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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926876/potentiation-of-synaptic-glun2b-nmdar-currents-by-fyn-kinase-is-gated-through-bdnf-mediated-disinhibition-in-spinal-pain-processing
#1
Michael E Hildebrand, Jian Xu, Annemarie Dedek, Yi Li, Ameet S Sengar, Simon Beggs, Paul J Lombroso, Michael W Salter
In chronic pain states, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transforms the output of lamina I spinal neurons by decreasing synaptic inhibition. Pain hypersensitivity also depends on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and Src-family kinases, but the locus of NMDAR dysregulation remains unknown. Here, we show that NMDAR-mediated currents at lamina I synapses are potentiated in a peripheral nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. We find that BDNF mediates NMDAR potentiation through activation of TrkB and phosphorylation of the GluN2B subunit by the Src-family kinase Fyn...
December 6, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926574/neural-activity-memory-and-dementias-serotonergic-markers
#2
Alfredo Meneses
Dysfunctional memory seems to be a key component of diverse dementias and other neuropsychiatric disorders; unfortunately, no effective treatment exists for this, probably because of the absence of neural biomarkers accompanying it. Diverse neurotransmission systems have been implicated in memory, including serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). There are multiple serotonergic pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species and neural markers providing new insights into memory functions and dysfunctions...
December 6, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925199/dopamine-dependent-effects-on-basal-and-glutamate-stimulated-network-dynamics-in-cultured-hippocampal-neurons
#3
Yan Li, Xin Chen, Rhonda Dzakpasu, Katherine Conant
Oscillatory activity occurs in cortical and hippocampal networks with specific frequency ranges thought to be critical to working memory, attention, differentiation of neuronal precursors, and memory trace replay. Synchronized activity within relatively large neuronal populations is influenced by firing and bursting frequency within individual cells, and the latter is modulated by changes in intrinsic membrane excitability and synaptic transmission. Published work suggests that dopamine (DA), a potent modulator of learning and memory, acts on dopamine receptor 1-like dopamine receptors (D1Rs) to influence the phosphorylation and trafficking of glutamate receptor subunits, along with long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory synaptic transmission in striatum and prefrontal cortex...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923742/neuronal-adaptation-in-the-somatosensory-system-of-rodents
#4
REVIEW
I Lampl, Y Katz
The sensory systems in animals constantly monitor the environment and process salient and relevant features while subtracting background activity. This process requires continuous recalibration of neuronal gain based on recent history. Adaptation has been postulated to be the key mechanism by which neurons rapidly tune their response curves to represent the entire dynamic range of external inputs. Rodents heavily rely on their vibrissa system while gathering information about their surroundings using whisking...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922847/apolipoprotein-e-metabolism-and-functions-in-brain-and-its-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Fan Liao, Hyejin Yoon, Jungsu Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: APOE4 genotype is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Prevailing evidence suggests that amyloid β plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this article is to review the recent findings about the metabolism of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and amyloid β and other possible mechanisms by which ApoE contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: ApoE isoforms have differential effects on amyloid β metabolism...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922840/sevoflurane-exposure-during-the-critical-period-affects-synaptic-transmission-and-mitochondrial-respiration-but-not-long-term-behavior-in-mice
#6
Woosuk Chung, Min Jeong Ryu, Jun Young Heo, Soomin Lee, Seunghwan Yoon, Haram Park, Sangil Park, Yangsik Kim, Yoon Hee Kim, Seok Hwa Yoon, Yong Sup Shin, Won Hyung Lee, Xianshu Ju, Gi Ryang Kweon, Youngkwon Ko
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia during the synaptogenic period induces dendritic spine formation, which may affect neurodevelopment. The authors, therefore, evaluated whether changes in synaptic transmission after dendritic spine formation induced by sevoflurane were associated with long-term behavioral changes. The effects of sevoflurane on mitochondrial function were also assessed to further understand the mechanism behind spinogenesis. METHODS: Postnatal day 16 to 17 mice were exposed to sevoflurane (2...
December 6, 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921176/two-feet-on-the-membrane-uptake-of-clostridial-neurotoxins
#7
Andreas Rummel
The extraordinary potency of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is mediated by their high neurospecificity, targeting peripheral cholinergic motoneurons leading to flaccid and spastic paralysis, respectively, and successive respiratory failure. Complex polysialo gangliosides accumulate BoNT and TeNT on the plasma membrane. The ganglioside binding in BoNT/A, B, E, F, G, and TeNT occurs via a conserved ganglioside-binding pocket within the most carboxyl-terminal 25 kDa domain HCC, whereas BoNT/C, DC, and D display here two different ganglioside binding sites...
December 1, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920150/heterotrimeric-kinesin-2-together-with-kinesin-1-steers-vesicular-acetylcholinesterase-movements-toward-the-synapse
#8
Anuttama Kulkarni, Yasmin Khan, Krishanu Ray
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which is implicated in the pathophysiology of neurological disorders, is distributed along the axon and enriched at the presynaptic basal lamina. It hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which inhibits synaptic transmission. Aberrant AChE activity and ectopic axonal accumulation of the enzyme are associated with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism that underlies AChE transport is still unclear. Here, we show that expression of Drosophila AChE tagged with photoactivable green fluorescent protein and m-Cherry (GPAC) in cholinergic neurons compensates for the RNA interference-mediated knockdown of endogenous AChE activity...
December 5, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920149/mir-142-3p-is-a-key-regulator-of-il-1%C3%AE-dependent-synaptopathy-in-neuroinflammation
#9
Georgia Mandolesi, Francesca De Vito, Alessandra Musella, Antonietta Gentile, Silvia Bullitta, Diego Fresegna, Helena Sepman, Claudio Di Sanza, Nabila Haji, Francesco Mori, Fabio Buttari, Emerald Perlas, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Eran Hornstein, Irene Bozzoni, Carlo Presutti, Diego Centonze
: MicroRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in posttranscriptional gene regulation of several physiological and pathological processes. In multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory and degenerative disease of the CNS, and in its mouse model, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), miRNA dysregulation has been mainly related to immune system dysfunction and white matter pathology. However, little is known about their role in grey matter pathology. Here, we explored miRNA involvement in the inflammation-driven alterations of synaptic structure and function, collectively known as synaptopathy, a neuropathological process contributing to excitotoxic neurodegeneration in MS/EAE...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920147/accumbens-nnos-interneurons-regulate-cocaine-relapse
#10
Alexander C W Smith, Michael D Scofield, Jasper A Heinsbroek, Cassandra D Gipson, Daniela Neuhofer, Doug J Roberts-Wolfe, Sade Spencer, Neringa M Stankeviciute, Rachel Smith, Nicholas P Allen, Melissa R Lorang, William C Griffin, Heather A Boger, Peter W Kalivas
: Relapse to drug use can be initiated by drug-associated cues. The intensity of cue-induced relapse is correlated with the induction of transient synaptic potentiation (t-SP) at glutamatergic synapses on medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore), and requires spillover of glutamate from prefrontal cortical afferents. We used a rodent self-administration/reinstatement model of relapse to show that cue-induced t-SP and reinstated cocaine-seeking result from glutamate spillover initiating a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-dependent increase in nitric oxide (NO) production...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919769/transcriptomic-changes-in-rat-cortex-and-brainstem-after-cortical-spreading-depression-with-or-without-pre-treatment-with-migraine-prophylactic-drugs
#11
Cèlia Sintas, Noèlia Fernàndez-Castillo, Marta Vila-Pueyo, Patricia Pozo-Rosich, Alfons Macaya, Bru Cormand
: Migraine with aura is a subtype of migraine consisting of neurological disturbances that usually precede headache. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is the likely pathophysiological correlate of the aura phase of migraine, found in common and rare forms of migraine, such as familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM). CSD is a depolarization wave that propagates across the cerebral gray matter transiently suppressing neuronal activity. Prophylactic treatments for migraine, such as topiramate (TPM) or valproate (VPA), reduce the number of CSD events...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919332/effects-of-ionizing-radiation-on-the-mammalian-brain
#12
Daniela Hladik, Soile Tapio
Epidemiological studies on the atomic-bomb survivors, cancer survivors and occupational cohorts provide strong evidence for multifaceted damage to brain after ionizing radiation. Radiation-induced late effects may manifest as brain tumors or cognitive impairment. Decreased neurogenesis and differentiation, alteration in neural structure and synaptic plasticity as well as increased oxidative stress and inflammation are suggested to contribute to adverse effects in the brain. In addition to neural stems cells, several brain-specific mature cell types including endothelial and glial cells are negatively affected by ionizing radiation...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919067/genome-wide-changes-in-lncrna-splicing-and-regional-gene-expression-patterns-in-autism
#13
Neelroop N Parikshak, Vivek Swarup, T Grant Belgard, Manuel Irimia, Gokul Ramaswami, Michael J Gandal, Christopher Hartl, Virpi Leppa, Luis de la Torre Ubieta, Jerry Huang, Jennifer K Lowe, Benjamin J Blencowe, Steve Horvath, Daniel H Geschwind
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves substantial genetic contributions. These contributions are profoundly heterogeneous but may converge on common pathways that are not yet well understood. Here, through post-mortem genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the largest cohort of samples analysed so far, to our knowledge, we interrogate the noncoding transcriptome, alternative splicing, and upstream molecular regulators to broaden our understanding of molecular convergence in ASD. Our analysis reveals ASD-associated dysregulation of primate-specific long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), downregulation of the alternative splicing of activity-dependent neuron-specific exons, and attenuation of normal differences in gene expression between the frontal and temporal lobes...
December 5, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919008/phenotype-analysis-of-male-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-mutant-igfbp-2-lacking-the-cardin-weintraub-sequence-motif-reduced-expression-of-synaptic-markers-and-myelin-basic-protein-in-the-brain-and-a-lower-degree-of-anxiety-like-behaviour
#14
N Schindler, J Mayer, S Saenger, U Gimsa, C Walz, J Brenmoehl, D Ohde, E Wirthgen, A Tuchscherer, V C Russo, M Frank, T Kirschstein, F Metzger, A Hoeflich
Brain growth and function are regulated by insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) but also by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), including IGFBP-2. In addition to modulating IGF activities, IGFBP-2 interacts with a number of components of the extracellular matrix and cell membrane via a Cardin-Weintraub sequence or heparin binding domain (HBD1). The nature and the signalling elicited by these interactions are not fully understood. Here, we examined transgenic mice (H1d-hBP2) overexpressing a mutant human IGFBP-2 that lacks a specific heparin binding domain (HBD1) known as the Cardin-Weintraub sequence...
November 16, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918079/high-intensity-treadmill-running-impairs-cognitive-behavior-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-of-rats-via-activation-of-inflammatory-response
#15
Li-Na Sun, Xiao-Long Li, Fei Wang, Jun Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Li Yuan, Mei-Na Wu, Zhao-Jun Wang, Jin-Shun Qi
Although appropriate exercise is beneficial for enhancing brain functions, high-intensity exercise (HIE)-induced cognitive dysfunction is causing more and more concerns nowadays. In the present study, we observed the effects of high-intensity treadmill running on the spatial learning of the adult Sprague Dawley male rats in Y-maze (n = 16 per group), and investigated its possible electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms by examining in vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), central inflammatory responses, and JNK/p38/ERK signal pathway...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917477/the-synaptic-vesicle-protein-sv31-assembles-into-a-dimer-and-transports-zn-2
#16
Lisa Waberer, Erik Henrich, Oliver Peetz, Nina Morgner, Volker Dötsch, Frank Bernhard, Walter Volknandt
The integral synaptic vesicle protein SV31 has been shown to bind divalent cations. Here, we demonstrate that SV31 protein synthesized within a cell-free system binds Zn(2+) and to a lower extent Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) ions. Expression with Zn(2+) stabilized the protein and increased solubility. SV31 was preferentially monomeric in detergent and revealed specific binding of Zn(2+) . When co-translationally inserted into defined nanodisc bilayers, SV31 assembled into dimeric complexes, resulting in increased binding of Zn(2+) ...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916729/enkephalin-and-neuropeptide-y-interaction-in-the-intergeniculate-leaflet-network-a-part-of-the-mammalian-biological-clock
#17
K Palus, L Chrobok, M Kepczynski, M H Lewandowski
The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) is a flat thalamic nucleus implicated in the modulation of circadian rhythmicity. In rat, two main GABAergic subpopulations can be distinguished in the IGL: neurons synthesising neuropeptide Y (NPY), which directly innervates the suprachiasmatic nuclei, and enkephalinergic cells, which connect contralaterally located leaflets. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible effects of inner IGL neurotransmitters on the spontaneous and synaptic activity of IGL neurons. The data presented in this article provide evidence that enkephalin, and not NPY, could act upon the majority of IGL neurons...
December 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916623/multiple-beneficial-effects-of-melanocortin-mc4-receptor-agonists-in-experimental-neurodegenerative-disorders-therapeutic-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Daniela Giuliani, Alessandra Ottani, Laura Neri, Davide Zaffe, Paolo Grieco, Jerzy Jochem, Gian Maria Cavallini, Anna Catania, Salvatore Guarini
Melanocortin peptides induce neuroprotection in acute and chronic experimental neurodegenerative conditions. Melanocortins likewise counteract systemic responses to brain injuries. Furthermore, they promote neurogenesis by activating critical signaling pathways. Melanocortin-induced long-lasting improvement in synaptic activity and neurological performance, including learning and memory, sensory-motor orientation and coordinated limb use, has been consistently observed in experimental models of acute and chronic neurodegeneration...
December 1, 2016: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915379/nr2a-and-nr2b-nmda-receptors-and-drebrin-within-postsynaptic-spines-of-the-hippocampus-correlate-with-hunger-evoked-exercise
#19
Yi-Wen Chen, Hannah Actor-Engel, Ang Doma Sherpa, Lauren Klingensmith, Tara G Chowdhury, Chiye Aoki
Hunger evokes foraging. This innate response can be quantified as voluntary wheel running following food restriction (FR). Paradoxically, imposing severe FR evokes voluntary FR, as some animals choose to run rather than eat, even during limited periods of food availability. This phenomenon, called activity-based anorexia (ABA), has been used to identify brain changes associated with FR and excessive exercise (EX), two core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN), and to explore neurobiological bases of AN vulnerability...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915209/development-of-neural-population-activity-towards-self-organized-criticality
#20
Yuichiro Yada, Takeshi Mita, Akihiro Sanada, Ryuichi Yano, Ryohei Kanzaki, Douglas J Bakkum, Andreas Hierlemann, Hirokazu Takahashi
Self-organized criticality (SoC), a spontaneous dynamic state established and maintained in networks of moderate complexity, is a universal characteristic of neural systems. Such systems produce cascades of spontaneous activity that are typically characterized by power-law distributions and rich, stable spatiotemporal patterns (i.e., neuronal avalanches). Since the dynamics of the critical state confer advantages in information processing within neuronal networks, it is of great interest to determine how criticality emerges during development...
November 30, 2016: Neuroscience
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