keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Synapse formation

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739523/activity-dependent-axonal-plasticity-in-sensory-systems
#1
REVIEW
Nora Jamann, Merryn Jordan, Maren Engelhardt
The rodent whisker-to-barrel cortex pathway is a classic model to study the effects of sensory experience and deprivation on neuronal circuit formation, not only during development but also in the adult. Decades of research have produced a vast body of evidence highlighting the fundamental role of neuronal activity (spontaneous and/or sensory-evoked) for circuit formation and function. In this context, it has become clear that neuronal adaptation and plasticity is not just a function of the neonatal brain, but persists into adulthood, especially after experience-driven modulation of network status...
July 21, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737723/role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-structural-plasticity-and-cognitive-function
#2
REVIEW
Crystal C Y Leung, Yung H Wong
Cognition and other higher brain functions are known to be intricately associated with the capacity of neural circuits to undergo structural reorganization. Structural remodelling of neural circuits, or structural plasticity, in the hippocampus plays a major role in learning and memory. Dynamic modifications of neuronal connectivity in the form of dendritic spine morphology alteration, as well as synapse formation and elimination, often result in the strengthening or weakening of specific neural circuits that determine synaptic plasticity...
July 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736980/diverse-roles-for-glycosaminoglycans-in-neural-patterning
#3
REVIEW
Kristian Saied-Santiago, Hannes E Bülow
The nervous system coordinates the functions of most multicellular organisms and, their response to the surrounding environment. Its development involves concerted cellular interactions, including migration, axon guidance and synapse formation. These processes depend on the molecular constituents and structure of the extracellular matrices (ECM). An essential component of ECMs are proteoglycans, i.e. proteins containing unbranched glycan chains known as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). A defining characteristic of GAGs is their enormous molecular diversity, created by extensive modifications of the glycans during their biosynthesis...
July 24, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736134/stimulus-evoked-erk-dependent-phosphorylation-of-activity-regulated-cytoskeleton-associated-protein-arc-regulates-its-neuronal-subcellular-localization
#4
Oleksii Nikolaienko, Maria Steene Eriksen, Sudarshan Patil, Haruhiko Bito, Clive R Bramham
Activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) is implicated as a master regulator of long-term synaptic plasticity and memory formation in mammalian brain. Arc acts at synapses and within the nucleus, but the mechanisms controlling Arc localization and function are little known. As Arc transcription and translation are regulated by ERK signalling, we asked whether Arc protein itself is phosphorylated by ERK. GST-fused Arc of rat origin was able to pull down endogenous ERK2 from rat hippocampal lysates...
July 20, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734961/radix-puerariae-modulates-glutamatergic-synaptic-architecture-and-potentiates-functional-synaptic-plasticity-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#5
Mohammad Maqueshudul Haque Bhuiyan, Md Nazmul Haque, Md Mohibbullah, Yung Kyu Kim, Il Soo Moon
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Neurologic disorders are frequently characterized by synaptic pathology, including abnormal density and morphology of dendritic spines, synapse loss, and aberrant synaptic signaling and plasticity. Therefore, to promote and/or protect synapses by the use of natural molecules capable of modulating neurodevelopmental events, such as, spinogenesis and synaptic plasticity, could offer a preventive and curative strategy for nervous disorders associated with synaptic pathology...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733211/synaptically-localized-transcriptional-regulators-in-memory-formation
#6
REVIEW
Shusaku Uchida, Gleb P Shumyatsky
At the neuronal cell level, long-term memory formation emerges from interactions between initial activity-dependent molecular changes at the synapse and subsequent regulation of gene transcription in the nucleus. This in turn leads to strengthening of the connections back at the synapse that received the initial signal. However, the mechanisms through which this synapse-to-nucleus molecular exchange occurs remain poorly understood. Here we discuss recent studies that delineate nucleocytoplasmic transport of a special class of synaptically-localized transcriptional regulators that upon receiving initial external signal by the synapse move to the nucleus to modulate gene transcription...
July 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729535/pld1-promotes-dendritic-spine-development-by-inhibiting-adam10-mediated-n-cadherin-cleavage
#7
Li-Da Luo, Gang Li, Yun Wang
Synapses are the basic units of information transmission, processing and integration in the nervous system. Dysfunction of the synaptic development has been recognized as one of the main reasons for mental dementia and psychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and autism. However, the underlying mechanisms of the synapse formation are far from clear. Here we report that phospholipase D1 (PLD1) promotes the development of dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. We found that overexpressing PLD1 increases both the density and the area of dendritic spines...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725178/different-forms-of-ampa-receptor-mediated-ltp-and-their-correlation-to-the-spatial-working-memory-formation
#8
Derya R Shimshek, Thorsten Bus, Bettina Schupp, Vidar Jensen, Verena Marx, Liliana E Layer, Georg Köhr, Rolf Sprengel
Spatial working memory (SWM) and the classical, tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3/CA1 synapses are dependent on L-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors (AMPARs) containing GluA1 subunits as demonstrated by knockout mice lacking GluA1. In GluA1 knockout mice LTP and SWM deficits could be partially recovered by transgenic re-installation of full-length GluA1 in principle forebrain neurons. Here we partially restored hippocampal LTP in GluA1-deficient mice by forebrain-specific depletion of the GluA2 gene, by the activation of a hypomorphic GluA2(Q) allele and by transgenic expression of PDZ-site truncated GFP-GluA1(TG)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723268/assay-of-calcium-transients-and-synapses-in-rat-hippocampal-neurons-by-kinetic-image-cytometry-and-high-content-analysis-an-in-vitro-model-system-for-postchemotherapy-cognitive-impairment
#9
Patrick M McDonough, Natalie L Prigozhina, Ranor C B Basa, Jeffrey H Price
Postchemotherapy cognitive impairment (PCCI) is commonly exhibited by cancer patients treated with a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, including the endocrine disruptor tamoxifen (TAM). The etiology of PCCI is poorly understood. Our goal was to develop high-throughput assay methods to test the effects of chemicals on neuronal function applicable to PCCI. Rat hippocampal neurons (RHNs) were plated in 96- or 384-well dishes and exposed to test compounds (forskolin [FSK], 17β-estradiol [ES]), TAM or fulvestrant [FUL], aka ICI 182,780) for 6-14 days...
July 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720795/symmetry-of-learning-rate-in-synaptic-plasticity-modulates-formation-of-flexible-and-stable-memories
#10
Youngjin Park, Woochul Choi, Se-Bum Paik
Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is considered critical to learning and memory functions in the human brain. Across various types of synapse, STDP is observed as different profiles of Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning rules. However, the specific roles of diverse STDP profiles in memory formation still remain elusive. Here, we show that the symmetry of the learning rate profile in STDP is crucial to determining the character of stored memory. Using computer simulations, we found that an asymmetric learning rate generates flexible memory that is volatile and easily overwritten by newly appended information...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719878/the-effects-of-fluoride-on-neuronal-function-occurs-via-cytoskeleton-damage-and-decreased-signal-transmission
#11
Lingli Chen, Hongmei Ning, Zhihong Yin, Xiaochao Song, Yongchao Feng, Hao Qin, Yi Li, Jundong Wang, Yaming Ge, Wenkui Wang
It has been reported that fluoride exposure may cause serious public health problems, particularly neurotoxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study used Neuro-2A cells to investigate the effects of fluoride on the cytoskeleton. The Neuro-2A cells were exposed to 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 mM sodium fluoride (NaF) for 24 h. Cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were examined. It was observed that exposure to NaF reduced cell viability, disrupted cellular membrane integrity, and high levels of LDH were released...
June 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718765/a-connectome-of-a-learning-and-memory-center-in-the-adult-drosophila-brain
#12
Shin-Ya Takemura, Yoshinori Aso, Toshihide Hige, Allan Wong, Zhiyuan Lu, C Shan Xu, Patricia K Rivlin, Harald F Hess, Ting Zhao, Toufiq Parag, Stuart Berg, Gary Huang, William Katz, Donald J Olbris, Stephen Plaza, Lowell Umayam, Roxanne Aniceto, Lei-Ann Chang, Shirley Lauchie, Omotara Ogundeyi, Christopher Ordish, Aya Shinomiya, Christopher Sigmund, Satoko Takemura, Julie Tran, Glenn C Turner, Gerald M Rubin, Louis K Scheffer
Understanding memory formation, storage and retrieval requires knowledge of the underlying neuronal circuits. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is the major site of associative learning. We reconstructed the morphologies and synaptic connections of all 983 neurons within the three functional units, or compartments, that compose the adult MB's α lobe, using a dataset of isotropic 8-nm voxels collected by focused ion-beam milling scanning electron microscopy. We found that Kenyon cells (KCs), whose sparse activity encodes sensory information, each make multiple en passant synapses to MB output neurons (MBONs) in each compartment...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717219/versatile-functional-roles-of-horizontal-cells-in-the-retinal-circuit
#13
Taro Chaya, Akihiro Matsumoto, Yuko Sugita, Satoshi Watanabe, Ryusuke Kuwahara, Masao Tachibana, Takahisa Furukawa
In the retinal circuit, environmental light signals are converted into electrical signals that can be decoded properly by the brain. At the first synapse of the visual system, information flow from photoreceptors to bipolar cells is modulated by horizontal cells (HCs), however, their functional contribution to retinal output and individual visual function is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated functional roles for HCs in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) response properties and optokinetic responses by establishing a HC-depleted mouse line...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713376/myristoylation-an-important-protein-modification-in-the-immune-response
#14
REVIEW
Daniel Ikenna Udenwobele, Ruey-Chyi Su, Sara V Good, Terry Blake Ball, Shailly Varma Shrivastav, Anuraag Shrivastav
Protein N-myristoylation is a cotranslational lipidic modification specific to the alpha-amino group of an N-terminal glycine residue of many eukaryotic and viral proteins. The ubiquitous eukaryotic enzyme, N-myristoyltransferase, catalyzes the myristoylation process. Precisely, attachment of a myristoyl group increases specific protein-protein interactions leading to subcellular localization of myristoylated proteins with its signaling partners. The birth of the field of myristoylation, a little over three decades ago, has led to the understanding of the significance of protein myristoylation in regulating cellular signaling pathways in several biological processes especially in carcinogenesis and more recently immune function...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711300/raft-dependent-endocytic-movement-and-intracellular-cluster-formation-during-t%C3%A2-cell-activation-triggered-by-concanavalin-a
#15
Satomi Yabuuchi, Satoshi Endo, KeangOk Baek, Kunihide Hoshino, Yoshio Tsujino, Mun'delanji C Vestergaard, Masahiro Takagi
Certain food ingredients can stimulate the human immune system. A lectin, concanavalin A (ConA), from Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) is one of the most well-known food-derived immunostimulants and mediates activation of cell-mediated immunity through T cell proliferation. Generally, T cell activation is known to be triggered by the interaction between T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via a juxtacrine (contact-dependent) signaling pathway. The mechanism has been well characterized and is referred to as formation of the immunological synapse (IS)...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709449/a-novel-alzheimer-s-disease-drug-candidate-targeting-inflammation-and-fatty-acid-metabolism
#16
Daniel Daugherty, Joshua Goldberg, Wolfgang Fischer, Richard Dargusch, Pamela Maher, David Schubert
BACKGROUND: CAD-31 is an Alzheimer's disease (AD) drug candidate that was selected on the basis of its ability to stimulate the replication of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells as well as in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 AD mice. To move CAD-31 toward the clinic, experiments were undertaken to determine its neuroprotective and pharmacological properties, as well as to assay its therapeutic efficacy in a rigorous mouse model of AD. RESULTS: CAD-31 has potent neuroprotective properties in six distinct nerve cell assays that mimic toxicities observed in the old brain...
July 14, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703129/precise-inhibitory-microcircuit-assembly-of-developmentally-related-neocortical-interneurons-in-clusters
#17
Xin-Jun Zhang, Zhizhong Li, Zhi Han, Khadeejah T Sultan, Kun Huang, Song-Hai Shi
GABA-ergic interneurons provide diverse inhibitions that are essential for the operation of neuronal circuits in the neocortex. However, the mechanisms that control the functional organization of neocortical interneurons remain largely unknown. Here we show that developmental origins influence fine-scale synapse formation and microcircuit assembly of neocortical interneurons. Spatially clustered neocortical interneurons originating from low-titre retrovirus-infected radial glial progenitors in the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence and preoptic area preferentially develop electrical, but not chemical, synapses with each other...
July 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701482/analysis-of-rim-expression-and-function-at-mouse-photoreceptor-ribbon-synapses
#18
Martina Löhner, Norbert Babai, Tanja Müller, Kaspar Gierke, Jenny Atorf, Anneka Joachimsthaler, Angela Peukert, Henrik Martens, Andreas Feigenspan, Jan Kremers, Susanne Schoch, Johann Helmut Brandstätter, Hanna Regus-Leidig
RIM (RAB3A-interacting molecule) proteins are important regulators of transmitter release from active zones. At conventional chemical synapses, RIMs contribute substantially to vesicle priming and docking, and their loss reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles by up to 75 %. The priming function of RIMs is mediated via the formation of a tripartite complex with Munc13 and RAB3A, which brings synaptic vesicles in close proximity to Ca(2+) channels and the fusion site, and activates Munc13. We reported previously that at mouse photoreceptor ribbon synapses vesicle priming is Munc13-independent...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698220/activation-of-camkiv-by-soluble-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-impedes-trafficking-of-axonal-vesicles-and-impairs-activity-dependent-synaptogenesis
#19
Daehun Park, Myeongsu Na, Jung Ah Kim, Unghwi Lee, Eunji Cho, Mirye Jang, Sunghoe Chang
The prefibrillar form of soluble amyloid-β (sAβ1-42) impairs synaptic function and is associated with the early phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated how sAβ1-42 led to presynaptic defects using a quantum dot-based, single particle-tracking method to monitor synaptic vesicle (SV) trafficking along axons. We found that sAβ1-42 prevented new synapse formation induced by chemical long-term potentiation (cLTP). In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, nanomolar amounts of sAβ1-42 impaired Ca(2+) clearance from presynaptic terminals and increased the basal Ca(2+) concentration...
July 11, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695538/fgf9-y162c-mutation-alters-information-processing-and-social-memory-in-mice
#20
Lillian Garrett, Lore Becker, Jan Rozman, Oliver Puk, Tobias Stoeger, Ali Önder Yildirim, Alexander Bohla, Oliver Eickelberg, Wolfgang Hans, Cornelia Prehn, Jerzy Adamski, Thomas Klopstock, Ildikó Rácz, Andreas Zimmer, Martin Klingenspor, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Wolfgang Wurst, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Jochen Graw, Sabine M Hölter
In neuropsychiatric diseases, such as major depression and anxiety, pathogenic vulnerability is partially dictated by a genetic predisposition. The search continues to define this genetic susceptibility and establish new genetic elements as potential therapeutic targets. The fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) could be interesting in this regard. This family of signaling molecules plays important roles in development while also functioning within the adult. This includes effects on aspects of brain function such as neurogenesis and synapse formation...
July 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
keyword
keyword
32988
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"