keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Nmj

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544556/electrophysiological-analysis-of-synaptic-transmission-in-drosophila
#1
REVIEW
Maria Bykhovskaia, Alexander Vasin
Synaptic transmission is dynamic, plastic, and highly regulated. Drosophila is an advantageous model system for genetic and molecular studies of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and plasticity. Electrical recordings of synaptic responses represent a wide-spread approach to study neuronal signaling and synaptic transmission. We discuss experimental techniques that allow monitoring synaptic transmission in Drosophila neuromuscular and central systems. Recordings of synaptic potentials or currents at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are most common and provide numerous technical advantages due to robustness of the preparation, large and identifiable muscles, and synaptic boutons which can be readily visualized...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543723/neuromuscular-junctions-nmjs-ultrastructural-analysis-and-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-nachr-subunit-mrna-expression-in-offspring-subjected-to-protein-restriction-throughout-pregnancy
#2
Paula Aiello Tomé de Souza Castro, Ludimila Canuto Faccioni, Patrícia Aline Boer, Robson Francisco Carvalho, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva
Protein restriction during gestation can alter the skeletal muscle phenotype of offspring; however, little is known with regard to whether this also affects the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), as muscle phenotype maintenance depends upon NMJ functional integrity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a low protein (6%) intake by dams throughout gestation on male offspring NMJ morphology and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α1, γ and ε subunit expression in the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520784/presynaptic-a%C3%AE-40-prevents-synapse-addition-in-the-adult-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#3
Begoña López-Arias, Enrique Turiégano, Ignacio Monedero, Inmaculada Canal, Laura Torroja
Complexity in the processing of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, which generates a mixture of βamyloid peptides, lies beneath the difficulty in understanding the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, whether Aβ peptides have any physiological role in neurons is an unresolved question. By expressing single, defined Aβ peptides in Drosophila, specific effects can be discriminated in vivo. Here, we show that in the adult neuromuscular junction (NMJ), presynaptic expression of Aβ40 hinders the synaptic addition that normally occurs in adults, yielding NMJs with an invariable number of active zones at all ages tested...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518121/two-algorithms-for-high-throughput-and-multi-parametric-quantification-of-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction-morphology
#4
Anna Castells-Nobau, Bonnie Nijhof, Ilse Eidhof, Louis Wolf, Jolanda M Scheffer-de Gooyert, Ignacio Monedero, Laura Torroja, Jeroen A W M van der Laak, Annette Schenck
Synaptic morphology is tightly related to synaptic efficacy, and in many cases morphological synapse defects ultimately lead to synaptic malfunction. The Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ), a well-established model for glutamatergic synapses, has been extensively studied for decades. Identification of mutations causing NMJ morphological defects revealed a repertoire of genes that regulate synapse development and function. Many of these were identified in large-scale studies that focused on qualitative approaches to detect morphological abnormalities of the Drosophila NMJ...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515212/regulation-of-wnt-signaling-at-the-neuromuscular-junction-by-the-immunoglobulin-super-family-protein-rig-3-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Pratima Pandey, Ashwani Bhardwaj, Kavita Babu
Perturbations in synaptic function could affect the normal behavior of an animal, making it important to understand the regulatory mechanisms of synaptic signaling. Previous work has shown that in Caenorhabditis elegans an immunoglobulin super-family protein, RIG-3, functions in pre-synaptic neurons to maintain normal acetylcholine receptor levels at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). In this study we elucidate the molecular and functional mechanism of RIG-3. We demonstrate by genetic and BiFC (Bi-molecular Fluorescence Complementation) assays that pre-synaptic RIG-3 functions by directly interacting with the immunoglobulin domain of the non-conventional Wnt receptor, ROR receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), CAM-1, that functions in post-synaptic body-wall muscles...
May 17, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500055/rnai-mediated-reverse-genetic-screen-identified-drosophila-chaperones-regulating-eye-and-neuromuscular-junction-morphology
#6
Sandeep Raut, Bhagaban Mallik, Arpan Parichha, Amrutha V, Chandan Sahi, Vimlesh Kumar
Accumulation of toxic proteins in neurons have been linked with the onset of neurodegenerative diseases, which in many cases, are characterized by altered neuronal function and synapse loss. Molecular chaperones help protein folding and resolubilization of unfolded proteins thereby reducing the protein aggregation stress. While most of the chaperones are expressed in neurons, their functional relevance largely remains unknown. Here, using bioinformatics analysis, we identified 95 Drosophila chaperones and classified them into seven different classes...
May 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495800/mechanically-patterned-neuromuscular-junctions-in-a-dish-have-improved-functional-maturation
#7
Cassandra L Happe, Kevin P Tenerelli, Anastasia K Gromova, Frederic Kolb, Adam J Engler
Motor neuron (MN) diseases are progressive disorders resulting from degeneration of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), which form the connection between MNs and muscle fibers. NMJ-in-a-dish models have been developed to examine human MN-associated dysfunction with disease; however such co-culture models have randomly oriented myotubes with immature synapses that contract asynchronously. Mechanically patterned (MP) extracellular matrix with alternating soft and stiff stripes improve current NMJ-in-a-dish models by inducing both mouse and human myoblast durotaxis to stripes where they aligned, differentiated, and fused into patterned myotubes...
May 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490756/expressing-acetylcholine-receptors-after-innervation-suppresses-spontaneous-vesicle-release-and-causes-muscle-fatigue
#8
Meghan Mott, Victor M Luna, Jee-Young Park, Gerald B Downes, Kimberly Epley, Fumihito Ono
The formation and function of synapses are tightly orchestrated by the precise timing of expression of specific molecules during development. In this study, we determined how manipulating the timing of expression of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) impacts presynaptic release by establishing a genetically engineered zebrafish line in which we can freely control the timing of AChR expression in an AChR-less fish background. With the delayed induction of AChR expression after an extensive period of AChR-less development, paralyzed fish displayed a remarkable level of recovery, exhibiting a robust escape response following developmental delay...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490573/dok7-gene-therapy-enhances-motor-activity-and-life-span-in-als-model-mice
#9
Sadanori Miyoshi, Tohru Tezuka, Sumimasa Arimura, Taro Tomono, Takashi Okada, Yuji Yamanashi
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, multifactorial motor neurodegenerative disease with severe muscle atrophy. The glutamate release inhibitor riluzole is the only medication approved by the FDA, and prolongs patient life span by a few months, testifying to a strong need for new treatment strategies. In ALS, motor neuron degeneration first becomes evident at the motor nerve terminals in neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), the cholinergic synapse between motor neuron and skeletal muscle; degeneration then progresses proximally, implicating the NMJ as a therapeutic target...
May 10, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480963/use-of-stimulated-electromyography-in-the-analysis-of-the-neuromuscular-junction-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Matthew C Pitt
A screening test is required to diagnose disorders of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in children. This Review describes the development of stimulation potential analysis with concentric needle electrodes (SPACE). This nomenclature was chosen to distinguish the technique from single-fiber methodology because of the difficulties in identifying single-fiber potentials in most studies, particularly those with the most severe abnormalities of the NMJ. Performed on orbicularis oculi in children with proven or probable disorders of the NMJ, it demonstrated a sensitivity of 84%, specificity of 71%, negative predictive value of 95%, and positive predictive value of 36%...
May 8, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472174/augmented-quantal-release-of-acetylcholine-at-the-vertebrate-neuromuscular-junction-following-tdp-43-depletion
#11
Stefania Dzieciolowska, Pierre Drapeau, Gary Alan Barclay Armstrong
TAR DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is a 43 kD, predominately nuclear, protein involved in RNA metabolism. Of clinical significance is that the majority of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients display abnormal accumulation of misfolded TDP-43 in the cytoplasm, which is coincident with a loss of nuclear localization in the afflicted regions of the central nervous system. Little is known about defects that arise in loss-of-function models, in particular synaptic defects that arise at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466185/tissue-specific-transcription-of-the-neuronal-gene-lim3-affects-drosophila-melanogaster-lifespan-and-locomotion
#12
Olga Y Rybina, Svetlana V Sarantseva, Ekaterina R Veselkina, Olga I Bolschakova, Alexander V Symonenko, Anna V Krementsova, Elena V Ryabova, Natalia V Roshina, Elena G Pasyukova
The identity of neuronal cell types is established and maintained by the expression of neuronal genes coding for ion channels, neurotransmitters, and neuropeptides, among others. Some of these genes have been shown to affect lifespan; however, their role in lifespan control remains largely unclear. The Drosophila melanogaster gene Lim3 encodes a transcription factor involved in complicated motor neuron specification networks. We previously identified Lim3 as a candidate gene affecting lifespan. To obtain direct evidence of the involvement of Lim3 in lifespan control, Lim3 overexpression and RNAi knockdown were induced in the nervous system and muscles of Drosophila using the GAL4-UAS binary system...
May 2, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463115/decreased-microrna-levels-lead-to-deleterious-increases-in-neuronal-m2-muscarinic-receptors-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy-models
#13
Patrick J O'Hern, Inês do Carmo G Gonçalves, Johanna Brecht, Eduardo Javier López Soto, Jonah Simon, Natalie Chapkis, Diane Lipscombe, Min Jeong Kye, Anne C Hart
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is caused by diminished Survival of Motor Neuron (SMN) protein, leading to neuromuscular junction (NMJ) dysfunction and spinal motor neuron (MN) loss. Here, we report that reduced SMN function impacts the action of a pertinent microRNA and its mRNA target in MNs. Loss of the C. elegans SMN ortholog, SMN-1, causes NMJ defects. We found that increased levels of the C. elegans Gemin3 ortholog, MEL-46, ameliorates these defects. Increased MEL-46 levels also restored perturbed microRNA (miR-2) function in smn-1(lf) animals...
May 2, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455372/regulation-of-neuromuscular-junction-organization-by-rab2-and-its-effector-ica69-in-drosophila
#14
Bhagaban Mallik, Manish Kumar Dwivedi, Zeeshan Mushtaq, Manisha Kumari, Praveen Kumar Verma, Vimlesh Kumar
Mechanisms underlying synaptic differentiation, which involves neuronal membrane and cytoskeletal remodeling, are not completely understood. We performed a targeted RNAi-mediated screen of Drosophila BAR-domain proteins and identified islet cell autoantigen 69 kDa (dICA69) as one of the key regulators of morphological differentiation of larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We show that Drosophila ICA69 colocalizes with α-Spectrin at the NMJ. The conserved N-BAR domain of dICA69 deforms liposomes in vitro Full length and ICAC but not the N-BAR domain of dICA69 induces filopodia in cultured cells...
April 28, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449366/moving-forward-with-the-neuromuscular-junction
#15
REVIEW
Claire Legay, Lin Mei
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is indispensable for survival. This synapse between motoneurons and skeletal muscle fibers allows posture, movement and respiration. Therefore, its dysfunction creates pathologies than can be lethal. The molecular mechanisms of NMJ development and maintenance are the subject of intensive studies. This mini-review focuses on some of the most recent discoveries. An unexpected role for a protein, rapsyn, which has been known for 40 years to aggregate acetylcholine receptors has emerged...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428759/morphological-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-of-neuromuscular-junctions-after-tourniquet-induced-injuries-in-mouse-hindlimb
#16
Huiyin Tu, Dongze Zhang, Ryan M Corrick, Robert L Muelleman, Michael C Wadman, Yu-Long Li
Tourniquet application and its subsequent release cause serious injuries to the skeletal muscle, nerve, and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) due to mechanical compression and ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Monitoring structural and functional repair of the NMJ, nerve, and skeletal muscle after tourniquet-induced injuries is beneficial in exploring potential cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for tourniquet-induced injuries, and for establishing effective therapeutic interventions. Here, we observed long-term morphological and functional changes of the NMJ in a murine model of tourniquet-induced hindlimb injuries...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419739/cardiac-troponin-t-and-fast-skeletal-muscle-denervation-in-ageing
#17
Zherong Xu, Xin Feng, Juan Dong, Zhong-Min Wang, Jingyun Lee, Cristina Furdui, Daniel Clark Files, Kristen M Beavers, Stephen Kritchevsky, Carolanne Milligan, Jian-Ping Jin, Osvaldo Delbono, Tan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ageing skeletal muscle undergoes chronic denervation, and the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the key structure that connects motor neuron nerves with muscle cells, shows increased defects with ageing. Previous studies in various species have shown that with ageing, type II fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres show more atrophy and NMJ deterioration than type I slow-twitch fibres. However, how this process is regulated is largely unknown. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle fibre-type specific denervation at the NMJ could be critical to identifying novel treatments for sarcopenia...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386022/multiple-roles-of-integrin-%C3%AE-3-at-the-neuromuscular-junction
#18
Jacob A Ross, Richard G Webster, Tanguy Lechertier, Louise E Reynolds, Mark Turmaine, Maximilien Bencze, Yalda Jamshidi, Hakan Cetin, Francesco Muntoni, David Beeson, Kairbaan Hodilvala-Dilke, Francesco J Conti
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is the synapse between motoneuron and skeletal muscle, and is responsible for eliciting muscle contraction. Neurotransmission at synapses depends on the release of synaptic vesicles at sites called active zones (AZs). Various proteins of the extracellular matrix are crucial for NMJ development; however little is known about the identity and functions of the receptors that mediate their effects. Using genetically modified mice, we find that integrin-α3, an adhesion receptor at the presynaptic membrane, is involved in the localisation of AZ components and efficient synaptic vesicle release...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379367/a-drosophila-model-of-als-reveals-a-partial-loss-of-function-of-causative-human-pfn1-mutants
#19
Chi-Hong Wu, Anthony Giampetruzzi, Helene Tran, Claudia Fallini, Fen-Biao Gao, John E Landers
Mutations in the profilin 1 (PFN1) gene are causative for familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). However, it is still not fully understood how these mutations lead to neurodegeneration. To address this question, we generated a novel Drosophila model expressing human wild-type and ALS-causative PFN1 mutants. We show that at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJ), motor neuron expression of wild-type human PFN1 increases the number of ghost boutons, active zone density, F-actin content, and the formation of filopodia...
June 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379354/motor-neuronal-repletion-of-the-nmj-organizer-agrin-modulates-the-severity-of-the-spinal-muscular-atrophy-disease-phenotype-in-model-mice
#20
Jeong-Ki Kim, Charlotte Caine, Tomoyuki Awano, Ruth Herbst, Umrao R Monani
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common and often fatal neuromuscular disorder caused by low levels of the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein. Amongst the earliest detectable consequences of SMN deficiency are profound defects of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). In model mice these synapses appear disorganized, fail to mature and are characterized by poorly arborized nerve terminals. Given one role of the SMN protein in orchestrating the assembly of spliceosomal snRNP particles and subsequently regulating the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs, a plausible link between SMN function and the distal neuromuscular SMA phenotype is an incorrectly spliced transcript or transcripts involved in establishing or maintaining NMJ structure...
March 31, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
keyword
keyword
32989
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"