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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337539/homer1-vesl-1-in-the-rat-esophagus-focus-on-myenteric-plexus-and-neuromuscular-junction
#1
J Zimmermann, W L Neuhuber, M Raab
Homer1, a scaffolding protein of the postsynaptic density (PSD), enriched at excitatory synapses is known to anchor and modulate group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and different channel- and receptor-proteins. Homer proteins are expressed in neurons of different brain regions, but also in non-neuronal tissues like skeletal muscle. Occurrence and location of Homer1 and mGluR5 in myenteric plexus and neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) of rat esophagus have yet not been characterized. We located Homer1 and mGluR5 immunoreactivity (-iry) in rat esophagus and focused on myenteric neurons, intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs) and NMJs, using double- and triple-label immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
March 23, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329051/caloric-restriction-mimetics-slow-aging-of-neuromuscular-synapses-and-muscle-fibers
#2
Jessica Stockinger, Nicholas Maxwell, Dillon Shapiro, Rafael deCabo, Gregorio Valdez
Resveratrol and metformin have been shown to mimic some aspects of caloric restriction and exercise. However, it remains unknown if these molecules also slow age-related synaptic degeneration, as previously shown for caloric restriction and exercise. In this study, we examined the structural integrity of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) in 2-year-old mice treated with resveratrol and metformin starting at 1 year of age. We found that resveratrol significantly slows aging of NMJs in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of 2-year-old mice...
March 7, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301326/functional-decline-at-the-aging-neuromuscular-junction-is-associated-with-altered-laminin-%C3%AE-4-expression
#3
Kah Meng Lee, Kirat K Chand, Luke A Hammond, Nickolas A Lavidis, Peter G Noakes
Laminin-α4 is involved in the alignment of active zones to postjunctional folds at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Prior study has implicated laminin-α4 in NMJ maintenance, with altered NMJ morphology observed in adult laminin-α4 deficient mice (lama4(-/-)). The present study further investigated the role of laminin-α4 in NMJ maintenance by functional characterization of transmission properties, morphological investigation of synaptic proteins including synaptic laminin-α4, and neuromotor behavioral testing...
March 14, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298885/functional-roles-of-the-interaction-of-app-and-lipoprotein-receptors
#4
REVIEW
Theresa Pohlkamp, Catherine R Wasser, Joachim Herz
The biological fates of the key initiator of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and a family of lipoprotein receptors, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related proteins (LRPs) and their molecular roles in the neurodegenerative disease process are inseparably interwoven. Not only does APP bind tightly to the extracellular domains (ECDs) of several members of the LRP group, their intracellular portions are also connected through scaffolds like the one established by FE65 proteins and through interactions with adaptor proteins such as X11/Mint and Dab1...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286469/the-ih-channel-gene-promotes-synaptic-transmission-and-coordinated-movement-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Andrew P Hegle, C Andrew Frank, Anthony Berndt, Markus Klose, Douglas W Allan, Eric A Accili
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated "HCN" channels, which underlie the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih), have been proposed to play diverse roles in neurons. The presynaptic HCN channel is thought to both promote and inhibit neurotransmitter release from synapses, depending upon its interactions with other presynaptic ion channels. In larvae of Drosophila melanogaster, inhibition of the presynaptic HCN channel by the drug ZD7288 reduces the enhancement of neurotransmitter release at motor terminals by serotonin but this drug has no effect on basal neurotransmitter release, implying that the channel does not contribute to firing under basal conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276271/an-anthocyanin-enriched-extract-from-strawberries-delays-disease-onset-and-extends-survival-in-the-hsod1-g93a-mouse-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Aimee N Winter, Erika K Ross, Heather M Wilkins, Trisha R Stankiewicz, Tyler Wallace, Keith Miller, Daniel A Linseman
OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from the death of motor neurons in the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord. Several processes such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and neuronal apoptosis, contribute to disease progression. Anthocyanins are flavonoid compounds derived from fruits and vegetables that possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic abilities. Thus, these unique compounds may provide therapeutic benefit for the treatment of ALS...
March 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256749/increased-postsynaptic-ca-2-reduces-mini-frequency-at-the-drosophila-larval-nmj
#7
Andrew S Powers, Jeffrey Grizzaffi, Gregory A Lnenicka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253535/homozygous-mutations-in-vamp1-cause-a-presynaptic-congenital-myasthenic-syndrome
#8
Vincenzo Salpietro, Weichun Lin, Andrea Delle Vedove, Markus Storbeck, Yun Liu, Stephanie Efthymiou, Andreea Manole, Sarah Wiethoff, Qiaohong Ye, Anand Saggar, Kenneth McElreavey, Shyam Krishnakumar, Matthew Pitt, Oscar Bello, James E Rothman, Lina Basel-Vanagaite, Monika Weisz Hubshman, Sharon Aharoni, Adnan Y Manzur, Brunhilde Wirth, Henry Houlden
We report 2 families with undiagnosed recessive presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS). Whole exome or genome sequencing identified segregating homozygous variants in VAMP1: c.51_64delAGGTGGGGGTCCCC in a Kuwaiti family and c.146G>C in an Israeli family. VAMP1 is required for vesicle fusion at presynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Electrodiagnostic examination showed severely low compound muscle action potentials and presynaptic impairment. We assessed the effect of the nonsense mutation on mRNA levels and evaluated the NMJ transmission in VAMP1(lew/lew) mice, observing neurophysiological features of presynaptic impairment, similar to the patients...
March 2, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245533/neuregulin1-fine-tunes-pre-post-and-peri-synaptic-neuromuscular-junction-development
#9
Jiajing Wang, Fei Song, Jeffrey A Loeb
BACKGROUND: Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) development is a multistep process mediated by coordinated interactions between the nerve terminal, target muscle, and perisynaptic Schwann cell that require constant back-and-forth communication. Retrograde and anterograde growth and differentiation factors have been postulated to participate in this communication. While neuregulin1 (NRG1) has been shown to be potent anterograde signal that activates acetylcholine receptor (AChR) transcription and clustering in vitro, its roles in NMJ development in vivo remain elusive...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245518/altered-translational-repression-of-an-rna-binding-protein-elav-by-aoa2-causative-senataxin-mutation
#10
Saumitra Dey Choudhury, Ancy Vs, Zeeshan Mushtaq, Vimlesh Kumar
Mutations in Senataxin (SETX) gene causes two types of neurological disorders, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS4) and Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia type 2 (AOA2). Recent studies in cultured cells suggest that SETX plays a crucial role at the interface of transcription and the DNA damage response. Whether SETX can alter translational of specific RNA is not known. In this study, we report that expressing AOA2-causative truncated form of human SETX in Drosophila neurons alters the development of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapses...
February 28, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213447/the-drosophila-postsynaptic-deg-enac-channel-ppk29-contributes-to-excitatory-neurotransmission
#11
Alexis Hill, Xingguo Zheng, Xiling Li, Ross McKinney, Dion Dickman, Yehuda Ben-Shahar
The protein family of Degenerin/Epithelial Sodium Channels (DEG/ENaC) is comprised of diverse animal-specific, non-voltage-gated ion channels that play important roles in regulating cationic gradients across epithelial barriers. Some family members are also enriched in neural tissues in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the specific neurophysiological functions of most DEG/ENaC-encoding genes remain poorly understood. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for deciphering the functions of DEG/ENaC genes because its genome encodes an exceptionally large number of DEG/ENaC subunits termed pickpocket (ppk) 1-31 Here we demonstrate that ppk29 contributes specifically to the postsynaptic modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213440/muscle-yap-is-a-regulator-of-neuromuscular-junction-formation-and-regeneration
#12
Kai Zhao, Chengyong Shen, Yisheng Lu, Zhihui Huang, Lei Li, Christopher D Rand, Jinxiu Pan, Xiang-Dong Sun, Zhibing Tan, Hongsheng Wang, Guanglin Xing, Yu Cao, Guoqing Hu, Jiliang Zhou, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei
Yes-associated protein (Yap) is a major effector of the Hippo pathway that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation during development and restricts tissue growth in adult animals. However, its role in synapse formation remains poorly understood. In this study, we characterized Yap's role in the formation of neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In HSA-Yap(-/-) mice where Yap was mutated specifically in muscle cells, AChR clusters were smaller and were distributed in a broader region in the middle of muscle fibers, suggesting that muscle Yap is necessary for the size and location of AChR clusters...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199191/trans-synaptic-homeostasis-at-the-myasthenic-neuromuscular-junction
#13
Jaap J Plomp
Properly sustained impulse transmission at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is crucial for successful muscle contraction. To guarantee this, NMJs not only possess a considerable safety factor in transmission but also have the ability to adjust the presynaptic acetylcholine release level to cope with any changes in the postsynaptic neurotransmitter sensitivity. This review will provide overview on the discovery and characterization of this synaptic homeostatic mechanism, especially in the condition of the neuromuscular disorder myasthenia gravis (MG) where the postsynaptic transmitter sensitivity at the NMJ becomes severely reduced due to autoimmune attack of acetylcholine receptors...
March 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177226/large-area-ensemble-molecular-electronics-motivation-and-challenges
#14
Ayelet Vilan, Dinesh Aswal, David Cahen
We review charge transport across molecular monolayers, which is central to molecular electronics (MolEl), using large-area junctions (NmJ). We strive to provide a wide conceptual overview of three main subtopics. First, a broad introduction places NmJ in perspective to related fields of research and to single-molecule junctions (1mJ) in addition to a brief historical account. As charge transport presents an ultrasensitive probe for the electronic perfection of interfaces, in the second part ways to form both the monolayer and the contacts are described to construct reliable, defect-free interfaces...
February 8, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123080/cortactin-is-a-regulator-of-activity-dependent-synaptic-plasticity-controlled-by-wingless
#15
Daniel Alicea, Marizabeth Perez, Carolina Maldonado, Carihann Dominicci-Cotto, Bruno Marie
Major signaling molecules initially characterized as key early developmental regulators are also essential for the plasticity of the nervous system. Previously, the Wingless (Wg)/Wnt pathway was shown to underlie the structural and electrophysiological changes during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. A challenge remains to understand how this signal mediates the cellular changes underlying this plasticity. Here, we focus on the actin regulator Cortactin, a major organizer of protrusion, membrane mobility, and invasiveness, and define its new role in synaptic plasticity...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120411/electrical-stimulation-delays-reinnervation-in-denervated-rat-muscle
#16
Clara M Pinheiro-Dardis, Bruna T Erbereli, Davilene Gigo-Benato, Paula A T S Castro, Thiago L Russo
INTRODUCTION: It is not clear if electrical stimulation (ES) can affect muscle reinnervation. This study aimed to verify if ES affects neuromuscular recovery after nerve crush injury in rats. METHODS: Denervated muscles were electrically stimulated daily for 6 or 14 days. Neuromuscular performance and excitability, and muscle morphology were determined. Muscle trophism markers (atrogin-1, MuRF-1, and myoD), as well as neuromuscular junction (NMJ) organization (MuSK, Dok-7, nAChR, and N-CAM) were assessed...
January 24, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103314/expression-of-a-mutant-sema3a-protein-with-diminished-signalling-capacity-does-not-alter-als-related-motor-decline-or-confer-changes-in-nmj-plasticity-after-botoxa-induced-paralysis-of-male-gastrocnemic-muscle
#17
Elizabeth B Moloney, Barbara Hobo, Fred De Winter, Joost Verhaagen
Terminal Schwann cells (TSCs) are specialized cells that envelop the motor nerve terminal, and play a role in the maintenance and regeneration of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The chemorepulsive protein semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) is selectively up-regulated in TSCs on fast-fatigable muscle fibers following experimental denervation of the muscle (BotoxA-induced paralysis or crush injury to the sciatic nerve) or in the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Re-expression of SEMA3A in this subset of TSCs is thought to play a role in the selective plasticity of nerve terminals as observed in ALS and following BotoxA-induced paralysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100668/correction-to-nmj-morph-reveals-principal-components-of-synaptic-morphology-influencing-structure-function-relationships-at-the-neuromuscular-junction
#18
Ross A Jones, Caitlan D Reich, Kosala N Dissanayake, Fanney Kristmundsdottir, Gordon S Findlater, Richard R Ribchester, Martin W Simmen, Thomas H Gillingwater
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088107/gaas-laser-therapy-reestablishes-the-morphology-of-the-nmj-and-nachrs-after-injury-due-to-bupivacaine
#19
Cristiane Neves Alessi Pissulin, Paula Aiello Tomé de Souza Castro, Flávio Codina, Carina Guidi Pinto, Ivan Jose Vechetti-Junior, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus
BACKGROUND: Local anesthetics are used to relieve pre- and postoperative pain, acting on both sodium channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Bupivacaine acts as a non-competitive antagonist and has limitations, such as myotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has anti-inflammatory, regenerative, and analgesic effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a gallium arsenide laser (GaAs) on the morphology of the NMJ and nAChRs after application of bupivacaine in the sternomastoid muscle...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073926/mutations-of-pqbp1-in-renpenning-syndrome-promote-ubiquitin-mediated-degradation-of-fmrp-and-cause-synaptic-dysfunction
#20
Xiao-Yan Zhang, Junxia Qi, Yu-Qian Shen, Xian Liu, An Liu, Zikai Zhou, Junhai Han, Zi Chao Zhang
Renpenning syndrome is a group of X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndromes caused by mutations in human polyglutamine-binding protein 1 (PQBP1) gene. Little is known about the molecular pathogenesis of the various mutations that cause the notable variability in patients. In this study, we examine the cellular and synaptic functions of the most common mutations found in the patients: c.461_462delAG, c.459_462delAGAG, and c.463_464dupAG in an AG hexamer in PQBP1 exon 4. We discovered that PQBP1 c.459_462delAGAG and c...
January 10, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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