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High throughput microfluidics

Claire M Ouimet, Cara I D'Amico, Robert T Kennedy
Many screening platforms are prone to assay interferences that can be avoided by directly measuring the target or enzymatic product. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microchip electrophoresis (MCE) have been applied in a variety of formats to drug discovery. CE provides direct detection of the product allowing for the identification of some forms of assay interference. The high efficiency, rapid separations, and low volume requirements make CE amenable to drug discovery. Areas Covered: This article describes advances in capillary electrophoresis throughput, sample introduction, and target assays as they pertain to drug discovery and screening...
December 2, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Tran Quang Hung, Wai Hoe Chin, Yi Sun, Anders Wolff, Dang Duong Bang
Solid-phase PCR (SP-PCR) has become increasingly popular for molecular diagnosis and there have been a few attempts to incorporate SP-PCR into lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. However, their applicability for on-line diagnosis is hindered by the lack of sensitive and portable on-chip optical detection technology. In this paper, we addressed this challenge by combining the SP-PCR with super critical angle fluorescence (SAF) microlens array embedded in a microchip. We fabricated miniaturized SAF microlens array as part of a microfluidic chamber in thermoplastic material and performed multiplexed SP-PCR directly on top of the SAF microlens array...
November 12, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Nikhil Bhalla, Doojin Lee, Shivani Sathish, Amy Q Shen
This work presents a novel dual-mode charge and refractive index sensitive device integrated with nanoplasmonic islands, for the first time, on insulator-semiconductor junctions. The developed nano-metal-insulator semiconductor (nMIS) sensor facilitates simultaneous detection of charge and mass changes on the nanoislands due to the binding of biomolecules. The charging of the nanoislands is traced by using the capacitive field-effect electrolyte-metal-insulator-semiconductor structure and the refractive index changes are quantified by measuring the change in the localized surface plasmon resonances of the nanoislands...
November 28, 2016: Nanoscale
Marie-Cécile Dufour, Noël Magnin, Bernard Dumas, Sophie Vergnes, Marie-France Corio-Costet
BACKGROUND: The fight against grapevine diseases due to biotrophic pathogens usually requires the massive use of chemical fungicides with harmful environmental effects. An alternative strategy could be the use of compounds able to stimulate plant immune responses which significantly limit the development of pathogens in laboratory conditions. However, the efficiency of this strategy in natura is still insufficient to be included in pest management programs. To understand and to improve the mode of action of plant defense stimulators in the field, it is essential to develop reliable tools that describe the resistance status of the plant upon treatment...
November 22, 2016: BMC Genomics
Wenguang Yang, Haibo Yu, Gongxin Li, Yuechao Wang, Lianqing Liu
3D hydrogel microstructures that encapsulate cells have been used in broad applications in microscale tissue engineering, personalized drug screening, and regenerative medicine. Recent technological advances in microstructure assembly, such as bioprinting, magnetic assembly, microfluidics, and acoustics, have enabled the construction of designed 3D tissue structures with spatially organized cells in vitro. However, a bottleneck exists that still hampers the application of microtissue structures, due to a lack of techniques that combined high-throughput fabrication and flexible assembly...
November 11, 2016: Small
Baoshan Guo, Cheng Lei, Takuro Ito, Yiyue Jiang, Yasuyuki Ozeki, Keisuke Goda
The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels is an important, but challenging goal for the world. As an alternative to liquid fossil fuels, algal biofuel is expected to play a key role in alleviating global warming since algae absorb atmospheric CO2 via photosynthesis. Among various algae for fuel production, Euglena gracilis is an attractive microalgal species as it is known to produce wax ester (good for biodiesel and aviation fuel) within lipid droplets. To date, while there exist many techniques for inducing microalgal cells to produce and accumulate lipid with high efficiency, few analytical methods are available for characterizing a population of such lipid-accumulated microalgae including E...
2016: PloS One
Xiangwei Zhao, Tengfei Ma, Zhaoyu Zeng, Shiya Zheng, Zhongze Gu
For multiplex bioassays, one effective strategy is to employ microfluidic chips based on an array of photonic crystal beads (PCBs) that are encoded by their characteristic reflection spectrum (CRS). In this paper, we report a hyperspectral imaging system and algorithms for the high throughput decoding of a PCB array and subsequent detection. The results showed that the decoding accuracy of up to ∼500 PCBs is 98.56% with an excellent ability to extract low-intensity fluorescence intensities. The results also demonstrated hyperspectral imaging techniques which can simultaneously obtain both spatial and spectral information as powerful tools in the analysis of multiplex bioassays or microfluidic chips...
November 11, 2016: Analyst
Earu Banoth, Vamshi Krishna Kasula, Sai Siva Gorthi
Fast and automated diagnostic devices are bound to play a significant role in the on-going efforts toward malaria eradication. In this article, we present the realization of a portable device for quantitative malaria diagnostic testing at the point-of-care. The device measures optical absorbance (at λ=405  nm) of single cells flowing through a custom-designed microfluidic channel. The device incorporates the required functionality to align the microfluidic channel with the optical interrogation region...
October 20, 2016: Applied Optics
Xiwei Huang, Yu Jiang, Xu Liu, Hang Xu, Zhi Han, Hailong Rong, Haiping Yang, Mei Yan, Hao Yu
A lensless blood cell counting system integrating microfluidic channel and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is a promising technique to miniaturize the conventional optical lens based imaging system for point-of-care testing (POCT). However, such a system has limited resolution, making it imperative to improve resolution from the system-level using super-resolution (SR) processing. Yet, how to improve resolution towards better cell detection and recognition with low cost of processing resources and without degrading system throughput is still a challenge...
November 2, 2016: Sensors
Xinjie Zhang, Zhixian Zhu, Nan Xiang, Zhonghua Ni
Pressure fluctuations, which invariably occur in microfluidic systems, usually result in the unstable fluid delivery in microfluidic channels. In this work, a novel microfluidic gas damper is proposed and applied for providing stable fluid-driving pressures. Then, a pressure-driven flow setup is constructed to investigate the gas damping characteristics of our damper. Since the pressure-driven flow setup functions as a resistor-capacitor low-pass filter, the damper significantly decreases the amplitude of the input pressures via self-regulating its pneumatic resistance...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
N Bhattacharjee, L F Horowitz, A Folch
Concerns over biosafety, cost, and carrying capacity of viral vectors have accelerated research into physical techniques for gene delivery such as electroporation and mechanoporation. Advances in microfabrication have made it possible to create high electric fields over microscales, resulting in more efficient DNA delivery and higher cell viability. Continuous-flow microfluidic methods are typically more suitable for cellular therapies where a large number of cells need to be transfected under sterile conditions...
October 17, 2016: Applied Physics Letters
Karthick Mani, Tsung-Chun Chang Chien, Bivas Panigrahi, Chia-Yuan Chen
The zebrafish is a powerful genetic model organism especially in the biomedical chapter for new drug discovery and development. The genetic toolbox which this vertebrate possesses opens a new window to investigate the etiology of human diseases with a high degree genetic similarity. Still, the requirements of laborious and time-consuming of contemporary zebrafish processing assays limit the procedure in carrying out such genetic screen at high throughput. Here, a zebrafish control scheme was initiated which includes the design and validation of a microfluidic platform to significantly increase the throughput and performance of zebrafish larvae manipulation using the concept of artificial cilia actuation...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fabrice Gielen, Raphaelle Hours, Stephane Emond, Martin Fischlechner, Ursula Schell, Florian Hollfelder
Ultrahigh-throughput screening, in which members of enzyme libraries compartmentalized in water-in-oil emulsion droplets are assayed, has emerged as a powerful format for directed evolution and functional metagenomics but is currently limited to fluorescence readouts. Here we describe a highly efficient microfluidic absorbance-activated droplet sorter (AADS) that extends the range of assays amenable to this approach. Using this module, microdroplets can be sorted based on absorbance readout at rates of up to 300 droplets per second (i...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Haihui Shen, Bo Zhang, Huiyan Xu, Yue Sun, Qiwang Wu, Hong Shen, Yingchun Liu
Some natural heterocyclic alkaloids containing planar group show potential to complex with specific promoter region of protooncogene for stabilizing the G-quadruplex (G4) structure which nowadays promises to be a target in anticancer drug design. However, in view of the polymorphic characteristics and structural complexity of heterocyclic alkaloids, it is desirable to develop high-throughput and low-consumption approach for anticancer drug screening. In this paper, an intensive study on alkaloid ligand/G4 DNA interaction has been conducted, demonstrating that the end-stacking interaction is the favorable binding mode between the oncogene-related Pu22 G4 DNA and the heterocyclic alkaloid ligand...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
B Miller, M Jimenez, H Bridle
Inertial focusing is a microfluidic based separation and concentration technology that has expanded rapidly in the last few years. Throughput is high compared to other microfluidic approaches although sample volumes have typically remained in the millilitre range. Here we present a strategy for achieving rapid high volume processing with stacked and cascaded inertial focusing systems, allowing for separation and concentration of particles with a large size range, demonstrated here from 30 μm-300 μm. The system is based on curved channels, in a novel toroidal configuration and a stack of 20 devices has been shown to operate at 1 L/min...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
Wenting Zhang, Woo Y Lee, Jenny Zilberberg
We described here the manufacturing and implementation of two prototype perfusion culture devices designed primarily for the cultivation of difficult-to-preserve primary patient-derived multiple myeloma cells (MMC). The first device consists of an osteoblast (OSB)-derived 3D tissue scaffold constructed in a perfused microfluidic environment. The second platform is a 96-well plate-modified perfusion culture device that can be utilized to reconstruct several tissue and tumor microenvironments utilizing both primary human and murine cells...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Shuyu Wang, Shifeng Yu, Michael S Siedler, Peter M Ihnat, Dana I Filoti, Ming Lu, Lei Zuo
We developed an ultrasensitive micro-DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) for liquid protein sample characterization. This design integrated vanadium oxide thermistors and flexible polymer substrates with microfluidics chambers to achieve a high sensitivity (6 V/W), low thermal conductivity (0.7 mW/K), high power resolutions (40 nW), and well-defined liquid volume (1 μl) calorimeter sensor in a compact and cost-effective way. We further demonstrated the performance of the sensor with lysozyme unfolding...
October 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Weiqian Jiang, Mingqiang Li, Zaozao Chen, Kam W Leong
Regeneration of diseased tissue is one of the foremost concerns for millions of patients who suffer from tissue damage each year. Local delivery of cell-laden hydrogels offers an attractive approach for tissue repair. However, due to the typical macroscopic size of these cell constructs, the encapsulated cells often suffer from poor nutrient exchange. These issues can be mitigated by incorporating cells into microscopic hydrogels, or microgels, whose large surface-to-volume ratio promotes efficient mass transport and enhanced cell-matrix interactions...
November 15, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Alyssa A Appel, Veronica Ibarra, Sami I Somo, Jeffery C Larson, Alfred B Garson, Huifeng Guan, John Patrick McQuilling, Zhong Zhong, Mark A Anastasio, Emmanuel C Opara, Eric M Brey
Transplantation of functional islets encapsulated in stable biomaterials has the potential to cure Type I diabetes. However, the success of these materials requires the ability to quantitatively evaluate their stability. Imaging techniques that enable monitoring of biomaterial performance are critical to further development in the field. X-ray phase-contrast (XPC) imaging is an emerging class of X-ray techniques that have shown significant promise for imaging biomaterial and soft tissue structures. In this study, XPC imaging techniques are shown to enable three dimensional (3D) imaging and evaluation of islet volume, alginate hydrogel structure, and local soft tissue features ex vivo...
November 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
S Sarkar, P Sabhachandani, D Stroopinsky, K Palmer, N Cohen, J Rosenblatt, D Avigan, T Konry
Cell-cell communication mediates immune responses to physiological stimuli at local and systemic levels. Intercellular communication occurs via a direct contact between cells as well as by secretory contact-independent mechanisms. However, there are few existing methods that allow quantitative resolution of contact-dependent and independent cellular processes in a rapid, precisely controlled, and dynamic format. This study utilizes a high-throughput microfluidic droplet array platform to analyze cell-cell interaction and effector functions at single cell level...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
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