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Eva Reindl, Claudio Tennie
The ratchet effect-the gradual accumulation of changes within a cultural trait beyond a level that individuals can achieve on their own-arguably rests on two key cognitive abilities: high-fidelity social learning and innovation. Researchers have started to simulate the ratchet effect in the laboratory to identify its underlying social learning mechanisms, but studies on the developmental origins of the ratchet effect remain sparse. We used the transmission chain method and a tower construction task that had previously been used with adults to investigate whether "generations" of children between 4 and 6 years were able to make a technological product that individual children could not yet achieve...
2018: PloS One
Jacobien H F Oosterhoff, Vincent Gouttebarge, Maarten Moen, J Bart Staal, Gino M M J Kerkhoffs, Johannes L Tol, Babette M Pluim
The objective was to systematically review the literature on risk factors and prevention programs for musculoskeletal injuries among tennis players. PubmedMedline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane, SportDiscus were searched up to February 2017. Experts in clinical and epidemiological medicine were contacted to obtain additional studies. For risk factors, prospective cohort studies (n > 20) with a statistical analysis for injured and non-injured players were included and studies with a RCT design for prevention programs...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Janina Fett, Alexander Ulbricht, Alexander Ferrauti
Fett, J, Ulbricht, A, and Ferrauti, A. Impact of physical performance and anthropometric characteristics on serve velocity in elite junior tennis players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study aimed to investigate the impact of physical performance components and anthropometric characteristics on serve velocity (SV) in elite junior tennis players depending on the sex and age group. A sample of the best 1,019 (male = 625, female = 394) junior squad tennis players of the German Tennis Federation participated in the study involving complex anthropometric measurements (body height, body mass, sitting height, and arm span) and physical tests (e...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Göran Gerdin, Marie Hedberg, Carl-Axel Hageskog
The relative age effect (RAE) has been extensively debated and researched in both popular media and academic discourse. This study examined RAE in Swedish tennis players born in 1998⁻2001. The study was conducted in 2015⁻2016 and includes all ranked Swedish tennis players ( n = 1835) registered in the Swedish Tennis Association database from the year 2014. The results show that when the birth dates of the corresponding Swedish population and all the ranked players are compared, they show a moderate RAE; however, the higher up they are in the ranking system, the greater the RAE becomes...
April 23, 2018: Sports (Basel)
Jonathan B Shepherd, Daniel A James, Hugo G Espinosa, David V Thiel, David D Rowlands
With the increasing rise of professionalism in sport, teams and coaches are looking to technology to monitor performance in both games and training to find a competitive advantage. Wheelchair court sports (wheelchair rugby, wheelchair tennis, and wheelchair basketball) are no exception, and the use of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) within this domain is one innovation researchers have employed to monitor aspects of performance. A systematic literature review was conducted which, after the exclusion criteria was applied, comprised of 16 records...
April 13, 2018: Sports (Basel)
Ozgur Ozkaya, Gorkem Aybars Balci, Hakan As, Emre Vardarli
Although reliability correlations of traditional power indices of the Wingate test have been well documented, no study has analyzed new generation power indices based on milliseconds obtained from a Peak Bike. The purpose of this study was to investigate the retest reliability of new generation power indices. Thirty-two well-trained male athletes who were specialized in basketball, football, tennis, or track and field volunteered to take part in the study (age: 24.3 ± 2.2 years; body mass: 77 ± 8.3 kg; height: 180...
April 7, 2018: Sports (Basel)
Melek Yerlikaya, Havva Talay Çaliş, Serap Tomruk Sütbeyaz, Hatice Sayan, Nurdan Ibiş, Ali Koç, Çiğdem Karakükçü
Objectives: This study aims to compare the effect of leukocyte concentration in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on pain, functionality and post-injection local inflammatory reactions in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Patients and methods: The study included 90 patients (26 males, 64 females; mean age 38.6 years; range 18 to 75 years) with lateral epicondylitis- related pain visual analog scale (VAS) score of ≥5 for more than three months. Patients were randomly assigned into three groups...
March 2018: Archives of rheumatology
Jennifer A Hogg, Randy J Schmitz, Anh-Dung Nguyen, Sandra J Shultz
CONTEXT:   Greater passive hip range of motion (ROM) has been associated with greater dynamic knee valgus and thus the potential for increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Normative data for passive hip ROM by sex are lacking. OBJECTIVE:   To establish and compare passive hip ROM values by sex and sport and to quantify side-to-side differences in internal-rotation ROM (ROMIR ), external-rotation ROM (ROMER ), and total ROM (ROMTOT ). DESIGN:   Cross-sectional study...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Mirko Lai, Rosa Meo, Rossano Schifanella, Emilio Sulis
The influence of training, posture, nutrition or psychological attitudes on an athlete's career is well described in literature. An additional factor of success that is widely recognized as crucial is the network of matches that an athlete plays during a season. The hypothesis is that the quality of a player's opponents affects her long-term ranking and performance. Even though the relevance of these factors is widely recognized as important, a quantitative characterization is missing. In this paper, we try to fill this gap combining network analysis and machine learning to estimate the contribution of the network of matches in predicting an athlete's success...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Maria Stella Valle, Luciano Lombardo, Matteo Cioni, Antonino Casabona
Learning precision ball throwing was mostly studied to explore the early rapid improvement of accuracy, with poor attention on possible adaptive processes occurring later when the rate of improvement is reduced. Here, we tried to demonstrate that the strategy to select angle, speed and height at ball release can be managed during the learning periods following the performance stabilization. To this aim, we used a multivariate linear model with angle, speed and height as predictors of changes in accuracy. Participants performed underarm throws of a tennis ball to hit a target on the floor, 3...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Luka Šlosar, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Uros Marusic
The purpose of this study was to create a valid and reliable assessment scale for the evaluation of three basic tennis strokes (forehand, backhand, serve) for 6-12-year-old tennis players, named the Tennis Rating Score for Children (TRSC). Altogether 60 players (21: forehand, 22: backhand, 17: serve) were video recorded (30 frames per second) while performing three main tennis strokes and later evaluated using the TRSC by five tennis trainers at Day 1 and Day 7. Agreement between days and raters was examined using the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Elisa Bandini, Claudio Tennie
A subspecies of long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascicularis aurea; Mfa ) has been reported to use stone tools and a specific technique to process nuts in Southeast Asia, a behaviour known as 'pound-hammering'. The aim of this study was to examine the development of pound-hammering in long-tailed macaques: whether this behavioural form can be individually learnt or whether it has to rely on some forms of social learning. Given the absence of Mfa from captivity, long-tailed macaques of a highly related subspecies ( Macaca fascicularis fascicularis; Mff ) were experimentally tested by providing them with the ecological materials necessary to show pound-hammering...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Nikki S Kolman, Tamara Kramer, Marije T Elferink-Gemser, Barbara C H Huijgen, Chris Visscher
The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of outcome measures and instruments identified in the literature for examining technical and tactical skills in tennis related to performance levels. Such instruments can be used to identify talent or the specific skill development training needs of particular players. Searches for this review were conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo databases. Out of 733 publications identified through these searches, 40 articles were considered relevant and included in this study...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Heather K Vincent, Kevin R Vincent
Lacrosse is a fast-paced game that incorporates elements from multiple sports, such as soccer, basketball, baseball, tennis, and hockey. The sport involves rapid changes of direction, endurance, sprinting, physical contact, rotational movement, passing, and shooting. Passing and shooting are further complicated by having a weighted object (ball) at the end of a long moment arm (crosse) which places increased stress on the body segments. Thus, it is important to properly prepare for sport participation by improving strength, endurance, and dynamic stability of the postural and core stability muscles...
June 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Eugen Lungu, Philippe Grondin, Patrice Tétreault, François Desmeules, Guy Cloutier, Manon Choinière, Nathalie J Bureau
INTRODUCTION: Chronic lateral epicondylosis (CLE) of the elbow is a prevalent condition among middle-aged people with no consensus on optimal care management but for which surgery is generally accepted as a second intention treatment. Among conservative treatment options, ultrasound (US)-guided fenestration has shown encouraging results that should be explored before surgery is considered. The primary objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of US-guided fenestration with open-release surgery in patients with failure to improve following a minimum 6 months of conservative treatment...
June 9, 2018: BMJ Open
Rik B Kraan, Lisa Beers, Daan van de Pol, Joost G Daams, Mario Maas, P Paul Kuijer
INTRODUCTION: Posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) aneurysm formation and thrombosis as overuse injury in the dominant shoulder can result in ischemia of the forearm, hand and digits due to arterial embolisms. Increased awareness among physicians is necessary as PCHA pathology (PCHAP) might be underdiagnosed. Knowledge of sports and professions at risk and risk-factors for obtaining PCHAP is essential for the development of future preventive measures. This study aims to identify sports and professions at risk as well as risk factors for PCHAP...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Tania Gamberi, Francesca Magherini, Tania Fiaschi, Pietro A Modesti, Massimo Gulisano, Mario Marella, Paolo Bosi, Paolo Spicuglia, Marta Radini, Alessandra Modesti
BACKGROUND: Several authors reported evidences for Post Activation Potentiation but so far, few studies suggested suitable methods for use it to improve performance. On the other hand, it is well known that a fatiguing exercise can leads to a temporary imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their disposal. The purpose of our research was to evaluate the effects on performance and plasma oxidative stress of a specific program of conditioning in replacement of traditional sequences of warm-up...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Geoffroy Nourissat, Michel Calò, Bernard Montalvan, Jacques Parier
Background: Os acromiale is a rare condition mostly reported in the literature through case reports, imaging studies, or reports of surgical treatment. This condition is the result of nonunion of growth plates of the acromion during the natural developmental process that occurs between 15 and 25 years of age. Its incidence is low, and few studies are available in the literature on athletes with high functional demands, and particularly on athletes within a specific sport. Purpose: To collect epidemiological data and to report the amount of time out of play as well as the type of treatment and its efficiency in professional tennis players...
May 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Changxiao Yu, Shirui Shao, Julien S Baker, Yaodong Gu
Background: The table tennis serve involves complex spatial movements combined with biomechanial characteristics. Although the differences in lower-limb biomechanial characteristics to a great extent influence the translational and spinning velocity of the ball when using the different styles of table tennis serve, few researchers have studied their mechanics. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the differences in lower-limb activity between the squat and standing serves during a table tennis short serve...
2018: PeerJ
Julien Cousin, Vincent Crenn, Alban Fouasson-Chailloux, Marc Dauty, Philippe Fradin, Francois Gouin, Guillaume Venet
Isolated lesions to the teres major muscle are rare. They generally occur in patients participating in sports such as baseball, tennis, or boxing. We report the case of a sports patient who suffered an isolated injury to the teres major while water skiing. The clinical presentation was confirmed by MRI. Conservative treatment was chosen and consisted of brief analgesic immobilization, followed by rehabilitative treatment. The rapid recovery of this patient with normal isokinetic strength evaluation at 6 months was interesting for objectifying full muscle recovery...
2018: Case Reports in Orthopedics
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