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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317272/roles-of-ng2-glia-in-ischemic-stroke
#1
REVIEW
Fei-Er Song, Jia-Lv Huang, Si-Han Lin, Shuo Wang, Guo-Fen Ma, Xiao-Ping Tong
Recent studies have shown that a widely distributed class of glial cells, termed NG2-glia, engages in rapid signaling with surrounding neurons through direct synaptic contacts in the developing and mature central nervous system (CNS). This unique glial cell group has a typical function of proliferating and differentiating into oligodendrocytes during early development of the brain, which is crucial to axon myelin formation. Therefore, NG2-glia are also called oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). In vitro and in vivo studies reveal that NG2-glia expressing receptors and ion channels demonstrate functional significance for rapid signaling with neuronal synapses and modulation of neuronal activities in both physiological and pathological conditions...
March 19, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317021/the-bloc-1-subunit-pallidin-facilitates-activity-dependent-synaptic-vesicle-recycling
#2
Xun Chen, Wenpei Ma, Shixing Zhang, Jeremy Paluch, Wanlin Guo, Dion K Dickman
Membrane trafficking pathways must be exquisitely coordinated at synaptic terminals to maintain functionality, particularly during conditions of high activity. We have generated null mutations in the Drosophila homolog of pallidin, a central subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), to determine its role in synaptic development and physiology. We find that Pallidin localizes to presynaptic microtubules and cytoskeletal structures, and that the stability of Pallidin protein is highly dependent on the BLOC-1 components Dysbindin and Blos1...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315353/crystal-structure-of-the-extracellular-domain-of-the-human-dendritic-cell-surface-marker-cd83
#3
Christiane S Heilingloh, Stefan Klingl, Claudia Egerer-Sieber, Benedikt Schmid, Sigrid Weiler, Petra Mühl-Zürbes, Jörg Hofmann, Joachim D Stump, Heinrich Sticht, Mirko Kummer, Alexander Steinkasserer, Yves A Muller
CD83 is a type-I membrane protein and an efficient marker for identifying mature dendritic cells. Whereas membrane-bound full-length CD83 co-stimulates the immune system, a soluble variant (sCD83), consisting of the extracellular domain, only, displays strong immune-suppressive activities. Besides a prediction that sCD83 adopts a V-set Ig-like fold, however, little is known about the molecular architecture of CD83 and the mechanism by which CD83 exerts is function on dendritic cells and additional immune cells...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303140/netosis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Enrica Caterina Pietronigro, Vittorina Della Bianca, Elena Zenaro, Gabriela Constantin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive deterioration of cognitive functions. Its neuropathological features include amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, and the loss of neurons and synapses. Neuroinflammation is a well-established feature of AD pathogenesis, and a better understanding of its mechanisms could facilitate the development of new therapeutic approaches. Recent studies in transgenic mouse models of AD have shown that neutrophils adhere to blood vessels and migrate inside the parenchyma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298885/functional-roles-of-the-interaction-of-app-and-lipoprotein-receptors
#5
REVIEW
Theresa Pohlkamp, Catherine R Wasser, Joachim Herz
The biological fates of the key initiator of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the amyloid precursor protein (APP), and a family of lipoprotein receptors, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related proteins (LRPs) and their molecular roles in the neurodegenerative disease process are inseparably interwoven. Not only does APP bind tightly to the extracellular domains (ECDs) of several members of the LRP group, their intracellular portions are also connected through scaffolds like the one established by FE65 proteins and through interactions with adaptor proteins such as X11/Mint and Dab1...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298428/autoantibodies-to-synaptic-receptors-and-neuronal-cell-surface-proteins-in-autoimmune-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
Josep Dalmau, Christian Geis, Francesc Graus
Investigations in the last 10 years have revealed a new category of neurological diseases mediated by antibodies against cell surface and synaptic proteins. There are currently 16 such diseases all characterized by autoantibodies against neuronal proteins involved in synaptic signaling and plasticity. In clinical practice these findings have changed the diagnostic and treatment approach to potentially lethal, but now treatable, neurological and psychiatric syndromes previously considered idiopathic or not even suspected to be immune-mediated...
April 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297672/identification-of-intrinsic-axon-growth-modulators-for-intact-cns-neurons-after-injury
#7
Kathren L Fink, Francesc López-Giráldez, In-Jung Kim, Stephen M Strittmatter, William B J Cafferty
Functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI) because axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) fail to regenerate. However, modest levels of spontaneous functional recovery are typically observed after trauma and are thought to be mediated by the plasticity of intact circuitry. The mechanisms underlying intact circuit plasticity are not delineated. Here, we characterize the in vivo transcriptome of sprouting intact neurons from Ngr1 null mice after partial SCI. We identify the lysophosphatidic acid signaling modulators LPPR1 and LPAR1 as intrinsic axon growth modulators for intact corticospinal motor neurons after adjacent injury...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297658/multiscale-modeling-of-complex-formation-and-cd80-depletion-during-immune-synapse-development
#8
István P Sugár, Jayajit Das, Ciriyam Jayaprakash, Stuart C Sealfon
The mechanisms that discriminate self- and foreign antigen before T cell activation are unresolved. As part of the immune system's adaptive response to specific infections or neoplasms, antigen-presenting cells (APC) and effector T cells form transcellular molecular complexes. CTLA4 expression on regulatory or effector T cells reduces T cell activation. The CTLA4 transendocytosis hypothesis proposes that CTLA4 depletes CD80 and CD86 proteins from the APC membrane, rendering the APC incapable of activating T cells...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296020/memristive-devices-with-highly-repeatable-analog-states-boosted-by-graphene-quantum-dots
#9
Changhong Wang, Wei He, Yi Tong, Yishu Zhang, Kejie Huang, Li Song, Shuai Zhong, Rajasekaran Ganeshkumar, Rong Zhao
Memristive devices, having a huge potential as artificial synapses for low-power neural networks, have received tremendous attention recently. Despite great achievements in demonstration of plasticity and learning functions, little progress has been made in the repeatable analog resistance states of memristive devices, which is, however, crucial for achieving controllable synaptic behavior. The controllable behavior of synapse is highly desired in building neural networks as it helps reduce training epochs and diminish error probability...
March 15, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292530/corrigendum-to-reggie-1-and-reggie-2-flotillins-participate-in-rab11a-dependent-cargo-trafficking-spine-synapse-formation-and-ltp-related-ampa-receptor-glua1-surface-exposure-in-mouse-hippocampal-neurons-exp-neurol-289-pages-31-45
#10
Vsevolod Bodrikov, Aline Pauschert, Gaga Kochlamazashvili, Claudia A O Stuermer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288671/microglia-derived-il-1%C3%AE-contributes-to-axon-development-disorders-and-synaptic-deficit-through-p38-mapk-signal-pathway-in-septic-neonatal-rats
#11
Qianpeng Han, Qiongyu Lin, Peixian Huang, Mengmeng Chen, Xin Hu, Hui Fu, Shaoru He, Fengcai Shen, Hongke Zeng, Yiyu Deng
BACKGROUND: Axon development plays a pivotal role in the formation of synapse, nodes of Ranvier, and myelin sheath. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) produced by microglia may cause myelination disturbances through suppression of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation in the septic neonatal rats. Here, we explored if a microglia-derived IL-1β would disturb axon development in the corpus callosum (CC) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, and if so, whether it is associated with disorder of synapse formation in the cerebral cortex and node of Ranvier...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288102/a-fret-sensor-enables-quantitative-measurements-of-membrane-charges-in-live-cells
#12
Yuanqing Ma, Yui Yamamoto, Philip R Nicovich, Jesse Goyette, Jérémie Rossy, J Justin Gooding, Katharina Gaus
Membrane charge has a critical role in protein trafficking and signaling. However, quantification of the effective electrostatic potential of cellular membranes has remained challenging. We developed a fluorescence membrane charge sensor (MCS) that reports changes in the membrane charge of live cells via Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). MCS is permanently attached to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and shows a linear, reversible and fast response to changes of the electrostatic potential...
March 13, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284905/embryonic-mosaic-deletion-of-app-results-in-displaced-reelin-expressing-cells-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#13
D G Callahan, W M Taylor, M Tilearcio, T Cavanaugh, D J Selkoe, T L Young-Pearse
It is widely accepted that amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, APP has been proposed to have functions in numerous biological processes including neuronal proliferation, differentiation, migration, axon guidance, and neurite outgrowth, as well as in synapse formation and function. However, germline knockout of APP yields relatively subtle phenotypes, and brain development appears grossly normal. This is thought to be due in part to functional compensation by APP family members and other type I transmembrane proteins...
March 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284900/crosstalk-between-glia-extracellular-matrix-and-neurons
#14
Inseon Song, Alexander Dityatev
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in the central nervous system form highly organized ECM structures around cell somata, axon initial segments, and synapses and play prominent roles in early development by guiding cell migration, neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, and by regulating closure of the critical period of development, synaptic plasticity and stability, cognitive flexibility, and axonal regeneration in adults. Major components of neural ECM, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), tenascin-R and hyaluronic acid, are synthesized by both neurons and glial cells...
March 8, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280960/neurobiology-of-local-and-intercellular-bdnf-signaling
#15
REVIEW
Sasi Manju, Beatrice Vignoli, Marco Canossa, Robert Blum
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of secreted proteins. Signaling cascades induced by BDNF and its receptor, the receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB, link neuronal growth and differentiation with synaptic plasticity. For this reason, interference with BDNF signaling has emerged as a promising strategy for potential treatments in psychiatric and neurological disorders. In many brain circuits, synaptically released BDNF is essential for structural and functional long-term potentiation, two prototypical cellular models of learning and memory formation...
March 9, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279363/synaptic-vesicle-clusters-at-synapses-a-distinct-liquid-phase
#16
REVIEW
Dragomir Milovanovic, Pietro De Camilli
Phase separation in the cytoplasm is emerging as a major principle in intracellular organization. In this process, sets of macromolecules assemble themselves into liquid compartments that are distinct from the surrounding medium but are not delimited by membrane boundaries. Here, we discuss how phase separation, in which a component of one of the two phases is vesicles rather than macromolecules, could underlie the formation of synaptic vesicle (SV) clusters in proximity to presynaptic sites. The organization of SVs into a liquid phase could explain how SVs remain tightly clustered without being stably bound to a scaffold so that they can be efficiently recruited to release site by active zone components...
March 8, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275713/axonal-type-iii-nrg1-controls-glutamate-synapse-formation-and-glua2-trafficking-in-hippocampal-accumbens-connections
#17
Chongbo Zhong, Wendy Akmentin, Chuang Du, Lorna W Role, David A Talmage
Altered neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)/ErbB signaling and glutamatergic hypofunction have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Here, we employed gene chimeric ventral hippocampus (vHipp)-nucleus accumbens (nAcc) coculture from mouse, electrophysiology, immunocytochemistry, FM1-43 vesicle fusion, and electron microscopy techniques to examine the pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms of genetic deficits in Nrg1/ErbB signaling-induced glutamatergic dysfunctions. Reduced presynaptic type III Nrg1 expression along vHipp axons decreases the number of glutamate synapses and impairs GluA2 trafficking in the postsynaptic nAcc neurons, resulting in decreased frequency and amplitude of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs)...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270751/understanding-the-role-of-gpcr-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-modulating-the-brain-networks-in-health-and-disease
#18
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Jens Carlsson, Patricia Ambrogini, Manuel Narváez, Karolina Wydra, Alexander O Tarakanov, Xiang Li, Carmelo Millón, Luca Ferraro, Riccardo Cuppini, Sergio Tanganelli, Fang Liu, Malgorzata Filip, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
The introduction of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteroreceptor complexes of the central nervous system (CNS) gave a new dimension to brain integration and neuropsychopharmacology. The molecular basis of learning and memory was proposed to be based on the reorganization of the homo- and heteroreceptor complexes in the postjunctional membrane of synapses. Long-term memory may be created by the transformation of parts of the heteroreceptor complexes into unique transcription factors which can lead to the formation of specific adapter proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270556/cytoskeletal-adaptivity-regulates-t-cell-receptor-signaling
#19
Timothy J Thauland, Kenneth H Hu, Marc A Bruce, Manish J Butte
The factors that govern T cell activation control the initiation and progression of adaptive immune responses. T cells recognize their cognate antigen on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) through the T cell receptor, which results in the formation of a contact region (immune synapse) between the two cells and the activation of the T cells. Activated T cells proliferate and differentiate into effector T cells that secrete cytokines, provide help to B cells, and kill target cells. We asked whether the actin cytoskeleton governs differences in signaling in effector T cells versus naïve (unstimulated) T cells...
March 7, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265586/forced-neuronal-interactions-cause-poor-communication
#20
Marine Krzisch, Nicolas Toni
Post-natal hippocampal neurogenesis plays a role in hippocampal function, and neurons born post-natally participate to spatial memory and mood control. However, a great proportion of granule neurons generated in the post-natal hippocampus are eliminated during the first 3 weeks of their maturation, a mechanism that depends on their synaptic integration. In a recent study, we examined the possibility of enhancing the synaptic integration of neurons born post-natally, by specifically overexpressing synaptic cell adhesion molecules in these cells...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
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