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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914199/filamin-a-synaptic-organizer-in-drosophila-determines-glutamate-receptor-composition-and-membrane-growth
#1
GaYoung Lee, Thomas L Schwarz
Filamin is a scaffolding protein that functions in many cells as an actin-crosslinker. FLN90, an isoform of the Drosophila ortholog Filamin/cheerio that lacks the actin-binding domain, is here shown to govern the growth of postsynaptic membrane folds and the composition of glutamate receptor clusters at the larval neuromuscular junction. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that FLN90 is present surrounding synaptic boutons. FLN90 is required in the muscle for localization of the kinase dPak and, downstream of dPak, for localization of the GTPase Ral and the exocyst complex to this region...
December 3, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909399/a-subset-of-autism-associated-genes-regulate-the-structural-stability-of-neurons
#2
REVIEW
Yu-Chih Lin, Jeannine A Frei, Michaela B C Kilander, Wenjuan Shen, Gene J Blatt
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a range of neurological conditions that affect individuals' ability to communicate and interact with others. People with ASD often exhibit marked qualitative difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Alterations in neurite arborization and dendritic spine morphology, including size, shape, and number, are hallmarks of almost all neurological conditions, including ASD. As experimental evidence emerges in recent years, it becomes clear that although there is broad heterogeneity of identified autism risk genes, many of them converge into similar cellular pathways, including those regulating neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and spine stability, and synaptic plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#3
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905396/atomic-structure-of-the-innexin-6-gap-junction-channel-determined-by-cryo-em
#4
Atsunori Oshima, Kazutoshi Tani, Yoshinori Fujiyoshi
Innexins, a large protein family comprising invertebrate gap junction channels, play an essential role in nervous system development and electrical synapse formation. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structures of Caenorhabditis elegans innexin-6 (INX-6) gap junction channels at atomic resolution. We find that the arrangements of the transmembrane helices and extracellular loops of the INX-6 monomeric structure are highly similar to those of connexin-26 (Cx26), despite the lack of significant sequence similarity...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903733/development-of-activity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#5
Jing Shen, Matthew T Colonnese
: A comprehensive developmental timeline of activity in the mouse cortex in vivo is lacking. Understanding the activity changes that accompany synapse and circuit formation is important to understand the mechanisms by which activity molds circuits and would help to identify critical checkpoints for normal development. To identify key principles of cortical activity maturation, we systematically tracked spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity with extracellular recordings of primary visual cortex (V1) in nonanesthetized mice...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903723/cerebellar-shank2-regulates-excitatory-synapse-density-motor-coordination-and-specific-repetitive-and-anxiety-like-behaviors
#6
Seungmin Ha, Dongwon Lee, Yi Sul Cho, Changuk Chung, Ye-Eun Yoo, Jihye Kim, Jiseok Lee, Woohyun Kim, Hyosang Kim, Yong Chul Bae, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Eunjoon Kim
: Shank2 is a multidomain scaffolding protein implicated in the structural and functional coordination of multiprotein complexes at excitatory postsynaptic sites as well as in psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. While Shank2 is strongly expressed in the cerebellum, whether Shank2 regulates cerebellar excitatory synapses, or contributes to the behavioral abnormalities observed in Shank2(-/-) mice, remains unexplored. Here we show that Shank2(-/-) mice show reduced excitatory synapse density in cerebellar Purkinje cells in association with reduced levels of excitatory postsynaptic proteins, including GluD2 and PSD-93, and impaired motor coordination in the Erasmus test...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893610/slit2-robo1-promotes-synaptogenesis-and-functional-recovery-of-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Yang Li, Yan Gao, Xueqin Xu, Ruoshi Shi, Juying Liu, Wanjun Yao, Changbin Ke
Neuronal network reconstruction is a pivotal determinant for functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI), the process of which includes synaptogenesis. Slit2 protein has been identified as a key regulator of axon regeneration and synapse formation in the vertebrate. Meanwhile, RhoA is the converging cascade of inhibitory molecules that interrupt synaptic plasticity in SCI. In the present study, we investigated the interaction among Slit2, Robo1, and RhoA and the potential roles of Slit2 in the pathological process of SCI...
November 23, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888110/tubby-domain-superfamily-protein-is-required-for-the-formation-of-the-7s-snare-complex-in-drosophila
#8
Eun Jang Yoon, Yong Taek Jeong, Ji Eun Lee, Seok Jun Moon, Chul Hoon Kim
Tubby domain superfamily protein (TUSP) is a distant member of the Tubby-like protein (TULP) family. Although other TULPs play important roles in sensation, metabolism, and development, the molecular functions of TUSP are completely unknown. Here, we explore the function of TUSP in the Drosophila nervous system where it is expressed in all neurons. Tusp mutant flies exhibit a temperature-sensitive paralysis. This paralysis can be rescued by tissue-specific expression of Tusp in the giant fibers and peripherally synapsing interneurons of the giant fiber system, a well-characterized neuronal circuit that mediates rapid escape behavior in flies...
November 22, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883898/autophagosome-formation-by-endophilin-keeps-synapses-in-shape
#9
Marijn Kuijpers, Volker Haucke
Soukup et al. (2016), in this issue of Neuron, and Murdoch et al. (2016), in Cell Reports, reveal an unexpected function for the endocytic protein endophilin in autophagosome formation at synapses: preventing neurodegeneration and ataxia.
November 23, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880894/requirement-for-dicer-in-maintenance-of-monosynaptic-sensory-motor-circuits-in-the-spinal-cord
#10
Fumiyasu Imai, Xiaoting Chen, Matthew T Weirauch, Yutaka Yoshida
In contrast to our knowledge of mechanisms governing circuit formation, our understanding of how neural circuits are maintained is limited. Here, we show that Dicer, an RNaseIII protein required for processing microRNAs (miRNAs), is essential for maintenance of the spinal monosynaptic stretch reflex circuit in which group Ia proprioceptive sensory neurons form direct connections with motor neurons. In postnatal mice lacking Dicer in proprioceptor sensory neurons, there are no obvious defects in specificity or formation of monosynaptic sensory-motor connections...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879199/an-nmda-receptor-dependent-mechanism-for-subcellular-segregation-of-sensory-inputs-in-the-tadpole-optic-tectum
#11
Ali S Hamodi, Zhenyu Liu, Kara G Pratt
In the vertebrate CNS, afferent sensory inputs are targeted to specific depths or layers of their target neuropil. This patterning exists ab initio, from the very beginning, and therefore has been considered an activity-independent process. However, here we report that, during circuit development, the subcellular segregation of the visual and mechanosensory inputs to specific regions of tectal neuron dendrites in the tadpole optic tectum requires NMDA receptor activity. Blocking NMDARs during the formation of these sensory circuits, or removing the visual set of inputs, leads to less defined segregation, and suggests a correlation-based mechanism in which correlated inputs wire to common regions of dendrites...
November 23, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876702/nrp1-and-synapse-formation
#12
EDITORIAL
Fabrice Ango
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876573/stem-cell-therapies-in-age-related-neurodegenerative-diseases-and-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Yuan Wang, Xunming Ji, Rehana K Leak, Fenghua Chen, Guodong Cao
Aging, a complex process associated with various structural, functional and metabolic changes in the brain, is an important risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. These diseases share similar neuropathological changes, such as the formation of misfolded proteins, oxidative stress, loss of neurons and synapses, dysfunction of the neurovascular unit (NVU), reduction of self-repair capacity, and motor and/or cognitive deficiencies. In addition to gray matter dysfunction, the plasticity and repair capacity of white matter also decrease with aging and contribute to neurodegenerative diseases...
November 19, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866776/activation-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-facilitates-long-term-potentiation-at-the-hippocampal-prefrontal-cortex-synapses-in-vivo
#14
Milan Stoiljkovic, Craig Kelley, Dávid Nagy, Raymond Hurst, Mihály Hajós
Activation of α7 nAChRs has been shown to improve performance in a variety of nonclinical assays of cognitive function. The role of α7 nAChRs in cognitive processes is likely related to their role in modulating synaptic transmission and plasticity that have been reported in cell culture, brain slices, and intact animals. Here we report the effects of the α7 nAChR agonist FRM-17874 on synaptic plasticity within the hippocampal-medial prefrontal cortex pathway. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was generated by tetanic stimulation of CA1/subiculum region in urethane anesthetized male rats...
November 17, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852787/roles-of-cbln1-in-non-motor-functions-of-mice
#15
Shintaro Otsuka, Kohtarou Konno, Manabu Abe, Junko Motohashi, Kazuhisa Kohda, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Michisuke Yuzaki
: The cerebellum is thought to be involved in cognitive functions in addition to its well established role in motor coordination and motor learning in humans. Cerebellin 1 (Cbln1) is predominantly expressed in cerebellar granule cells and plays a crucial role in the formation and function of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. Although genes encoding Cbln1 and its postsynaptic receptor, the delta2 glutamate receptor (GluD2), are suggested to be associated with autistic-like traits and many psychiatric disorders, whether such cognitive impairments are caused by cerebellar dysfunction remains unclear...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852766/compartmentalized-microfluidic-platforms-the-unrivaled-breakthrough-of-in-vitro-tools-for-neurobiological-research
#16
Estrela Neto, Luís Leitão, Daniela M Sousa, Cecília J Alves, Inês S Alencastre, Paulo Aguiar, Meriem Lamghari
Microfluidic technology has become a valuable tool to the scientific community, allowing researchers to study fine cellular mechanisms with higher variable control compared with conventional systems. It has evolved tremendously, and its applicability and flexibility made its usage grow exponentially and transversely to several research fields. This has been particularly noticeable in neuroscience research, where microfluidic platforms made it possible to address specific questions extending from axonal guidance, synapse formation, or axonal transport to the development of 3D models of the CNS to allow pharmacological testing and drug screening...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852736/the-role-of-retinoic-acid-in-the-formation-and-modulation-of-invertebrate-central-synapses
#17
Cailin M Rothwell, Eric de Hoog, Gaynor Elizabeth Spencer
Trophic factors can influence many aspects of nervous system function, such as neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and synapse modulation. The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid can exert trophic effects to promote neuronal survival and outgrowth in many species, and is also known to modulate vertebrate hippocampal synapses. However, its role in synaptogenesis has not been well studied, and whether it can modulate existing invertebrate synapses is also not known. In this study, we first examined a potential trophic effect of retinoic acid on the formation of excitatory synapses, independently of its role in neurite outgrowth, using cultured neurons of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847649/neuregulin-1-regulates-cortical-inhibitory-neuron-dendrite-and-synapse-growth-through-disc1
#18
Brianna K Unda, Vickie Kwan, Karun K Singh
Cortical inhibitory neurons play crucial roles in regulating excitatory synaptic networks and cognitive function and aberrant development of these cells have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders. The secreted neurotrophic factor Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and its receptor ErbB4 are established regulators of inhibitory neuron connectivity, but the developmental signalling mechanisms regulating this process remain poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that NRG1-ErbB4 signalling functions through the multifunctional scaffold protein, Disrupted in Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), to regulate the development of cortical inhibitory interneuron dendrite and synaptic growth...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847465/the-many-faces-of-elongator-in-neurodevelopment-and-disease
#19
REVIEW
Marija Kojic, Brandon Wainwright
Development of the nervous system requires a variety of cellular activities, such as proliferation, migration, axonal outgrowth and guidance and synapse formation during the differentiation of neural precursors into mature neurons. Malfunction of these highly regulated and coordinated events results in various neurological diseases. The Elongator complex is a multi-subunit complex highly conserved in eukaryotes whose function has been implicated in the majority of cellular activities underlying neurodevelopment...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847357/visualization-of-hiv-t-cell-virological-synapses-and-virus-containing-compartments-by-3d-correlative-light-and-electron-microscopy
#20
Lili Wang, Edward T Eng, Kenneth Law, Ronald E Gordon, William J Rice, Benjamin K Chen
: Virological synapses (VS) are adhesive structures that form between infected and uninfected cells that can enhance the spread of HIV-1. During T cell VS formation, viral proteins are actively recruited to the site of cell-cell contact where the viral material is efficiently translocated to target cells into heterogeneous, protease-resistant, antibody-inaccessible compartments. Using correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) we define the membrane topography of the virus-containing compartments (VCC) where HIV is found following VS-mediated transfer...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Virology
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