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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913046/non-viral-pathogens-identification-relevance-and-prevention-for-xenotransplantation
#1
Ralf R Tönjes
BACKGROUND: For xenotransplantation, strategies to prevent transmission of microorganisms from the source animal to the human recipient must be closely coordinated since tissues and organs are classified as non-sterile. Strategies for international cooperation and coordination of xenogeneic infection / disease surveillance and response are available. METHODS: The regulatory frameworks and criteria on microbial safety as published by World Health Organization (WHO), European Pharmacopoeia (Ph...
May 2018: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912772/stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-like-lupus-erythematosus
#2
Jutamas Tankunakorn, Sirima Sawatwarakul, Vasanop Vachiramon, Kumutnart Chanprapaph
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)-like lupus erythematosus is a hyperacute and life-threatening form of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Because of its rarity, little is known about this entity. We aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, systemic manifestations, treatments, and outcome of SJS/ TEN-like lupus erythematosus. METHODS: We conducted a chart review study from July 2002 to September 2016 of all patients diagnosed with SJS/TEN-like lupus erythematosus who presented with gradual epidermal necrolysis without clear drug or infectious culprit...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912755/antibiotic-and-modulation-of-microbiota-a-new-paradigm
#3
Gianenrico Rizzatti, Gianluca Ianiro, Antonio Gasbarrini
Recently new insights on gut microbiota have revolutionized many concepts of the modern medicine. The alteration of microbiota, which is called dysbiosis, has been associated with an expanding list of diseases and conditions. The development of next-generation sequencing techniques allowed comprehensive analysis of gut microbiota composition without the limitations of classic culture methods. Furthermore, introduction of functional techniques such as metabolomics and proteomics allowed for integrated analysis thus obtaining more robust insights on microbiota functions in health and disease...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912160/recent-reports-of-solid-phase-cyclohexapeptide-synthesis-and-applications
#4
REVIEW
Allan M Prior, Taylor Hori, Ashriel Fishman, Dianqing Sun
Macrocyclic peptides are privileged scaffolds for drug development and constitute a significant portion of macrocyclic drugs on the market today in fields spanning from infectious disease to oncology. Developing orally bioavailable peptide-based drugs remains a challenging task; however, macrocyclization of linear peptides can be an effective strategy to improve membrane permeability, proteolytic stability, oral bioavailability, and overall drug-like characteristics for this class. Significant advances in solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) have enabled the efficient construction of macrocyclic peptide and peptidomimetic libraries with macrolactamization being performed on-resin or in solution phase...
June 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910602/2-amino-1-3-4-thiadiazole-as-a-potential-scaffold-for-promising-antimicrobial-agents
#5
REVIEW
Georgeta Serban, Oana Stanasel, Eugenia Serban, Sanda Bota
Pathogenic microorganisms are causative agents for different types of serious and even lethal infectious diseases. Despite advancements in medication, bacterial and fungal infections continue to be a growing problem in health care. As more and more bacteria become resistant to antibiotics used in therapy and an increasing number of invasive fungal species become resistant to current antifungal medications, there is considerable interest in the development of new compounds with antimicrobial activity. The compounds containing a heterocyclic ring play an important role among organic compounds with biological activity used as drugs in human and veterinary medicine or as insecticides and pesticides in agriculture...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908018/adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-positive-male-intravenous-drug-users-in-pakistan
#6
Bakht Ali, Nighat Nisar, Faryal Nawab
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is fifth leading cause of mortality and disability among infectious diseases worldwide. HIV burden is increasing annually and compliance with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is low among intravenous drug users, especially in developing countries. Aim: To determine the adherence level to ART among HIV-positive intravenous drug users in Karachi Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905921/pediatric-inpatient-and-emergency-dermatology-consultations-a-5-year-retrospective-analysis
#7
Mariana Cruz-Manzano, Cristina N Brau-Javier, Sheila Valentín-Nogueras, Luz D Figueroa-Guzmán
OBJECTIVE: To characterize and analyze the inpatient and emergency pediatric dermatology consults in our academic hospital center. METHODS: We reviewed 485 consultations that were done by the University of Puerto Rico Department of Dermatology from July 2007 to June 2012. The date, patient age and gender, consulting service, presumptive diagnosis, final diagnosis, and diagnostic procedures performed were documented for each consult. RESULTS: The patients' ages ranged from newborn to 18 years; the 13 to 18 years age group was the most common (29%)...
June 2018: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905160/-the-significance-of-cryptosporidiosis-for-the-health-of-calves-in-switzerland
#8
P Olias, I Dettwiler, A Hemphill, P Deplazes, A Steiner, M Meylan
Diarrhea in calves is one of the most important cattle diseases in Switzerland. The diagnosis and treatment of calf diarrhea represent a major challenge. Single-celled Cryptosporidium parasites are the most prevalent causative agents of calf diarrhea besides rotavirus in the first weeks of life, and are responsible for about 50% of diarrheal cases. Cryptosporidium parvum has been described as a cause of diarrhea in one to three weeks old calves since the 1970s. Oral ingestion of persistent environmental oocysts results in severe diarrhea lasting four to six days and shedding of large numbers of infectious oocysts...
June 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901432/host-pathogen-interaction-reconstituted-in-3-dimensional-cocultures-of-mucosa-and-i-c-albicans-i
#9
Romina Buchs, Bruno Lehner, Phillippe Meuwly, Bruno Schnyder
<i>C. albicans</i> frequently causes recurrent intimal infectious disease (ID). This demands the treatment of multiple phases of the infection. The objective of this study was to uncover the host-pathogen-interaction using 2D epithelium cell-barrier and 3D subepithelium tissue cells of human mucosa. The 2D cell cultures assessed <i>C. albicans</i> adhesion. Addition of the anti-fungal drug Fluconazol did not inhibit the adhesion, despite its pathogen growth inhibition (MIC value 0.08μg/mL)...
June 14, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900894/string-test-a-new-tool-for-tuberculosis-diagnosis-and-drug-resistance-detection-in-children
#10
Belén Rocío Imperiale, Cecilia Nieves, Belén Mancino, Myriam Sanjurjo, Silvina Tártara, Ángela Beatríz Di Giulio, Juan Carlos Palomino, Nora Susana Morcillo, Anandi Martin
Background: There is a critical need to improve the diagnostic accuracy of tuberculosis (TB) in children. Several techniques have been developed to improve the quality of sputum samples; however, these procedures are very unpleasant and invasive and require hospitalization and trained personnel. This study aims to explore the potential use of a new and noninvasive tool, "string test," for TB diagnosis in children and in adults not able to render sputum samples and at risk of developing multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB)...
April 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899970/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-managing-infectious-diseases-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#11
REVIEW
Claire Aguilar, Shahid Husain, Olivier Lortholary
Background: Undergoing solid organ transplantation (SOT) exposes the recipient to various infectious risks, including possible transmission of pathogen by the transplanted organ, post-surgical infections, reactivation of latent pathogens, or novel infections. Recent advances: In the last few years, the emergence of Zika virus has raised concerns in the transplant community. Few cases have been described in SOT patients, and these were associated mainly with moderate disease and favorable outcome; the notable exception is a recent case of fatal meningo-encephalopathy in a heart transplant recipient...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899236/antiviral-drugs-for-ebv
#12
Joseph S Pagano, Christopher B Whitehurst, Graciela Andrei
Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV) infects up to 95% of the adult human population, with primary infection typically occurring during childhood and usually asymptomatic. However, EBV can cause infectious mononucleosis in approximately 35⁻50% cases when infection occurs during adolescence and early adulthood. Epstein⁻Barr virus is also associated with several B-cell malignancies including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. A number of antiviral drugs have proven to be effective inhibitors of EBV replication, yet have resulted in limited success clinically, and none of them has been approved for treatment of EBV infections...
June 13, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899149/combinatorial-drug-discovery-in-nanoliter-droplets
#13
Anthony Kulesa, Jared Kehe, Juan E Hurtado, Prianca Tawde, Paul C Blainey
Combinatorial drug treatment strategies perturb biological networks synergistically to achieve therapeutic effects and represent major opportunities to develop advanced treatments across a variety of human disease areas. However, the discovery of new combinatorial treatments is challenged by the sheer scale of combinatorial chemical space. Here, we report a high-throughput system for nanoliter-scale phenotypic screening that formulates a chemical library in nanoliter droplet emulsions and automates the construction of chemical combinations en masse using parallel droplet processing...
June 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899096/directed-evolution-of-an-influenza-reporter-virus-to-restore-replication-and-virulence-and-enhance-non-invasive-bioluminescence-imaging-in-mice
#14
Hui Cai, Meisui Liu, Charles J Russell
Reporter viruses provide a powerful tool to study infection, yet incorporating a non-essential gene often results in virus attenuation and genetic instability. Here, we used directed evolution of a luciferase-expressing pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) 2009 influenza A virus in mice to restore replication kinetics and virulence, increase the bioluminescence signal, and maintain reporter gene expression. An unadapted pH1N1 virus with NanoLuc luciferase inserted into the 5' end of the PA gene segment grew to titers 10-fold less than wild-type in MDCK cells and in DBA/2 mice and was less virulent...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898630/severe-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-treated-with-investigational-artesunate-in-the-united-states
#15
Punit J Shah, Janice Koshy, Nichelle Everett, Engie Attia
PURPOSE: We describe here the case of a 40-year-old Nigerian male with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria successfully treated with investigational intravenous (IV) artesunate. SUMMARY: A 40-year-old Nigerian male was admitted to the medical intensive care unit for the treatment of severe malaria. The patient presented with the classic malaria paroxysm and altered mental status and was in acute renal failure. A blood parasite, thick and thin smear was performed revealing positive ring forms on smear which are characteristic of Plasmodium falciparum, with an estimated parasitemia of 2%...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897796/antimicrobial-resistance-and-treatment-an-unmet-clinical-safety-need
#16
Matteo Bassetti, Alessandro Russo, Alessia Carnelutti, Alessandro La Rosa, Elda Righi
Introduction Infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are burdened by high mortality rates. The development of new compounds to face the global threat of resistance is urgently needed. Combination regimens including "old" high-dose antimicrobials are currently limited by the risk of toxicity, resistance selection, and reduced efficacy. Following the Infectious Diseases Society of America call to develop 10 new antibacterials by 2020, new molecules are currently under development or have become available for use in clinical practice...
June 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896329/detection-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-integrons-among-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-isolates-in-southwestern-iran
#17
Hadi Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, Niloofar Zahedian Nezhad, Hamid Heidari, Ashkan Motamedifar, Mohammad Motamedifar
Objectives: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases and can lead to a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The emergence of multiple-drug resistant strains, particularly extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains, has become a global healthcare concern. Our study sought to investigate the antimicrobial resistance pattern and presence of integrons and fimH determinants among uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates obtained from hospitalized Iranian patients...
May 2018: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892605/subcutaneous-administration-of-low-molecular-weight-heparin-to-horses-inhibits-ex-vivo-equine-herpesvirus-type-1-induced-platelet-activation
#18
Tracy Stokol, Priscila B S Serpa, Marjory B Brooks, Thomas Divers, Sally Ness
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a major cause of infectious respiratory disease, abortion and neurologic disease. Thrombosis in placental and spinal vessels and subsequent ischemic injury in EHV-1-infected horses manifests clinically as abortion and myeloencephalopathy. We have previously shown that addition of heparin anticoagulants to equine platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can abolish ex vivo EHV-1-induced platelet activation. The goal of this study was to test whether platelets isolated from horses treated with unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) were resistant to ex vivo EHV-1-induced activation...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891332/experimental-infection-of-human-volunteers
#19
REVIEW
Meta Roestenberg, Marie-Astrid Hoogerwerf, Daniela M Ferreira, Benjamin Mordmüller, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
Controlled human infection (CHI) trials, in which healthy volunteers are experimentally infected, can accelerate the development of novel drugs and vaccines for infectious diseases of global importance. The use of CHI models is expanding from around 60 studies in the 1970s to more than 120 publications in this decade, primarily for influenza, rhinovirus, and malaria. CHI trials have provided landmark data for several registered drugs and vaccines, and have generated unprecedented scientific insights. Because of their invasive nature, CHI studies demand critical ethical review according to established frameworks...
June 8, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888236/non-cardiac-chest-pain
#20
REVIEW
Thomas Frieling
Background: Non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) is recurrent angina pectoris-like pain without evidence of coronary heart disease in conventional diagnostic evaluation. The prevalence of NCCP is up to 70% and may be detected (in this order) at all levels of the medical health care system (general practitioner, emergency department, chest pain unit, coronary care). Reduction of quality of life due to NCCP is comparable, and partially even higher, to that caused by cardiac chest pain. Reasons for psychological strain are symptom recurrence in approximately 50%, nonspecific diagnosis with resulting uncertainty, and insufficient integration of other medical disciplines in the diagnostic workup...
April 2018: Visceral Medicine
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