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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229907/expression-and-functional-evaluation-of-biopharmaceuticals-made-in-plant-chloroplasts
#1
REVIEW
Bei Zhang, Balamurugan Shanmugaraj, Henry Daniell
After approval of the first plant-made biopharmaceutical by FDA for human use, many protein drugs are now in clinical development. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in expression of heterologous complex/large proteins in chloroplasts of edible plants using codon optimized human or viral genes. Furthermore, advances in quantification enable determination of in-planta drug dosage. Oral delivery of plastid-made biopharmaceuticals (PMB) is affordable because it eliminates prohibitively expensive fermentation, purification processes addressing major challenges of short shelf-life after cold storage...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225907/characterisation-of-iunh-gene-knockout-strain-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#2
Anne Drumond Villela, Valnês da Silva Rodrigues, Antônio Frederico Michel Pinto, Priscila Lamb Wink, Zilpa Adriana Sánchez-Quitian, Guilherme Oliveira Petersen, Maria Martha Campos, Luiz Augusto Basso, Diógenes Santiago Santos
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The better understanding of important metabolic pathways from M. tuberculosis can contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to combat TB. Nucleoside hydrolase (MtIAGU-NH), encoded by iunH gene (Rv3393), is an enzyme from purine salvage pathway in M. tuberculosis. MtIAGU-NH accepts inosine, adenosine, guanosine, and uridine as substrates, which may point to a pivotal metabolic role...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218837/rapid-and-efficient-genome-editing-in-staphylococcus-aureus-by-using-an-engineered-crispr-cas9-system
#3
Weizhong Chen, Yifei Zhang, Won-Sik Yeo, Taeok Bae, Quanjiang Ji
Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen, has been the cause of serious infectious diseases with a high mortality rate. Although genetics is a key means to study S. aureus physiology, such as drug resistance and pathogenesis, genetic manipulation in S. aureus is always time consuming and labor intensive. Here, we report a CRISPR/Cas9 system (pCasSA) for rapid and efficient genome editing, including gene deletion, insertion and single-base substitution mutation in S. aureus. The designed pCasSA system is amenable to assembly of spacers and repair arms by Golden Gate assembly and Gibson assembly, respectively, enabling rapid construction of the plasmids for editing...
February 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218830/rapidfire-tm-mass-spectrometry-with-enhanced-throughput-as-an-alternative-to-liquid-liquid-salt-assisted-extraction-and-lc-ms-analysis-for-sulfonamides-in-honey
#4
Brian T Veach, Thilak K Mudalige, Peter Rye
The use of veterinary drugs in honey bees for the prevention of infectious disease is ever increasing due to the spread of colony collapse disorder around the world. The United States Food and Drug Administration is concerned about the presence of these drugs residues in honey as they often lead to health concerns or potential antibiotic resistance. Currently there is a need for a rapid screening method for the detection of veterinary drugs in honey. Herein is a method that utilizes automated solid-phase extraction that is directly coupled to a mass spectrometer for the qualitative screening of 12 different regulated sulfonamides in honey...
February 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217653/corticosteroid-and-azithromycin-in-idiopathic-granulomatous-mastitis
#5
Marzieh Salehi, Maryam Salehi, Nader Kalbasi, Atousa Hakamifard, Hassan Salehi, Mohammad Mahdi Salehi, Jalil Sharifian
BACKGROUND: Mastitis is an inflammatory disorder in breast tissues due to bacterial factors, mycobacterial infections or autoimmune diseases. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a form of mastitis which may be affected by systematic diseases such as sarcoidosis, and infectious causes such as mycobacterium and fungus. This study evaluates the efficacy of medical therapy with a combination of corticosteroid and Azithromycin in patients with IGM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a clinical trial research carried out in Alzahra Hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2013 on granulomatous mastitis patients...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217467/pattern-of-inpatient-referrals-to-dermatology-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-of-south-rajasthan
#6
Manisha Balai, Lalit K Gupta, Ashok K Khare, Asit Mittal, Sharad Mehta, Garima Bharti
BACKGROUND: Dermatologists besides providing service to patients in the outdoors, also play a vital role in the care of inpatients admitted to dermatology unit and other departments. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of referrals sent to the dermatology department by other departments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included all inpatients referred to dermatology department of a tertiary care centre of South Rajasthan during a 5-year period from October 2008 to September 2013...
January 2017: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216179/the-17th-international-congress-on-infectious-diseases-workshop-on-developing-infection-prevention-and-control-resources-for-low-to-middle-income-countries
#7
Sangeeta Sastry, Nadia Masroor, Gonzalo Bearman, Rana Hajjeh, Alison Holmes, Ziad Memish, Britta Lassmann, Didier Pittet, Fiona Macnab, Rachel Kamau, Evelyn Wesangula, Paras Pokharel, Paul Brown, Frances Daily, Fatma Amer, Jaime Torres, Miguel O'Ryan, Revathi Gunturu, Andre Bulabula, Shaheen Mehtar
Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) are a major concern to healthcare systems around the world. They are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, in addition to increased hospitalization costs. Recent outbreaks including MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) coronavirus and Ebola have highlighted the importance of infection control. Further, HAIs especially with multi-drug resistant gram negative rods (MDRO-GNRs) have become a top global priority. Though adequate approaches and guidelines have been in existence for many years and have sometimes proven effective in some countries, the implementation of such approaches in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is often restricted due to limited resources and underdeveloped infrastructure...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214184/-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-lymphopenia-clinical-and-pathophysiological-features
#8
M Martin, A Guffroy, X Argemi, T Martin
Lymphopenia is frequent in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and profound (<500/mm(3)) in 10% of cases. T lymphocytes, especially CD4+, are more affected than B cells. The pathophysiological mechanisms are complex, involving lymphocytotoxic antibodies, excess of apoptosis, increased susceptibility of T cells to complement mediated cytolysis, as well as lymphopoiesis impairment and lymphocyte sequestration. Lymphopenia in SLE is independent from other cytopenia and immunosuppressive drug regiments, and associated with disease activity, risk of flare and damage scores...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210505/nanotechnology-based-approach-in-tuberculosis-treatment
#9
REVIEW
Mohammad Nasiruddin, Md Kausar Neyaz, Shilpi Das
Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is the second most fatal infectious disease after AIDS, caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prolonged treatment, high pill burden, low compliance, and stiff administration schedules are factors that are responsible for emergence of MDR and XDR cases of tuberculosis. Till date, only BCG vaccine is available which is ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of disease. Various unique antibodies have been developed to overcome drug resistance, reduce the treatment regimen, and elevate the compliance to treatment...
2017: Tuberculosis Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208876/prescribing-pattern-of-antifungal-medications-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-oman
#10
Khalid A Al Balushi, Mohammed A Alzaabi, Fatma Alghafri
INTRODUCTION: Inappropriate use of antifungal agents is implicated in the global burden of antifungal resistance, adverse outcomes like persistent infections, unnecessary exposure and increased cost. Data collection from time to time is to be done in order to have a check on the resistance/sensitivity pattern of the commonly prescribed antifungal drugs. AIM: To describe the pattern of antifungal drug prescription and administration to patients attending a university hospital in Oman...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207983/a-novel-flow-cytometric-application-discriminates-among-the-effects-of-chemical-inhibitors-on-various-phases-of-babesia-divergens-intraerythrocytic-cycle
#11
Jeny R Cursino-Santos, Manpreet Singh, Petra Pham, Cheryl A Lobo
Human babesiosis is a global emerging infectious disease caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus Babesia. Its biology has remained largely unexplored due to a lack of critical tools and techniques required to define the various stages and phases of the parasite's cycle in its host RBC and the interplay between host and parasite. This article presents a powerful set of tools combining stage synchronization of the parasite with a platform that encompasses both a flow cytometric evaluation of the subpopulation structure of the parasite population together with a morphological assessment of the population parasites using light microscopy of conventional Giemsa stained smears...
February 16, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203564/neurotoxicity-following-the-ingestion-of-bilimbi-fruit-averrhoa-bilimbi-in-an-end-stage-renal-disease-patient-on-hemodialysis
#12
Camille Pereira Caetano, Cinara Barros de Sá, Bruno Antônio Paixão Faleiros, Marcelo Fonseca Coutinho Fernandes Gomes, Edna Regina Silva Pereira
INTRODUCTION: The toxic effects of the ingestion of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) in chronic kidney disease patients are well described in the literature. Recently, the compound caramboxin has been isolated, explaining the mechanisms of its neurotoxicity. Bilimbi fruit belongs to the family Oxalidaceae, Averrhoa bilimbi species, and exhibits similar biochemical characteristics to star fruit. OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a patient with chronic kidney disease who developed a seizure disorder after the ingestion of bilimbi fruit...
January 2017: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203237/activation-of-the-wnt-pathway-by-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-a-wnt-wnt-situation
#13
REVIEW
Tomás Villaseñor, Edgardo Madrid-Paulino, Rafael Maldonado-Bravo, Antonio Urbán-Aragón, Leonor Pérez-Martínez, Gustavo Pedraza-Alva
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), an intracellular pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, is the cause of tuberculosis (TB), a major worldwide human infectious disease. The innate immune system is the first host defense against M. tuberculosis. The recognition of this pathogen is mediated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors expressed on the host innate immune cells, including Toll-like receptors, Nod-like receptors, and C-type lectin receptors like Dectin-1, the Mannose receptor, and DC-SIGN...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202091/isolation-unit-for-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-low-endemic-country-a-step-towards-the-world-health-organization-end-tb-strategy
#14
M C Payen, J P VAN Vooren, O Vandenberg, N Clumeck, S DE Wit
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a threat to public health and is the second cause of death due to a single infectious agent after HIV/AIDS. The worldwide distribution of TB is heterogeneous. The incidence is decreasing in most high-income regions, but the situation remains worrying in many parts of the world. The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to key agents used in treatment (rifampin and isoniazid) contributes to TB transmission around the world. To achieve TB elimination, both high and low endemic countries must upscale their efforts to decrease disease transmission and improve cure rates...
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198956/evaluating-pharmaceutical-waste-disposal-in-pediatric-units
#15
Maria Angélica Randoli de Almeida, Ana Maria Miranda Martins Wilson, Maria Angélica Sorgini Peterlini
OBJECTIVE: To verify the disposal of pharmaceutical waste performed in pediatric units. METHOD: A descriptive and observational study conducted in a university hospital. The convenience sample consisted of pharmaceuticals discarded during the study period. Handling and disposal during preparation and administration were observed. Data collection took place at pre-established times and was performed using a pre-validated instrument. RESULTS: 356 drugs disposals were identified (35...
November 2016: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197140/molecular-characteristics-of-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacter-cloacae-in-ningxia-province-china
#16
Zhiyun Shi, Huizheng Zhao, Gang Li, Wei Jia
The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has become a major public health concern worldwide and a new challenge in the treatment of infectious diseases. The molecular characteristics of Enterobacter cloacae in Ningxia China are unknown. In this study, we reported 10 carbapenem-resistant E. cloacae isolates from the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, the largest university hospital in Ningxia between January 2012 and December 2013. Bacteria isolates were identified by Vitek2 compact and the identity of non-duplicate E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195061/overview-of-the-preclinical-pharmacological-properties-of-nigella-sativa-black-seeds-a-complementary-drug-with-historical-and-clinical-significance
#17
E Z Dajani, T G Shahwan, N E Dajani
Nigella sativa (N. sativa, black seeds; or sometimes known by many other names such as the blessed seed by the Arabs, black cumin in the Holy Bible, black caraway and Kalonji in South Asia) has been traditionally used for many years not only as a food but also as complementary drug. It is the objective of this communication to review the evidence-based pre-clinical pharmacological actions of N. sativa as a basis of its existing and potential new human clinical uses. Primary PubMed literature searches and secondary Medline searches were conducted to define N...
December 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194151/structure-and-dynamics-of-antigenic-peptides-in-complex-with-tap
#18
REVIEW
Elisa Lehnert, Robert Tampé
The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) selectively translocates antigenic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum. Loading onto major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and proofreading of these bound epitopes are orchestrated within the macromolecular peptide-loading complex, which assembles on TAP. This heterodimeric ABC-binding cassette (ABC) transport complex is therefore a major component in the adaptive immune response against virally or malignantly transformed cells. Its pivotal role predestines TAP as a target for infectious diseases and malignant disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193199/a-population-based-study-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-immigrants-and-non-immigrants-in-quebec-canada
#19
Christina Greenaway, Laurent Azoulay, Robert Allard, Joseph Cox, Viet Anh Tran, Claire Nour Abou Chakra, Russ Steele, Marina Klein
BACKGROUND: Immigrants originating from intermediate and high HCV prevalence countries may be at increased risk of exposure to hepatitis C infection (HCV) in their countries of origin, however they are not routinely screened after arrival in most low HCV prevalence host countries. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of HCV in immigrants compared to the Canadian born population. METHODS: Using the reportable infectious disease database linked to the landed immigration database and several provincial administrative databases, we assembled a cohort of all reported cases of HCV in Quebec, Canada (1998-2008)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190506/regulatory-strategies-to-facilitate-surgical-innovation
#20
Phoebe Mounts
Phoebe Mounts, PhD, Esq, is a partner in the Food and Drug Administration Practice Group in the Washington, DC, office of Morgan Lewis & Bockius LLP. She counsels clients on regulatory issues for medical devices, drugs, and biologics. Prior to joining Morgan Lewis, she was on the faculty of the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health in the Department of Molecular Microbiology, Immunology, and Infectious Diseases. Although she is a partner in the FDA Practice Group at Morgan Lewis, the views expressed in this article are hers and should not be attributed to the Firm...
March 2017: Surgery
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