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High throughput microfluidics

I-Chen Liu, Pin-Chuan Chen, Lai-Kwan Chau, Guo-En Chang
We propose and develop an intensity-detection-based refractive-index (RI) sensor for low-cost, rapid RI sensing. The sensor is composed of a polymer bent ridge waveguide (BRWG) structure on a low-cost glass substrate and is integrated with a microfluidic channel. Different-RI solutions flowing through the BRWG sensing region induce output optical power variations caused by optical bend losses, enabling simple and real-time RI detection. Additionally, the sensors are fabricated using rapid and cost-effective vacuum-less processes, attaining the low cost and high throughput required for mass production...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
Zhi Wang, Lan Jiang, Xiaowei Li, Andong Wang, Zhulin Yao, Kaihu Zhang, Yongfeng Lu
We proposed combining temporally shaped (double-pulse train) laser pulses with spatially shaped (Bessel beam) laser pulses. By using a temporally shaped femtosecond laser Bessel-beam-assisted chemical etching method, the energy deposition efficiency was improved by adjusting the pulse delay to yield a stronger material modification and, thus, a higher etching depth. The etching depth was enhanced by a factor of 13 using the temporally shaped Bessel beam. The mechanism of etching depth enhancement was elucidated by localized transient-free electrons dynamics-induced structural and morphological changes...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Xin Cui, Ya Liu, Dinglong Hu, Weiyi Qian, Chung Tin, Dong Sun, Weiqiang Chen, Raymond H W Lam
Quantitative and dynamic analyses of immune cell secretory cytokines are essential for precise determination and characterization of the "immune phenotype" of patients for clinical diagnosis and treatment of immune-related diseases. Although multiple methods including the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) have been applied for cytokine detection, such measurements remain very challenging in real-time, high-throughput, and high-sensitivity immune cell analysis. In this paper, we report a highly integrated microfluidic device that allows for on-chip isolation, culture, and stimulation, as well as sensitive and dynamic cytokine profiling of immune cells...
January 12, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Yu-Chih Chen, Brock Humphries, Riley Brien, Anne E Gibbons, Yu-Ting Chen, Tonela Qyli, Henry R Haley, Matthew E Pirone, Benjamin Chiang, Annie Xiao, Yu-Heng Cheng, Yi Luan, Zhixiong Zhang, Jason Cong, Kathryn E Luker, Gary D Luker, Euisik Yoon
Isolation of tumor-initiating cells currently relies on markers that do not reflect essential biologic functions of these cells. We proposed to overcome this limitation by isolating tumor-initiating cells based on enhanced migration, a function tightly linked to tumor-initiating potential through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We developed a high-throughput microfluidic migration platform with automated cell tracking software and facile recovery of cells for downstream functional and genetic analyses...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Purim Jarujamrus, Rattapol Meelapsom, Somkid Pencharee, Apinya Obma, Maliwan Amatatongchai, Nadh Ditcharoen, Sanoe Chairam, Suparb Tamuang
A smartphone application, called CAnal, was developed as a colorimetric analyzer in paper-based devices for sensitive and selective determination of mercury(II) in water samples. Measurement on the double layer of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) fabricated by alkyl ketene dimer (AKD)-inkjet printing technique with special design doped with unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto the detection zones was performed by monitoring the gray intensity in the blue channel of AgNPs, which disintegrated when exposed to mercury(II) on μPAD...
2018: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
P Fikar, V Georgiev, G Lissorgues, M Holubova, D Lysak, D Georgiev
In this work, a novel force equilibrium method called distributed dielectrophoretic cytometry (2DEP cytometry) was developed. It uses a dielectrophoresis (DEP)-induced vertical translation of live cells in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) in order to measure probabilistic distribution of DEP forces acting on an entire cell population. The method is integrated in a microfluidic device. The bottom of the microfluidic channel is lined with an interdigitated electrode array. Cells passing through the micro-channel are acted on by sedimentation forces, while DEP forces either oppose sedimentation, support sedimentation, or neither, depending on the dielectric (DE) signatures of the cells...
January 8, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Hui Yang, Martin A M Gijs
This critical review summarizes the developments in the integration of micro-optical elements with microfluidic platforms for facilitating detection and automation of bio-analytical applications. Micro-optical elements, made by a variety of microfabrication techniques, advantageously contribute to the performance of an analytical system, especially when the latter has microfluidic features. Indeed the easy integration of optical control and detection modules with microfluidic technology helps to bridge the gap between the macroscopic world and chip-based analysis, paving the way for automated and high-throughput applications...
January 8, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Yuqin Shang, Yong Zeng
Protein glycosylation is one of the key processes that play essential roles in biological functions and dysfunctions. However, progress in glycomics has considerably lagged behind genomics and proteomics, due in part to the enormous challenges associated with the analysis of glycans. Here we present a new integrated and automated microfluidic lectin barcode platform to substantially improve the performance of lectin array for focused glycomic profiling. The chip design and flow control were optimized to promote the lectin-glycan binding kinetics and the speed of lectin microarrays...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
David T Miyamoto, Richard J Lee, Mark Kalinich, Joseph LiCausi, Yu Zheng, Tianqi Chen, John D Milner, Erin Emmons, Uyen Ho, Katherine Broderick, Erin Silva, Sarah Javaid, Tanya Todorova Kwan, Xin Hong, Douglas M Dahl, Francis J McGovern, Jason A Efstathiou, Matthew R Smith, Lecia V Sequist, Ravi Kapur, Chin-Lee Wu, Shannon L Stott, David T Ting, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Mehmet Toner, Shyamala Maheswaran, Daniel A Haber
Blood-based biomarkers are critical in metastatic prostate cancer, where characteristic bone metastases are not readily sampled, and they may enable risk stratification in localized disease. We established a sensitive and high-throughput strategy for analyzing prostate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) using microfluidic cell enrichment followed by digital quantitation of prostate-derived transcripts. In a prospective study of 27 metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with first-line abiraterone, pretreatment elevation of the digital CTCM Score identifies a high risk population with poor overall survival (HR 6...
January 4, 2018: Cancer Discovery
Sabine Conrad, Hossein Azizi, Thomas Skutella
The mammalian germ cells, cell assemblies, tissues, and organs during development and maturation have been extensively studied at the tissue level. However, to investigate and understand the fundamental insights at the molecular basis of germ and stem cells, their cell fate plasticity, and determination, it is of most importance to analyze at the large scale on the single-cell level through different biological windows. Here, modern molecular techniques optimized for single-cell analysis, including single fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) or microfluidic high-throughput quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for single-cell gene expression and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) for protein profiling, have been established and are still getting optimized...
January 4, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lawrence N Diebel, Jonathan V Martin, David M Liberati
BACKGROUND: Early resuscitation after trauma-hemorrhagic shock (HS) with plasma rather than crystalloid may ameliorate systemic endothelial cell (EC) injury and dysfunction (endotheliopathy of trauma [EOT]). We postulated that endothelial lined microfluidic networks would be a useful platform to study the endothelial cell activation/injury under flow conditions to mimic HS. We then used the microfluidic system to further characterize the protective effects and optimal timing of plasma infusion on the development of "EOT" in our model...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Alyne G Teixeira, Rishima Agarwal, Kristin Robin Ko, Jessica Grant-Burt, Brendan M Leung, John P Frampton
Liquid-liquid phase separation between aqueous solutions containing two incompatible polymers, a polymer and a salt, or a polymer and a surfactant, has been exploited for a wide variety of biotechnology applications throughout the years. While many applications for aqueous two-phase systems fall within the realm of separation science, the ability to partition many different materials within these systems, coupled with recent advances in materials science and liquid handling, has allowed bioengineers to imagine new applications...
December 27, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Morten M C H van Schie, Kourosh Honarmand Ebrahimi, Wilfred R Hagen, Peter-Leon Hagedoorn
Recent developments in microfluidic and nanofluidic technologies have resulted in development of new chip-based microfluidic calorimeters with potential use in different fields. One application would be the accurate high-throughput measurement of enzyme activity. Calorimetry is a generic way to measure activity of enzymes, but unlike conventional calorimeters, chip-based calorimeters can be easily automated and implemented in high-throughput screening platforms. However, application of chip-based microfluidic calorimeters to measure enzyme activity has been limited due to problems associated with miniaturization such as incomplete mixing and a decrease in volumetric heat generated...
December 20, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
Jiandong Wu, Meili Dong, Susy Santos, Claudio Rigatto, Yong Liu, Francis Lin
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are two leading causes of death worldwide. CVD and cancer share risk factors such as obesity and diabetes mellitus and have common diagnostic biomarkers such as interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein. Thus, timely and accurate diagnosis of these two correlated diseases is of high interest to both the research and healthcare communities. Most conventional methods for CVD and cancer biomarker detection such as microwell plate-based immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction often suffer from high costs, low test speeds, and complicated procedures...
December 17, 2017: Sensors
Eli G Hvastkovs, James F Rusling
Chemical toxicity has a serious impact on public health, and toxicity failures of drug candidates drive up drug development costs. Many in vitro bioassays exist for toxicity screening, and newer versions of these tend to be high throughput or high content assays, some of which rely on electrochemical detection. Toxicity very often results from metabolites of the chemicals we are exposed to, so it is important that assays feature metabolic conversion. Combining bioassays, computational predictions, and accurate chemical pathway elucidation presents our best chance for reliable toxicity prediction...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
Eric Y Liu, Sukwon Jung, David A Weitz, Hyunmin Yi, Chang-Hyung Choi
Chemically functional hydrogel microspheres hold significant potential in a range of applications including biosensing, drug delivery, and tissue engineering due to their high degree of flexibility in imparting a range of functions. In this work, we present a simple, efficient, and high-throughput capillary microfluidic approach for controlled fabrication of monodisperse and chemically functional hydrogel microspheres via formation of double emulsion drops with an ultra-thin oil shell as a sacrificial template...
December 15, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Mathilde Gondard, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Roxanne A Charles, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Emmanuel Albina, Sara Moutailler
Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods of significant importance to human and veterinary medicine. They transmit a vast array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths. Most epidemiological data on ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in the West Indies are limited to common livestock pathogens such as Ehrlichia ruminantium, Babesia spp. (i.e., B. bovis and B. bigemina), and Anaplasma marginale, and less information is available on companion animal pathogens. Of note, human tick-borne diseases (TBDs) remain almost completely uncharacterized in the West Indies...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Richard W Rambach, Preetika Biswas, Ashutosh Yadav, Piotr Garstecki, Thomas Franke
The selective manipulation and incubation of individual picoliter drops in high-throughput droplet based microfluidic devices still remains challenging. We used a surface acoustic wave (SAW) to induce a bubble in a 3D designed multi-trap polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device to manipulate multiple droplets and demonstrate the selection, incubation and on-demand release of aqueous droplets from a continuous oil flow. By controlling the position of the acoustic actuation, individual droplets are addressed and selectively released from a droplet stream of 460 drops per s...
December 13, 2017: Analyst
Bushra Tasadduq, Wilbur Lam, Alexander Alexeev, A Fatih Sarioglu, Todd Sulchek
High throughput size based separation and sorting of bioparticles and cells is critical to a variety of biomedical processing steps for medical diagnostics and pharmaceutical purification. Improving microfluidic size-based particle/cell sorting is a challenge to better address the need for generating more homogeneous subpopulations for study and use. We propose a novel advance to microfluidic sorting devices that uses three-dimensional focusing of the sample to optimally position particles to amplify the size-dependent differences in trajectories caused by differential secondary flows...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Amgad R Rezk, Shwathy Ramesan, Leslie Y Yeo
The microarray titre plate remains a fundamental workhorse in genomic, proteomic and cellomic analyses that underpin the drug discovery process. Nevertheless, liquid handling technologies for sample dispensing, processing and transfer have not progressed significantly beyond conventional robotic micropipetting techniques, which are not only at their fundamental sample size limit, but are also prone to mechanical failure and contamination. This is because alternative technologies to date suffer from a number of constraints, mainly their limitation to carry out only a single liquid operation such as dispensing or mixing at a given time, and their inability to address individual wells, particularly at high throughput...
December 12, 2017: Lab on a Chip
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