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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621146/dissociation-of-executive-and-attentional-elements-of-the-digit-span-task-in-a-population-of-older-adults-a-latent-class-analysis
#1
Denise R LaBelle, Bern G Lee, Justin B Miller
The prevailing model for working memory proposes the existence of a "central executive" responsible for coordinating and prioritizing incoming information from sensory and association cortices. The Digit Span task is commonly used by clinicians to parse attentional and executive components of working memory; however, the interrelatedness of these constructs in the context of advanced age and neurodegenerative disease remains an area of active investigation. The current study details a procedure and rationale for the use of latent class analysis, a data-driven, person-centered method, in the investigation of older adults and dementia...
June 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605446/changes-in-everyday-and-digital-health-technology-use-among-seniors-in-declining-health
#2
David M Levine, Stuart R Lipsitz, Jeffrey A Linder
Background: US seniors' digital health and everyday technology use when their health declines are unknown. Methods: Longitudinal cohort using the National Health and Aging Trends Study, a nationally-representative, annually-administered sample of community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (n=4037). We used difference-in-differences to assess the adjusted difference (AD) in technology use from 2011-2014 between those with and without health declines. Health decline measures included new-onset dementia; new-onset depression; decreases in activities of daily living (ADLs), short physical performance battery (SPPB), grip strength, and self-reported health; relocation to nursing facility; increased hospitalizations; and new-onset comorbidity...
June 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602027/assistive-technology-for-memory-support-in-dementia
#3
REVIEW
Henriëtte G Van der Roest, Jennifer Wenborn, Channah Pastink, Rose-Marie Dröes, Martin Orrell
BACKGROUND: The sustained interest in electronic assistive technology in dementia care has been fuelled by the urgent need to develop useful approaches to help support people with dementia at home. Also the low costs and wide availability of electronic devices make it more feasible to use electronic devices for the benefit of disabled persons. Information Communication Technology (ICT) devices designed to support people with dementia are usually referred to as Assistive Technology (AT) or Electronic Assistive Technology (EAT)...
June 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598243/advances-in-arterial-spin-labelling-mri-methods-for-measuring-perfusion-and-collateral-flow
#4
Matthias Jp van Osch, Wouter M Teeuwisse, Zhensen Chen, Yuriko Suzuki, Michael Helle, Sophie Schmid
With the publication in 2015 of the consensus statement by the perfusion study group of the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM) and the EU-COST action 'ASL in dementia' on the implementation of arterial spin labelling MRI (ASL) in a clinical setting, the development of ASL can be considered to have become mature and ready for clinical prime-time. In this review article new developments and remaining issues will be discussed, especially focusing on quantification of ASL as well as on new technological developments of ASL for perfusion imaging and flow territory mapping...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597234/an-automated-approach-to-measuring-child-movement-and-location-in-the-early-childhood-classroom
#5
Dwight W Irvin, Stephen A Crutchfield, Charles R Greenwood, William D Kearns, Jay Buzhardt
Children's movement is an important issue in child development and outcome in early childhood research, intervention, and practice. Digital sensor technologies offer improvements in naturalistic movement measurement and analysis. We conducted validity and feasibility testing of a real-time, indoor mapping and location system (Ubisense, Inc.) within a preschool classroom. Real-time indoor mapping has several implications with respect to efficiently and conveniently: (a) determining the activity areas where children are spending the most and least time per day (e...
June 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579482/precuneus-degeneration-and-isolated-apathy-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Jung Hwan Shin, Seong A Shin, Jee-Young Lee, Hyunwoo Nam, Jae-Sung Lim, Yu Kyeong Kim
INTRODUCTION: To investigate isolated apathy in a set of consecutively enrolled Parkinson's disease (PD) patients without dementia, depression, and significant motor response fluctuations, by conducting neuropsychological and neuroimaging analyses. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four patients were eligible for inclusion in this study. Clinical information and data were collected from a predefined neuropsychological test battery, including the mini-mental status examination, apathy scale, geriatric depression scale, digit span test, Boston naming test, Seoul verbal learning test, controlled oral word association test, go-no-go test, and the Rey figure copy test...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494819/mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-clustering-and-switching-analyses-in-verbal-fluency-test
#7
Iván Galtier, Antonieta Nieto, Jesús N Lorenzo, José Barroso
OBJECTIVES: Mild cognitive impairment is common in non-demented Parkinson disease patients (PD-MCI) and is considered as a risk factor for dementia. Executive dysfunction has been widely described in PD and the Verbal Fluency Tests (VFT) are often used for executive function assessment in this pathology. The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) published guidelines for PD-MCI diagnosis in 2012. However, no investigation has focused on the qualitative analysis of VFT in PD-MCI. The aim of this work was to study the clustering and switching strategies in VFT in PD-MCI patients...
May 12, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472447/actigraphic-sleep-duration-and-fragmentation-in-older-women-associations-with-performance-across-cognitive-domains
#8
Adam P Spira, Katie L Stone, Susan Redline, Kristine E Ensrud, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Jane A Cauley, Kristine Yaffe
Study Objectives: To determine the association of actigraphic sleep duration and fragmentation with cognition in community-dwelling older women. Methods: We studied 782 women (mean age = 87.4) of varied cognitive status from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures who completed wrist actigraphy and the 3MS, California Verbal Learning Test-II-Short Form, digit span, verbal fluency tests, and the Trailmaking Test, Part B (Trails B). Total sleep time (TST) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) tertiles were our primary predictors...
May 2, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443019/increased-diagnostic-accuracy-of-digital-vs-conventional-clock-drawing-test-for-discrimination-of-patients-in-the-early-course-of-alzheimer-s-disease-from-cognitively-healthy-individuals
#9
Stephan Müller, Oliver Preische, Petra Heymann, Ulrich Elbing, Christoph Laske
The conventional Clock Drawing Test (cCDT) is a rapid and inexpensive screening tool for detection of moderate and severe dementia. However, its usage is limited due to poor diagnostic accuracy especially in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The diagnostic value of a newly developed digital Clock Drawing Test (dCDT) was evaluated and compared with the cCDT in 20 patients with early dementia due to AD (eDAT), 30 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and 20 cognitively healthy controls (HCs). Parameters assessed by dCDT were time while transitioning the stylus from one stroke to the next above the surface (i...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438246/does-dual-task-coordination-performance-decline-in-later-life
#10
María V Sebastián, Roberto Mediavilla
BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study examined whether changes occur in people’s capacity to coordinate two simultaneous tasks (dual-task) when transitioning from adulthood to later life. The central executive, Baddeley’s working memory model component, is responsible for this coordination. Contradictory results have been reported regarding the relationship between ageing and dual-task performance; but these seem to be related to methodological issues that have been addressed in this study...
May 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436344/inattention-tests-for-delirium
#11
Paul Regal
Voyer and colleagues (2016) report an interesting and important comparison of ten attention/concentration tests for DSM-5 delirium. I have a number of questions and comments as follows: (1) What training did the research assistants have? DSM-5 diagnosis is generally regarded as a decision by medical specialists. When the person has prior dementia, identifying delirium is a high-level medical skill. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia can closely mimic delirium unless the examiner focuses on behavioral triggers and the speed of cognitive decline...
April 24, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431515/the-effectiveness-of-creating-an-online-life-story-book-on-persons-with-early-dementia-and-their-informal-caregivers-a-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Teuntje R Elfrink, Sytse U Zuidema, Miriam Kunz, Gerben J Westerhof
BACKGROUND: Dementia has a high burden for patients, informal caregivers and society. Given changes in care systems, more persons with dementia will live longer at home. However, living at home (with dementia) with a good quality of life is not easy to achieve. Dementia is often accompanied by neuropsychiatric symptoms like apathy, agitation, depression, and anxiety, which have a negative impact on quality of life. Whereas cognitive deterioration can hardly be influenced, it is possible to reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms...
April 21, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409050/correlation-of-mri-visual-scales-with-neuropsychological-profile-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Luiz Felipe Vasconcellos, João Santos Pereira, Marcelo Adachi, Denise Greca, Manuela Cruz, Ana Lara Malak, Helenice Charchat-Fichman, Mariana Spitz
Few studies have evaluated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visual scales in Parkinson's disease-Mild Cognitive Impairment (PD-MCI). We selected 79 PD patients and 92 controls (CO) to perform neurologic and neuropsychological evaluation. Brain MRI was performed to evaluate the following scales: Global Cortical Atrophy (GCA), Fazekas, and medial temporal atrophy (MTA). The analysis revealed that both PD groups (amnestic and nonamnestic) showed worse performance on several tests when compared to CO. Memory, executive function, and attention impairment were more severe in amnestic PD-MCI group...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400371/retinal-microvascular-network-geometry-and-cognitive-abilities-in-community-dwelling-older-people-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936-study
#14
Sarah McGrory, Adele M Taylor, Mirna Kirin, Janie Corley, Alison Pattie, Simon R Cox, Baljean Dhillon, Joanna M Wardlaw, Fergus N Doubal, John M Starr, Emanuele Trucco, Thomas J MacGillivray, Ian J Deary
AIM: To examine the relationship between retinal vascular morphology and cognitive abilities in a narrow-age cohort of community-dwelling older people. METHODS: Digital retinal images taken at age ∼73 years from 683 participants of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) were analysed with Singapore I Vessel Assessment (SIVA) software. Multiple regression models were applied to determine cross-sectional associations between retinal vascular parameters and general cognitive ability (g), memory, processing speed, visuospatial ability, crystallised cognitive ability and change in IQ from childhood to older age...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380705/the-effects-of-integrated-attention-training-for-older-chinese-adults-with-subjective-cognitive-complaints
#15
Calvin Pak-Wing Cheng, Linda Chiu-Wa Lam, Sheung-Tak Cheng
OBJECTIVE: Early intervention to reduce cognitive decline and preserve functioning is a compelling public health issue. Because impaired attention occurs early in the process of cognitive impairment, focusing training strategies upon attention may be a potential intervention to prevent further cognitive decline. We sought to test the effects on cognitive performance and daily functioning of a new cognitive training program that focuses on attention. METHOD: This single-blind randomized controlled trial lasted 6 months and included two phases...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328492/digital-tracking-of-cognitive-decline-researchers-are-co-opting-computers-in-their-efforts-to-detect-early-signs-of-dementia
#16
REVIEW
Michele Solis
Pinpointing where healthy brain aging leaves off and dementia begins is difficult. Is a slip in memory an expected outcome for a too-busy person or a warning of something else? If an empty-nester loses the motivation to cook, is it a sign that the person is enjoying retirement after a lifetime spent cooking or an early sign of a cognitive decline?
March 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304305/combined-dual-task-gait-training-and%C3%A2-aerobic-exercise-to-improve-cognition-%C3%A2-mobility-and%C3%A2-vascular-health-in%C3%A2-community-dwelling-older-adults-at%C3%A2-risk-for-future-cognitive-decline1
#17
Michael A Gregory, Narlon C Boa Sorte Silva, Dawn P Gill, Cheri L McGowan, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, J Kevin Shoemaker, Vladimir Hachinski, Jeff Holmes, Robert J Petrella
This 6-month experimental case series study investigated the effects of a dual-task gait training and aerobic exercise intervention on cognition, mobility, and cardiovascular health in community-dwelling older adults without dementia. Participants exercised 40 min/day, 3 days/week for 26 weeks on a Biodex GaitTrainer2 treadmill. Participants were assessed at baseline (V0), interim (V1: 12-weeks), intervention endpoint (V2: 26-weeks), and study endpoint (V3: 52-weeks). The study outcomes included: cognition [executive function (EF), processing speed, verbal fluency, and memory]; mobility: usual & dual-task gait (speed, step length, and stride time variability); and vascular health: ambulatory blood pressure, carotid arterial compliance, and intima-media thickness (cIMT)...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290247/modulation-of-retinal-arteriolar-central-reflection-by-apoe-genotype
#18
Shaun Frost, Alauddin Bhuiyan, David Offerman, James D Doecke, S Lance Macaulay, Hamid R Sohrabi, David Ames, Colin Masters, Ralph N Martins, Yogesan Kanagasingam, Aibl Research Group
This study investigated the retinal arteriolar central reflex (CR, the central reflection observed in photographs of retinal vessels), which may provide information about micro-vascular health in the retina and also the brain, due to the homology between these vascular networks. The study also describes a novel computer based semi-automated technique that accurately quantifies retinal arteriolar CR and vessel width, and calculates the CR to vessel width ratio (CRR) from digital retinal photographs. Digital retinal photographs were collected from participants in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study of ageing (AIBL), including 25 participants diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (age 72...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284872/cognitive-functioning-of-individuals-aged-90-years-and-older-without-dementia-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
N Legdeur, T T Binnekade, R H Otten, M Badissi, P Scheltens, P J Visser, A B Maier
INTRODUCTION: Reference values to define cognitive impairment in individuals aged 90 years and older are lacking. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the level of cognitive functioning of individuals aged 90 years and older without dementia. METHODS: The search identified 3972 articles of which 20 articles were included in the review. We calculated mean cognitive test scores and cut-off scores for cognitive tests published in two or more articles...
March 8, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276862/excessive-decline-from-premorbid-functioning-detecting-performance-invalidity-with-the-wais-iv-and-demographic-predictions
#20
Phillip K Martin, Ben P Hunter, Amanda M Rach, Robin J Heinrichs, Ryan W Schroeder
OBJECTIVE: Excessive Decline from Premorbid Functioning (EDPF) is presented as a construct and defined as a discrepancy between predicted premorbid ability and current test performance that is so atypical of individuals with true neurocognitive impairment that it is likely the product of performance invalidity. New embedded PVTs (EDPF-FSIQ, EDPF-VW, and EDPF-PP) were derived by comparing scores from the WAIS-IV to TOPF demographically predicted premorbid estimates and then examined for classification accuracy...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
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