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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102460/neural-mass-models-as-a-tool-to-investigate-neural-dynamics-during-seizures
#1
Tatiana Kameneva, Tianlin Ying, Ben Guo, Dean R Freestone
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders and is characterized by recurrent seizures. We use theoretical neuroscience tools to study brain dynamics during seizures. We derive and simulate a computational model of a network of hippocampal neuronal populations. Each population within the network is based on a model that has been shown to replicate the electrophysiological dynamics observed during seizures. The results provide insights into possible mechanisms for seizure spread. We observe that epileptiform activity remains localized to a pathological region when a global connectivity parameter is less than a critical value...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102228/maternal-immune-activation-causes-behavioral-impairments-and-altered-cerebellar-cytokine-and-synaptic-protein-expression
#2
Gurudutt Pendyala, Shinnyi Chou, Yoosun Jung, Pierluca Coiro, Elizabeth Spartz, Ragunathan Padmashri, Ming Li, Anna Dunaevsky
Emerging epidemiology studies indicate that maternal immune activation (MIA) resulting from inflammatory stimuli such as viral or bacterial infections during pregnancy serves as a risk factor for multiple neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Although alterations in the cortex and hippocampus of MIA offspring have been described, less evidence exists on the impact on the cerebellum. Here, we report altered expression of cytokines and chemokines in the cerebellum of MIA offspring, including increase in the neuroinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and its receptor TNFR1...
January 19, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101525/untangling-basal-ganglia-network-dynamics-and-function-role-of-dopamine-depletion-and-inhibition-investigated-in-a-spiking-network-model
#3
Mikael Lindahl, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
The basal ganglia are a crucial brain system for behavioral selection, and their function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), where neurons exhibit inappropriate synchronization and oscillations. We present a spiking neural model of basal ganglia including plausible details on synaptic dynamics, connectivity patterns, neuron behavior, and dopamine effects. Recordings of neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus and Type A (TA; arkypallidal) and Type I (TI; prototypical) neurons in globus pallidus externa were used to validate the model...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100750/target-dependent-compartmentalization-of-the-corelease-of-glutamate-and-gaba-from-the-mossy-fibers
#4
Emilio J Galván, Rafael Gutiérrez
: The mossy fibers (MFs) corelease glutamate and GABA onto pyramidal cells of CA3 during development, until the end of the third postnatal week. However, the major target cells of the MF are the interneurons of CA3. Therefore, it has been shown that the interneurons of the hilus and stratum lucidum receive this dual monosynaptic input on MF stimulation. Because the plasticity of glutamatergic transmission from the different terminals of the MF is target specific, we here asked whether the corelease of glutamate and GABA was also subjected to a target-dependent compartmentalization...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100749/promoted-interaction-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-with-demethylated-cxcr3-gene-promoter-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-in-mice
#5
Bao-Chun Jiang, Li-Na He, Xiao-Bo Wu, Hui Shi, Wen-Wen Zhang, Zhi-Jun Zhang, De-Li Cao, Chun-Hua Li, Jun Gu, Yong-Jing Gao
: DNA methylation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic pain. However, the specific genes regulated by DNA methylation under neuropathic pain condition remain largely unknown. Here we investigated how chemokine receptor CXCR3 is regulated by DNA methylation and how it contributes to neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL) in mice. SNL increased Cxcr3 mRNA and protein expression in the neurons of the spinal cord. Meanwhile, the CpG (5'-cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3') island in the Cxcr3 gene promoter region was demethylated, and the expression of DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) was decreased...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100741/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#6
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole-cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an IPSP at low stimulation frequency (0...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100738/mir-142-3p-is-a-key-regulator-of-il-1%C3%AE-dependent-synaptopathy-in-neuroinflammation
#7
Georgia Mandolesi, Francesca De Vito, Alessandra Musella, Antonietta Gentile, Silvia Bullitta, Diego Fresegna, Helena Sepman, Claudio Di Sanza, Nabila Haji, Francesco Mori, Fabio Buttari, Emerald Perlas, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Eran Hornstein, Irene Bozzoni, Carlo Presutti, Diego Centonze
: MicroRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in post-transcriptional gene regulation of several physiological and pathological processes. In multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory and degenerative disease of the CNS, and in its mouse model, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), miRNA dysregulation has been mainly related to immune system dysfunction and white matter (WM) pathology. However, little is known about their role in gray matter pathology. Here, we explored miRNA involvement in the inflammation-driven alterations of synaptic structure and function, collectively known as synaptopathy, a neuropathological process contributing to excitotoxic neurodegeneration in MS/EAE...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100655/furosemide-depresses-the-presynaptic-fiber-volley-and-modifies-frequency-dependent-axonal-excitability-in-rat-hippocampus
#8
Mogens Andreasen, Steen Nedergaard
The loop diuretic furosemide is known to have anticonvulsant effects, believed to be exerted through blockade of glial Na-K-Cl cotransport causing altered volume regulation in brain tissue. The possibility that direct effects of furosemide on neuronal properties could also be involved is supported by previous observations, but such effects have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study we show that furosemide has two opposing effects on stimulus-induced postsynaptic excitation in the non-epileptic rat hippocampal slice: i) an enhancement of e-s coupling, which depended on intact GABAA transmission and was partially mimicked by selective blockade of K-Cl cotransport, and ii) a decrement of fEPSPs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100589/meiotic-consequences-of-genetic-divergence-across-the-murine-pseudoautosomal-region
#9
Beth L Dumont
The production of haploid gametes during meiosis is dependent on the homology-driven processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination. On the mammalian heterogametic sex chromosomes, these key meiotic activities are confined to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR), a short region of near-perfect sequence homology between the X and Y chromosomes. Despite its established importance for meiosis, the PAR is rapidly evolving, raising the question of how proper X/Y segregation is buffered against the accumulation of homology-disrupting mutations...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100586/axon-termination-pruning-and-synaptogenesis-in-the-giant-fiber-system-of-drosophila-melanogaster-is-promoted-by-highwire
#10
Melissa Borgen, Kimberly Rowland, Jana Boerner, Brandon Lloyd, Aruna Khan, Rod Murphey
The ubiquitin ligase Highwire has a conserved role in synapse formation. Here we show that Highwire coordinates several facets of central synapse formation in the Drosophila melanogaster giant fiber system, including axon termination, axon pruning, and synaptic function. Despite the similarities to the fly neuromuscular junction, the role of Highwire and the underlying signaling pathways are distinct in the fly's giant fiber system. During development, branching of the giant fiber presynaptic terminal occurs and, normally, the transient branches are pruned away...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100252/a-cognitive-electrophysiological-signature-differentiates-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-normal-aging
#11
Juan Li, Lucas S Broster, Gregory A Jicha, Nancy B Munro, Frederick A Schmitt, Erin Abner, Richard Kryscio, Charles D Smith, Yang Jiang
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive and effective biomarkers for early detection of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) before measurable changes in behavioral performance remain scarce. Cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) measure synchronized synaptic neural activity associated with a cognitive event. Loss of synapses is a hallmark of the neuropathology of early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that ERP responses during working memory retrieval discriminate aMCI from cognitively normal controls (NC) matched in age and education...
January 19, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098781/distinct-neurotoxicity-profile-of-listeriolysin-o-from-listeria-monocytogenes
#12
Jana Maurer, Sabrina Hupp, Carolin Bischoff, Christina Foertsch, Timothy J Mitchell, Trinad Chakraborty, Asparouh I Iliev
Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are protein toxins that originate from Gram-positive bacteria and contribute substantially to their pathogenicity. CDCs bind membrane cholesterol and build prepores and lytic pores. Some effects of the toxins are observed in non-lytic concentrations. Two pathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes, cause fatal bacterial meningitis, and both produce toxins of the CDC family-pneumolysin and listeriolysin O, respectively. It has been demonstrated that pneumolysin produces dendritic varicosities (dendrite swellings) and dendritic spine collapse in the mouse neocortex, followed by synaptic loss and astrocyte cell shape remodeling without elevated cell death...
January 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098256/dopamine-promotes-nmda-receptor-hypofunction-in-the-retina-through-d1-receptor-mediated-csk-activation-src-inhibition-and-decrease-of-glun2b-phosphorylation
#13
Renato Socodato, Felipe N Santiago, Camila C Portugal, Ivan Domith, Thaísa G Encarnação, Erick C Loiola, Ana L M Ventura, Marcelo Cossenza, João B Relvas, Newton G Castro, Roberto Paes-de-Carvalho
Dopamine and glutamate are critical neurotransmitters involved in light-induced synaptic activity in the retina. In brain neurons, dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) and the cytosolic protein tyrosine kinase Src can, independently, modulate the behavior of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs). Here we studied the interplay between D1Rs, Src and NMDARs in retinal neurons. We reveal that dopamine-mediated D1R stimulation provoked NMDAR hypofunction in retinal neurons by attenuating NMDA-gated currents, by preventing NMDA-elicited calcium mobilization and by decreasing the phosphorylation of NMDAR subunit GluN2B...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098243/vanillic-acid-attenuates-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-oxidative-stress-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#14
Faiz Ul Amin, Shahid Ali Shah, Myeong Ok Kim
Increasing evidence demonstrates that β-amyloid (Aβ) elicits oxidative stress, which contributes to the pathogenesis and disease progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aims of the present study were to determine and explore the antioxidant nature and potential mechanism of vanillic acid (VA) in Aβ1-42-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation mediated cognitive impairment in mice. An intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ1-42 into the mouse brain triggered increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, neuroinflammation, synaptic deficits, memory impairment, and neurodegeneration...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096877/efficacy-and-safety-of-bitopertin-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-predominant-negative-symptoms-subgroup-analysis-of-japanese-patients-from-the-global-randomized-phase-2-trial
#15
Yoshio Hirayasu, Shin-Ichi Sato, Norifumi Shuto, Miwa Nakano, Teruhiko Higuchi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to perform a subgroup analysis of data from a phase II global, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bitopertin, a glycine reuptake inhibitor that activates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by increasing the concentration of glycine in the synaptic cleft, in Japanese and non-Japanese patients with schizophrenia and predominant negative symptoms. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia and predominant negative symptoms on one or two antipsychotic drugs, including atypical antipsychotic drugs (olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole, and paliperidone) as the primary treatment, received bitopertin (10, 30, or 60 mg/day) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks as an add-on treatment...
January 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096498/differential-changes-in-hippocampal-camkii-and-glua1-activity-after-memory-training-involving-different-levels-of-adaptive-forgetting
#16
Nicolas Fraize, Al Mahdy Hamieh, Mickaël Antoine Joseph, Monique Touret, Régis Parmentier, Paul Antoine Salin, Gaël Malleret
Phosphorylation of CaMKII and AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit has been shown to play a major role in hippocampal-dependent long-term/reference memory (RM) and in the expression of long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP). In contrast, it has been proposed that dephosphorylation of these proteins could be involved in the opposite phenomenon of hippocampal long-term synaptic depression (LTD) and in adaptive forgetting. Adaptive forgetting allows interfering old memories to be forgotten to give new ones the opportunity to be stored in memory, and in particular in short-term/working memory (WM) that was shown to be very sensitive to proactive interference...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096365/unlocking-tn3-family-transposase-activity-in-vitro-unveils-an-asymetric-pathway-for-transposome-assembly
#17
Emilien Nicolas, Cédric A Oger, Nathan Nguyen, Michaël Lambin, Amandine Draime, Sébastien C Leterme, Michael Chandler, Bernard F J Hallet
The Tn3 family is a widespread group of replicative transposons that are notorious for their contribution to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multiresistant pathogens worldwide. The TnpA transposase of these elements catalyzes DNA breakage and rejoining reactions required for transposition. It also is responsible for target immunity, a phenomenon that prevents multiple insertions of the transposon into the same genomic region. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby TnpA acts in both processes remain unknown...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095619/new-recipes-with-campari-for-snapshots-of-synaptic-circuit-activity
#18
Ronan Chéreau, Anthony Holtmaat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095420/molecular-mechanism-of-disease-associated-mutations-in-the-pre-m1-helix-of-nmda-receptors-and-potential-rescue-pharmacology
#19
Kevin K Ogden, Wenjuan Chen, Sharon A Swanger, Miranda J McDaniel, Linlin Z Fan, Chun Hu, Anel Tankovic, Hirofumi Kusumoto, Gabrielle J Kosobucki, Anthony J Schulien, Zhuocheng Su, Joseph Pecha, Subhrajit Bhattacharya, Slavé Petrovski, Adam E Cohen, Elias Aizenman, Stephen F Traynelis, Hongjie Yuan
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), ligand-gated ionotropic glutamate receptors, play key roles in normal brain development and various neurological disorders. Here we use standing variation data from the human population to assess which protein domains within NMDAR GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B subunits show the strongest signal for being depleted of missense variants. We find that this includes the GluN2 pre-M1 helix and linker between the agonist-binding domain (ABD) and first transmembrane domain (M1). We then evaluate the functional changes of multiple missense mutations in the NMDAR pre-M1 helix found in children with epilepsy and developmental delay...
January 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095198/effects-of-small-world-rewiring-probability-and-noisy-synaptic-conductivity-on-slow-waves-cortical-network
#20
Ramazan Tekin, Mehmet Emin Tagluk
Physiological rhythms play a critical role in the functional development of living beings. Many biological functions are executed with an interaction of rhythms produced by internal characteristics of scores of cells. While synchronized oscillations may be associated with normal brain functions, anomalies in these oscillations may cause or relate the emergence of some neurological or neuropsychological pathologies. This study was designed to investigate the effects of topological structure and synaptic conductivity noise on the spatial synchronization and temporal rhythmicity of the waves generated by cells in the network...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
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