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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239126/sexual-dimorphism-in-microglia-and-synapses-during-mouse-postnatal-development
#1
Laetitia Weinhard, Urte Neniskyte, Auguste Vadisiute, Giulia di Bartolomei, Nil Aygün, Laurie Riviere, Francesca Zonfrillo, Susan Dymecki, Cornelius Gross
Microglia participate in synapse remodeling in the cortex and hippocampus during mouse postnatal development. Although sex differences in microglia activity during embryonic development have been reported in these regions, it remains unexplored whether microglia show sexually dimorphic features during the early postnatal period, a critical window for synapse formation and maturation. Here, we investigated morphological and functional features of microglia across early postnatal development as well as morphological features of both pre- and postsynaptic neuronal compartments in the mouse hippocampus...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238619/hippocampal-regulation-of-postsynaptic-density-homer1-by-associative-learning
#2
Nicholas E Clifton, Darren Cameron, Simon Trent, Lucy H Sykes, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Genes involved in synaptic plasticity, particularly genes encoding postsynaptic density proteins, have been recurrently linked to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Postsynaptic density Homer1 proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity through the competing actions of short and long isoforms. The activity-induced expression of short Homer1 isoforms, Homer1a and Ania-3, is thought to be related to processes of learning and memory. However, the precise regulation of Homer1a and Ania-3 with different components of learning has not been investigated...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238291/modulation-of-neocortical-development-by-early-neuronal-activity-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#3
REVIEW
Sergei Kirischuk, Anne Sinning, Oriane Blanquie, Jenq-Wei Yang, Heiko J Luhmann, Werner Kilb
Animal and human studies revealed that patterned neuronal activity is an inherent feature of developing nervous systems. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the mechanisms generating early electrical activity patterns and their impact on structural and functional development of the cerebral cortex. All neocortical areas display distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, intermittent spontaneous activity is synchronized within small neuronal networks, becoming more complex with further development...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237730/an-allosteric-binding-site-of-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-revealed-in-a-humanized-acetylcholine-binding-protein
#4
Florian Delbart, Marijke Brams, Fabian Gruss, Sam Noppen, Steve Peigneur, Sandro Boland, Patrick Chaltin, Jose Brandao-Neto, Frank von Delft, Wouter G Touw, Robbie Joosten, Sandra Liekens, Jan Tytgat, Chris Ulens
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) belong to the family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels and mediate fast excitatory transmission in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Among the different existing receptor subtypes, the homomeric & α7 nAChR has attracted considerable attention because of its possible implication in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. Allosteric modulators of ligand-gated ion channels are of particular interest as therapeutic agents, as they modulate receptor activity without affecting normal fluctuations of synaptic neurotransmitter release...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237566/chronic-intermittent-ethanol-exposure-modulation-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-rat-lateral-basolateral-amygdala-is-duration-input-and-sex-dependent
#5
Melissa Morales, Molly M McGinnis, Stacey L Robinson, Ann M Chappell, Brian A McCool
The basolateral amygdala (BLA) controls numerous behaviors, like anxiety and reward seeking, via the activity of glutamatergic principal neurons. These BLA neurons receive excitatory inputs primarily via two major anatomical pathways - the external capsule (EC), which contains afferents from lateral cortical structures, and the stria terminalis (ST), containing synapses from more midline brain structures. Chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure/withdrawal produces distinct alterations in these pathways...
December 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236787/efficient-enhancement-of-information-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-during-the-presence-of-reward-predicting-stimuli
#6
Camilo J Mininni, César F Caiafa, B Silvano Zanutto, Kuei Y Tseng, Sergio E Lew
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a key brain structure for decision making, behavioural flexibility and working memory. Neurons in PFC encode relevant stimuli through changes in their firing rate, although the metabolic cost of spiking activity puts strong constrains to neural codes based on firing rate modulation. Thus, how PFC neural populations code relevant information in an efficient way is not clearly understood. To address this issue we made single unit recordings in the PFC of rats performing a GO/NOGO discrimination task and analysed how entropy between pairs of neurons changes during cue presentation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236669/-optically-dissecting-brain-nicotinic-receptor-function-with-photo-controllable-designer-receptors
#7
Romain Durand-de Cuttoli, Sarah Mondoloni, Alexandre Mourot
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery. They play an important modulatory role in learning, memory and attention, and have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, schizophrenia and addiction. These receptors are activated by the endogenous neurotransmitter acetylcholine, or by nicotine, the alkaloid found in tobacco leaves. Both molecules open the ion channel and cause the movement of cations across the membrane, which directly affects neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
2017: Biologie Aujourd'hui
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236160/ethanol-and-cytokines-in-the-central-nervous-system
#8
Marisa Roberto, Reesha R Patel, Michal Bajo
The innate immune system plays a critical role in the ethanol-induced neuroimmune response in the brain. Ethanol initiates the innate immune response via activation of the innate immune receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs, e.g., TLR4, TLR3, TLR7) and NOD-like receptors (inflammasome NLRs) leading to a release of a plethora of chemokines and cytokines and development of the innate immune response. Cytokines and chemokines can have pro- or anti-inflammatory properties through which they regulate the immune response...
December 14, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235097/activation-of-astrocytic-par1-receptors-in-the-rat-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract-regulates-breathing-through-modulation-of-presynaptic-trpv1
#9
Rafiq Huda, Zheng Chang, Jeehaeh Do, Donald R McCrimmon, Marco Martina
Many of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying astrocytic modulation of synaptic function remain poorly understood. Recent studies show that G-protein coupled receptor-mediated astrocyte activation modulates synaptic transmission in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), a brainstem nucleus that regulates crucial physiological processes including cardiorespiratory activity. By using calcium imaging and patch clamp recordings in acute brain slices of wild-type and TRPV1-/- rats, we show that activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) in NTS astrocytes potentiates presynaptic glutamate release on NTS neurons...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235092/bumetanide-blocks-the-acquisition-of-conditioned-fear-in-adult-rats
#10
Meng-Chang Ko, Ming-Chung Lee, Tso-Hao Tang, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Maria A Tikhonova, Yi-Ling Yang, Kwok-Tung Lu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Administration of bumetanide has anxiolytic effects in rat models of conditioned fear. As a loop diuretic, bumetanide may act as an anxiolytic by modulating GABAergic synaptic transmission through the antagonism of cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs). Its clinical potential for the treatment of anxiety disorders deserves further investigation. In this study, we evaluated the possible role of the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) in the anxiolytic effect of bumetanide...
December 12, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234440/morinda-officinalis-polysaccharides-stimulate-hypothalamic-gnrh-secretion-in-varicocele-progression
#11
Zhu Zhu, Feng Huang, Feng Wang, Yonghong Zhang, Xiaozhen Zhao, Wei Wang
Varicoceles (VCs) are the predominant cause of male infertility and are a risk factor for chronic venous disease. Morinda officinalis (M. officinalis) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to tonify the kidney and strengthen yang. In this study, we evaluated the effects of water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from M. officinalis (MOPs) on gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion in a classic experimental left VC (ELV) rat model. Intragastric administration of MOPs at a dose ranging from 50 mg kg-1 to 100 mg kg-1 facilitated improvements in sperm parameters and seminiferous epithelial structures, modulated serum hormone profiles, and stimulated GnRH synthesis and release in the hypothalamus...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234275/insulin-modulates-neural-activity-of-pyramidal-neurons-in-the-anterior-piriform-cortex
#12
Yang Zhou, Xiaojie Wang, Tiantian Cao, Jinshan Xu, Dejuan Wang, Diego Restrepo, Anan Li
Insulin is an important peptide hormone that regulates food intake and olfactory function. While a multitude of studies investigated the effect of insulin in the olfactory bulb and olfactory epithelium, research on how it modulates higher olfactory centers is lacking. Here we investigate how insulin modulates neural activity of pyramidal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex, a key olfactory signal processing center that plays important roles in odor perception, preference learning, and odor pattern separation...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234273/indirubin-derivative-7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime-7bio-attenuates-a%C3%AE-oligomer-induced-cognitive-impairments-in-mice
#13
Liping Chen, Chunhui Huang, Jieyi Shentu, Minjun Wang, Sicheng Yan, Fei Zhou, Zaijun Zhang, Chuang Wang, Yifan Han, Qinwen Wang, Wei Cui
Indirubins are natural occurring alkaloids extracted from indigo dye-containing plants. Indirubins could inhibit various kinases, and might be used to treat chronic myelocytic leukemia, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. 7-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (7Bio), an indirubin derivative derived from indirubin-3-oxime, possesses inhibitory effects against cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK5) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), two pharmacological targets of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we have discovered that 2...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234064/homeostatic-plasticity-and-synaptic-scaling-in-the-adult-mouse-auditory-cortex
#14
Manuel Teichert, Lutz Liebmann, Christian A Hübner, Jürgen Bolz
It has been demonstrated that sensory deprivation results in homeostatic adjustments recovering neuronal activity of the deprived cortex. For example, deprived vision multiplicatively scales up mEPSC amplitudes in the primary visual cortex, commonly referred to as synaptic scaling. However, whether synaptic scaling also occurs in auditory cortex after auditory deprivation remains elusive. Using periodic intrinsic optical imaging in adult mice, we show that conductive hearing loss (CHL), initially led to a reduction of primary auditory cortex (A1) responsiveness to sounds...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234016/activity-dependent-regulation-of-alternative-cleavage-and-polyadenylation-during-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation
#15
Mariana M Fontes, Aysegul Guvenek, Riki Kawaguchi, Dinghai Zheng, Alden Huang, Victoria M Ho, Patrick B Chen, Xiaochuan Liu, Thomas J O'Dell, Giovanni Coppola, Bin Tian, Kelsey C Martin
Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity that underlie learning and memory require new transcription and translation for their persistence. The remarkable polarity and compartmentalization of neurons raises questions about the spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression within neurons. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation (APA) generates mRNA isoforms with different 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) and/or coding sequences. Changes in the 3'UTR composition of mRNAs can alter gene expression by regulating transcript localization, stability and/or translation, while changes in the coding sequences lead to mRNAs encoding distinct proteins...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#16
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233555/human-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-rescues-functional-deficits-in-r6-2-and-q140-huntington-s-disease-mice
#17
Jack C Reidling, Aroa Relaño-Ginés, Sandra M Holley, Joseph Ochaba, Cindy Moore, Brian Fury, Alice Lau, Andrew H Tran, Sylvia Yeung, Delaram Salamati, Chunni Zhu, Asa Hatami, Carlos Cepeda, Joshua A Barry, Talia Kamdjou, Alvin King, Dane Coleal-Bergum, Nicholas R Franich, Frank M LaFerla, Joan S Steffan, Mathew Blurton-Jones, Charles K Meshul, Gerhard Bauer, Michael S Levine, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Leslie M Thompson
Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder with no disease-modifying treatment. Expansion of the glutamine-encoding repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene causes broad effects that are a challenge for single treatment strategies. Strategies based on human stem cells offer a promising option. We evaluated efficacy of transplanting a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-grade human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell (hNSC) line into striatum of HD modeled mice. In HD fragment model R6/2 mice, transplants improve motor deficits, rescue synaptic alterations, and are contacted by nerve terminals from mouse cells...
December 6, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232315/beneficial-effects-of-exercise-pretreatment-in-a-sporadic-alzheimer-s-rat-model
#18
Chongyun Wu, Luodan Yang, Donovan Tucker, Yan Dong, Ling Zhu, Rui Duan, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu, Quanguang Zhang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effects of swimming exercise pretreatment on a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced sporadic Alzheimer's disease rat model and provide an initial understanding of related molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Male 2.5-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following 4 groups: a) control, b) swim + vehicle, c) STZ without swim, and d) swim + STZ. The Barnes Maze task and Novel Object Recognition test were used to measure hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and working memory, respectively...
December 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231171/tracing-neuronal-circuits-in-transgenic-animals-by-transneuronal-control-of-transcription-tract
#19
Ting-Hao Huang, Peter Niesman, Deepshika Arasu, Daniel Lee, Aubrie De La Cruz, Antuca Callejas, Elizabeth J Hong, Carlos Lois
Understanding the computations that take place in brain circuits requires identifying how neurons in those circuits are connected to one another. We describe a technique called TRACT (TRAnsneuronal Control of Transcription) based on ligand-induced intramembrane proteolysis to reveal monosynaptic connections arising from genetically labeled neurons of interest. In this strategy, neurons expressing an artificial ligand ('donor' neurons) bind to and activate a genetically-engineered artificial receptor on their synaptic partners ('receiver' neurons)...
December 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230877/neonatal-mouse-cortical-but-not-isogenic-human-astrocyte-feeder-layers-enhance-the-functional-maturation-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons-in-culture
#20
Fritz W Lischka, Anastasia Efthymiou, Qiong Zhou, Michael D Nieves, Nikki M McCormack, Matthew D Wilkerson, Gauthaman Sukumar, Clifton L Dalgard, Martin L Doughty
Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived neurons and astrocytes are attractive cellular tools for nervous system disease modeling and drug screening. Optimal utilization of these tools requires differentiation protocols that efficiently generate functional cell phenotypes in vitro. As nervous system function is dependent on networked neuronal activity involving both neuronal and astrocytic synaptic functions, we examined astrocyte effects on the functional maturation of neurons from human iPS cell-derived neural stem cells (NSCs)...
December 12, 2017: Glia
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