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High throughput microfluidics

Hui Xia, Briony C Strachan, Sean C Gifford, Sergey S Shevkoplyas
Leukocyte reduction of donated blood products substantially reduces the risk of a number of transfusion-related complications. Current 'leukoreduction' filters operate by trapping leukocytes within specialized filtration material, while allowing desired blood components to pass through. However, the continuous release of inflammatory cytokines from the retained leukocytes, as well as the potential for platelet activation and clogging, are significant drawbacks of conventional 'dead end' filtration. To address these limitations, here we demonstrate our newly-developed 'controlled incremental filtration' (CIF) approach to perform high-throughput microfluidic removal of leukocytes from platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in a continuous flow regime...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Arvind Y M Sundaram, Timothy Hughes, Shea Biondi, Nathalie Bolduc, Sarah K Bowman, Andrew Camilli, Yap C Chew, Catherine Couture, Andrew Farmer, John P Jerome, David W Lazinski, Andrew McUsic, Xu Peng, Kamran Shazand, Feng Xu, Robert Lyle, Gregor D Gilfillan
BACKGROUND: ChIP-seq is the primary technique used to investigate genome-wide protein-DNA interactions. As part of this procedure, immunoprecipitated DNA must undergo "library preparation" to enable subsequent high-throughput sequencing. To facilitate the analysis of biopsy samples and rare cell populations, there has been a recent proliferation of methods allowing sequencing library preparation from low-input DNA amounts. However, little information exists on the relative merits, performance, comparability and biases inherent to these procedures...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Margherita Bassu, Peter Holik, Sam Schmitz, Siegfried Steltenkamp, Thomas P Burg
Nanofluidic devices exhibit unique, tunable transport properties that may lead to breakthroughs in molecular separations and sensing. However, the throughput of these devices is orders of magnitude too small for the processing of macroscopic samples. Here we overcome this problem by combining two technological innovations. First, nanofluidic channels are made as vertical slits connecting the two sides of a silicon nitride membrane. Arbitrary arrays of such nanoslits down to 15 nm wide with <6 Å uniformity were made by merging the idea of templating with chemical mechanical polishing to create a scalable, nanolithography-free wafer level process...
October 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Wei-Tao Wu, Andrea Blue Martin, Alberto Gandini, Nadine Aubry, Mehrdad Massoudi, James F Antaki
This study is motivated by the development of a blood cell filtration device for removal of malaria-infected, parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs). The blood was modeled as a multi-component fluid using the computational fluid dynamics discrete element method (CFD-DEM), wherein plasma was treated as a Newtonian fluid and the red blood cells (RBCs) were modeled as soft-sphere solid particles which move under the influence of drag, collisions with other RBCs, and a magnetic force. The CFD-DEM model was first validated by a comparison with experimental data from Han et al...
2016: Microfluidics and Nanofluidics
Alexander L Weldon, Kedar Joshi, Alexander F Routh, James F Gilchrist
Rapid convective deposition is used to assemble nanoparticle coatings from suspension, with controllable thickness. Varying film thickness generates stress-induced linear cracks with highly monodisperse spacing. Film thickness is controlled through mechanical means, suspension volume fraction, and the use of applied thermal gradients. These cracks extend in the deposition direction, and a uniform crack spacing from 2 to 160μm is observed. The nanoparticle film thickness is the relevant length scale for hydrodynamic flow, and films will crack with this spacing, in a characteristic manner to minimize the system energy and capillary stresses...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Chi K Tang, Abhay Vaze, Min Shen, James F Rusling
Microchip-based microfluidic electrochemical arrays hold great promise for fast, high-throughput multiplexed detection of cancer biomarker proteins at low cost per assay using relatively simple instrumentation. Here we describe an inexpensive high-throughput electrochemical array featuring 32 individually addressable microelectrodes that is further multiplexed with an 8-port manifold to provide 256 sensors. The gold electrode arrays were fabricated by wet-etching commercial gold compact discs (CD-R) followed by patterned insulation...
August 26, 2016: ACS Sensors
Jacob Barlow, Kevin Gozzi, Chase P Kelley, Benjamin M Geilich, Thomas J Webster, Yunrong Chai, Srinivas Sridhar, Anne L van de Ven
Encapsulating bacteria within constrained microenvironments can promote the manifestation of specialized behaviors. Using double-emulsion droplet-generating microfluidic synthesis, live Bacillus subtilis bacteria were encapsulated in a semi-permeable membrane composed of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactic acid) (mPEG-PDLLA). This polymer membrane was sufficiently permeable to permit exponential bacterial growth, metabolite-induced gene expression, and rapid biofilm growth. The biodegradable microparticles retained structural integrity for several days and could be successfully degraded with time or sustained bacterial activity...
October 15, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Philippe Jacques, Max Béchet, Muriel Bigan, Delphine Caly, Gabrielle Chataigné, François Coutte, Christophe Flahaut, Egon Heuson, Valérie Leclère, Didier Lecouturier, Vincent Phalip, Rozenn Ravallec, Pascal Dhulster, Rénato Froidevaux
Innovations in novel enzyme discoveries impact upon a wide range of industries for which biocatalysis and biotransformations represent a great challenge, i.e., food industry, polymers and chemical industry. Key tools and technologies, such as bioinformatics tools to guide mutant library design, molecular biology tools to create mutants library, microfluidics/microplates, parallel miniscale bioreactors and mass spectrometry technologies to create high-throughput screening methods and experimental design tools for screening and optimization, allow to evolve the discovery, development and implementation of enzymes and whole cells in (bio)processes...
October 13, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Zongjie Wang, Roya Samanipour, Mohamed Gamaleldin, Kabilan Sakthivel, Keekyoung Kim
Microdroplets have been widely used in various biomedical applications. During droplet generation, parameters are manually adjusted to achieve the desired size of droplets. This process is tedious and time-consuming. In this paper, we present a fully automated system for controlling the size of droplets to optimize droplet generation parameters in a microfluidic flow-focusing device. The developed system employed a novel image processing program to measure the diameter of droplets from recorded video clips and correspondingly adjust the flow rates of syringe pumps to obtain the required diameter of droplets...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Sudip Mondal, Evan Hegarty, Chris Martin, Sertan Kutal Gökçe, Navid Ghorashian, Adela Ben-Yakar
Next generation drug screening could benefit greatly from in vivo studies, using small animal models such as Caenorhabditis elegans for hit identification and lead optimization. Current in vivo assays can operate either at low throughput with high resolution or with low resolution at high throughput. To enable both high-throughput and high-resolution imaging of C. elegans, we developed an automated microfluidic platform. This platform can image 15 z-stacks of ∼4,000 C. elegans from 96 different populations using a large-scale chip with a micron resolution in 16 min...
October 11, 2016: Nature Communications
Zibo Li, Jianfu Heng, Jinhua Yan, Xinwu Guo, Lili Tang, Ming Chen, Limin Peng, Yepeng Wu, Shouman Wang, Zhi Xiao, Zhongping Deng, Lizhong Dai, Jun Wang
PURPOSE: Gene-specific methylation and expression have shown biological and clinical importance for breast cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Integrated analysis of gene methylation and gene expression may identify genes associated with biology mechanism and clinical outcome of breast cancer and aid in clinical management. METHODS: Using high-throughput microfluidic quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression profiles of 48 candidate genes in 96 Chinese breast cancer patients and investigated their correlation with gene methylation and associations with breast cancer clinical parameters...
November 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
E Amstad, M Chemama, M Eggersdorfer, L R Arriaga, M P Brenner, D A Weitz
Monodisperse drops with diameters between 20 μm and 200 μm can be used to produce particles or capsules for many applications such as for cosmetics, food, and biotechnology. Drops composed of low viscosity fluids can be conveniently made using microfluidic devices. However, the throughput of microfluidic devices is limited and scale-up, achieved by increasing the number of devices run in parallel, can compromise the narrow drop-size distribution. In this paper, we present a microfluidic device, the millipede device, which forms drops through a static instability such that the fluid volume that is pinched off is the same every time a drop forms...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Sanya Siddiqui, Nathalie Tufenkji, Christopher Moraes
Microfluidic technologies enable unique studies in the field of microbiology to facilitate our understanding of microorganisms. Using miniaturized and high-throughput experimental capabilities in microfluidics, devices with controlled microenvironments can be created for microbial studies in research fields such as healthcare and green energy. In this research highlight, we describe recently developed tools for diagnostic assays, high-throughput mutant screening, and the study of human disease development as well as a future outlook on microbes for renewable energy...
September 12, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Wenming Liu, Chang Tian, Mingming Yan, Lei Zhao, Chao Ma, Tianbao Li, Juan Xu, Jinyi Wang
The construction of a micro-platform capable of microscale control for continuous, dynamic, and high-throughput biomimetic tumor manipulation and analysis plays a significant role in biological and clinical research. Here, we introduce a pneumatic microstructure-based microfluidic platform for versatile three-dimensional (3D) tumor cultures. The manipulative potential of pneumatic microstructures in a fabrication-optimized microfluidic device can be stimulated to achieve ultra-repetitive (tens of thousands of times) and persistent (over several months) microfluidic control...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
D Olvera-Trejo, L F Velásquez-García
This study reports the first MEMS multiplexed coaxial electrospray sources in the literature. Coaxial electrospraying is a microencapsulation technology based on electrohydrodynamic jetting of two immiscible liquids, which allows precise control with low size variation of the geometry of the core-shell particles it generates, which is of great importance in numerous biomedical and engineering applications, e.g., drug delivery and self-healing composites. By implementing monolithic planar arrays of miniaturized coaxial electrospray emitters that work uniformly in parallel, the throughput of the compound microdroplet source is greatly increased, making the microencapsulation technology compatible with low-cost commercial applications...
October 18, 2016: Lab on a Chip
C Wyatt Shields Iv, Jeffrey L Wang, Korine A Ohiri, Eric D Essoyan, Benjamin B Yellen, Andrew J Armstrong, Gabriel P López
Liquid biopsies hold enormous promise for the next generation of medical diagnoses. At the forefront of this effort, many are seeking to capture, enumerate and analyze circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a means to prognosticate and develop individualized treatments for cancer. Capturing these rare cells, however, represents a major engineering challenge due to their low abundance, morphology and heterogeneity. A variety of microfluidic tools have been developed to isolate CTCs from drawn blood samples; however, few of these approaches offer a means to separate and analyze cells in an integrated system...
September 21, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Hashem Etayash, M F Khan, Kamaljit Kaur, Thomas Thundat
In the fight against drug-resistant bacteria, accurate and high-throughput detection is essential. Here, a bimaterial microcantilever with an embedded microfluidic channel with internal surfaces chemically or physically functionalized with receptors selectively captures the bacteria passing through the channel. Bacterial adsorption inside the cantilever results in changes in the resonance frequency (mass) and cantilever deflection (adsorption stress). The excitation of trapped bacteria using infrared radiation (IR) causes the cantilever to deflect in proportion to the infrared absorption of the bacteria, providing a nanomechanical infrared spectrum for selective identification...
October 4, 2016: Nature Communications
Zhuofa Chen, Weizhi Li, Gihoon Choi, Xiaonan Yang, Jun Miao, Liwang Cui, Weihua Guan
Microfluidics-based drug-screening systems have enabled efficient and high-throughput drug screening, but their routine uses in ordinary labs are limited due to the complexity involved in device fabrication and system setup. In this work, we report an easy-to-use and low-cost arbitrarily accessible 3D microfluidic device that can be easily adopted by various labs to perform combinatorial assays for high-throughput drug screening. The device is capable of precisely performing automatic and simultaneous reagent loading and aliquoting tasks and performing multistep assays with arbitrary sequences...
2016: Sensors
Edmond Walsh, Alexander Feuerborn, Peter R Cook
Droplet-interface bilayers (DIBs) have applications in disciplines ranging from biology to computing. We present a method for forming them manually using a Teflon tube attached to a syringe pump; this method is simple enough it should be accessible to those without expertise in microfluidics. It exploits the properties of interfaces between three immiscible liquids, and uses fluid flow through the tube to pack together drops coated with lipid monolayers to create bilayers at points of contact. It is used to create functional nanopores in DIBs composed of phosphocholine using the protein α-hemolysin (αHL), to demonstrate osmotically-driven mass transfer of fluid across surfactant-based DIBs, and to create arrays of DIBs...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Laura Iannetti, Giovanna D'Urso, Gioacchino Conoscenti, Elena Cutrì, Rocky S Tuan, Manuela T Raimondi, Riccardo Gottardi, Paolo Zunino
Next generation bioreactors are being developed to generate multiple human cell-based tissue analogs within the same fluidic system, to better recapitulate the complexity and interconnection of human physiology [1, 2]. The effective development of these devices requires a solid understanding of their interconnected fluidics, to predict the transport of nutrients and waste through the constructs and improve the design accordingly. In this work, we focus on a specific model of bioreactor, with multiple input/outputs, aimed at generating osteochondral constructs, i...
2016: PloS One
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