays a neuroprotective role in various animal models of PD, was found to directly modulate the aggregation of α-synuclein in in vitro as well as in in vivo studies. While curcumin has been shown to exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, there are a number of other possible mechanisms by which curcumin may alter α-synuclein aggregation which still remains obscure...
October 12, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026183/developmental-emergence-of-sparse-coding-a-dynamic-systems-approach
#7
Vahid Rahmati, Knut Kirmse, Knut Holthoff, Lars Schwabe, Stefan J Kiebel
During neocortical development, network activity undergoes a dramatic transition from largely synchronized, so-called cluster activity, to a relatively sparse pattern around the time of eye-opening in rodents. Biophysical mechanisms underlying this sparsification phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here, we present a dynamic systems modeling study of a developing neural network that provides the first mechanistic insights into sparsification. We find that the rest state of immature networks is strongly affected by the dynamics of a transient, unstable state hidden in their firing activities, allowing these networks to either be silent or generate large cluster activity...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025969/a-versatile-optical-tool-for-studying-synaptic-gabaa-receptor-trafficking
#8
Joshua M Lorenz-Guertin, Madeleine R Wilcox, Ming Zhang, Mads B Larsen, Jyotsna Pilli, Brigitte F Schmidt, Marcel P Bruchez, Jon W Johnson, Alan S Waggoner, Simon C Watkins, Tija C Jacob
Live-cell imaging methods can provide critical real-time receptor trafficking measurements. Here we describe an optical tool to study synaptic GABAA receptor (GABAAR) dynamics using adaptable fluorescent tracking capabilities. A fluorogen-activating peptide (FAP) was genetically inserted into a γ2 subunit tagged with pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (γ2(pH)FAP). The FAP selectively binds and activates malachite green (MG) dyes that are otherwise non-fluorescent in solution. γ2(pH)FAP GABAARs are expressed at the cell surface in transfected cortical neurons, form synaptic clusters, and do not perturb neuronal development...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025866/declining-levels-of-functionally-specialized-synaptic-proteins-in-plasma-neuronal-exosomes-with-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Edward J Goetzl, Erin L Abner, Gregory A Jicha, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Janice B Schwartz
Interactions of the presynaptic proteins, neuronal pentraxin 2 (NPTX2) and neurexin 2α (NRXN2α), with their respective postsynaptic functional partners, GluA4-containing glutamate (AMPA4) receptor and neuroligin 1 (NLGN1), enhance excitatory synaptic activity in some areas of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. As early damage of such excitatory circuits in the brain tissues of participants with Alzheimer's disease (AD) correlates with cognitive losses, plasma neuron-derived exosome (NDE) levels of these 2 pairs of specialized synaptic proteins were quantified to assess their biomarker characteristics...
October 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024871/brain-energetics-during-the-sleep-wake-cycle
#10
REVIEW
Mauro DiNuzzo, Maiken Nedergaard
Brain activity during wakefulness is associated with high metabolic rates that are believed to support information processing and memory encoding. In spite of loss of consciousness, sleep still carries a substantial energy cost. Experimental evidence supports a cerebral metabolic shift taking place during sleep that suppresses aerobic glycolysis, a hallmark of environment-oriented waking behavior and synaptic plasticity. Recent studies reveal that glial astrocytes respond to the reduction of wake-promoting neuromodulators by regulating volume, composition and glymphatic drainage of interstitial fluid...
October 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024668/increased-prevalence-of-calcium-transients-across-the-dendritic-arbor-during-place-field-formation
#11
Mark E J Sheffield, Michael D Adoff, Daniel A Dombeck
Hippocampal place cell ensembles form a cognitive map of space during exposure to novel environments. However, surprisingly little evidence exists to support the idea that synaptic plasticity in place cells is involved in forming new place fields. Here we used high-resolution functional imaging to determine the signaling patterns in CA1 soma, dendrites, and axons associated with place field formation when mice are exposed to novel virtual environments. We found that putative local dendritic spikes often occur prior to somatic place field firing...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024665/astrocyte-secreted-glypican-4-regulates-release-of-neuronal-pentraxin-1-from-axons-to-induce-functional-synapse-formation
#12
Isabella Farhy-Tselnicker, Adriana C M van Casteren, Aletheia Lee, Veronica T Chang, A Radu Aricescu, Nicola J Allen
The generation of precise synaptic connections between developing neurons is critical to the formation of functional neural circuits. Astrocyte-secreted glypican 4 induces formation of active excitatory synapses by recruiting AMPA glutamate receptors to the postsynaptic cell surface. We now identify the molecular mechanism of how glypican 4 exerts its effect. Glypican 4 induces release of the AMPA receptor clustering factor neuronal pentraxin 1 from presynaptic terminals by signaling through presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor δ...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024660/amyloid-beta-peptides-block-new-synapse-assembly-by-nogo-receptor-mediated-inhibition-of-t-type-calcium-channels
#13
Yanjun Zhao, Sivaprakash Sivaji, Michael C Chiang, Haadi Ali, Monica Zukowski, Sareen Ali, Bryan Kennedy, Alex Sklyar, Alice Cheng, Zihan Guo, Alexander K Reed, Ravindra Kodali, Jennifer Borowski, Georgia Frost, Patrick Beukema, Zachary P Wills
Compelling evidence links amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide accumulation in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with the emergence of learning and memory deficits, yet a clear understanding of the events that drive this synaptic pathology are lacking. We present evidence that neurons exposed to Aβ are unable to form new synapses, resulting in learning deficits in vivo. We demonstrate the Nogo receptor family (NgR1-3) acts as Aβ receptors mediating an inhibition of synapse assembly, plasticity, and learning...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023416/neuro-coagulopathy-blood-coagulation-factors-in-central-nervous-system-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Ciro De Luca, Assunta Virtuoso, Nicola Maggio, Michele Papa
Blood coagulation factors and other proteins, with modulatory effects or modulated by the coagulation cascade have been reported to affect the pathophysiology of the central nervous system (CNS). The protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway can be considered the central hub of this regulatory network, mainly through thrombin or activated protein C (aPC). These proteins, in fact, showed peculiar properties, being able to interfere with synaptic homeostasis other than coagulation itself. These specific functions modulate neuronal networks, acting both on resident (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) as well as circulating immune system cells and the extracellular matrix...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022876/local-processing-in-neurites-of-vglut3-expressing-amacrine-cells-differentially-organizes-visual-information
#15
Jen-Chun Hsiang, Keith Johnson, Linda Madisen, Hongkui Zeng, Daniel Kerschensteiner
Neurons receive synaptic inputs on extensive neurite arbors. How information is organized across arbors and how local processing in neurites contributes to circuit function is mostly unknown. Here, we used two-photon Ca(2+) imaging to study visual processing in VGluT3-expressing amacrine cells (VG3‑ACs) in the mouse retina. Contrast preferences (ON vs. OFF) varied across VG3‑AC arbors depending on the laminar position of neurites, with ON responses preferring larger stimuli than OFF responses. Although arbors of neighboring cells overlap extensively, imaging population activity revealed continuous topographic maps of visual space in the VG3‑AC plexus...
October 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021745/tyramine-actions-on-drosophila-flight-behavior-are-affected-by-a-glial-dehydrogenase-reductase
#16
Stefanie Ryglewski, Carsten Duch, Benjamin Altenhein
The biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and tyramine (TA) modulate insect motor behavior in an antagonistic manner. OA generally enhances locomotor behaviors such as Drosophila larval crawling and flight, whereas TA decreases locomotor activity. However, the mechanisms and cellular targets of TA modulation of locomotor activity are incompletely understood. This study combines immunocytochemistry, genetics and flight behavioral assays in the Drosophila model system to test the role of a candidate enzyme for TA catabolism, named Nazgul (Naz), in flight motor behavioral control...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021388/in-vivo-beta-and-gamma-subthreshold-oscillations-in-rat-mitral-cells-origin-and-gating-by-respiratory-dynamics
#17
Nicolas Fourcaud-Trocmé, Virginie Briffaud, Marc Thévenet, Nathalie Buonviso, Corine Amat
In mammals, olfactory bulb (OB) dynamics are paced by slow and fast oscillatory rhythms at multiple levels: local field potential, spike discharge, and/or membrane potential oscillations. Interactions between these levels have been well studied for the slow rhythm linked to animal respiration. However, less is known regarding rhythms in the fast beta (10-35Hz) and gamma (35-100Hz) frequency ranges, particularly at the membrane potential level. Using a combination of intracellular and extracellular recordings in the OB of freely breathing rats, we show that beta and gamma subthreshold oscillations (STO) coexist intracellularly and are related to extracellular LFP oscillations in the same frequency range...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020622/homeostatic-presynaptic-plasticity-is-specifically-regulated-by-p-q-type-ca-2-channels-at-mammalian-hippocampal-synapses
#18
Alexander F Jeans, Fran C van Heusden, Bashayer Al-Mubarak, Zahid Padamsey, Nigel J Emptage
Voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VGCC) represent the principal source of Ca(2+) ions driving evoked neurotransmitter release at presynaptic boutons. In mammals, presynaptic Ca(2+) influx is mediated mainly via P/Q-type and N-type VGCC, which differ in their properties. Changes in their relative contributions tune neurotransmission both during development and in Hebbian plasticity. However, whether this represents a functional motif also present in other forms of activity-dependent regulation is unknown. Here, we study the role of VGCC in homeostatic plasticity (HSP) in mammalian hippocampal neurons using optical techniques...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017970/absence-of-microglial-cx3cr1-impairs-the-synaptic-integration-of-adult-born-hippocampal-granule-neurons
#19
M Bolós, J R Perea, J Terreros-Roncal, N Pallas-Bazarra, J Jurado-Arjona, J Ávila, M Llorens-Martín
Microglia are immune cells that play a crucial role in maintaining brain homeostasis. Among the mechanisms of communication between microglia and neurons, the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis exerts a central modulatory role. Animals lacking CX3CR1 microglial receptor (CX3CR1-/- mice) exhibit marked alterations not only in microglia but also in neurons located in various regions of the brain. Here we show that microglial depletion of CX3CR1 leads to the deficient synaptic integration of adult-born granule neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), both at the afferent and efferent level...
October 7, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017914/the-roles-of-class-i-histone-deacetylases-hdacs-in-memory-learning-and-executive-cognitive-functions-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Claudia Schmauss
Coordinated changes in gene expression are critical for synaptic plasticity supporting learning, memory, and optimal cognitive task performance. These gene expression changes are not only mediated by signaling pathways that activate transcription factors, but also by chromatin modifications that influence the accessibility of the transcriptional machinery to specific genomic regions. During the past decade, evidence accumulated that alterations in chromatin-based epigenetic regulation of gene expression are linked to cognitive dysfunctions in the ageing or neurodegenerating brain as well as to cognitive dysfunctions resulting from chronic stress exposure...
October 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
keyword
keyword
32990
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"