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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770569/frontal-cortical-thickness-correlates-positively-with-impulsivity-in-early-psychosis-male-patients
#1
Philipp S Baumann, Paul Klauser, Alessandra Griffa, Philippe Golay, Julie Palix, Luis Alameda, Valérie Moulin, Patric Hagmann, Kim Q Do, Philippe Conus
AIM: Impulsive behaviours, which are frequent in young people suffering from psychosis have been linked to risky and violent behaviours and participate to the burden of psychotic illness. Given that morphological brain correlates of impulsivity in schizophrenia have been poorly investigated especially in young adults, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between impulsivity and cortical thickness in early psychosis (EP) patients. METHOD: A total of 17 male subjects in the early phase of psychosis were recruited...
May 17, 2018: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769804/prevalence-of-alcohol-tobacco-cannabis-and-other-illicit-substance-use-in-a-population-of-canadian-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-compared-to-a-general-adolescent-population
#2
Kathryn Potter, Paola Luca, Danièle Pacaud, Heidi Virtanen, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Laura Kaminsky, Josephine Ho
Background: Youth with chronic conditions may engage in risky behaviour to the same, if not higher, degree as their healthy peers. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and illicit substance use in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) compared to a general adolescent population. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of adolescents with T1DM (13 to 18 years). A published contemporary Canadian youth survey on use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs was used as data representative of the general adolescent population...
May 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764308/balancing-risk-interpersonal-intimacy-and-agency-perspectives-from-marginalised-women-in-zambia
#3
Lwendo Moonzwe Davis, Kristin Marie Kostick
Women are most exposed to sexual health risks within their marital relationships, primarily due to the sexually risky behaviours of their spouses. Studies show that expanding agency is critical for women to mitigate both physical and sexual health risks and is linked to increased psycho-social well-being and economic independence. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative primary data collected from a peri-urban community in Zambia, this paper explores how women exert agency in a community where few educational and economic opportunities and substantial food insecurity exacerbate women's risk for HIV within their marital relationships...
May 15, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761160/measuring-and-preventing-alcohol-use-and-related-harm-among-young-people-in-asian-countries-a-thematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Heng Jiang, Xiaojun Xiang, Wei Hao, Robin Room, Xiaojie Zhang, Xuyi Wang
Background: The paper reviews alcohol consumption patterns and alcohol-related social and health issues among 15-29-year old young people in Asian countries, and discusses strategies for preventing and controlling alcohol use and related harms. Methods: We searched Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science for reports, reviews and journal articles published in English between 1st Jan 1990 and 31st August 2016. Results: Forty-one reports, reviews and journal papers were identified and included in the final review...
2018: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758064/risk-perception-and-sex-behaviour-in-pregnancy-and-breastfeeding-in-high-hiv-prevalence-settings-programmatic-implications-for-prep-delivery
#5
Dvora Joseph Davey, Elise Farley, Catriona Towriss, Yolanda Gomba, Linda-Gail Bekker, Pamina Gorbach, Steven Shoptaw, Thomas Coates, Landon Myer
HIV acquisition during pregnancy and breastfeeding significantly contributes toward paediatric HIV infection; however, little is known about risk behaviours in HIV-uninfected pregnant and postpartum women. We conducted twenty-six in-depth-interviews between July and December 2016 using a semi-structured interview guide among HIV-uninfected pregnant and recently postpartum women at-risk of HIV acquisition (defined as reporting ≥1 of the following: partner's serostatus unknown or HIV-infected, recent condomless sex in pregnancy, and/or alcohol use during pregnancy) who attended primary healthcare services...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757929/transitioning-bodies-the-case-of-self-prescribing-sexual-hormones-in-gender-affirmation-in-individuals-attending-psychiatric-services
#6
Antonio Metastasio, Attilio Negri, Giovanni Martinotti, Ornella Corazza
Self-prescribing of sexual hormones for gender affirmation is a potentially widespread and poorly studied phenomenon that many clinicians are unaware of. The uncontrolled use of hormones poses significant health hazards, which have not been previously reported in the literature. We have collected seven clinical cases in general adult psychiatry settings (both inpatient and outpatients), describing transgender and gender non-conforming individuals' (TGNC) self-prescribing and self-administering hormones bought from the Internet without any medical consultation...
May 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747557/unsafe-injecting-practices-sexual-risk-behaviours-and-determinants-of-hiv-among-men-who-inject-drugs-results-from-integrated-biological-and-behavioural-surveillance-in-india
#7
Pradeep Kumar, Bhavna Sangal, Shreena Ramanathan, Savina Ammassari, Srinivasa Raghavan Venkatesh
In India, while an overall reduction in HIV is achieved among most key populations, the continued higher prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) is an area of concern. This paper analyses unsafe injecting and sexual risk behaviours in male PWIDs according to HIV status and also examines the determinants of HIV infection in this high-risk group. Data from India's Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance, conducted across 29 Indian states and Union Territories among 19,902 male PWIDs, were used...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745291/programmatic-mapping-to-determine-the-size-and-dynamics-of-sex-work-and-injecting-drug-use-in-mauritius
#8
Amita Pathack, Ahmed Saumtally, Sarah Soobhany, Carly A Comins, Said A H Kinoo, Faran Emmanuel
HIV in Mauritius is in a concentrated phase. Most HIV infection is among key populations (KPs) including female sex workers (FSW), people who inject drugs (PWID), men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender sex workers (TGSW). The objective of this research was to use geographical mapping to determine the precise locations, typologies and population estimates of each KP in Mauritius. From May to July 2014 a programmatic mapping approach determined national estimates and information on the specific locations, "hotspots", frequented by KPs in Mauritius...
May 10, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729493/neural-substrates-of-the-influence-of-emotional-cues-on-cognitive-control-in-risk-taking-adolescents
#9
Nikki C Lee, Wouter D Weeda, Catherine Insel, Leah H Somerville, Lydia Krabbendam, Mariëtte Huizinga
Adolescence is a period characterised by increases in risk-taking. This behaviour has been associated with an imbalance in the integration of the networks involved in cognitive control and motivational processes. We examined whether the influence of emotional cues on cognitive control differs between adolescents who show high or low levels of risk-taking behaviour. Participants who scored especially high or low on a risky decision task were subsequently administered an emotional go/no-go fMRI task comprising angry, happy and calm faces...
April 22, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709730/understanding-the-psychological-precursors-of-young-drivers-willingness-to-speed-and-text-while-driving
#10
Carissa Preece, Angela Watson, Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Judy Fleiter
This study applied the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) to investigate the factors that may predict young drivers' (non-intentional) willingness to text while driving, text while stopped, and engage in high and low levels of speeding. In addition, the study sought to assess whether general optimism bias would predict young drivers' willingness to text and speed over and above the PWM. Licenced drivers (N = 183) aged 17-25 years (M = 19.84, SD = 2.30) in Queensland, Australia completed an online survey...
April 26, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706147/risky-business-is-pubic-hair-removal-by-women-associated-with-body-image-and-sexual-health
#11
Stephanie L Grossman, Rachel A Annunziato
Background: Body hair removal is a behaviour that has become normative among women in Westernised cultures, and is presented by the media as the feminine ideal, despite being painful and a potential cause of infection. Of concern, removal may be part of a more global pattern of appearance dissatisfaction and risky sexual behaviour. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships among pubic hair removal, body image and sexual health indicators. Methods: Women (n=264; Mage=33.82, s.d.=11.13, range=18-66) completed self-report questionnaires assessing these constructs, including an assessment of body hair removal practices...
April 30, 2018: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700941/features-of-successful-sexual-health-promotion-programs-for-young-people-findings-from-a-review-of-systematic-reviews
#12
Anna L Bowring, Cassandra J C Wright, Caitlin Douglass, Judy Gold, Megan S C Lim
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Young people have a high burden of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) problems, and it is important to reach this group through health promotion initiatives. We conducted a systematic review of reviews to identify successful elements of health promotion programs for improving SRH of young people. METHODS: We identified and collated systematic reviews published in 2005-2015 which focused on young people (10-24 years), reported on SRH outcomes (pregnancy, sexually transmissible infections, condoms/contraceptive use, risky sexual behaviour, sexual healthcare access or intimate partner violence), and included primary studies predominantly conducted in high-income countries...
April 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669847/life-history-trade-offs-are-they-linked-to-personality-in-a-precocial-mammal-cavia-aperea
#13
Anja Guenther
Life-history trade-offs are predicted to contribute to the maintenance of personality variation. Individuals with 'fast' lifestyles should develop faster, reproduce earlier and exhibit more risky behaviours. Evidence for such predicted links, however, remains equivocal. Here, I test how growth rate, timing of maturation, litter size and maternal effort correlate with exploration, boldness, fearlessness, docility and escape latency. I found several links that were predicted by recent theory while others were against theoretical predictions, e...
April 2018: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658168/age-differences-in-the-prosocial-influence-effect
#14
Lucy Foulkes, Jovita T Leung, Delia Fuhrmann, Lisa J Knoll, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
Social influence occurs when an individual's thoughts or behaviours are affected by other people. There are significant age effects on susceptibility to social influence, typically a decline from childhood to adulthood. Most research has focused on negative aspects of social influence, such as peer influence on risky behaviour, particularly in adolescence. The current study investigated the impact of social influence on the reporting of prosocial behaviour (any act intended to help another person). In this study, 755 participants aged 8-59 completed a computerized task in which they rated how likely they would be to engage in a prosocial behaviour...
April 15, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616873/identifying-the-factors-behind-fatal-and-non-fatal-road-crashes-a-case-study-of-lahore-pakistan
#15
Irem Batool, Ghulam Hussain, Noreen Kanwal, Muhammad Abid
The study identifies the factors behind fatal and non-fatal road crashes in Lahore, Pakistan, by investigating 461 reported cases to Traffic Police Lahore that occurred during January-November 2014. Road crashes are categorized into fatal and non-fatal crashes and, because of the binary nature of the dependent variable, logistic regression is used to identify the factors behind these crashes. As a follow-up, discriminant analysis is employed to classify the factors related to fatal and non-fatal crashes. The logistic regression results reveal that females are at higher risk of fatalities than male drivers...
April 4, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577479/alcohol-and-injury-risk-at-a-western-australian-school-leavers-festival
#16
Stephanie Enkel, Lauren Nimmo, Jonine Jancey, Justine Leavy
BACKGROUND: Leavers Festivals have become an institution for Australian youth to celebrate the completion of secondary school. Reported hazardous consumption of alcohol by leavers has focused concern on risk-taking behaviour. In response to this, campaigns such as "Don't Drink and Drown" have targeted youth to reduce alcohol consumption during aquatic activities. This research investigated intended and actual alcohol consumption, particularly during aquatic activities at a Leavers Festival located in the coastal town of Dunsborough, southern Western Australia...
March 2, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568646/risky-sexual-behaviour-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-and-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-aids-among-healthcare-workers
#17
Natasha Khamisa, Maboe Mokgobi
Background: South Africa is known to have one of the highest prevalence rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) globally, with one in seven healthcare workers being HIV-positive. An HIV-positive healthcare workforce is less equipped to respond to the increasing spread of the epidemic. Objectives: Assessment of the factors contributing to high HIV prevalence rates among healthcare workers is important in planning the development of human resources...
2018: Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559386/dissociable-effects-of-subthalamic-stimulation-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-on-risky-reward-and-loss-prospects
#18
Valerie Voon, Fabien Droux, Stephan Chabardes, Thierry Bougerol, Sina Kohl, Olivier David, Paul Krack, Mircea Polosan
Our daily decisions involve an element of risk, a behavioural process that is potentially modifiable. Here we assess the role of the associative-limbic subthalamic nucleus in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) testing on and off deep brain stimulation (DBS) on anticipatory risk taking to obtain rewards and avoid losses. We assessed 12 OCD STN DBS in a randomized double-blind within-subject cross-over design. STN DBS decreased risk taking to rewards (p=0.02) and greater risk taking to rewards was positively correlated with OCD severity (p=0...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558887/mental-ill-health-and-factors-associated-with-men-s-use-of-intimate-partner-violence-in-zimbabwe
#19
Mercilene Machisa, Simukai Shamu
BACKGROUND: Over the years, researchers have relied on data from women victims to understand the profile on male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV studies with male participants in the general population are still emerging in Africa. The contribution of mental ill health to IPV perpetration in the general population that has been documented elsewhere is emergent. Notwithstanding, research with male perpetrators is essential to informing effective prevention programmes and interventions...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536292/where-lies-the-harm-in-lottery-gambling-a-portrait-of-gambling-practices-and-associated-problems
#20
Jean-Michel Costes, Sylvia Kairouz, Eva Monson, Vincent Eroukmanoff
Lotteries are one of the most prevalent forms of gambling and generate substantial state revenues. They are also argued to be one of the least harmful forms of gambling. This paper is one of the first to examine exclusive lottery gamblers and compares their gambling patterns and problems as well other associated risky behaviours to those who are not exclusive lottery gamblers. Data were derived from two large surveys conducted with representative adult samples in France (n = 15,635) and Québec (n = 23,896)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
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