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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159847/more-or-less-likely-to-offend-young-adults-with-a-history-of-identified-developmental-language-disorders
#1
Maxine Winstanley, Roger T Webb, Gina Conti-Ramsden
BACKGROUND: There is now substantial literature demonstrating that a disproportionate number of young people who come into contact with youth justice services evidence unidentified language difficulties. These young people, therefore, have received little or no professional input in this area. Conversely, there is a dearth of research pertaining to criminality outcomes among those individuals with identified developmental language disorders (DLD) who have received such interventions. AIMS: To examine police-initiated contact and substance use outcomes of young adults with a history of identified DLD versus age-matched peers (AMP)...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154395/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-after-release-from-prison-in-australia-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Simon J Forsyth, Megan Carroll, Nicholas Lennox, Stuart A Kinner
AIMS: To estimate the incidence and identify risk factors for mortality in adults released from prisons in the state of Queensland, Australia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study, linking baseline survey data with a national death register. SETTING: Selected prisons within Queensland, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (N=1320) recruited in Queensland prisons within 6 weeks of expected release, between August 2008 and July 2010, followed for up to 4...
November 20, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154065/does-nurses-role-health-or-symptoms-influence-their-personal-use-of-ingestible-complementary-and-alternative-medicines
#3
Sofia Dimitrelis, Lin Perry, Robyn Gallagher, Christine Duffield, David Sibbritt, Rachel Nicholls, Xiaoyue Xu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of work-related characteristics, health, health behaviours and symptoms on ingestible biologically-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use within the Australian nursing and midwifery workforce. BACKGROUND: CAM use is widespread worldwide, but there is little research into nurses' and midwives' personal use of ingestible CAM in Australia. METHODS: An online survey in 2014-15 used validated instruments and items to examine use of ingestible biologically-based CAM (herbs, foods and vitamins, minerals, amino acids, enzymes and other supplements), and the health and work-related characteristics of 5041 nurses and midwives recruited through the New South Wales Nurses and Midwives Association and professional networks...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146986/cascading-predator-effects-in-a-fijian-coral-reef-ecosystem
#4
Douglas B Rasher, Andrew S Hoey, Mark E Hay
Coral reefs are among Earth's best-studied ecosystems, yet the degree to which large predators influence the ecology of coral reefs remains an open and contentious question. Recent studies indicate the consumptive effects of large reef predators are too diffuse to elicit trophic cascades. Here, we provide evidence that such predators can produce non-consumptive (fear) effects that flow through herbivores to shape the distribution of seaweed on a coral reef. This trophic cascade emerged because reef topography, tidal oscillations, and shark hunting behaviour interact to create predictable "hot spots" of fear on the reef where herbivores withhold feeding and seaweeds gain a spatial refuge...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144107/safe-return-to-driving-following-severe-acquired-brain-injury-role-of-a-short-neuropsychological-assessment
#5
Donatella Saviola, Antonio DE Tanti, Jessica Conforti, Lucio Posteraro, Alessia Manfredini, Chiara Bagattini, Benedetta Basagni
BACKGROUND: Driving is a complex ability requiring a broad range of motor, cognitive- behavioural and visual skills that may be impaired after severe Acquired Brain Injury (sABI). Resumption of driving is perceived as a major need by patients, being closely linked to personal autonomy, work and social activities. AIM: The objective of this study was to identify a short battery of neuropsychological tests with predictive value with regard to safe return to driving after sABI...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134082/is-the-behavioural-divergence-between-range-core-and-range-edge-populations-of-cane-toads-rhinella-marina-due-to-evolutionary-change-or-developmental-plasticity
#6
Jodie Gruber, Gregory Brown, Martin J Whiting, Richard Shine
Individuals at the leading edge of expanding biological invasions often show distinctive phenotypic traits, in ways that enhance their ability to disperse rapidly and to function effectively in novel environments. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) at the invasion front in Australia exhibit shifts in morphology, physiology and behaviour (directionality of dispersal, boldness, risk-taking). We took a common-garden approach, raising toads from range-core and range-edge populations in captivity, to see if the behavioural divergences observed in wild-caught toads are also evident in common-garden offspring...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132501/low-education-levels-are-associated-with-early-age-of-sexual-debut-drug-use-and-risky-sexual-behaviours-among-young-indigenous-australians
#7
Handan Wand, Joanne Bryant, Heather Worth, Marian Pitts, John M Kaldor, Dea Delaney-Thiele, James Ward
Background: Earlier age at sexual debut is associated with drug and alcohol use, risky sexual behaviours and sexually transmissible infections (STI). Methods: In the present study, 2320 young Indigenous Australians were surveyed. Results: Most study participants had sex for the first time when they were 14 years or younger (79% and 67% for males and females respectively). More than 80% of participants were categorised as being in the high-risk category for the combined sexual risk factors (i.e. not using condoms, drunk or high at last sexual act, or three or more sexual partners in the past year)...
November 14, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132291/hiv-prevention-needs-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-swaziland
#8
Bhekie Sithole
Men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV burden and also often face multiple other challenges accessing HIV services, including legal and social issues. Although Swaziland recently started responding with interventions for MSM, significant gaps still exist both in information and programming. This study aimed to explore the HIV prevention needs of MSM in Swaziland, including factors elevating their risks and vulnerabilities to HIV infection; to find out what HIV prevention strategies exist; and to determine how best to meet the prevention needs of MSM...
December 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126022/the-impact-of-police-presence-on-angry-and-aggressive-driving
#9
Predrag Stanojević, Mark J M Sullman, Dragan Jovanović, Dragana Stanojević
An extensive body of research has found that angry and aggressive driving are both significantly related to crash involvement. There has also been a large body of research investigating the situational factors related to angry and aggressive driving, but one interesting question that has not yet been answered is whether the enforcement of traffic laws causes or reduces angry and aggressive driving. The independent region of Northern Kosovo represents a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of a lack of traffic enforcement on driving behaviour...
November 7, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119257/risky-decision-making-and-affective-features-of-impulse-control-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Alice Martini, Simon J Ellis, James A Grange, Stefano Tamburin, Denise Dal Lago, Greta Vianello, Nicola M J Edelstyn
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are considered dopaminergic treatment side effects. Cognitive and affective factors may increase the risk of ICD in PD. The aim is to investigate risky decision-making and associated cognitive processes in PD patients with ICDs within a four-stage conceptual framework. Relationship between ICDs and affective factors was explored. Thirteen PD patients with ICD (ICD+), 12 PD patients without ICD (ICD-), and 17 healthy controls were recruited. Overall risky decision-making and negative feedback effect were examined with the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART)...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118405/extreme-behavioural-shifts-by-baboons-exploiting-risky-resource-rich-human-modified-environments
#11
Gaelle Fehlmann, M Justin O'Riain, Catherine Kerr-Smith, Stephen Hailes, Adrian Luckman, Emily L C Shepard, Andrew J King
A range of species exploit anthropogenic food resources in behaviour known as 'raiding'. Such behavioural flexibility is considered a central component of a species' ability to cope with human-induced environmental changes. Here, we study the behavioural processes by which raiding male chacma baboons (Papio ursinus) exploit the opportunities and mitigate the risks presented by raiding in the suburbs of Cape Town, South Africa. Ecological sampling and interviews conducted with 'rangers' (employed to manage the baboons' space use) revealed that baboons are at risk of being herded out of urban spaces that contain high-energy anthropogenic food sources...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113929/interaction-of-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-l-dlpfc-and-right-orbitofrontal-cortex-ofc-in-hot-and-cold-executive-functions-evidence-from-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#12
Vahid Nejati, Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Michael A Nitsche
An organizing principle which has recently emerged proposes that executive functions (EF) can be divided into cognitive (cold) and affective or reward-related (hot) processes related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) respectively. A controversial question is whether cold and hot EF are functionally and structurally independent or not. This study investigated how the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) and right OFC (r-OFC) interact in hot and cold EF using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)...
November 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110525/behavioural-correlates-of-energy-drink-consumption-among-adolescents-a-review-of-the-literature
#13
Ade Dawodu, Karen Cleaver
Despite regulatory measures on the labelling of energy drinks (EDs), their consumption among adolescents continues to grow in popularity, but teachers increasingly report significant behavioural concerns among students who disclose habitual ED consumption. A review of papers published between January 2010 and October 2016 was undertaken to determine whether an association between adverse behaviour and consumption of ED exists. Findings indicate that ED consumption among adolescents is associated with alcohol and substance use, risky behaviours and psychological states including sensation seeking, depression and anxiety symptoms...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100171/the-danger-of-being-inattentive%C3%A2-%C3%A2-adhd-symptoms-and-risky-sexual-behaviour-in-russian-adolescents
#14
J Isaksson, A Stickley, R Koposov, V Ruchkin
BACKGROUND: Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents. METHODS: The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia...
September 28, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096335/decreased-value-sensitivity-in-schizophrenia
#15
Cristina Martinelli, Francesco Rigoli, Ray J Dolan, Sukhwinder S Shergill
Pathophysiology in schizophrenia has been linked to aberrant incentive salience, namely the dysfunctional processing of value linked to abnormal dopaminergic activity. In line with this, recent studies showed impaired learning of value in schizophrenia. However, how value is used to guide behaviour independently from learning, as in risky choice, has rarely been examined in this disorder. We studied value-guided choice under risk in patients with schizophrenia and in controls using a task requiring a choice between a certain monetary reward, varying trial-by-trial, and a gamble offering an equal probability of getting double this certain amount or nothing...
October 23, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092668/perceptions-of-social-capital-and-sexual-behaviour-among-youth-in-south-africa
#16
Clifford Odimegwu, Nicole De Wet, Oluwaseyi Dolapo Somefun
With about one quarter of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections occuring in young people, there is an on-going debate regarding the role of social capital on youth sexual behaviour. Some studies have suggested that high levels of family and community social capital may act as protective factors that lessen the likelihood of negative consequences; while others have concluded that social capital may be a risk factor for risky sexual behaviour among youth. Using data from the Third National Communications Survey (2012) conducted in South Africa, we examined the relationship between perceptions of social capital and youth sexual behaviour measured by age at first sex and condom use among 3 399 males and females (aged between 16 and 24 years)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080470/young-drivers-and-their-cars-safe-and-sound-or-the-perfect-storm
#17
Oscar Oviedo-Trespalacios, Bridie Scott-Parker
Consistent with the experiences in high-income countries, young drivers remain overrepresented in road trauma statistics in low- and middle-income countries. This article pursues the emerging interest of approaching the young driver problem from a systems thinking perspective in order to design and deliver robust countermeasures. Specifically, the focus of this paper is the cars driven by young drivers. The study of vehicles' characteristics and their interaction with driving behaviour is, more often than not, considered a minor concern when developing countermeasures in young drivers' safety not only in developed nations, but especially in developing nations...
October 25, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076402/restricted-reproductive-rights-and-risky-sexual-behaviour-how-political-disenfranchisement-relates-to-women-s-sense-of-control-well-being-and-sexual-health
#18
Rachel Msetfi, Sarah Jay, Aisling T O'Donnell, Michelle Kearns, Elaine L Kinsella, Jennifer McMahon, Orla T Muldoon, Catherine Naughton, Ann-Marie Creaven
Few studies have investigated the role of disenfranchisement and denial of agency in women's sexual health. To address this, a cross-sectional study of disenfranchisement, control (general and reproductive control) and health was conducted in Ireland, where abortion is severely restricted. Multiple mediation models ( N = 513 women) indicated that general but not reproductive control mediates the association between disenfranchisement and psychological well-being. Additionally, serial mediation shows disenfranchisement is associated with lower sense of control, which is linked to poorer well-being and risky sexual behaviour...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067490/derivation-of-some-contemporary-scales-to-measure-adolescent-risk-taking-in-canada
#19
Jonathan L Kwong, Don A Klinger, Ian Janssen, William Pickett
OBJECTIVES: To derive a contemporary series of composite indicators of adolescent risk-taking, inspired by the US CDC Framework and Problem Behaviour Theory. METHODS: Factor analyses were performed on 28-risk behaviours in a nationally representative sample of 30,096 Grades 6-10 students from the 2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. RESULTS: Three composite indicators emerged from our analysis: (1) Overt Risk-Taking (i...
October 25, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062106/toxoplasma-induced-changes-in-host-risk-behaviour-are-independent-of-parasite-derived-aaah2-tyrosine-hydroxylase
#20
Cristina Afonso, Vitor B Paixão, Andreas Klaus, Matteo Lunghi, Federica Piro, Carla Emiliani, Manlio Di Cristina, Rui M Costa
Toxoplasma gondii infects a broad range of hosts and can establish chronic infections with the formation of brain cysts. Infected animals show altered risk behaviour which has been suggested to increase capture probability of hosts, and thus enhance parasite transmission. It has been proposed that the ability of Toxoplasma cysts to secrete tyrosine hydroxylase could mediate these behavioural alterations. We tested the involvement of secreted tyrosine hydroxylase, coded by the parasite AaaH2 gene, in the development of alterations in mouse behaviour, by generating an AaaH2 deletion mutant parasite strain and testing its influence on behaviour...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
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