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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231638/comparison-of-the-shock-absorption-capacities-of-different-mouthguards
#1
Melina Simonetta Bochnig, Min-Jung Oh, Theresa Nagel, Fred Ziegler, Paul-Georg Jost-Brinkmann
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In this in vitro study the protective qualities of different mouthguard types were examined during small hard object collisions. The aim was to investigate inconclusive aspects of hard inserts, nylon nets and air spaces as reinforcements in the anterior region and the protection qualities of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five different mouthguards with a labial thickness between 2 mm and 11 mm made of materials of varying stiffness were investigated...
February 23, 2017: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228418/folic-acid-supplementation-increases-cutaneous-vasodilator-sensitivity-to-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-older-adults
#2
Anna E Stanhewicz, Jody L Greaney, Lacy M Alexander, W Larry Kenney
During heat stress, blunted increases in skin sympathetic nervous system activity (SSNA) and reductions in end-organ vascular responsiveness contribute to the age-related reduction in reflex cutaneous vasodilation. In older adults, folic acid supplementation improves the cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) response to passive heating; however, the influence of folic acid supplementation on SSNA:CVC transduction is unknown. Fourteen older adults (66±1yrs, 8M/6F) ingested folic acid (5mg·day(-1)) or placebo for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228404/endothelial-colony-forming-cells-ameliorate-endothelial-dysfunction-via-secreted-factors-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#3
Jason A Collett, Purvi Mehrotra, Allison Crone, W Christopher Shelley, Mervin C Yoder, David P Basile
Damage to endothelial cells contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI) by leading to impaired perfusion. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are endothelial precursor cells with high proliferative capacity, pro-angiogenic activity, and in vivo vessel forming potential. We hypothesized that ECFCs may ameliorate the degree of AKI and/or promote repair of the renal vasculature following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Rat pulmonary microvascular ECs (PMVEC) with high proliferative potential were compared with pulmonary artery ECs (PAEC) with low proliferative potential in rats subjected to renal I/R...
February 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228367/blockade-of-hmgb1-preserves-vascular-homeostasis-and-improves-blood-perfusion-in-rats-of-acute-limb-ischemia-reperfusion
#4
Yang Liu, Changyou Zhou, Jianjun Jiang, Qingbo Su, Xiangjiu Ding
Acute limb ischemia is one of the most common peripheral arterial disease, while surgical restoration of blood flow often results in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our previous study revealed the inflammation intensity in arterial tissue, characterized by expression of high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), was contrary to the fluctuation of hemodynamics in reperfusion limbs in a rat model. This study meant to clarify the role of HMGB1 during this process. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging evaluated limb hemodynamics in mean and max perfusion unit (PU)...
February 19, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227368/pulsecam-high-resolution-blood-perfusion-imaging-using-a-camera-and-a-pulse-oximeter
#5
Mayank Kumar, James Suliburk, Ashok Veeraraghavan, Ashutosh Sabharwal, Mayank Kumar, James Suliburk, Ashok Veeraraghavan, Ashutosh Sabharwal, Mayank Kumar, James Suliburk, Ashok Veeraraghavan, Ashutosh Sabharwal
Measuring blood perfusion is important in medical care as an indicator of injury and disease. However, currently available devices to measure blood perfusion like laser Doppler flowmetry are bulky, expensive, and cumbersome to use. An alternative low-cost and portable camera-based blood perfusion measurement system has recently been proposed, but such camera-only system produces noisy low-resolution blood perfusion maps. In this paper, we propose a new multi-sensor modality, named PulseCam, for measuring blood perfusion by combining a traditional pulse oximeter with a video camera in a unique way to provide low noise and high-resolution blood perfusion maps...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227286/indirect-measurement-of-the-carotid-arterial-pressure-from-vibrocardiographic-signal-calibration-of-the-waveform-and-comparison-with-photoplethysmographic-signal
#6
L Casacanditella, G Cosoli, S Casaccia, E P Tomasini, L Scalise, L Casacanditella, G Cosoli, S Casaccia, E P Tomasini, L Scalise, G Cosoli, S Casaccia, E P Tomasini, L Casacanditella, L Scalise
The detection of arterial Blood Pressure waveform provides important information about the subject health status. Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) is a non-contact technique with high sensitivity able to detect mechanical movements of the arterial wall; several previous studies have shown that LDV is able to characterize cardiac activity. Photoplethysmogram (PPG) quantifies the digital volume artery pulse, which has been demonstrated to be closely related to the pressure signal measured by an arterial tonometer...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221297/optimal-epinephrine-concentration-and-time-delay-to-minimize-perfusion-in-eyelid-surgery-measured-by-laser-based-methods-and-a-novel-form-of-extended-wavelength-diffuse-reflectance-spectroscopy
#7
Rafi Sheikh, Ulf Dahlstrand, Khashayar Memarzadeh, Jonas Blohmé, Nina Reistad, Malin Malmsjö
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the hypoperfusion effects of epinephrine in local anesthesia in eyelid surgery. A novel form of extended-wavelength diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was evaluated. METHODS: Blood perfusion in porcine eyelid flaps was measured using laser Doppler velocimetry and laser speckle contrast imaging, whereas the tissue response was measured using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a broad spectrum (450-1550 nm). Epinephrine was either injected cumulatively, 0...
February 17, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212586/effects-of-resistance-band-exercise-on-vascular-activity-and-fitness-in-older-adults
#8
Mark F Smith, Mistrelle Ellmore, Geoff Middleton, Paul M Murgatroyd, Thomas I Gee
This study investigated the effects of a low to moderately intense resistance-band exercise intervention on cutaneous microvascular function in an older population. 18 sedentary healthy participants (age: 58±5) were assessed for their upper and lower-limb endothelial cutaneous vascular conductance using laser Doppler fluximetry with endothelial-dependent (80 μl acetylcholine chloride), and -independent vasodilation (80 μl sodium nitroprusside). In addition, participants underwent a range of functional assessments (cardiopulmonary fitness, strength, flexibility), and completed a perceived quality of life questionnaire...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211726/realization-of-translational-symmetry-in-trapped-cold-ion-rings
#9
Hao-Kun Li, Erik Urban, Crystal Noel, Alexander Chuang, Yang Xia, Anthony Ransford, Boerge Hemmerling, Yuan Wang, Tongcang Li, Hartmut Häffner, Xiang Zhang
We crystallize up to 15 ^{40}Ca^{+} ions in a ring with a microfabricated silicon surface Paul trap. Delocalization of the Doppler laser-cooled ions shows that the translational symmetry of the ion ring is preserved at millikelvin temperatures. By characterizing the collective motion of the ion crystals, we identify homogeneous electric fields as the dominant symmetry-breaking mechanism at this energy scale. With increasing ion numbers, such detrimental effects are reduced. We predict that, with only a ten-ion ring, uncompensated homogeneous fields will not break the translational symmetry of the rotational ground state...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210901/transplantation-of-lineage-negative-stem-cells-in-pterygopalatine-artery-ligation-induced-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#10
Gillipsie Minhas, Sudesh Prabhakar, Ryuichi Morishita, Munehisa Shimamura, Reema Bansal, Akshay Anand
Retinal ischemia is a condition associated with retinal degenerative diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and other optic neuropathies, leading to visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Currently, there is no therapy available for ischemic retinopathies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test a murine model of pterygopalatine artery ligation-induced retinal injury for transplantation of mouse bone marrow-derived lineage-negative (lin-ve) stem cells. The mouse external carotid artery and pterygopalatine artery were ligated for 3...
February 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209385/a-comparison-of-the-pro-angiogenic-potential-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-endothelial-cells-and-induced-endothelial-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-peripheral-arterial-disease
#11
Zoe E Clayton, Gloria S C Yuen, Sara Sadeghipour, Jack D Hywood, Jack W T Wong, Ngan F Huang, Martin K C Ng, John P Cooke, Sanjay Patel
BACKGROUND: Endothelial cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-ECs) promote angiogenesis, and more recently induced endothelial cells (iECs) have been generated via fibroblast trans-differentiation. These cell types have potential as treatments for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). However, it is unknown whether different reprogramming methods produce cells that are equivalent in terms of their pro-angiogenic capabilities. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to directly compare iPSC-ECs and iECs in an animal model of PAD, in order to identify which cell type, if any, displays superior therapeutic potential...
January 31, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203503/prostaglandin-e1-increases-microcirculation-in-random-pattern-flaps-on-rats-measured-with-laser-doppler-perfusion-imaging
#12
Kim Alexander Tønseth, Christian Sneistrup, Thomas Moe Berg
BACKGROUND: Reconstructive procedures with pedicled and free flaps are associated with a risk of ischemia. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a hormone-like substance with known antiischemic and tissue-protective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PGE1 on the microcirculation in random pattern skin flaps on rats. METHODS: Twenty-four rats were divided into 2 groups: an intervention group given PGE1 for 6 hours and a control group given saline. The flap (2 × 10 cm) was created on the back of the rats, and the microcirculation was monitored with laser Doppler perfusion imaging in 5 different zones (1, proximal; 5, distal) before surgery and after 60, 180, and 360 minutes postoperatively...
January 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202549/relationships-between-type-2-diabetes-neuropathy-and-microvascular-dysfunction-evidence-from-patients-with-cryptogenic-axonal-polyneuropathy
#13
Anna L Emanuel, Mariska D Nieuwenhoff, Erica S Klaassen, Ajay Verma, Mark H H Kramer, Rob Strijers, Alexander F J E Vrancken, Etto Eringa, Geert Jan Groeneveld, Erik H Serné
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether the relationship between neuropathy and microvascular dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes is independent of diabetes-related factors. For this purpose, we compared skin microvascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes with that of patients with cryptogenic axonal polyneuropathy (CAP), a polyneuropathy of unknown etiology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional information was collected from 16 healthy controls (HCs), 16 patients with CAP, 15 patients with type 2 diabetes with polyneuropathy (DPN), and 11 patients with type 2 diabetes without polyneuropathy...
February 15, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202441/effect-of-hypohydration-on-postsynaptic-cutaneous-vasodilation-and-sweating-in-healthy-men
#14
Matthew A Tucker, Ashley Six, Nicole E Moyen, Alf Z Satterfield, Matthew S Ganio
: Hypohydration decreases cutaneous vasodilation and sweating during heat stress, but it is unknown if these decrements are from postsynaptic (i.e. sweat gland/blood vessel) alterations. PURPOSE: To determine if hypohydration affects postsynaptic cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses. METHODS: 12 healthy men participated in euhydrated (EU) and hypohydrated (HY) trials, with hypohydration induced via fluid restriction and passive heat-stress...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202186/stimulation-of-rat-cranial-dura-mater-with-potassium-chloride-causes-cgrp-release-into-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-increases-medullary-blood-flow
#15
Mária Dux, Christine Will, Mirjam Eberhardt, Michael J M Fischer, Karl Messlinger
Primary headaches may be accompanied by increased intracranial blood flow induced by the release of the potent vasodilator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from activated meningeal afferents. We aimed to record meningeal and medullary blood flow simultaneously and to localize the sites of CGRP release in rodent preparations in vivo and ex vivo. Blood flow in the exposed rat parietal dura mater and the medulla oblongata was recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry, while the dura was stimulated by topical application of 60mM potassium chloride (KCl)...
February 10, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199732/a-systematic-review-of-novel-technology-for-monitoring-infant-and-newborn-heart-rate
#16
REVIEW
Ajay C Kevat, Denise Vr Bullen, Peter G Davis, C Omar F Kamlin
: Heart rate is a vital sign for assessing the need for resuscitation. We performed a systematic review of studies assessing novel methods of measuring heart rate in newborns and infants in the neonatal unit. Two investigators completed independent literature searches. Identified papers were independently evaluated and relevant data were extracted and analysed. CONCLUSION: This systematic review identified seven new technologies, including camera-based photoplethysmography, reflectance pulse oximetry, laser Doppler methods, capacitive sensors, piezoelectric sensors, electromyography, and a digital stethoscope...
February 15, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186494/oscillatory-pattern-of-acral-skin-blood-flow-within-thermoneutral-zone-in-healthy-humans
#17
Maja Elstad, Ilias Zilakos, Tone Bergersen
OBJECTIVE: The acral skin contains arteriovenous anastomoses, which probably is the main part of skin microcirculation for blood flow adjustments and thermoregulation in the thermoneutral zone. The objective was to investigate if an increase in sympathetic activation during cooling influences the oscillatory pattern of acral skin blood flow. APPROACH: We had measurements of bilateral acral skin blood flow (n=12) during lowering of ambient temperature from 32°C to 18°C...
February 10, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183353/endothelial-injury-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-crosstalk-between-dimethylarginines-and-systemic-inflammation
#18
Theodoros Dimitroulas, James Hodson, Aamer Sandoo, Jacqueline Smith, George D Kitas
BACKGROUND: Symmetric (SDMA) and asymmetric (ADMA) dimethylarginines have emerged as novel biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in several disease settings associated with atherosclerosis. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease characterized by high CVD mortality and morbidity. ADMA and SDMA levels are abnormal in RA patients, but their correlation with assessments of endothelial function and structure remains unknown. We aimed to investigate whether SDMA and ADMA are associated with carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and arterial stiffness as well as non-invasive assessments of in vivo micro- and macrovascular endothelial function in RA patients with high systemic inflammatory load...
February 10, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180952/endothelial-dysfunction-during-long-term-follow-up-in-children-with-stec-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#19
Martin Kreuzer, Laura Sollmann, Stephan Ruben, Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Dagmar-Christiane Fischer, Lars Pape, Dieter Haffner
BACKGROUND: Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)-associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), especially in children. Its long-term outcome with respect to endothelial damage remains largely elusive. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in 26 children who had suffered from STEC-HUS in the past and achieved a complete recovery of renal function (eGFR >90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Skin microcirculation after local heating was assessed by laser Doppler fluximetry, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and angiopoietin (Ang) 1 and 2 serum levels after a median follow-up period of 6...
February 8, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158119/development-of-a-compact-optical-absolute-frequency-reference-for-space-with-10-sup-15-sup-instability
#20
Thilo Schuldt, Klaus Döringshoff, Evgeny V Kovalchuk, Anja Keetman, Julia Pahl, Achim Peters, Claus Braxmaier
We report on a compact and ruggedized setup for laser frequency stabilization employing Doppler-free spectroscopy of molecular iodine near 532 nm. Using a 30 cm long iodine cell in a triple-pass configuration in combination with noise-canceling detection and residual amplitude modulation control, a frequency instability of 6×10<sup>-15</sup> at 1 s integration time and a Flicker noise floor below 3×10<sup>-15</sup> for integration times between 100 and 1000 s was found. A specific assembly-integration technology was applied for the realization of the spectroscopy setup, ensuring high beam pointing stability and high thermal and mechanical rigidity...
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
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