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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822316/improved-middle-ear-soft-tissue-visualization-using-synchrotron-radiation-phase-contrast-imaging
#1
Mai Elfarnawany, Seyed Alireza Rohani, Soroush Ghomashchi, Daniel G Allen, Ning Zhu, Sumit K Agrawal, Hanif M Ladak
High resolution images are used as a basis for finite-element modeling of the middle-ear structures to study their biomechanical function. Commonly used imaging techniques such as micro-computed tomography (CT) and optical microscopy require extensive sample preparation, processing or staining using contrast agents to achieve sufficient soft-tissue contrast. We compare imaging of middle-ear structures in unstained, non-decalcified human temporal bones using conventional absorption-contrast micro-CT and using synchrotron radiation phase-contrast imaging (SR-PCI)...
August 5, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812679/meckel-s-cartilage-breakdown-offers-clues-to-mammalian-middle-ear-evolution
#2
Neal Anthwal, Daniel J Urban, Zhe-Xi Luo, Karen E Sears, Abigail S Tucker
A key transformation in mammalian ear evolution was incorporation of the primary jaw joint of premammalian synapsids into the definitive mammalian middle ear of living mammals. This evolutionary transition occurred in two steps, starting with a partial or 'transitional' mammalian middle ear in which the ectotympanic and malleus were still connected to the mandible by an ossified Meckel's cartilage (MC), as observed in many Mesozoic mammals. This was followed by MC breakdown, freeing the ectotympanic and the malleus from the mandible and creating the definitive mammalian middle ear...
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811907/factors-associated-with-antibiotic-prescriptions-for-the-viral-origin-diseases-in-office-based-practices-2006-2012
#3
Sara Imanpour, Obioma Nwaiwu, Darcy K McMaughan, Bethany DeSalvo, Adnan Bashir
OBJECTIVE: To test the potential association between time spent with a doctor and antibiotic overprescriptions in case of the common cold, runny nose, bronchitis, chest colds, flu, sore throats, and fluid in the middle ear. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Office-based physicians in the US. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 261,623 patient visits recorded to office-based physicians in the US. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The interest outcome was unnecessary antibiotic prescription...
August 2017: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810997/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-a-saudi-arabian-soldier-stationed-in-the-united-states
#4
Kelly Laurent, Jason Susong, Eric Fillman, Simon Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease seen in many parts of the world, especially in areas where current U.S. and international forces are deployed. Approximately 350 million people are thought to be at risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) with an annual incidence of 1.5 million cases. Over 90% of cutaneous infections with Leishmania occur in the Middle East, Brazil, and Peru. Outbreaks of CL may occur in military personnel deployed to endemic areas. Since the incubation period for symptomatic CL ranges from weeks to months, symptoms may not appear until well after returning to the United States...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808766/water-penetration-of-grommets-an-in-vitro-study
#5
Yousef Ibrahim, Paul Fram, Gavin Hughes, Pete Phillips, David Owens
The insertion of grommets has been one of the most common procedures carried out by ENT surgeons for patients with persistent middle ear fluid. There has always been apprehension at the use of grommets by patients undertaking swimming or other water sports due to concerns of grommet penetration by water into the middle ear. Despite this, no common consensus exists amongst otolaryngologists regarding post-operative advice following grommet insertion. Most studies focus on surface swimming and do not consider other activities such as diving that patients may undertake...
August 14, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807901/differing-contributions-of-the-first-and-second-pharyngeal-arches-to-tympanic-membrane-formation-in-the-mouse-and-chick
#6
Toshiko Furutera, Masaki Takechi, Taro Kitazawa, Junko Takei, Takahiko Yamada, Tri Vu Hoang, Filippo M Rijli, Hiroki Kurihara, Shigeru Kuratani, Sachiko Iseki
We have proposed that independent origins of the tympanic membrane (TM), consisting of the external auditory meatus (EAM) and first pharyngeal pouch, are linked with distinctive middle ear structures in terms of dorsal-ventral patterning of the pharyngeal arches during amniote evolution. However, previous studies have suggested that the first pharyngeal arch (PA1) is crucial for TM formation in both the mouse and chick. In this study, we compare TM formation along the anterior-posterior axis in these animals using Hoxa2 expression as a marker of the second pharyngeal arch (PA2)...
August 14, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807082/hearing-status-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
A Ahmadzadeh, M Daraei, M Jalessi, A A Peyvandi, E Amini, L A Ranjbar, A Daneshi
OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis is thought to induce conductive hearing loss and/or sensorineural hearing loss. This study evaluated the function of the middle ear and cochlea, and the related factors. METHODS: Pure tone audiometry, speech reception thresholds, speech discrimination scores, tympanometry, acoustic reflexes, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions were assessed in rheumatoid arthritis patients and healthy volunteers. RESULTS: Pure tone audiometry results revealed a higher bone conduction threshold in the rheumatoid arthritis group, but there was no significant difference when evaluated according to the sensorineural hearing loss definition...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807065/possible-role-of-dickkopf-1-protein-in-the-pathogenesis-of-tympanosclerosis-in-a-rat-model
#8
Y Zhang, S Wang, Y Zheng, A Liu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the expression of DKK1 protein in an experimental model of tympanosclerosis and its possible role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. METHODS: Forty Sprague Dawley rats were included in the study: 20 in the control group (which received no treatment) and 20 in the experimental group (which received an incision to induce tympanosclerosis). Otomicroscopy was performed to observe the development of myringosclerosis. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to observe the morphological changes...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806779/a-mutation-in-nischarin-causes-otitis-media-via-limk1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#9
Michael Crompton, Tom Purnell, Hayley E Tyrer, Andrew Parker, Greg Ball, Rachel E Hardisty-Hughes, Richard Gale, Debbie Williams, Charlotte H Dean, Michelle M Simon, Ann-Marie Mallon, Sara Wells, Mahmood F Bhutta, Martin J Burton, Hilda Tateossian, Steve D M Brown
Otitis media (OM), inflammation of the middle ear (ME), is a common cause of conductive hearing impairment. Despite the importance of the disease, the aetiology of chronic and recurrent forms of middle ear inflammatory disease remains poorly understood. Studies of the human population suggest that there is a significant genetic component predisposing to the development of chronic OM, although the underlying genes are largely unknown. Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis we identified a recessive mouse mutant, edison, that spontaneously develops a conductive hearing loss due to chronic OM...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806311/evaluation-of-maximal-speech-intelligibility-with-vibrant-soundbridge-in-patients-with-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#10
Hyun-Jin Lee, Jeon Mi Lee, Jae Young Choi, Jinsei Jung
OBJECTIVE: The study investigated improvements in maximal speech intelligibility after Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) implantation and analyzed the effect of the hearing loss pattern on maximal speech intelligibility represented by a phonetically balanced word score (PBmax). The effect of middle ear implants on PBmax has not been evaluated yet. STUDY DESIGN: Study. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. PATIENTS/INTERVENTIONS: Sixty patients who underwent VSB from December 2011 to January 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
August 10, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803051/variations-in-the-labyrinthine-segment-of-facial-nerve-canal-revealed-by-high-resolution-computed-tomography
#11
Aiyan Jin, Peng Xu, Fengqin Qu
OBJECTIVE: To study variations in the labyrinthine segment of fallopian canal and the associated middle and inner ear malformations. METHOD: The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of the temporal bone in 24 patients with congenital variations in the labyrinthine segment of fallopian canal were analyzed retrospectively. The length of labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve and angle of the first genu of 10 normal subjects were also measured. Based on the original axial images, multi-planar reformation (MPR) and curved-planar reformation (CPR) images of bilateral ossicular chains, inner ear structure and fallopian canal were reconstructed...
August 9, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802365/exploring-reasons-for-late-identification-of-children-with-early-onset-hearing-loss
#12
Elizabeth M Fitzpatrick, Johnny Cesconetto Dos Santos, Viviane Grandpierre, JoAnne Whittingham
INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown that early identification of childhood hearing loss leads to better language outcomes. However, delays in the confirmation of hearing loss persist even in the presence of well-established universal newborn hearing screening programs (UNHS). The objective of this population-based study was to document the proportion of children who experienced delayed confirmation of congenital and early onset hearing loss in a UNHS program in one region of Canada...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800467/tympanic-membrane-pressure-buffering-function-at-quasi-static-and-low-frequency-pressure-variations
#13
Wasil H M Salih, Pieter G G Muyshondt, Joris J J Dirckx
Deformation of the tympanic membrane is known to contribute to the pressure regulation processes in the middle ear cleft. In this paper we investigated pressure variations in the rabbit middle ear in response to sinusoidal varying pressures applied to the ear canal, with frequencies ranging from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz and pressure amplitudes ranging between 0.25 kPa and 1 kPa. The transtympanic pressure difference was found to be smallest in the quasi-static range, and quickly increased as a function of frequency...
July 26, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798924/diagnostic-performance-of-high-resolution-computed-tomography-in-otosclerosis
#14
Todd Kanzara, Jagdeep Singh Virk
AIM: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the diagnosis of otosclerosis. METHODS: A systematic literature review was undertaken to include Level I-III studies (Oxford Centre for Evidenced based Medicine) that utilised HRCT to detect histology confirmed otosclerosis. Quantitative synthesis was then performed. RESULTS: Based on available level III literature, HRCT has a relatively low sensitivity of 58% (95%CI: 49...
July 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798773/planktonic-growth-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-around-a-dual-species-biofilm-supports-the-growth-of-fusobacterium-nucleatum-within-that-biofilm
#15
James C Wang, Joehassin Cordero, Yan Sun, Mayank Aranke, Randall Wolcott, Jane A Colmer-Hamood, Abdul N Hamood
PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to understand the potential interaction between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Fusobacterium nucleatum within the middle ear. METHODS: We examined the microbiota of ear fluid and tympanostomy tubes (TTs) obtained from patients with posttympanostomy tube otorrhea. We also examined biofilms formed by P. aeruginosa and F. nucleatum, singly or together, under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. RESULTS: While the facultative anaerobe P...
2017: International Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798547/partial-ear-defects
#16
REVIEW
Brent B Pickrell, Christopher D Hughes, Renata S Maricevich
Reconstruction of partial ear defects represents one of the most challenging areas within reconstructive surgery of the head and neck. Each case of auricular reconstruction is unique and warrants a systematic approach that accounts for defect size and location, the quality of the surrounding skin, patient preference, and operator experience. In this article, the authors outline different reconstructive approaches for defects of the upper-, middle-, and lower-third of the auricle. The relevant anatomy is discussed in detail...
August 2017: Seminars in Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796849/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-fibrin-in-otitis-media-analysis-of-human-and-chinchilla-temporal-bones
#17
Patricia A Schachern, Geeyoun Kwon, David E Briles, Patricia Ferrieri, Steven Juhn, Sebahattin Cureoglu, Michael M Paparella, Vladimir Tsuprun
Background: Bacterial resistance in acute otitis can result in bacterial persistence and biofilm formation, triggering chronic and recurrent infections. Objective: To investigate the middle ear inflammatory response to bacterial infection in human and chinchilla temporal bones. Design, Setting, and Participants: Six chinchillas underwent intrabullar inoculations with 0.5 mL of 106 colony-forming units (CFUs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae, serotype 2...
August 10, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796200/new-infant-cranium-from-the-african-miocene-sheds-light-on-ape-evolution
#18
Isaiah Nengo, Paul Tafforeau, Christopher C Gilbert, John G Fleagle, Ellen R Miller, Craig Feibel, David L Fox, Josh Feinberg, Kelsey D Pugh, Camille Berruyer, Sara Mana, Zachary Engle, Fred Spoor
The evolutionary history of extant hominoids (humans and apes) remains poorly understood. The African fossil record during the crucial time period, the Miocene epoch, largely comprises isolated jaws and teeth, and little is known about ape cranial evolution. Here we report on the, to our knowledge, most complete fossil ape cranium yet described, recovered from the 13 million-year-old Middle Miocene site of Napudet, Kenya. The infant specimen, KNM-NP 59050, is assigned to a new species of Nyanzapithecus on the basis of its unerupted permanent teeth, visualized by synchrotron imaging...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796090/jacobson-s-nerve-schwannoma-presenting-as-a-middle-ear-mass-causing-pulsatile-tinnitus-a-case-report
#19
Kenny F Lin, Andrew T Turk, Ana Hae-Ok Kim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 8, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796082/the-first-reported-case-of-primary-intestinal-type-adenocarcinoma-of-the-middle-ear-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Marc-Elie Nader, Diana Bell, Lawrence Ginsberg, Franco DeMonte, G Brandon Gunn, Paul W Gidley
OBJECTIVE: Adenocarcinoma of the middle ear is a rare entity that must be distinguished from other adenomatous tumors of the temporal bone. We present the first patient of an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma originating from the middle ear. PATIENTS: A 58-year-old woman presented with an 8-year history of left otorrhea. Her middle ear effusions were quite thick and gummy. She underwent eight sets of pressure-equalization tubes within 3 years. In 2011, her physical examination identified a middle ear mass, and she underwent mastoidectomy...
August 8, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
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