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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244005/ghost-global-hepatitis-outbreak-and-surveillance-technology
#1
Atkinson G Longmire, Seth Sims, Inna Rytsareva, David S Campo, Pavel Skums, Zoya Dimitrova, Sumathi Ramachandran, Magdalena Medrzycki, Hong Thai, Lilia Ganova-Raeva, Yulin Lin, Lili T Punkova, Amanda Sue, Massimo Mirabito, Silver Wang, Robin Tracy, Victor Bolet, Thom Sukalac, Chris Lynberg, Yury Khudyakov
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C is a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. Outbreaks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections associated with unsafe injection practices, drug diversion, and other exposures to blood are difficult to detect and investigate. Effective HCV outbreak investigation requires comprehensive surveillance and robust case investigation. We previously developed and validated a methodology for the rapid and cost-effective identification of HCV transmission clusters...
December 6, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242534/the-celecoxib-derivatives-ar-12-and-ar-14-induce-autophagy-and-clear-prion-infected-cells-from-prions
#2
Basant A Abdulrahman, Dalia Abdelaziz, Simrika Thapa, Li Lu, Shubha Jain, Sabine Gilch, Stefan Proniuk, Alexander Zukiwski, Hermann M Schatzl
Prion diseases are fatal infectious neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. The autocatalytic conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the pathologic isoform PrPSc is a key feature in prion pathogenesis. AR-12 is an IND-approved derivative of celecoxib that demonstrated preclinical activity against several microbial diseases. Recently, AR-12 has been shown to facilitate clearance of misfolded proteins. The latter proposes AR-12 to be a potential therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241143/perceptions-about-supervised-injection-facilities-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-philadelphia
#3
Robert E Harris, Jessica Richardson, Rosemary Frasso, Evan D Anderson
BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for infectious diseases, skin and soft tissue infections, and overdose. However, these harms are all avoidable when sterile injection equipment, hygienic places to inject, and medical care are accessible. Unfortunately, many PWID in the U.S lack these resources. The most vulnerable are forced to inject in public spaces, where individual risks are high and communal harms are sometimes many. Supervised Injection Facilities (SIFs) are an established intervention for reducing these harms...
December 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240855/lawrence-transfer-factor-transference-of-specifc-immune-memory-by-dialyzable-leukocyte-extract-from-a-cd8-t-cell-line
#4
Jason F Wang, Andrew J Park, Tina Rendini, William R Levis
<p>Lawrence transfer factor (TF) is defned as dialyzable leukocyte extract (DLE) that can transfer antigen-specifc cell-mediated immunity from a person testing positive for the antigen in a delayed type hypersensitivity skin test manner to a person negative for the same antigen.</p> <p>A recent article by Myles et al1 has identifed a DLE isolated from an established CD8+ T cell line capable of transferring antigen-specifc immunity. The DLE contains a portion of the beta chain of the T cell receptor and additional nucleotide and protein factors that are being subjected to further modern biochemical analysis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239784/new-perspectives-for-natural-triterpene-glycosides-as-potential-adjuvants
#5
Marie-Aleth Lacaille-Dubois, Hildebert Wagner
BACKGROUND: Triterpene glycosides are a vast group of secondary metabolites widely distributed in plants including a high number of biologically active compounds. The pharmacological potential is evaluated by using many bioassays particularly in the field of cancerology, immunology, and microbiology. The adjuvant concept is well known for these molecules in vaccines, but there is little preclinical evidence to support this concept in the management of cancer, infections and inflammation...
November 7, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238454/phenotypic-and-genotypic-features-of-first-biofilm-forming-nasopharyngeal-colonized-streptococcus-pneumoniae-isolates
#6
Seyed Fazlollah Mousavi, Bahman Mirzaei, Bahareh Shaghaghi, Pantea Jalali, Tahereh Setayesh, Seyed Hamid Moosavi
Background and Objectives: Designing control and therapeutic policies for antibiotic resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is an important causative agent of several invasive and noninvasive infectious diseases and its carriage rates, has been described as the main target in World Health Organization (WHO). The present study was conducted to determine antibiotic resistance pattern, evaluate biofilm forming ability in S. pneumoniae isolates, and find the genetic relationship between cultured strains...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238324/immunopathogenesis-and-virus-host-interactions-of-enterovirus-71-in-patients-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#7
REVIEW
Jonathan A Cox, Julian A Hiscox, Tom Solomon, Mong-How Ooi, Lisa F P Ng
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a global infectious disease that affects millions of people. The virus is the main etiological agent for hand, foot, and mouth disease with outbreaks and epidemics being reported globally. Infection can cause severe neurological, cardiac, and respiratory problems in children under the age of 5. Despite on-going efforts, little is known about the pathogenesis of EV71, how the host immune system responds to the virus and the molecular mechanisms behind these responses. Moreover, current animal models remain limited, because they do not recapitulate similar disease patterns and symptoms observed in humans...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237206/-piperacillin-tazobactam-shortage-central-restriction-and-alternative-recommendations-as-effective-antibiotic-stewardship-intervention-at-a-maximal-care-hospital
#8
Johanna Kessel, Barbara Dolff, Thomas Wichelhaus, Nils Keiner, Michael Hogardt, Claudia Reinheimer, Imke Wieters, Sebastian Harder, Volkhard A J Kempf, Christoph Stephan
Background Drug supply bottleneck is a worldwide challenge, e. g. the antibiotics Piperacillin/Tazobactam shortage in 2016/2017. The efficacy of an appropriate replacement management was evaluated at the University Hospital Frankfurt (UHF). Methods The Antibiotic-Stewardship (ABS)-Team at UHF decreed a restriction of PIP/TAZ and provided alternative antibiotic therapy recommendations during the shortage period. Consequences of this intervention on antibiotic consumption and overall costs were investigated...
December 13, 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236898/in-vitro-analysis-of-a-local-polymeric-device-as-an-alternative-for-systemic-antibiotics-in-dentistry
#9
Talita Girio Carnaval, Flávia Gonçalves, Marcelo Munhóes Romano, Luiz Henrique Catalani, Marcia Alves Pinto Mayer, Victor Elias Arana-Chávez, Alexander Cassandri Nishida, Thais Claudino Lage, Carlos Eduardo Francci, Carlos Alberto Adde
The development of a biodegradable material with antimicrobial properties for local applications is required in the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to produce blends of poly-L-lactide acid (PLLA) synthetic polymer associated with several antimicrobials, as an alternative in the prevention and treatment of infections, as well as to evaluate its cytotoxicity, release of antimicrobials and inhibit bacteria growth. Blends of PLLA added with 20% Amoxicillin, Metronidazole, Clindamycin or Azithromicyn were used to produce Films (F) or Meshs (M) by casting and electrospinning methods, respectively...
December 7, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236288/disaster-preparedness-biological-threats-and-treatment-options
#10
Navaneeth Narayanan, Clifton R Lacy, Joseph E Cruz, Meghan Nahass, Jonathan Karp, Joseph A Barone, Evelyn Hermes-DeSantis
Biological disasters can be natural, accidental, or intentional. Biological threats have made a lasting impact on civilization. This review will focus on agents of clinical significance, bioterrorism, and national security; specifically Category A agents (anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and smallpox), as well as briefly discuss other naturally-emerging infections of public health significance including Ebola virus (also a Category A agent) and Zika virus. The role of the pharmacist in disaster preparedness and disaster response is multifaceted and important...
December 13, 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234715/periocular-dermatoses
#11
REVIEW
P Chang, G Moreno-Coutiño
The periocular area may be affected by infectious or noninfectious diseases such as inflammatory dermatoses, systemic disease, drug reactions, benign and malignant lesions, traumatic lesions, and esthetic complications. We present a review of the most common periocular dermatoses.
December 2017: International Journal of Women's Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234483/the-influence-of-emerging-markets-on-the-pharmaceutical-industry
#12
REVIEW
Maya Tannoury, Zouhair Attieh
Emerging markets represent an exceptional opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry. Although a precise definition is not yet available, economists define emerging markets as developing prosperous countries in which investment is expected to result in higher income despite high risks. Qualifying a market as emerging is not merely based on the economic status of the country, but also on several criteria that render the definition applicable to each country. Jim O'Neil, retired chairman of asset management at Goldman Sachs, identified leading economies of emerging markets: Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) and later Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and then Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, and Turkey (MIST), which followed years later as the second tier of nations...
2017: Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233945/resource-limitation-prevents-the-emergence-of-drug-resistance-by-intensifying-within-host-competition
#13
Nina Wale, Derek G Sim, Matthew J Jones, Rahel Salathe, Troy Day, Andrew F Read
Slowing the evolution of antimicrobial resistance is essential if we are to continue to successfully treat infectious diseases. Whether a drug-resistant mutant grows to high densities, and so sickens the patient and spreads to new hosts, is determined by the competitive interactions it has with drug-susceptible pathogens within the host. Competitive interactions thus represent a good target for resistance management strategies. Using an in vivo model of malaria infection, we show that limiting a resource that is disproportionately required by resistant parasites retards the evolution of drug resistance by intensifying competitive interactions between susceptible and resistant parasites...
December 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233098/intractable-ascites-associated-with-mycophenolate-in-a-simultaneous-kidney-pancreas-transplant-patient-a-case-report
#14
Nina T Weber, Ali Sigaroudi, Alexander Ritter, Andreas Boss, Kuno Lehmann, David Goodman, Stefan Farese, Stefan Weiler, Thomas F Mueller
BACKGROUND: Mycophenolic acid (MPA), either given as an ester pro-drug or as an enteric-coated sodium salt, is the most commonly prescribed anti-proliferative immunosuppressive agent used following organ transplantation and widely applied in immune-mediated diseases. Clinicians are well aware of common adverse reactions related to MPA treatment, in particular diarrhea, leukopenia and infections. Here we report a case of severe, persistent ascites associated with MPA treatment. The otherwise unexplained and intractable ascites, requiring repeated paracenteses for more than 8 months, rapidly ceased with stopping the MPA treatment...
December 12, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232248/endocarditis-in-the-setting-of-idu-multidisciplinary-management
#15
Bobby Yanagawa, Anees Bahji, Wiplove Lamba, Darrell H Tan, Asim Cheema, Ishba Syed, Subodh Verma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of the medical and surgical management of infective endocarditis secondary to IDU, with a focus on the underlying substance use disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with infective endocarditis secondary to IDU are often young with unique comorbidities including mental illness, chronic hepatitis C, HIV infection, which are often compounded by limited social and familial supports. The focus of management has been treatment of endocarditis using IV antibiotics alongside surgery...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230918/poor-continuity-of-care-for-tb-diagnosis-and-treatment-in-zambian-prisons-a-situation-analysis
#16
S Hatwiinda, S M Topp, M Siyambango, J B Harris, K R Maggard, C Chileshe, N Kapata, S E Reid, G Henostroza
OBJECTIVES: Prisons act as infectious disease reservoirs. We aimed to explore the challenges of TB control and continuity of care in prisons in Zambia. METHODS: We evaluated treatment outcomes for a cohort of inmates diagnosed with TB during a TB REACH funded screening program initiated by the Zambia Prisons Service and the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia. RESULTS: Between October 2010 and September 2011, 6,282 inmates from six prisons were screened for TB, of whom 374 (6...
December 12, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229451/more-clinical-mimics-of-infant-botulism
#17
Jessica M Khouri, Jessica R Payne, Stephen S Arnon
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the actual diagnoses of 76 patients (2005-2015) whose clinical presentations so closely resembled infant botulism that the patients were treated with Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; BabyBIG), but whose illnesses subsequently were not laboratory confirmed as infant botulism ("clinical mimics" of infant botulism). STUDY DESIGN: The California Department of Public Health produces BIG-IV and distributes it nationwide as a public service (ie, not-for-profit) orphan drug to treat patients hospitalized with suspected infant botulism...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225752/emerging-and-re-emerging-infectious-diseases-in-iran
#18
REVIEW
Najmeh Parhizgari, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Ehsan Mostafavi
Despite development of preventive and controlling strategies regarding infectious diseases, they are still considered as one of the most significant leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Changes in humans' demographics and behaviors, microbial and ecological alterations, agricultural development, international travels and susceptibility to infectious diseases have resulted in increased reports of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and reemerging infectious diseases (RIDs) in various geographical areas...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224736/a-natural-small-molecule-inhibitor-corilagin-blocks-hcv-replication-and-modulates-oxidative-stress-to-reduce-liver-damage
#19
B Uma Reddy, Ranajoy Mullick, Anuj Kumar, Geetika Sharma, Paromita Bag, Chaitrali Laha Roy, Govindarajan Sudha, Himani Tandon, Pratik Dave, Asutosh Shukla, Priyanka Srinivasan, Madhusudhan Nandhitha, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan, Saumitra Das
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver disease, which often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. Earlier, we have demonstrated anti-HCV property of the methanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus, an age-old folk-medicine against viral hepatitis. Here, we report identification of a principal bioactive component 'corilagin', which showed significant inhibition of the HCV key enzymes, NS3 protease and NS5B RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase. This pure compound could effectively inhibit viral replication in the infectious cell culture system, displayed strong antioxidant activity by blocking HCV induced generation of reactive oxygen species and suppressed up-regulation of NOX4 and TGF-β mRNA levels...
December 7, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223580/modeling-hiv-disease-progression-and-transmission-at-population-level-the-potential-impact-of-modifying-disease-progression-in-hiv-treatment-programs
#20
Jennifer M Ross, Roger Ying, Connie L Celum, Jared M Baeten, Katherine K Thomas, Pamela M Murnane, Heidi van Rooyen, James P Hughes, Ruanne V Barnabas
INTRODUCTION: Mathematical models that incorporate HIV disease progression dynamics can estimate the potential impact of strategies that delay HIV disease progression and reduce infectiousness for persons not on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Suppressive treatment of HIV-positive persons co-infected with herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) with valacyclovir, an HSV-2 antiviral, can lower HIV viral load, but the impact of partially-suppressive valacyclovir relative to fully-suppressive ART on population HIV transmission has not been estimated...
December 5, 2017: Epidemics
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