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Risky behaviour

Valerie Voon, Fabien Droux, Stephan Chabardes, Thierry Bougerol, Sina Kohl, Olivier David, Paul Krack, Mircea Polosan
Our daily decisions involve an element of risk, a behavioural process that is potentially modifiable. Here we assess the role of the associative-limbic subthalamic nucleus in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) testing on and off deep brain stimulation (DBS) on anticipatory risk taking to obtain rewards and avoid losses. We assessed 12 OCD STN DBS in a randomized double-blind within-subject cross-over design. STN DBS decreased risk taking to rewards (p=0.02) and greater risk taking to rewards was positively correlated with OCD severity (p=0...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience
Mercilene Machisa, Simukai Shamu
BACKGROUND: Over the years, researchers have relied on data from women victims to understand the profile on male perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV studies with male participants in the general population are still emerging in Africa. The contribution of mental ill health to IPV perpetration in the general population that has been documented elsewhere is emergent. Notwithstanding, research with male perpetrators is essential to informing effective prevention programmes and interventions...
March 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Jean-Michel Costes, Sylvia Kairouz, Eva Monson, Vincent Eroukmanoff
Lotteries are one of the most prevalent forms of gambling and generate substantial state revenues. They are also argued to be one of the least harmful forms of gambling. This paper is one of the first to examine exclusive lottery gamblers and compares their gambling patterns and problems as well other associated risky behaviours to those who are not exclusive lottery gamblers. Data were derived from two large surveys conducted with representative adult samples in France (n = 15,635) and Québec (n = 23,896)...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Esnat D Chirwa, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Adolphina Addoley Addo-Lartey, Deda Ogum Alangea, Dorcas Coker-Appiah, Richard M K Adanu, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based interventions are essential in the prevention of violence against women (VAW). An understanding of risk factors for male perpetration of VAW using population-based research is crucial for developing such interventions. This study is a baseline assessment of a two-arm unmatched cluster randomised controlled trial (C-RCT), set up to assess the impact of a Rural Response System (RRS) intervention for preventing violence against women and girls in Ghana. This study aims at assessing past year prevalence and risk factors for sexual or physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among men...
2018: PloS One
Gila Albert, Tsippy Lotan, Penina Weiss, Yoram Shiftan
The challenge of ageing has two key aspects with regard to driving: mobility and safety. It is necessary for elderly adults to preserve independent mobility and activity; however, physical frailty and cognitive limitations have negative effects on their safety. Therefore, the issue of driving, and more specifically, the fostering of safe driving of old people, is crucial, especially due the increasing number of elderly people holding a driving license. The purpose of this Letter is to point out the complexity of elderly driving and to suggest countermeasures by acknowledging that obtaining the correct balance between safety and mobility of older drivers is a complicated and sensitive task...
February 2018: Healthcare Technology Letters
Mariana Brussoni, Takuro Ishikawa, Christina Han, Ian Pike, Anita Bundy, Guy Faulkner, Louise C Mâsse
BACKGROUND: Children's risky play is associated with a variety of positive developmental, physical and mental health outcomes, including greater physical activity, self-confidence and risk-management skills. Children's opportunities for risky play have eroded over time, limited by parents' fears and beliefs about risk, particularly among mothers. We developed a digital tool and in-person Risk-reframing (RR) workshop to reframe parents' perceptions of risk and change parenting behaviours...
March 7, 2018: Trials
Catharina Strid, Claes Andersson, Agneta Öjehagen
OBJECTIVES: Hazardous drinking could negatively affect health and lead to alcohol use disorders, but it is unclear how hazardous drinking affects treatment outcomes of depression and anxiety and stress-related mental health problems. The aim of this study was to examine whether hazardous drinking, measured by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C), influences the outcomes of repeated assessments of psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire-45), stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), during and after treatment in patients with mental ill health...
March 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Hsuan-Chen Wu, Sarah White, Geraint Rees, Paul W Burgess
Restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviours, interests, or activities are a critical diagnostic criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies using gambling paradigms with ASD populations have identified that, unlike typically developed control participants, people with a diagnosis of ASD tend to maintain particular response patterns regardless of the magnitude of potential outcomes to uncertain gains or losses. Here we designed a gambling test that permitted calculation of the response consistency in gambling choices in situations that presented varying expected outcomes in terms of gains or losses...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Agustín Ernesto Martínez-González, Tíscar Rodríguez-Jiménez, José Antonio Piqueras, Pablo Vera-Villarroel, Jorge Torres-Ortega
INTRODUCTION: There is controversy over the real existence of differences in mental health and academic performance between the Mapuche ethnic minority male adolescents and the male adolescents not belonging to this ethnicity in Chile. OBJECTIVE: In consequence, the aim of this study was to investigate the differences in emotional and behavioural symptoms, risky behaviours and academic success on the Chilean Mapuche and non-Mapuche adolescents. DESIGN: The sample consisted of 233 adolescents of which 119 were Mapuche adolescents and 114 were non-Mapuche adolescents...
February 28, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
F Zoratto, G Oddi, E Gori, A Micucci, F De Petrillo, F Paglieri, W Adriani, G Laviola, E Addessi
Both human and non-human animals frequently deal with risky decisions in a social environment. Nevertheless, the influence of the social context on decision-making has been scarcely investigated. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether the presence of a conspecific influences risk preferences in rats and in tufted capuchin monkeys. Subjects received a series of choices between a constant, safe option and a variable, risky option, both alone (Alone condition) and when paired with a conspecific (Paired condition)...
February 24, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Sarah Bernays, Dominic Bukenya, Claire Thompson, Fatuma Ssembajja, Janet Seeley
The behaviour of adolescents is recognised increasingly as having substantial and long-term consequences for their health. We examined the meaning of 'adolescence' in southern Uganda with HIV-positive young people aged 11-24 years. Adolescent girls and boys are described differently in the local language (Luganda). Adolescence is described as a behavioural rather than a life course category and an inherently dangerous one. The practices, risks and consequences of 'adolescent' behaviour are highly gendered...
February 2018: Childhood
Petri Böckerman, Terhi Maczulskij
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine whether health status (number of chronic diseases, health shock and use of tranquilizers/sleeping pills) is related to labour-market outcomes later in life. METHODS: Twin data for Finnish men and women who were at least 33 years old in 1990 were linked to comprehensive register-based information on unemployment and the incidence of disability pension. We used the within-twin dimension of the data to account for shared family and genetic factors...
February 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
D van Doorn, N Richardson, A Storey, A Osborne, C Cunningham, C Blake, J McNamara
Background: Irish farmers represent a 'high-risk' group for non-communicable diseases, which, arguably, pose a greater occupational health challenge for farmers. To date, there has been little exploration of the farming characteristics associated with farmers' poor health outcomes. Aims: To examine the relationship between farming and male farmers' self-reported health outcomes and to compare the study findings to national health studies to explore which factors specifically are associated with Irish farmers' poorer health outcomes relative to the general population...
February 17, 2018: Occupational Medicine
David T Kryszajtys, Tara E Hahmann, Andrée Schuler, Sarah Hamilton-Wright, Carolyn P Ziegler, Flora I Matheson
Despite many studies indicating an association between problem gambling and delinquent behaviours among adolescents, there has been no effort to systematically analyze the state of the literature on this relationship. To fill this gap, we conducted a scoping review of the literature published between 2000 and 2016 on problem gambling and delinquent behaviours among adolescents. We searched twelve databases and reviewed reference lists to identify eligible studies. Search terms included a combination of medical subject headings and keywords for gambling, youth, and delinquency, which were combined with the Boolean operator "AND"...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Nhuong T Nguyen, Asvini K Subasinghe, John D Wark, Nicola Reavley, Suzanne M Garland
BACKGROUND: Identifying factors related to risky sexual behaviour may contribute to preventive and interventional approaches to reduce negative mental health outcomes among young women. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychological distress and risky sexual behaviours in females aged 16-25 years in Victoria, Australia. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Young Female Health Initiative (YFHI), a study in which participants were recruited via advertisements on Facebook...
December 2017: Australian Family Physician
M Butsashvili, G Kamkamidze, M Kajaia, K Nelson, W Triner, L A McNutt
Risky behaviours, particularly illegal and heavily stigmatized behaviours, are difficult to measure through self-report in both high risk groups and the general population. Underreporting can result in substantially biased estimates of non-injection drug use (IDU) risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We hypothesized that asking about the existence of social networks injection drug use may be a useful marker of IDU. A cross-sectional survey of physicians and nurses was conducted in seven hospitals in Georgia...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
Angelo Panno, Ainize Sarrionandia, Marco Lauriola, Mauro Giacomantonio
Risk-taking is a critical health factor as it plays a key role in several diseases and is related to a number of health risk factors. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of alexithymia in predicting risk preferences across decision domains. One hundred and thirteen participants filled out an alexithymia scale (Toronto Alexithymia Scale-TAS-20), impulsivity and venturesomeness measures (I7 scale), and-1 month later-the Cognitive Appraisal of Risky Events (CARE questionnaire). The hierarchical regression analyses showed that alexithymia positively predicted risk preferences in two domains: aggressive/illegal behaviour and irresponsible academic/work behaviour...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Liz Glidewell, Thomas A Willis, Duncan Petty, Rebecca Lawton, Rosemary R C McEachan, Emma Ingleson, Peter Heudtlass, Andrew Davies, Tony Jamieson, Cheryl Hunter, Suzanne Hartley, Kara Gray-Burrows, Susan Clamp, Paul Carder, Sarah Alderson, Amanda J Farrin, Robbie Foy
BACKGROUND: Interpreting evaluations of complex interventions can be difficult without sufficient description of key intervention content. We aimed to develop an implementation package for primary care which could be delivered using typically available resources and could be adapted to target determinants of behaviour for each of four quality indicators: diabetes control, blood pressure control, anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation and risky prescribing. We describe the development and prospective verification of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) embedded within the adaptable implementation packages...
February 17, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Michael R Frank, Rachel Blumhagen, David Weitzenkamp, Shane R Mueller, Brenda Beaty, Sung-Joon Min, Ingrid A Binswanger
Introduction: Tobacco use is common among people who have been in prison. The relationship between social stressors, risky health behaviours, and smoking cessation has not been studied in people recently released from prison. Studying this relationship could yield information that guides strategic and cost-effective tobacco cessation interventions for an under-resourced population. Methods: One hundred and forty-three smokers were interviewed 7 to 21 days after they had been released from USA prisons...
June 2017: Journal of Smoking Cessation
Claire Mawditt, Amanda Sacker, Annie Britton, Yvonne Kelly, Noriko Cable
Building upon evidence linking socio-economic position (SEP) in childhood and adulthood with health-related behaviours (HRB) in adulthood, we examined how pre-adolescent SEP predicted membership of three HRB clusters: "Risky", "Moderate Smokers" and "Mainstream" (the latter pattern consisting of more beneficial HRBs), that were detected in our previous work. Data were taken from two British cohorts (born in 1958 and 1970) in pre-adolescence (age 11 and 10, respectively) and adulthood (age 33 and 34). SEP constructs in pre-adolescence and adulthood were derived through Confirmatory Factor Analysis...
February 8, 2018: Preventive Medicine
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