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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441458/evidence-that-promotion-of-male-circumcision-did-not-lead-to-sexual-risk-compensation-in-prioritized-sub-saharan-countries
#1
Chyun-Fung Shi, Michael Li, Jonathan Dushoff
BACKGROUND: WHO and UNAIDS prioritized 14 eastern and southern African countries with high HIV and low male circumcision prevalence for a voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) scale-up in 2007. Because circumcision provides only partial protection against HIV infection to men, the issue of possible risk compensation in response to VMMC campaigns is of particular concern. In this study, we looked at population-level survey data from the countries prioritized by WHO for a VMMC scale-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436735/risk-and-safety-perception-on-urban-and-rural-roads-effects-of-environmental-features-driver-age-and-risk-sensitivity
#2
Jolene A Cox, Vanessa Beanland, Ashleigh J Filtness
OBJECTIVE: The ability to detect changing visual information is a vital component of safe driving. In addition to detecting changing visual information, drivers must also interpret its relevance to safety. Environmental changes considered to have high safety relevance will likely demand greater attention and more timely responses than those considered to have lower safety relevance. The aim of the present study was to explore factors that are likely to influence perceptions of risk and safety regarding changing visual information in the driving environment...
February 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434054/patterns-of-gambling-activities-and-gambling-problems-among-italian-high-school-students-results-from-a-latent-class-analysis
#3
Nicola De Luigi, Dino Gibertoni, Emanuela Randon, Antonello E Scorcu
This study aims to provide an estimate of the prevalence of gambling among Italian adolescents and a description of their patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) using a latent class analysis on 13 different types of games. A nationwide sample of 10,959 Italian high school students was recruited in 2013. We assessed problem gambling using the South Oaks Gambling Screen: Revisited for Adolescent (SOGS-RA) scale. Approximately half (50.6%) of students reported gambling at least once in the previous year; 5.0% of them were problem gamblers and 9...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433653/self-awareness-and-the-medial-temporal-lobe-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Chantal Chavoix, Ricardo Insausti
Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one's behaviour to one's actual abilities, to avoid risky behaviour. Impaired self-awareness of deficits is common in neurodegenerative diseases. Numerous studies show an involvement of midline cortical areas in impaired self-awareness. Among the other brain regions implicated stand the medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures (i.e. hippocampus, amygdala, and temporopolar, entorhinal, perirhinal and posterior parahippocampal cortices). This review aims at evaluating the role of those structures in self-awareness in neurodegenerative diseases...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426117/identifying-the-gaps-in-nepalese-migrant-workers-health-and-well-being-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
Padam P Simkhada, Pramod R Regmi, Edwin van Teijlingen, Nirmal Aryal
Background: The health and well-being of migrant workers from low-income countries is often neglected in travel medicine. This article uses Nepal as a case study to highlight key issues affecting this particular group of international travellers. Methods: This narrative review used a comprehensive systematic literature search to identify relevant studies on Nepal. The included articles were thematically analysed leading to four key themes or risk factors. Results: The search found 18 articles from which we identified 3 key themes related directly to migrant workers: (1) sexual risk taking; (2) occupational health and (3) lifestyles, and a fourth theme related to partners and family of migrant workers who are left behind in Nepal...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418321/s100a10-identified-in-a-genome-wide-gene-%C3%A3-cannabis-dependence-interaction-analysis-of-risky-sexual-behaviours
#6
Renato Polimanti, Shashwath A Meda, Godfrey D Pearlson, Hongyu Zhao, Richard Sherva, Lindsay A Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND: We conducted a genome-wide gene × environment interaction analysis to identify genetic variants that interact with cannabis dependence (CaD) in influencing risky sexual behaviours (RSB). METHODS: Our sample included cannabis-exposed and sexually experienced African-American and European-American participants. A DSM-IV CaD diagnosis and RSB were evaluated using the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism. We analyzed RSBs as a score that takes into account experiences of unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417433/investigating-responses-to-food-insecurity-among-hiv-positive-people-in-resource-rich-settings-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
F H McKay, K Lippi, M Dunn
Many of the 36.7 million people living with HIV are also assumed to be food insecure. The implications of food insecurity in people living with HIV are significant, with food insecurity associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use, experiences of depression or depressive symptoms, poor adherence and delayed uptake of HIV medication, nutritional vulnerability leading to interference of medication, and the uptake of risky behaviours as a way to gain access to food resources...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406033/the-impact-of-hiv-antiretroviral-treatment-perception-on-risky-sexual-behaviour-in-botswana-a-short-report
#8
Gobopamang Letamo, Mpho Keetile, Kannan Navaneetham
The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of ART perception on risky sexual behaviours in Botswana. Using binary logistic regression analysis controlling for individual characteristics, the results tend to support the hypothesis that ART misconceptions do not necessarily increase risky sexual behaviours. In particular, the study findings suggest the belief that ARVs cure HIV and AIDS and that people on ARVs should not always use condoms do not necessarily lead to increased risky sexual behaviours, particularly among women...
April 13, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402067/altered-reward-reactivity-as-a-behavioural-endophenotype-in-eating-disorders-a-pilot-investigation-in-twins
#9
Natalie Kanakam, Isabel Krug, David Collier, Janet Treasure
Altered reward reactivity is a potential risk endophenotype for eating disorders (EDs). The aim of this study was to examine reward reactivity in female twins with EDs and compare it with a twin control group. A sample of 112 twins [n = 51 met lifetime DSM-IV ED criteria (anorexia nervosa n = 26; bulimic disorders n = 24), n = 19 unaffected cotwins and n = 42 control twins] was administered measures assessing reward reactivity, including the Game of Dice Task, the Behavioural Inhibition/Activation (BIS/BAS) Scales and the Appetitive Motivation Scale (AMS)...
May 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401619/non-compliance-to-infectious-disease-deferral-criteria-among-hong-kong-s-blood-donors
#10
S S Lee, E K H Cheung, J N S Leung, C K Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Donor screening alone cannot eliminate the risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV infection. Donor deferral according to established criteria is a supplemental strategy, which has focused largely on men who have sex with men (MSM). A study was conducted to determine the compliance of non-MSM donors with such criteria and examine its implications on blood safety. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chinese donors who have just donated blood at blood donor centres in Hong Kong were recruited...
April 11, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399349/sexually-transmitted-infections-prevalence-knowledge-and-behaviours-among-professional-defence-forces-in-estonia-a-pilot-study
#11
David Parker, Kristi Rüütel
OBJECTIVES: Our study assessed sexually transmitted infections (STI) occurrence and risk behaviours from a sample of the defence forces of Estonia. Previous research on military personnel yields various results on the prevalence of STIs and high risk behaviours. The increasing recognition of high risk behaviours among military personnel is evident given increased programmes that focus on education of drug use and risky sexual behaviours. Many militaries conduct routine, periodic screening for diseases such as HIV and viral hepatitis at entry and pre-foreign deployment...
March 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389339/modulating-the-activity-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-by-tdcs-alters-distributive-decisions-behind-the-veil-of-ignorance-via-risk-preference
#12
Jun Luo, Hang Ye, Haoli Zheng, Shu Chen, Daqiang Huang
Distributive justice concerns how individuals and societies distribute income in a just or equal manner. Previous studies from behavioural experiments have revealed that participants' distributive decisions vary according to the contexts of income distribution. Despite the long history of work on distributive behaviour, however, its psychological and neural underpinnings remain poorly understood. There many debates on whether and how the "weights" that are assigned to the individual payoffs (self-interest or risk aversion) and the payoff distribution of the others (social preference or fairness) in participants' objective functions, especially behind the veil of ignorance...
April 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384487/an-examination-of-the-relationship-between-measures-of-impulsivity-and-risky-simulated-driving-amongst-young-drivers
#13
Julie Hatfield, Ann Williamson, E James Kehoe, Prasannah Prabhakharan
The risky driving of young drivers may owe in part to youthful motivations (such as experience-seeking, authority rebellion, desire for peer approval) combined with incompletely developed impulse control. Although self-reported impulsiveness has been positively associated with self-reports of risky driving, results based on objective measures of response inhibition (e.g., Go/No-go tasks) have been inconclusive. The present study examined interrelationships between measures of response inhibition, self-report impulsiveness scales, and responses to events during a simulated drive that were designed to detect impulsive, unsafe behaviours (e...
April 3, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384034/difficulties-in-emotion-regulation-and-risky-driving-among-lithuanian-drivers
#14
Laura Šeibokaitė, Auksė Endriulaitienė, Mark J M Sullman, Rasa Markšaitytė, Kristina Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė
BACKGROUND: Risky driving is a common cause of traffic accidents and injuries. However, there is no clear evidence of how difficulties in emotion regulation contribute to risky driving behaviour, particularly in small Post-Soviet countries. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between difficulties in emotion regulation and self-reported risky driving behaviour in a sample of Lithuanian drivers. METHODS: A total of 246 non-professional Lithuanian drivers participated in a cross-sectional survey...
April 6, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381626/risky-business-for-a-juvenile-marine-predator-testing-the-influence-of-foraging-strategies-on-size-and-growth-rate-under-natural-conditions
#15
Nigel E Hussey, Joseph D DiBattista, Jonathan W Moore, Eric J Ward, Aaron T Fisk, Steven Kessel, Tristan L Guttridge, Kevin A Feldheim, Bryan R Franks, Samuel H Gruber, Ornella C Weideli, Demian D Chapman
Mechanisms driving selection of body size and growth rate in wild marine vertebrates are poorly understood, thus limiting knowledge of their fitness costs at ecological, physiological and genetic scales. Here, we indirectly tested whether selection for size-related traits of juvenile sharks that inhabit a nursery hosting two dichotomous habitats, protected mangroves (low predation risk) and exposed seagrass beds (high predation risk), is influenced by their foraging behaviour. Juvenile sharks displayed a continuum of foraging strategies between mangrove and seagrass areas, with some individuals preferentially feeding in one habitat over another...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377221/risk-factors-for-schistosomiasis-transmission-among-school-children-in-gwanda-district-zimbabwe
#16
Zibusiso Nyati-Jokomo, Moses J Chimbari
INTRODUCTION: A nationwide cross sectional Schistosomiasis survey conducted in 2011 in 280 primary schools found a prevalence rate of 22.7%. This warranted an intervention with mass drug administration at all schools in line with WHO guidelines. This study aimed to identify risk factors for Schistosomiasis transmission among Grade 3 children at two primary schools in Gwanda district. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional survey which was part of a larger study on Malaria and Bilharzia in Southern Africa (MABISA) was conducted...
April 1, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371424/knowledge-perceptions-and-attitude-of-a-community-living-around-a-colony-of-straw-coloured-fruit-bats-eidolon-helvum-in-ghana-after-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-west-africa
#17
F Gbogbo, M O Kyei
A large population of straw-coloured fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) colonizes a prime area in the city of Accra where several public amenities are located. Although the colony is positive to several zoonotic viruses including the Ebola virus, there is limited information on the social dimensions of the existence of the bats. As a step towards effective response to health risk and conservation of the bats, this study assessed the knowledge and attitude of the community living around the bats and determined their level of environmental and public health consciousness...
March 30, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364568/spatial-patterns-of-hiv-prevalence-and-service-use-in-east-zimbabwe-implications-for-future-targeting-of-interventions
#18
Robin Schaefer, Simon Gregson, Albert Akaruza, Rebecca Rhead, Tidings Masoka, Nadine Schur, Sarah-Jane Anderson, Constance Nyamukapa
INTRODUCTION: Focusing resources for HIV control on geographic areas of greatest need in countries with generalized epidemics has been recommended to increase cost-effectiveness. However, socioeconomic inequalities between areas of high and low prevalence could raise equity concerns and have been largely overlooked. We describe spatial patterns in HIV prevalence in east Zimbabwe and test for inequalities in accessibility and uptake of HIV services prior to the introduction of spatially-targeted programmes...
February 27, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357829/factors-affecting-health-promoting-lifestyle-profile-in-iranian-male-seafarers-working-on-tankers
#19
Fereshteh Baygi, Olaf Chresten Jensen, Fatemeh Mohammadi-Nasrabadi, Mostafa Qorbani, Morteza Mansourian, Roksana Mirkazemi, Aliasghar Farshad, Seyed Ali Salehi, Arezoo Haghighian Roudsari, Farzad Shidfar
BACKGROUND: Seafaring is a risky occupation that is associated with a high incidence of lifestyle-related diseases. The present study was carried out to examine health promotion behaviour and its associated factors in seafarers of the National Iranian Tanker Company. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed on 200 Iranian male seafarers in 2015. A self-administered socio-demographic and Health Promotion Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP-II) questionnaire was completed...
2017: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355636/educational-inequalities-in-risky-health-behaviours-in-21-european-countries-findings-from-the-european-social-survey-2014-special-module-on-the-social-determinants-of-health
#20
Tim Huijts, Anna Gkiouleka, Nadine Reibling, Katie H Thomson, Terje A Eikemo, Clare Bambra
It has been suggested that cross-national variation in educational inequalities in health outcomes (e.g. NCDs) is due to cross-national variation in risky health behaviour. In this paper we aim to use highly recent data (2014) to examine educational inequalities in risky health behaviour in 21 European countries from all regions of the continent to map cross-national variation in the extent to which educational level is associated with risky health behaviour. We focus on four dimensions of risky health behaviour: smoking, alcohol use, lack of physical activity and lack of fruit and vegetable consumption...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
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