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Risky behaviour

Colleen Gail Moodley
HIV and AIDS are rapidly spreading amongst the world's 15- to 24-year age group, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite vigorous government interventions and campaigns, 10 % of South African youth in the age cohort 15-24 are infected with HIV and AIDS. Furthermore, for the first time in history the world has its largest number of individuals under the age of 30 years. Researchers are desperately seeking a solution and have found religion to play an important role in moderating risky sexual behaviour amongst youth...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
Dimitrios I Tselentis, George Yannis, Eleni I Vlahogianni
The objective of this paper is to provide a review of the most popular and often implemented methodologies related to Usage-based motor insurance (UBI). UBI schemes, such as Pay-as-you-drive (PAYD) and Pay-how-you-drive (PHYD), are a new innovative concept that has recently started to be commercialized around the world. The main idea is that instead of a fixed price, drivers have to pay a premium based on their travel and driving behaviour. Despite the fact that it has been implemented only for a few years, it appears to be a very promising practice with a significant potential impact on traffic safety as well as on traffic congestion mitigation and pollution emissions reduction...
October 7, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
E Norén Selinus, Y Molero, P Lichtenstein, H Anckarsäter, S Lundström, M Bottai, C Hellner Gumpert
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between different levels of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and sex differences in psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. METHOD: Swedish children (n = 4635) were screened for neuropsychiatric symptoms at age 9 or 12. ADHD symptoms were divided into three levels: screen-negative, screen-intermediate, and screen-positive. At follow-up (age 15), parents and teenagers filled out questionnaires regarding (i) hyperactivity/inattention, (ii) peer problems, (iii) school problems, (iv) internalizing problems, (v) antisocial behaviour, (vi) alcohol misuse, and (vii) drug misuse...
October 7, 2016: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Mohammed Al Azri, Hamed Al Reesi, Samir Al-Adawi, Abdullah Al Maniri, James Freeman
OBJECTIVE: Drivers' behaviors such as violations and errors have been demonstrated to predict crash involvement among young Omani drivers. However, there is a dearth of studies linking risky driving behaviors to the personality of young drivers. The aim of the present study was to assess such traits within a sample of young Omani drivers (as measured through the behavioral inhibition system, BIS, and the behavioral activation system, BAS) and determine links with aberrant driving behaviors and self-reported crash involvement...
September 30, 2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Vincent Lorant, Victoria Soto Rojas, Laia Bécares, Jaana M Kinnunen, Mirte A G Kuipers, Irene Moor, Gaetano Roscillo, Joana Alves, Adeline Grard, Arja Rimpelä, Bruno Federico, Matthias Richter, Julian Perelman, Anton E Kunst
BACKGROUND: Social integration and the health of adolescents with a migration background is a major concern in multicultural societies. The literature, however, has paid little attention to the wider determinants of their health behaviours, including the composition of their social networks. The aim of this study was to describe the composition of adolescents' social networks according to migration background, and to examine how social networks are associated with substance use. METHOD: In 2013, the SILNE study surveyed 11,015 secondary-school adolescents in 50 schools in six European cities in Belgium, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Portugal, using a social network design...
September 21, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Emilia Maria Vaz Martins-Fonteyn, Nina Sommerland, Herman Meulemans, Olivier Degomme, Ines Raimundo, Edwin Wouters
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated a link between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviour among different types of migrant populations. Therefore, research investigating risk factors associated with alcohol consumption among them is a public health priority. This review aimed to explore the intersection between migration, alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour. METHODS: This article is a synthetic review of empirical studies on the association of alcohol and high-risk sexual behaviour among different types of the migrant populations, focusing on measurable outcomes generated from quantitative data...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
Ndumiso Daluxolo Ngidi, Sibusiso Moyo, Thobile Zulu, Jamila Khatoon Adam, Suresh Babu Naidu Krishna
BACKGROUND: The incidence of HIV and AIDS continues to be a source of great concern within universities in South Africa. Furthermore, university students constitute an important community in the intervention against the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Students in the age group of 15-24 years are at a greater risk of HIV infection than any other group in the country; yet, little is known about why they continue to engage in risky sexual practices. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to explore the sexual behaviour of students in a metropolitan Durban University of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal to understand the social factors underlying their risk of HIV infection...
December 2016: SAHARA J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Research Alliance
Walter Chingwaru, Jerneja Vidmar
Zimbabwe is going through a generalised acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. The first five years of the epidemic (1985-1990) were characterised by lack of medicines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and an exponential increase in prevalence (65-fold) and incidence (13-fold), which were fuelled by high-risk sexual behaviour. The high HIV prevalence, mortality and stigma yielded great fear and panic in the population, which are thought to have led to confusion and hopelessness, and, in turn, increased risky sexual behaviour...
August 11, 2016: Global Public Health
Kate Coleman-Minahan, Jean N Scandlyn
In the USA, young people of Mexican-origin are more economically disadvantaged and experience higher birth rates than many other Latino groups. In this paper, we examine the influence of older siblings on the sexual and reproductive health of Mexican-origin immigrant women. Qualitative data were drawn from life history interviews with 21 first- and second-generation Mexican-origin women, aged 27-41 years old, resident in the Metro Denver area. Data suggest that older siblings may protect younger sisters from risky sexual behaviours through older siblings' responsibility and care for younger siblings, close and supportive sibling relationships, older siblings' advice about both sexual health and academic success, and sibling modelling...
August 10, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Mark A Stillman, Tyler Brown, Eva C Ritvo, Ira D Glick
The focus of this paper is to provide an update on the use of psychotherapy as a treatment in sport psychiatry, and the use of this approach to address common psychiatric issues encountered with this population. Specifically, family therapy, individual therapy, and group psychotherapy prescribed alone, or in combination with medication, will be examined as methods to manage issues/disorders often associated with athletes. These include obsessive-compulsive rituals and perfectionism, and aggressive and risky behaviours, such as gambling, infidelity, substance use, and suicidal ideation, narcissism, and aggression in the context of individual and team competitive sports...
August 12, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Sarah Denford, Charles Abraham, Rona Campbell, Heide Busse
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review systematic reviews of school-based sexual-health and relationship Education (SHRE) programmes and, thereby, identify interventions and intervention components that promote reductions in risky sexual behaviour among young people. METHODS: Electronic bibliographies were searched systematically to identify systematic reviews of school-based interventions targeting sexual-health. Results were summarised using a narrative synthesis...
September 28, 2016: Health Psychology Review
Grace Bowmer, Gary Latchford, Alistair Duff, Miles Denton, Louise Dye, Clare Lawton, Tim Lee
BACKGROUND: Balancing cystic fibrosis (CF) care with demands of normal life is associated with decreased adherence to infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines. METHODS: Adults with CF, aged 18-25years, were invited to participate via UK CF Trust social media platforms. An online survey evaluated participants' decision-making in nine clinician-rated vignettes and assessed the perceived influence of infection-related information sources. RESULTS: Participants (n=87, mean 21...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Paul H Delfabbro, Helen R Winefield, Anthony H Winefield, Anne Hammarström
There is considerable public health interest in understanding what factors during adolescence predict longer-term drinking patterns in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the age 15 social and psychological predictors of less healthy drinking patterns in early adulthood. The study investigates the relative importance of internalising problems, other risky health behaviours, and peer relationships after controlling for family background characteristics. A sample of 812 young people who provided complete alcohol consumption data from the age of 15 to 20 years (5 measurement points) were drawn from South Australian secondary schools and given a detailed survey concerning their psychological and social wellbeing...
2016: Journal of Addiction
Laëtitia Maréchal, Ann MacLarnon, Bonaventura Majolo, Stuart Semple
The presence of, and interactions with tourists can be both risky and beneficial for wild animals. In wildlife tourism settings, animals often experience elevated rates of aggression from conspecifics, and they may also be threatened or physically aggressed by the tourists themselves. However, tourist provisioning of wild animals provides them with highly desirable foods. In situations of conflicting motivations such as this, animals would be expected to respond using behavioural coping mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated how animals respond to tourist pressure, using wild adult Barbary macaques in the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco, as a case study...
2016: Scientific Reports
P Feuillet, F Lert, L Tron, C Aubriere, B Spire, R Dray-Spira
OBJECTIVES: Depression is common among people living with HIV (PLWHIV) and is associated with poorer therapeutic outcomes and risky behaviours. We sought to estimate the prevalence of major depressive episode (MDE) across PLWHIV groups, to compare this with its prevalence in the general population and to assess factors associated with it. METHODS: We used data from the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS)-Vespa2 study, a national study on a representative sample of PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011...
September 14, 2016: HIV Medicine
Nicodem J Govella, Deodatus F Maliti, Amos T Mlwale, John P Masallu, Nosrat Mirzai, Paul C D Johnson, Heather M Ferguson, Gerry F Killeen
BACKGROUND: Reliable quantification of mosquito host-seeking behaviours is required to determine the efficacy of vector control methods. For malaria, the gold standard approach remains the risky human landing catch (HLC). Here compare the performance of an improved prototype of the mosquito electrocuting grid trap (MET) as a safer alternative with HLC for measuring malaria vector behaviour in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: Mosquito trapping was conducted at three sites within Dar es Salaam representing a range of urbanicity over a 7-month period (December 2012-July 2013, 168 sampling nights)...
2016: Malaria Journal
Kelly E Dunn, Frederick S Barrett, Evan S Herrmann, Jennifer G Plebani, Stacey C Sigmon, Matthew W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C are a significant problem among substance abusers. Current risk behavior measures [e.g., HIV Risk Taking Behaviour Scale (HRBS) and Risk Assessment Battery (RAB)] were developed for injection drug users and do not include newly identified risks or noninjection drug use behaviors. This study developed and provided initial, internal validation of the Behavioral Risk Assessment for Infectious Diseases (BRAID) to assess infectious disease risk behaviors among alcohol and other drug users...
August 25, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jennifer Martin, Sylvia D Kauer, Lena Sanci
BACKGROUND: Young people have a large burden of death and disease from risky road behaviours. Guidelines recommend injury prevention and harm minimisation counselling; however, little is known about road risks in youth attending primary care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the type of road risks and associated behaviours in young people attending general practice. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken on health risk survey data from a sample of 901 patients, aged 14-24 years, attending 40 Victorian general practices in a stratified cluster randomised trial...
September 2016: Australian Family Physician
Ines Klemme, Anssi Karvonen
Cognitive abilities related to the assessment of risk improve survival. While earlier studies have examined the ability of animals to learn to avoid predators, learned parasite avoidance has received little interest. In a series of behavioural trials with the trematode parasite Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, we asked whether sea trout (Salmo trutta trutta) hosts show associative learning in the context of parasitism and if so, whether learning capacity is related to the likelihood of infection mediated through host personality and resistance...
September 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Kim-Michelle Gilson, Christina Bryant, Fiona Judd
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Despite a common perception that older adults drink less than younger adults, drinking frequency increases with age. The aim of this study was to examine the types of coping motives associated with problem drinkers in addition to the types of specific drinking problems most commonly endorsed by older drinkers. The study also sought to investigate the role of individual drinking to cope motives in problem drinking. METHOD: Participants were 288 community dwelling older adults aged who consumed alcohol, and were drawn from a larger study of health and aging in rural areas of Australia...
August 26, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
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