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High throughput microfluidics

Ji Liu, Yang Lan, Ziyi Yu, Cindy S Y Tan, Richard M Parker, Chris Abell, Oren A Scherman
Microencapsulation is a fundamental concept behind a wide range of daily applications ranging from paints, adhesives, and pesticides to targeted drug delivery, transport of vaccines, and self-healing concretes. The beauty of microfluidics to generate microcapsules arises from the capability of fabricating monodisperse and micrometer-scale droplets, which can lead to microcapsules/particles with fine-tuned control over size, shape, and hierarchical structure, as well as high reproducibility, efficient material usage, and high-throughput manipulation...
January 11, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ziqiu Tong, Angela Ivask, Keying Guo, Scott McCormick, Enzo Lombi, Craig Priest, Nicolas H Voelcker
This paper describes the use of crossed laminar flow microfluidics for the selective capture of multiple cell types on-chip aiming for high throughput screening of various cell treatment compounds. Parallel laminar streams containing different cell types were perfused and captured on a cell adhesion protein-functionalized reaction area. Thereafter, parallel streams containing cell treatment solutions were delivered orthogonally over the captured cells. Multiple cell types and a range of cell treatment conditions could therefore be assessed in a single experiment...
January 11, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Paulo A Garcia, Zhifei Ge, Laura E Kelley, Steven J Holcomb, Cullen R Buie
Synthetic biology holds great potential for addressing pressing challenges for mankind and our planet. One technical challenge in tapping into the full potential of synthetic biology is the low efficiency and low throughput of genetic transformation for many types of cells. In this paper, we discuss a novel microfluidic system for improving bacterial electrotransformation efficiency and throughput. Our microfluidic system is comprised of non-uniform constrictions in microchannels to facilitate high electric fields with relatively small applied voltages to induce electroporation...
January 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Dongfei Liu, Hongbo Zhang, Salvatore Cito, Jin Fan, Ermei M Mäkilä, Jarno J Salonen, Jouni Hirvonen, Tiina M Sikanen, David A Weitz, Hélder A Santos
Although a number of techniques exist for generating structured organic nanocomposites, it is still challenging to fabricate them in a controllable, yet universal and scalable manner. In this work, a microfluidic platform, exploiting superfast (milliseconds) time intervals between sequential nanoprecipitation processes, has been developed for high-throughput production of structured core/shell nanocomposites. The extremely short time interval between the sequential nanoprecipitation processes, facilitated by the multiplexed microfluidic design, allows us to solve the instability issues of nanocomposite cores without using any stabilizers...
January 6, 2017: Nano Letters
G Gopakumar, K Hari Babu, Deepak Mishra, Sai Siva Gorthi, Gorthi R K Sai Subrahmanyam
Cytopathologic testing is one of the most critical steps in the diagnosis of diseases, including cancer. However, the task is laborious and demands skill. Associated high cost and low throughput drew considerable interest in automating the testing process. Several neural network architectures were designed to provide human expertise to machines. In this paper, we explore and propose the feasibility of using deep-learning networks for cytopathologic analysis by performing the classification of three important unlabeled, unstained leukemia cell lines (K562, MOLT, and HL60)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Zhi Zhu, Chaoyong James Yang
Heterogeneity among individual molecules and cells has posed significant challenges to traditional bulk assays, due to the assumption of average behavior, which would lose important biological information in heterogeneity and result in a misleading interpretation. Single molecule/cell analysis has become an important and emerging field in biological and biomedical research for insights into heterogeneity between large populations at high resolution. Compared with the ensemble bulk method, single molecule/cell analysis explores the information on time trajectories, conformational states, and interactions of individual molecules/cells, all key factors in the study of chemical and biological reaction pathways...
December 28, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Zitian Chen, Peiyu Liao, Fangli Zhang, Mengcheng Jiang, Yusen Zhu, Yanyi Huang
Stable water-in-oil emulsion is essential to digital PCR and many other bioanalytical reactions that employ droplets as microreactors. We developed a novel technology to produce monodisperse emulsion droplets with high efficiency and high throughput using a bench-top centrifuge. Upon centrifugal spinning, the continuous aqueous phase is dispersed into monodisperse droplet jets in air through a micro-channel array (MiCA) and then submerged into oil as a stable emulsion. We performed dPCR reactions with a high dynamic range through the MiCA approach, and demonstrated that this cost-effective method not only eliminates the usage of complex microfluidic devices and control systems, but also greatly suppresses the loss of materials and cross-contamination...
December 22, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Yuchen Pan, Eric K Sackmann, Karolina Wypisniak, Michael Hornsby, Sammy S Datwani, Amy E Herr
High-quality immunoreagents enhance the performance and reproducibility of immunoassays and, in turn, the quality of both biological and clinical measurements. High quality recombinant immunoreagents are generated using antibody-phage display. One metric of antibody quality - the binding affinity - is quantified through the dissociation constant (KD) of each recombinant antibody and the target antigen. To characterize the KD of recombinant antibodies and target antigen, we introduce affinity electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) in a high-throughput format suitable for small volume samples...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
Richard Obexer, Alexei Godina, Xavier Garrabou, Peer R E Mittl, David Baker, Andrew D Griffiths, Donald Hilvert
Designing catalysts that achieve the rates and selectivities of natural enzymes is a long-standing goal in protein chemistry. Here, we show that an ultrahigh-throughput droplet-based microfluidic screening platform can be used to improve a previously optimized artificial aldolase by an additional factor of 30 to give a >10(9) rate enhancement that rivals the efficiency of class I aldolases. The resulting enzyme catalyses a reversible aldol reaction with high stereoselectivity and tolerates a broad range of substrates...
January 2017: Nature Chemistry
Muhsincan Sesen, Citsabehsan Devendran, Sean Malikides, Tuncay Alan, Adrian Neild
Mono-disperse droplet formation in microfluidic devices allows the rapid production of thousands of identical droplets and has enabled a wide range of chemical and biological studies through repeat tests performed at pico-to-nanoliter volume samples. However, it is exactly this efficiency of production which has hindered the ability to carefully control the location and quantity of the distribution of various samples on a chip - the key requirement for replicating micro well plate based high throughput screening in vastly reduced volumetric scales...
December 20, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Austin Rountree, Amit Karkamkar, Gamal Khalil, Albert Folch, Daniel L Cook, Ian R Sweet
OBJECTIVES: Microfluidic perfusion systems are used for assessing cell and tissue function while assuring cellular viability. Low perfusate flow rates, desired both for conserving reagents and for extending the number of channels and duration of experiments, conventionally depend on peristaltic pumps to maintain flow yet such pumps are unwieldy and scale poorly for high-throughput applications requiring 16 or more channels. The goal of the study was to develop a scalable multichannel microfluidics system capable of maintaining and assessing kinetic responses of small amounts of tissue to drugs or changes in test conditions...
December 2016: Heliyon
Junping Ma, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Changqing Yi, Cheuk-Wing Li
Nanoparticles have drawn significant attention in biomedicine due to their unique optical, thermal, magnetic and electrical properties which are highly related to their size and morphologies. Recently, microfluidic systems have shown promising potential to modulate critical stages in nanosynthesis, such as nucleation, growth and reaction conditions so that the size, size distribution, morphology, and reproducibility of nanoparticles are optimized in a high throughput manner. In this review, we put an emphasis on a decade of developments of microfluidic systems for engineering nanoparticles in various applications including imaging, biosensing, drug delivery, and theranostic applications...
December 19, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Arzu Özbey, Mehrdad Karimzadehkhouei, Sarp Akgönül, Devrim Gozuacik, Ali Koşar
A passive, continuous and size-dependent focusing technique enabled by "inertial microfluidics", which takes advantage of hydrodynamic forces, is implemented in this study to focus microparticles. The objective is to analyse the decoupling effects of inertial forces and Dean drag forces on microparticles of different sizes in curvilinear microchannels with inner radius of 800 μm and curvature angle of 280°, which have not been considered in the literature related to inertial microfluidics. This fundamental approach gives insight into the underlying physics of particle dynamics and offers continuous, high-throughput, label-free and parallelizable size-based particle separation...
December 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Joshua Heinemann, Kai Deng, Steve C C Shih, Jian Gao, Paul D Adams, Anup K Singh, Trent R Northen
Biological assays often require expensive reagents and tedious manipulations. These shortcomings can be overcome using digitally operated microfluidic devices that require reduced sample volumes to automate assays. One particular challenge is integrating bioassays with mass spectrometry based analysis. Towards this goal we have developed μNIMS, a highly sensitive and high throughput technique that integrates droplet microfluidics with nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS). Enzyme reactions are carried out in droplets that can be arrayed on discrete NIMS elements at defined time intervals for subsequent mass spectrometry analysis, enabling time resolved enzyme activity assay...
December 13, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Yih Yang Chen, Pamuditha N Silva, Abdullah Muhammed Syed, Shrey Sindhwani, Jonathan V Rocheleau, Warren C W Chan
On-chip imaging of intact three-dimensional tissues within microfluidic devices is fundamentally hindered by intratissue optical scattering, which impedes their use as tissue models for high-throughput screening assays. Here, we engineered a microfluidic system that preserves and converts tissues into optically transparent structures in less than 1 d, which is 20× faster than current passive clearing approaches. Accelerated clearing was achieved because the microfluidic system enhanced the exchange of interstitial fluids by 567-fold, which increased the rate of removal of optically scattering lipid molecules from the cross-linked tissue...
December 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tung-Yi Lin, Truong Do, Patrick Kwon, Peter B Lillehoj
Plastics are one of the most commonly used materials for fabricating microfluidic devices. While various methods exist for fabricating plastic microdevices, hot embossing offers several unique advantages including high throughput, excellent compatibility with most thermoplastics and low start-up costs. However, hot embossing requires metal or silicon molds that are fabricated using CNC milling or microfabrication techniques which are time consuming, expensive and required skilled technicians. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the fabrication of plastic microchannels using 3D printed metal molds...
December 9, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Nienke R Wevers, Remko van Vught, Karlijn J Wilschut, Arnaud Nicolas, Chiwan Chiang, Henriette L Lanz, Sebastiaan J Trietsch, Jos Joore, Paul Vulto
With great advances in the field of in vitro brain modelling, the challenge is now to implement these technologies for development and evaluation of new drug candidates. Here we demonstrate a method for culturing three-dimensional networks of spontaneously active neurons and supporting glial cells in a microfluidic platform. The high-throughput nature of the platform in combination with its compatibility with all standard laboratory equipment allows for parallel evaluation of compound effects.
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Kathryn M Tracy, Michael V Barich, Christina L Carver, Bradley M Luther, Amber T Krummel
The precision control of microfluidic technology was successfully interfaced with a 100 kHz two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectrometer to observe the sensitivity of the anion cyanate (OCN(-)) to the surrounding solvent environment in a high-throughput manner. Producing high-throughput 2D IR spectroscopy measurements allows us to observe the vibrational response of cyanate in mixed solvent environments. Changes in solvation environment around the cyanate ion yield frequency shifts from 2150 to 2165 cm(-1) when moving from a pure dimethylformamide solvent environment to a pure methanol environment...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Minggan Li, Dehi Joung, Janusz A Kozinski, Dae Kun Hwang
A microfluidic flow lithography approach was investigated to synthesize highly porous nonspherical particles and Janus particles in a one-step and high-throughput fashion. In this study, using common solvents as porogens, we were able to synthesize highly porous particles with different shapes using ultraviolet (UV) polymerization-induced phase separation in a microfluidic channel. We also studied the pore-forming process using operating parameters such as porogen type, porogen concentration, and UV intensity to tune the pore size and increase the pore size to submicron levels...
December 20, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Winnie W I Hui, Peiyong Jiang, Yu K Tong, Wing-Shan Lee, Yvonne K Y Cheng, Maria I New, Rezan A Kadir, K C Allen Chan, Tak Y Leung, Y M Dennis Lo, Rossa W K Chiu
BACKGROUND: Researchers have developed approaches for the noninvasive prenatal testing of single gene diseases. One approach that allows for the noninvasive assessment of both maternally and paternally inherited mutations involves the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in maternal plasma DNA with reference to parental haplotype information. In the past, parental haplotypes were resolved by complex experimental methods or inferential approaches, such as through the analysis of DNA from other affected family members...
December 8, 2016: Clinical Chemistry
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