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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917095/turning-movements-vehicle-offsets-and-ageing-drivers-driving-behaviour-at-channelized-and-unchannelized-intersections
#1
Jaisung Choi, Richard Tay, Sangyoup Kim, Seungwon Jeong
Ageing drivers experience a higher risk of intersection crashes because of their decrease in driving efficiency, including the decline in cognitive ability, head and neck flexibility, and visual acuity. Although several studies have been conducted to examine the factors associated with ageing driver crashes at intersections, little research has been conducted to examine the differences in the factors related to ageing drivers' turning paths and intersection geometric features. This study aims to improve the safety of ageing drivers at intersections by identifying the maneuvers that are risky for them and tracking their turning movements at selected intersections...
September 13, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905482/energy-drink-consumption-among-new-zealand-adolescents-associations-with-mental-health-health-risk-behaviours-and-body-size
#2
Jennifer Utter, Simon Denny, Tasileta Teevale, Janie Sheridan
AIM: With the increase in popularity of energy drinks come multiple concerns about the associated health indicators of young people. The current study aims to describe the frequency of consumption of energy drinks in a nationally representative sample of adolescents and to explore the relationship between energy drink consumption and health risk behaviours, body size and mental health. METHODS: Data were collected as part of Youth'12, a nationally representative survey of high school students in New Zealand (2012)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905111/maternal-depressive-symptoms-in-childhood-and-risky-behaviours-in-early-adolescence
#3
Eirini Flouri, Sofia Ioakeimidi
Longitudinal patterns of maternal depressive symptoms have yet to be linked to risky behaviours, such as substance use or violence, in early adolescence, when such behaviours may be particularly detrimental. This study was carried out to do this. Using data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, it modelled the effect of trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms at child ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years on antisocial behaviour and delinquency at age 11 years (N = 12,494). It also explored their role in predicting moral judgement and attitudes to alcohol at age 11, important predictors of delinquent or antisocial behaviour and alcohol use, respectively...
September 13, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902522/delinquency-and-sexual-experiences-across-adolescence-does-depression-play-a-role
#4
Hanna Savioja, Mika Helminen, Sari Fröjd, Mauri Marttunen, Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino
PURPOSE: To elucidate a possible connection between delinquency and adolescent sexual behaviours in different age groups from 14 to 20 and the role of depression therein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were gathered from the cross-sectional Finnish School Health Promotion Study 2010 and 2011 with 186,632 respondents. We first examined the bivariate relationship between delinquency and sexual behaviour, and then proceeded to multivariate models accounting for self-reported depression...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902289/exposure-source-prevalence-is-associated-with-gender-in-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-from-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#5
Daniele Blasquez Olmedo, Patrícia Marraccini Precioso, António Lugdero-Correia, Guida da Silva, Angela Maria Guimarães Dos Santos, Luís Cristóvão Pôrto
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. A characterisation of the differences in exposure sources among genders will enable improvements in surveillance actions. METHODS: Exposure data were obtained for 1180 confirmed HCV cases Brazil's mandatory reporting to epidemiological surveillance, which was directed by a reference laboratory in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Chi-square test (χ2) was used to assess the associations between exposure sources and gender...
September 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894109/stress-behaviours-buffer-macaques-from-aggression
#6
Jamie Whitehouse, Jérôme Micheletta, Bridget M Waller
Primates (including humans) scratch when stressed. So far, such scratching has been seen as a by-product of physiological processes associated with stress, and attributed proximate, regulatory function. However, it is possible that others could use this relationship between scratching and stress as an indication of the animal's stress state, and thus scratching could potentially have social function. As a test of this theory, we measured the production of, and social responses to scratching in a group of free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893749/cross-sectional-comparative-study-of-risky-sexual-behaviours-among-hiv-infected-persons-initiated-and-waiting-to-start-antiretroviral-therapy-in-rural-rakai-uganda
#7
Lydia Jacenta Nakiganda, Gertrude Nakigozi, Joseph Kagaayi, Fred Nalugoda, David Serwadda, Nelson Sewankambo, Ronald Gray, Anthony Ndyanabo, Richard Muwanika, Benedict Oppong Asamoah
OBJECTIVES: To compare risky sexual behaviours between HIV-positive persons initiated on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (ART-experienced) and persons waiting to start on ART (ART-naive) and assess predictors of risky sexual behaviours among HIV-infected patients in rural Rakai district, Uganda. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study that used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) database between 2013 and 2014. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection...
September 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891358/defensive-medicine-among-obstetricians-and-gynaecologists-in-turkey
#8
Mert Küçük
In recent years, there has been a remarkable increase in medical malpractice litigations against OB/GYNs in Turkey and globally. This high litigation atmosphere may have changed attitudes, behaviour and practice of OB/GYNs. In the current study, opinions and attitudes of OB/GYNs regarding defensive medicine and to what extent they practice it were investigated. One hundred and eight OB/GYNs participated in the study. All participants found obstetrics and gynaecology riskier when compared with other medical branches and reported that they were increasingly practising defensive medicine...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883771/behavioral-sexual-characteristics-of-female-students-in-bosnia-and-herzegovina
#9
Azra Hadzimehmedovic, Vesna Ferkovic, Mahira Jahic
INTRODUCTION: Characteristics of sexual behaviour of female students, which will affect fertility in adulthood, represent one of the critical parameters of reproductive health. AIM: The aim of this study was assess characteristics of sexual behavior of female students in Bosnia and Herzegovina. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective study on a representative sample of 2,872 regular girls aged 19-24 years, an anonymous survey on the reproductive health of female students in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 2007 to 2009 was conducted...
June 2017: Materia Socio-medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865491/socio-ecological-influences-on-adolescent-aged-10-17-alcohol-use-and-linked-unhealthy-eating-behaviours-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-synthesis-of-qualitative-studies
#10
Stephanie Scott, Jessica Reilly, Emma L Giles, Frances Hillier-Brown, Louisa Ells, Eileen Kaner, Ashley Adamson
BACKGROUND: Excess body weight and risky alcohol consumption are two of the greatest contributors to global disease. Health behaviours cluster in adolescence and track to adulthood. Very little is known about similar and contrasting influences on young people's eating behaviours and alcohol use. Whilst there are bodies of literature which explore the influences on young people's eating behaviour and alcohol consumption respectively, no qualitative studies have been identified with an explicit and concurrent focus on adolescent eating behaviours and alcohol consumption...
September 2, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858776/associations-between-alcohol-consumption-patterns-and-attitudes-towards-alcohol-interlocks
#11
Caitlin A Bishop, Sara Liu, Amanda N Stephens, Michael Fitzharris
BACKGROUND: Drink-driving and alcohol-related crashes are a significant problem globally. Alcohol interlocks are used to prevent drivers with a blood alcohol concentration above a pre-determined level from starting their vehicle, making the technology highly effective in preventing drink-drive episodes. While alcohol interlocks are commonly used in drink-drive offender groups, their broader use as a preventative road safety strategy is considered increasingly feasible. In this context it is important to understand attitudes towards the technology, and to investigate whether these attitudes vary according to alcohol consumption patterns as this influences the acceptability of a broad-based preventative alcohol interlock program...
August 28, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858008/school-start-time-effects-on-adolescent-learning-and-academic-performance-emotional-health-and-behaviour
#12
Kyla L Wahlstrom, Judith A Owens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The investigation of the relationship between the time of day that school begins and the effects it could have on students began in the mid-1990s. Since that time, many articles have been written either for the medical literature or the educational literature. This review is intended to bridge that gap by examining together the findings for both academic and health outcomes, exploring what we know and what is needed in further investigation. RECENT FINDINGS: Teens who are sleep deficient (defined as obtaining less than 8 h per night) because of early starting time for their school are much more likely to engage in risky behaviours, such as drug, cigarette and alcohol use, have significant feelings of depression, get lower grades and are at greater risk for car crashes...
August 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855413/predation-metabolic-priming-and-early-life-history-rearing-environment-affect-the-swimming-capabilities-of-growth-hormone-transgenic-rainbow-trout
#13
Glenn T Crossin, Robert H Devlin
The period of first feeding, when young salmonid fishes emerge from natal stream beds, is one fraught with predation risk. Experiments conducted in semi-natural stream mesocosms have shown that growth hormone transgenic salmonids are at greater risk of predation than their non-transgenic siblings, due partly to the higher metabolic demands associated with transgenesis, which force risky foraging behaviours. This raises questions as to whether there are differences in the swim-performance of transgenic and non-transgenic fishes surviving predation experiments...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853131/implementation-of-a-peer-mediated-health-education-model-in-the-united-arab-emirates-addressing-risky-behaviours-among-expatriate-adolescents
#14
Zachary D Stanley, Leena W Asfour, Michael Weitzman, Scott E Sherman
Tobacco use among young people is increasing in the United Arab Emirates, and the country is ranked 15th in the world for prevalence of type II diabetes. Expatriates comprise a majority of the population, making them an important subset to study. We aimed to test whether an educational intervention would be effective in this cultural setting. We designed 2 peer-to-peer health workshops: tobacco use and nutrition/physical activity. One workshop was randomly assigned to 18 classrooms in private schools in Abu Dhabi...
August 27, 2017: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844360/marital-violence-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-women-in-post-revolution-egypt
#15
Seema Vyas
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between past year physical or sexual partner violence against women and women's self-report of sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms in post-revolution Egypt; and to examine the effects of men's and women's risky sexual behavioural characteristics and structural dimensions of poverty and gender inequality on this relationship. STUDY DESIGN: This study uses the nationally representative cross-sectional demographic and health survey data conducted in 2014...
October 2017: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844162/the-association-of-measures-of-the-serotonin-system-personality-alcohol-use-and-smoking-with-risk-taking-traffic-behavior-in-adolescents-in-a-longitudinal-study
#16
Kadi Luht, Diva Eensoo, Liina-Mai Tooding, Jaanus Harro
Studies on the neurobiological basis of risk-taking behavior have most often focused on the serotonin system. The promoter region of the gene encoding the serotonin transporter contains a polymorphic site (5-HTTLPR) that is important for the transcriptional activity, and studies have demonstrated its association with brain activity and behavior. Another molecular mechanism that reflects the capacity of the central serotonin system is the activity of the enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO) as measured in platelets...
August 26, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843085/the-influence-of-groups-and-alcohol-consumption-on-individual-risk-taking
#17
Marianne Erskine-Shaw, Rebecca L Monk, Adam W Qureshi, Derek Heim
BACKGROUND: Research addressing the influence of alcohol and groups on risky behaviour has yielded contradictory findings regarding the extent to which intoxicated groups exaggerate or minimise risk-taking. Previous work has examined the effect of intoxication on risk-taking focusing on collective group decision-making, and to date the influence of alcohol consumption and groups on individual risk-taking has yet to be explored experimentally. The current study therefore examined the impact of intoxication and groups on individual risk-taking...
August 22, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837359/young-females-attention-towards-road-safety-images-an-erp-study-of-the-revised-reinforcement-sensitivity-theory
#18
Sherrie-Anne Kaye, Melanie J White, Ioni Lewis
OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether reward and punishment sensitivities, as conceptualised by Gray and McNaughton's revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), influenced young female drivers' attention towards a series of positive and negative anti-speeding advertisement images. Young females' increasing crash risk is associated with their engagement in risky behaviours which, in turn, has been associated with a stronger Behavioural Approach System (BAS; sensitive to rewards)...
August 24, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832319/uncertainty-exposure-causes-behavioural-sensitization-and-increases-risky-decision-making-in-male-rats-toward-modelling-gambling-disorder
#19
Fiona D Zeeb, Zhaoxia Li, Daniel C Fisher, Martin H Zack, Paul J Fletcher
BACKGROUND: An animal model of gambling disorder, previously known as pathological gambling, could advance our understanding of the disorder and help with treatment development. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to uncertainty during gambling induces behavioural and dopamine (DA) sensitization - similar to chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. Uncertainty exposure (UE) may also increase risky decision-making in an animal model of gambling disorder. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received 56 UE sessions, during which animals responded for saccharin according to an unpredictable, variable ratio schedule of reinforcement (VR group)...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816100/young-people-s-attitudes-towards-illicit-drugs-a-population-based-study
#20
Karina Friis, Jeanette Østergaard, Sidsel Reese, Mathias Lasgaard
AIMS: Previous studies indicate that young people who have positive attitudes towards illicit drugs are more inclined to experiment with them. The first aim of our study was to identify the sociodemographic and risk behaviour characteristics of young people (16-24 years) with positive attitudes towards illicit drug use. The second aim was to identify the characteristics of young people with positive attitudes towards illicit drugs among those who had never tried drugs, those who had tried cannabis but no other illicit drugs, and those who regularly used cannabis and/or had tried other illicit drugs...
August 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
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