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Synaptic activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531318/agrp-expressing-adrenal-chromaffin-cells-are-involved-in-the-sympathetic-response-to-fasting
#1
Rajesh Gupta, Yunbing Ma, Manqi Wang, Matthew D Whim
Fasting evokes a homeostatic response that maintains circulating levels of energy-rich metabolites and increases the drive to eat. Centrally this reflex activates a small population of hypothalamic neurons that are characterized by the expression of AgRP, a neuropeptide with an extremely restricted distribution. Apart from the hypothalamus the only other site with significant expression is the adrenal gland but there is disagreement about which cells synthesize AgRP. Using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and RT-PCR we show AgRP is present in the mouse adrenal medulla and is expressed by neuroendocrine chromaffin cells that also synthesize the catecholamines and neuropeptide Y...
May 22, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530340/-can-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-be-prevented-with-glucocorticoids
#2
REVIEW
Hagit Cohen, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a major role in orchestrating the complex physiological and behavioral reactions essential for the maintenance of homeostasis. These compounds enable the organism to prepare for, respond to and cope with the acute demands of physical and emotional stressors. The appropriate GC release, commensurate with stressor severity, enables the body to properly contain stress responses so as to promote recovery by rapidly restoring homeostasis. Indeed, inadequate GC release following stress not only delays recovery by disrupting biological homeostasis in the short run but can also interfere with the processing or interpretation of stressful information that results in long-term disruptions in memory integration...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529531/the-protective-effect-of-lavender-essential-oil-and-its-main-component-linalool-against-the-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-d-galactose-and-aluminum-trichloride-in-mice
#3
Pan Xu, Kezhu Wang, Cong Lu, Liming Dong, Li Gao, Ming Yan, Silafu Aibai, Yanyan Yang, Xinmin Liu
Lavender essential oil (LO) is a traditional medicine used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It was extracted from Lavandula angustifolia Mill. This study was designed to investigate the effects of lavender essential oil (LO) and its active component, linalool (LI), against cognitive impairment induced by D-galactose (D-gal) and AlCl3 in mice and to explore the related mechanisms. Our results revealed that LO (100 mg/kg) or LI (100 mg/kg) significantly protected the cognitive impairments as assessed by the Morris water maze test and step-though test...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528673/acid-sensing-ion-channel-pharmacology-past-present-and-future-%C3%A2
#4
Lachlan D Rash
pH is one of the most strictly controlled parameters in mammalian physiology. An extracellular pH of ~7.4 is crucial for normal physiological processes, and perturbations to this have profound effects on cell function. Acidic microenvironments occur in many physiological and pathological conditions, including inflammation, bone remodeling, ischemia, trauma, and intense synaptic activity. Cells exposed to these conditions respond in different ways, from tumor cells that thrive to neurons that are either suppressed or hyperactivated, often fatally...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526611/alcohol-induces-input-specific-aberrant-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-rat-dorsomedial-striatum
#5
Tengfei Ma, Britton Barbee, Xuehua Wang, Jun Wang
Accumulated evidence suggests that the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of the basal ganglia plays an essential role in pathological excessive alcohol consumption. The DMS receives multiple glutamatergic inputs. However, whether and how alcohol consumption distinctly affects these excitatory afferents to the DMS remains unknown. Here, we used optogenetics to selectively activate the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) inputs in DMS slices, and measured the effects of alcohol consumption on glutamatergic transmission in these corticostriatal and amygdalostriatal circuits...
May 16, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525560/activity-dependent-gene-expression-in-the-mammalian-olfactory-epithelium
#6
Qiang Wang, William B Titlow, Declan A McClintock, Arnold J Stromberg, Timothy S McClintock
Activity-dependent processes are important to olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in several ways, such as cell survival and the specificity of axonal convergence. The identification of activity-dependent mRNAs has contributed to our understanding of OSN axon convergence, but has revealed surprisingly little about other processes. Published studies of activity-dependent mRNAs in olfactory mucosae overlap poorly, but by combining these agreements with meta-analysis of existing data we identify 443 mRNAs that respond to methods that alter OSN activity...
May 19, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524815/anchoring-high-concentrations-of-syngap-at-postsynaptic-densities-via-liquid-liquid-phase-separation
#7
Menglong Zeng, Guanhua Bai, Mingjie Zhang
SynGAP, encoded by SYNGAP1, is a Ras/Rap GTPase activator specifically expressed in the nervous systems. SynGAP is one of the most abundant proteins in the postsynaptic densities (PSDs) of excitatory synapses and acts as a critical synaptic activity brake by tuning down synaptic GTPase activities. Mutations of SYNGAP1 have been frequently linked to brain disorders including intellectual disability, autisms, and seizure. SynGAP has been shown to undergo fast dispersions from synapses in response to stimulations, a strategy that neurons use to control the specific activities of the enzyme within the tiny, semi-open compartments in dendritic spines...
May 19, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524267/synaptic-activity-suppresses-expression-of-neurogenic-differentiation-factor-2-in-an-nmda-receptor-dependent-manner
#8
Fading Chen, Benjamin J Hall
Neurogenic differentiation factor 2 (NeuroD2) is a highly expressed transcription factor in the developing central nervous system. In newborn neurons, NeuroD2-mediated gene expression promotes differentiation, maturation, and survival. In addition to these early, cell-intrinsic developmental processes, NeuroD2 in post-mitotic neurons also regulates synapse growth and ion channel expression to control excitability. While NeuroD2 transactivation can be induced in an activity-dependent manner, little is known about how expression of NeuroD2 itself is regulated...
May 19, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522972/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-bipolar-rod-shaped-microglia-and-their-roles-in-neurodegeneration
#9
Ngan Pan Bennett Au, Chi Him Eddie Ma
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522792/transgenic-autoinhibition-of-p21-activated-kinase-exacerbates-synaptic-impairments-and-fronto-dependent-behavioral-deficits-in-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Cyril Bories, Dany Arsenault, Myriam Lemire, Cyntia Tremblay, Yves De Koninck, Frédéric Calon
Defects in p21-activated kinase (PAK) lead to dendritic spine abnormalities and are sufficient to cause cognition impairment. The decrease in PAK in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is suspected to underlie synaptic and dendritic disturbances associated with its clinical expression, particularly with symptoms related to frontal cortex dysfunction. To investigate the role of PAK combined with Aβ and tau pathologies (3xTg-AD mice) in the frontal cortex, we generated a transgenic model of AD with a deficit in PAK activity (3xTg-AD-dnPAK mice)...
May 16, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522470/three-dimensional-ca-2-imaging-advances-understanding-of-astrocyte-biology
#11
Erika Bindocci, Iaroslav Savtchouk, Nicolas Liaudet, Denise Becker, Giovanni Carriero, Andrea Volterra
Astrocyte communication is typically studied by two-dimensional calcium ion (Ca(2+)) imaging, but this method has not yielded conclusive data on the role of astrocytes in synaptic and vascular function. We developed a three-dimensional two-photon imaging approach and studied Ca(2+) dynamics in entire astrocyte volumes, including during axon-astrocyte interactions. In both awake mice and brain slices, we found that Ca(2+) activity in an individual astrocyte is scattered throughout the cell, largely compartmented between regions, preponderantly local within regions, and heterogeneously distributed regionally and locally...
May 19, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522119/neural-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-from-circuit-to-molecule-perspective-of-optogenetics
#12
REVIEW
Qinghu Yang, Da Song, Hong Qing
Alzheimer's disease (AD), as a crucial neurodegenerative disorder, affects neural activities at many levels. Synaptic plasticity and neural circuits are most susceptible in AD, but the detailed mechanism is unclear. Optogenetic tools provide unprecedented spatio-temporal specificity to stimulate specific neural circuits or synaptic molecules to reveal the precise function of normal brain and mechanism of deficits in AD models. Furthermore, using optogenetics to stimulate neurons can rescue learning and memory loss caused by AD...
May 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521906/spinal-cord-regeneration-by-modulating-bone-marrow-with-neurotransmitters-and-citicholine-analysis-at-micromolecular-level
#13
Cheramadathukudiyil Skaria Paulose, Ponnezhathu Sebastian John, Romeo Chinthu, Puthenveetil Raju Akhilraj, Thoppil Raveendran Anju
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury results in disruption of brain-spinal cord fibre connectivity, leading to progressive tissue damage at the site of injury and resultant paralysis of varying degrees. The current study investigated the role of autologous bone marrow modulated with neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter stimulating agent, Citicholine, in spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats. METHODS: Radioreceptor assay using [3H] ligand was carried out to quantify muscarinic receptor...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521133/camkii-autophosphorylation-is-necessary-for-optimal-integration-of-ca-2-signals-during-ltp-induction-but-not-maintenance
#14
Jui-Yun Chang, Paula Parra-Bueno, Tal Laviv, Erzsebet M Szatmari, Seok-Jin R Lee, Ryohei Yasuda
CaMKII plays a critical role in decoding calcium (Ca(2+)) signals to initiate long-lasting synaptic plasticity. However, the properties of CaMKII that mediate Ca(2+) signals in spines remain elusive. Here, we measured CaMKII activity in spines using fast-framing two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging. Following each pulse during repetitive Ca(2+) elevations, CaMKII activity increased in a stepwise manner. Thr286 phosphorylation slows the decay of CaMKII and thus lowers the frequency required to induce spine plasticity by several fold...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520784/presynaptic-a%C3%AE-40-prevents-synapse-addition-in-the-adult-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#15
Begoña López-Arias, Enrique Turiégano, Ignacio Monedero, Inmaculada Canal, Laura Torroja
Complexity in the processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, which generates a mixture of βamyloid peptides, lies beneath the difficulty in understanding the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, whether Aβ peptides have any physiological role in neurons is an unresolved question. By expressing single, defined Aβ peptides in Drosophila, specific effects can be discriminated in vivo. Here, we show that in the adult neuromuscular junction (NMJ), presynaptic expression of Aβ40 hinders the synaptic addition that normally occurs in adults, yielding NMJs with an invariable number of active zones at all ages tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518121/two-algorithms-for-high-throughput-and-multi-parametric-quantification-of-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction-morphology
#16
Anna Castells-Nobau, Bonnie Nijhof, Ilse Eidhof, Louis Wolf, Jolanda M Scheffer-de Gooyert, Ignacio Monedero, Laura Torroja, Jeroen A W M van der Laak, Annette Schenck
Synaptic morphology is tightly related to synaptic efficacy, and in many cases morphological synapse defects ultimately lead to synaptic malfunction. The Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a well-established model for glutamatergic synapses, has been extensively studied for decades. Identification of mutations causing NMJ morphological defects revealed a repertoire of genes that regulate synapse development and function. Many of these were identified in large-scale studies that focused on qualitative approaches to detect morphological abnormalities of the Drosophila NMJ...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518090/flash-and-freeze-a-novel-technique-to-capture-membrane-dynamics-with-electron-microscopy
#17
Shuo Li, Sumana Raychaudhuri, Shigeki Watanabe
Cells constantly change their membrane architecture and protein distribution, but it is extremely difficult to visualize these events at a temporal and spatial resolution on the order of ms and nm, respectively. We have developed a time-resolved electron microscopy technique, "flash-and-freeze," that induces cellular events with optogenetics and visualizes the resulting membrane dynamics by freezing cells at defined time points after stimulation. To demonstrate this technique, we expressed channelrhodopsin, a light-sensitive cation channel, in mouse hippocampal neurons...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515682/nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibitor-attenuates-the-effects-of-repeated-restraint-stress-on-synaptic-transmission-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-rat-hypothalamus
#18
Magdalena Kusek, Anna Tokarska, Marcin Siwiec, Anna Gadek-Michalska, Bernadeta Szewczyk, Grzegorz Hess, Krzysztof Tokarski
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-synthesizing parvocellular neuroendocrine cells (PNCs) of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) play a key role in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Several studies have demonstrated that synaptic inputs to these cells may undergo stress-related enhancement but, on the other hand, it has been reported that exposition to the same stressor for prolonged time periods may induce a progressive reduction in the response of the HPA axis to homotypic stressors...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515681/the-activity-induced-long-non-coding-rna-meg3-modulates-ampa-receptor-surface-expression-in-primary-cortical-neurons
#19
Men C Tan, Jocelyn Widagdo, Yu Q Chau, Tianyi Zhu, Justin J-L Wong, Allen Cheung, Victor Anggono
Transcription of new RNA is crucial for maintaining synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Although the importance of synaptic plasticity-related messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is well established, the role of a large group of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in long-term potentiation (LTP) is not known. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of a lncRNA cluster, namely maternally expressed gene 3 (Meg3), retrotransposon-like gene 1-anti-sense (Rtl1-AS), Meg8 and Meg9, which is located in the maternally imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 region on mouse chromosome 12qF1, in primary cortical neurons following glycine stimulation in an N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent manner...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515678/soluble-ectodomain-of-neuroligin-1-decreases-synaptic-activity-by-activating-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-2
#20
Michelle D Gjørlund, Eva M M Carlsen, Andreas B Kønig, Oksana Dmytrieva, Anders V Petersen, Jacob Jacobsen, Vladimir Berezin, Jean-François Perrier, Sylwia Owczarek
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules represent important targets for neuronal activity-dependent proteolysis. Postsynaptic neuroligins (NLs) form trans-synaptic complexes with presynaptic neurexins (NXs). Both NXs and NLs are cleaved from the cell surface by metalloproteases in an activity-dependent manner, releasing a soluble extracellular fragment and membrane-tethered C-terminal fragment. The cleavage of NL1 depresses synaptic transmission, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) are located primarily at the periphery of presynaptic terminals, where they inhibit the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and consequently suppress the release of glutamate and decrease synaptic transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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