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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453976/cell-type-specific-expression-of-constitutively-active-rheb-promotes-regeneration-of-bulbospinal-respiratory-axons-following-cervical-sci
#1
Mark W Urban, Biswarup Ghosh, Laura R Strojny, Cole G Block, Sara M Blazejewski, Megan C Wright, George M Smith, Angelo C Lepore
Damage to respiratory neural circuitry and consequent loss of diaphragm function is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Repair of CNS axons after SCI remains a therapeutic challenge, despite current efforts. SCI disrupts inspiratory signals originating in the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) of the medulla from their phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) targets, resulting in loss of diaphragm function. Using a rat model of cervical hemisection SCI, we aimed to restore rVRG-PhMN-diaphragm circuitry by stimulating regeneration of injured rVRG axons via targeted induction of Rheb (ras homolog enriched in brain), a signaling molecule that regulates neuronal-intrinsic axon growth potential...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453777/intramuscular-allopregnanolone-and-ganaxolone-in-a-mouse-model-of-treatment-resistant-status-epilepticus
#2
Dorota Zolkowska, Chun-Yi Wu, Michael A Rogawski
Allopregnanolone (5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one) and its synthetic 3β-methyl analog, ganaxolone, are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptors that exhibit antiseizure activity in diverse animal seizure models, including models of status epilepticus (SE). The 2 neuroactive steroids are being investigated as treatments for SE, including as a treatment for SE induced by chemical threat agents. Intramuscular injection is the preferred route of administration in the prehospital treatment of SE...
February 17, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452610/the-plasma-membrane-calcium-pumps-the-old-and-the-new
#3
REVIEW
Asma Zaidi, Mercy Adewale, Lauren McLean, Paul Ramlow
The plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA) pumps play a critical role in the maintenance of calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis, crucial for optimal neuronal function and cell survival. Loss of Ca 2+ homeostasis is a key precursor in neuronal dysfunction associated with brain aging and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this article, we review evidence showing age-related changes in the PMCAs in synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) and lipid raft microdomains isolated from rat brain. Both PMCA activity and protein levels decline progressively with increasing age...
January 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451024/network-pharmacology-based-screening-of-the-active-ingredients-and-potential-targets-of-the-genus-of-pithecellobium-marthae-britton-killip-niezgoda-nevl-for-application-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Han Zhang, Zhi-Yang Yan, Yu-Xi Wang, Ming Bai, Xiao-Bo Wang, Xiao-Xiao Huang, Shao-Jiang Song
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with synaptic dysfunction, pathological accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ), and neuronal loss. Given the prevalence of AD and the lack of effective long-term therapies, there is a pressing need to discover viable leads that can be developed into clinically approved drugs with disease-modifying effects. The analysis of current reported literatures confirms the importance of the plants of Pithecellobium genus as candidate against AD...
February 16, 2018: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449828/understanding-spreading-depression-from-headache-to-sudden-unexpected-death
#5
REVIEW
Olga Cozzolino, Maria Marchese, Francesco Trovato, Enrico Pracucci, Gian Michele Ratto, Maria Gabriella Buzzi, Federico Sicca, Filippo M Santorelli
Spreading depression (SD) is a neurophysiological phenomenon characterized by abrupt changes in intracellular ion gradients and sustained depolarization of neurons. It leads to loss of electrical activity, changes in the synaptic architecture, and an altered vascular response. Although SD is often described as a unique phenomenon with homogeneous characteristics, it may be strongly affected by the particular triggering event and by genetic background. Furthermore, SD may contribute differently to the pathogenesis of widely heterogeneous clinical conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449807/atrial-natriuretic-peptide-acts-as-a-neuroprotective-agent-in-in-vitro-models-of-parkinson-s-disease-via-up-regulation-of-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#6
Arianna Colini Baldeschi, Eugenia Pittaluga, Federica Andreola, Simona Rossi, Mauro Cozzolino, Giuseppe Nicotera, Gianluca Sferrazza, Pasquale Pierimarchi, Annalucia Serafino
In the last decades increasing evidence indicated a crucial role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling in development of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. Recently dysregulation of this pathway has been proposed as a novel pathomechanism leading to Parkinson's disease (PD) and some of the molecules participating to the signaling have been evaluated as potential therapeutic targets for PD. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac-derived hormone having a critical role in cardiovascular homeostasis. ANP and its receptors (NPRs) are widely expressed in mammalian central nervous system (CNS) where they could be implicated in the regulation of neural development, synaptic transmission and information processing, as well as in neuroprotection...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449635/purkinje-cells-derived-from-tsc-patients-display-hypoexcitability-and-synaptic-deficits-associated-with-reduced-fmrp-levels-and-reversed-by-rapamycin
#7
Maria Sundberg, Ivan Tochitsky, David E Buchholz, Kellen Winden, Ville Kujala, Kush Kapur, Deniz Cataltepe, Daria Turner, Min-Joon Han, Clifford J Woolf, Mary E Hatten, Mustafa Sahin
Accumulating evidence suggests that cerebellar dysfunction early in life is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the molecular mechanisms underlying the cerebellar deficits at the cellular level are unclear. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurocutaneous disorder that often presents with ASD. Here, we developed a cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) model of TSC with patient-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying cerebellar abnormalities in ASD and TSC...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449061/c4a-mrna-expression-in-pbmcs-predicts-the-presence-and-severity-of-delusions-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-with-psychosis
#8
Jennifer K Melbourne, Cherise Rosen, Benjamin Feiner, Rajiv P Sharma
Altered immune function is an established finding in psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychosis, though its role in their development and progression remains to be understood. Evidence suggests altered JAK-STAT1 pathway activity in peripheral blood cells from participants with schizophrenia compared to controls. Activation of this pathway leads to increased expression of complement component 4A (C4A), which has recently been implicated in schizophrenia. Here, we examine mRNA expression of C4A in peripheral blood cells from participants with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and controls...
February 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448523/mimicking-the-synaptic-weights-and-human-forgetting-curve-using-hydrothermally-grown-nanostructured-cuo-memristor-device
#9
T D Dongale, P S Pawar, R S Tikke, N B Mullani, V B Patil, A M Teli, K V Khot, S V Mohite, A A Bagade, V S Kumbhar, K Y Rajpure, P N Bhosale, R K Kamat, P S Patil
In the present investigation, we have fabricated copper oxide (CuO) thin film memristor by employing a hydrothermal method for neuromorphic application. The X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the films are polycrystalline in nature with the monoclinic crystal structure. The developed devices show analog memory and synaptic property similar to biological neuron. The size dependent synaptic behavior is investigated for as-prepared and annealed CuO memristor. The results suggested that the magnitude of synaptic weights and resistive switching voltages are dependent on the thickness of the active layer...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448468/memory-induced-resonancelike-suppression-of-spike-generation-in-a-resonate-and-fire-neuron-model
#10
Romi Mankin, Sander Paekivi
The behavior of a stochastic resonate-and-fire neuron model based on a reduction of a fractional noise-driven generalized Langevin equation (GLE) with a power-law memory kernel is considered. The effect of temporally correlated random activity of synaptic inputs, which arise from other neurons forming local and distant networks, is modeled as an additive fractional Gaussian noise in the GLE. Using a first-passage-time formulation, in certain system parameter domains exact expressions for the output interspike interval (ISI) density and for the survival probability (the probability that a spike is not generated) are derived and their dependence on input parameters, especially on the memory exponent, is analyzed...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448101/neuronal-calcium-channel-%C3%AE-1-subunit-interacts-with-ampa-receptor-increasing-its-cell-surface-localisation
#11
Bo Am Seo, Jung-Ha Lee, Ho Min Kim, Myoung-Goo Kang
Voltage-activated Ca 2+ channels (Ca v ) play critical roles in excitable cells including neurons. Unlike the well-defined roles of Ca v 2 for pre-synaptic neurotransmission, the post-synaptic function of Ca v 2 is unclear. Based on our previous study demonstrating the postsynaptic association of the Ca v 2 with the AMPA receptor (AMPA-R), in this study we sought to further analyse the Ca v 2-AMPA-R association. We used a step-by-step dissociation of partially purified native Ca v 2-AMPA-R complexes and co-immunoprecipitation of the Ca v 2-AMPA-R complexes expressed in HEK293T cells to demonstrate that the main subunit of Ca v , α 1 , formed a complex with the AMPA-R without the auxiliary subunits β, α 2 δ, γ 2/3 ...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447952/insulin-enhances-gaba-a-receptor-mediated-inhibitory-currents-in-rat-central-amygdala-neurons
#12
Sergiy V Korol, Atieh Tafreshiha, Amol K Bhandage, Bryndis Birnir, Zhe Jin
Insulin, a pancreatic hormone, can access the central nervous system, activate insulin receptors distributed in selective brain regions and affect various cellular functions such as neurotransmission. We have previously shown that physiologically relevant concentration of insulin potentiates the GABA A receptor-mediated tonic inhibition and reduces excitability of rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) comprises heterogeneous neuronal populations that can respond to hormonal stimulus...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447944/activation-of-liver-x-receptor-%C3%AE-enhancing-neurogenesis-ameliorates-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#13
Ting Sun, Yu-Jiao Li, Qin-Qin Tian, Qi Wu, Dan Feng, Zhe Xue, Yan-Yan Guo, Le Yang, Kun Zhang, Ming-Gao Zhao, Yu-Mei Wu
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a leading cause of various cerebrovascular diseases, leads to cognitive dysfunction due to neuron loss and impaired neurogenesis. Liver X receptors (LXRs), including LXRα and LXRβ isoforms, are crucial for cholesterol metabolism, synaptic plasticity as well as neurogenesis. However, it is not clear the potential roles of LXRs in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment induced by CCH. In this study, we demonstrated that LXRβ expression decreased in hippocampus of CCH mice...
February 12, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447844/angiotensin-ii-facilitates-gabaergic-neurotransmission-at-postsynaptic-sites-in-rat-amygdala-neurons
#14
Bo Hu, Hu Qiao, Tian Cao, Bo Sun, Xiao Luo, Ru Jia, Yuanyuan Fan, Nan Wang, Yi Lu, Jianqun Yan
The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical in the regulation of sodium appetite. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is important in the generation of sodium appetite and may function as a neurotransmitter or modulator to affect the synaptic transmission and the excitability of neurons. However, the role of Ang II in the CeA remains unclear. In this study, we determined the effects of Ang II on the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to the CeA neurons in brain slices with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings...
February 12, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446202/conditional-deletion-of-cadherin-13-perturbs-golgi-cells-and-disrupts-social-and-cognitive-behaviors
#15
Martesa Tantra, Lanboling Guo, Jinsook Kim, Norliyana Zainolabidin, George J Augustine, Volker Eulenburg, Albert I Chen
Inhibitory interneurons mediate the gating of synaptic transmission and modulate the activities of neural circuits. Disruption of the function of inhibitory networks in the forebrain is linked to impairment of social and cognitive behaviors, but the involvement of inhibitory interneurons in the cerebellum has not been assessed. We found that Cadherin 13 (Cdh13), a gene implicated in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, is specifically expressed in Golgi cells within the cerebelluar cortex...
February 15, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446159/arginine-vasopressin-differentially-modulates-gabaergic-synaptic-transmission-onto-temperature-sensitive-and-insensitive-neurons-in-the-rat-preoptic-area
#16
Yu Tang, Yan-Ni Sun, Run Xu, Xiao Huang, Shuang Gu, Cheng-Cheng Hong, Mi-Jia Liu, Heng Jiang, Yong-Lu Yang, Jing Shi
The preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus, containing temperature-sensitive and -insensitive neurons, plays a key role in specific thermoregulatory responses. Although arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been shown to induce hypothermia by increasing the firing activities of warm-sensitive neurons and decreasing those of cold-sensitive and temperature-insensitive neurons, the effects of AVP on POA GABAergic transmission remain unknown. Herein, inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) of temperature-sensitive and temperature-insensitive neurons in POA slices were recorded using whole-cell patch clamp...
February 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444426/inferior-olive-hcn1-channels-coordinate-synaptic-integration-and-complex-spike-timing
#17
Derek L F Garden, Marlies Oostland, Marta Jelitai, Arianna Rinaldi, Ian Duguid, Matthew F Nolan
Cerebellar climbing-fiber-mediated complex spikes originate from neurons in the inferior olive (IO), are critical for motor coordination, and are central to theories of cerebellar learning. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels expressed by IO neurons have been considered as pacemaker currents important for oscillatory and resonant dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that in vitro, network actions of HCN1 channels enable bidirectional glutamatergic synaptic responses, while local actions of HCN1 channels determine the timing and waveform of synaptically driven action potentials...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442555/direct-intertectal-inputs-are-an-integral-component-of-the-bilateral-sensorimotor-circuit-for-behavior-in-xenopus-tadpoles
#18
Abigail C Gambrill, Regina L Faulkner, Hollis T Cline
The circuit controlling visually-guided behavior in non-mammalian vertebrates, like Xenopus tadpoles, includes retinal projections to the contralateral optic tectum, where visual information is processed, and tectal motor outputs projecting ipsilaterally to hindbrain and spinal cord. Tadpoles have an intertectal commissure whose function is unknown, but it might transfer information between the tectal lobes. Differences in visual experience between the two eyes have profound effects on the development and function of visual circuits in animals with binocular vision, but the effects on animals with fully-crossed retinal projections are not clear...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441975/novel-insights-into-the-pharmacological-effects-of-resveratrol-on-the-management-of-depression-a-short-review
#19
Y Y Xu, J Liang, Q R Xia
Recently, it was suggested that resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol, possesses beneficial therapeutic roles in depression. The aim of this review is to discuss the novel potential pharmacological effects of RES on depression. We first consider the pathophysiology of depression and then review the potential antidepressant effects of RES. Apart from the alternation of the monoaminergic system and the molecular markers related to depression, RES might exert an antidepressant-like effect through modulating the HPA axis, BDNF and synaptic vesicle proteins, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, and thyroid hormones...
September 1, 2017: Die Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440997/layer-and-cell-type-specific-modulation-of-excitatory-neuronal-activity-in-the-neocortex
#20
REVIEW
Gabriele Radnikow, Dirk Feldmeyer
From an anatomical point of view the neocortex is subdivided into up to six layers depending on the cortical area. This subdivision has been described already by Meynert and Brodmann in the late 19/early 20. century and is mainly based on cytoarchitectonic features such as the size and location of the pyramidal cell bodies. Hence, cortical lamination is originally an anatomical concept based on the distribution of excitatory neuron. However, it has become apparent in recent years that apart from the layer-specific differences in morphological features, many functional properties of neurons are also dependent on cortical layer or cell type...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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