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Cancer therapy

Laleh Mahmoudi, Shohreh Farshad, Mehrdad Seddigh, Paria Mahmoudi, Fardad Ejtehadi, Ramin Niknam
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common gastric pathogen which is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. It has worldwide distribution with higher incidence in developing countries. Gemifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic with documented in vitro activity against H pylori. Considering that there is no clinical data to verify gemifloxacin efficacy in H pylori eradication, this pilot clinical trial was designed. METHODS: This prospective pilot study was performed during February 2014 to February 2015...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mary McGunigal, Jerry Liu, Tamara Kalir, Manjeet Chadha, Vishal Gupta
OBJECTIVES: High-risk histology including UPSC, CC, and high-grade (G3) endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) have a worse prognosis compared to G1-2 EAC. It is unknown whether G3EAC outcomes are more similar to UPSC/CC or to G1-2 EAC. The purpose of this study was to compare overall survival (OS) among UPSC, CC, and G1-3 EAC, for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages I to III. METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients diagnosed with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (1988 classification) Stage I-III UPSC, CC, and EAC from 1998 to 2012 who underwent surgery as definitive treatment...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Lea Bottlaender, Marie Perier-Muzet, Véronique Lapras, Luc Thomas, Stephane Dalle
BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib and dabrafenib) are nowadays commonly prescribed in BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma and allow improvement of the overall survival and progression-free survival. They are, however, accompanied by many adverse effects which mainly affect the skin. We observed on computed tomographic scans in three different patients after 3 months of treatment, the onset of osteosclerotic lesions. In parallel, the computed tomographic scans showed a significant reduction in all of the previously identified metastases in all patients...
October 18, 2016: Melanoma Research
Gino A Vena, Maria Concetta Fargnoli, Nicoletta Cassano, Giuseppe Argenziano
The sudden eruption of melanocytic nevi has been associated with a number of conditions, such as bullous skin diseases, immunodeficiency and immunosuppression. The exact mechanisms leading to the development of eruptive melanocytic nevi are unknown. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to review the literature concerning eruptive melanocytic nevi following the administration of immunosuppressive drugs and other medications. Expert opinion: The literature regarding the development of eruptive nevi in association with pharmacological therapies includes a relatively low number of reports...
October 19, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Ruijie D Teo, Jae Youn Hwang, John Termini, Zeev Gross, Harry B Gray
Corroles are exceptionally promising platforms for the development of agents for simultaneous cancer-targeting imaging and therapy. Depending on the element chelated by the corrole, these theranostic agents may be tuned primarily for diagnostic or therapeutic function. Versatile synthetic methodologies allow for the preparation of amphipolar derivatives, which form stable noncovalent conjugates with targeting biomolecules. These conjugates can be engineered for imaging and targeting as well as therapeutic function within one theranostic assembly...
October 19, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Gunther Boysen, Semini Sumanasuriya, George Seed, Angelo M De Marzo, Johann de Bono
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a clinically heterogeneous disease and current treatment strategies are based largely on anatomical and pathological parameters. In the recent past, several DNA sequencing studies of primary and advanced PCa have revealed recurrent patterns of genomic aberrations that expose mechanisms of resistance to available therapies and potential new drug targets. Suppression of androgen receptor (AR) signalling is the cornerstone of advanced prostate cancer treatment. Genomic aberrations of the androgen receptor or alternative splicing of its mRNA are increasingly recognized as biomarkers of resistance to AR-targeted therapy such as abiraterone or enzalutamide...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Marco Moschini, Vidit Sharma, Giorgio Gandaglia, Paolo Dell'Oglio, Nicola Fossati, Emanuele Zaffuto, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti, R Jeffrey Karnes
INTRODUCTION: The literature is conflicting on the long-term utility of adjuvant therapy after radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer (PCa) demonstrating seminal vesicle invasion (pT3b; SVI). METHODS: Patients with SVI during RP and pelvic lymph node dissection at two major referral centers from 1986-2014 were included. Kaplan-Meier analyses and multivariable Cox regressions were performed to determine if adjuvant radiotherapy (aRT) and adjuvant hormonal therapy (aHT) were predictors of biochemical recurrence, cancer specific mortality (CSM) and overall mortality (OM)...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
Jay P Reddy, Curtis A Pettaway, Lawrence B Levy, Lance C Pagliaro, Pheroze Tamboli, Priya Rao, Isuru Jayaratna, Karen E Hoffman
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with regional recurrence (RR) following lymphadenectomy for penile cancer in order to determine which patients might benefit from adjuvant therapy. MATERIALS/METHODS: Men who underwent lymphadenectomy for penile squamous cell carcinoma from 1977-2014 were identified from an institutional database. Kaplan-Meier curves estimated recurrence-free survival (RFS) calculated from the date of lymphadenectomy. Cox regression models evaluated the association between RFS and patient and tumor characteristics...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
Duncan C Gilbert, Trinh Duong, Howard G Kynaston, Abdulla A Alhasso, Fay H Cafferty, Stuart D Rosen, Subramanian Kanaga-Sundaram, Sanjay Dixit, Marc Laniado, Sanjeev Madaan, Gerald Collins, Alvan Pope, Andrew Welland, Matthew Nankivell, Richard Wassersug, Mahesh Kb Parmar, Ruth E Langley, Paul D Abel
OBJECTIVES: To compare quality of life (QoL) outcomes at 6 months between men with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) receiving either transdermal oestradiol (tE2) or LHRH agonists (LHRHa) for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Men with locally advanced or metastatic PCa participating in an ongoing randomised, multi-centre UK trial comparing tE2 versus LHRHa for ADT were enrolled into a QoL sub-study. tE2 was delivered via 3 or 4 transcutaneous patches containing 100mcg of oestradiol/24 hours...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
Ji Luo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
Hongdo Do, Daniel Cameron, Ramyar Molania, Bibhusal Thapa, Gareth Rivalland, Paul L Mitchell, Carmel Murone, Thomas John, Anthony Papenfuss, Alexander Dobrovic
Identifying circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) for monitoring of cancer therapy is dependent on the development of readily designed, sensitive cancer-specific DNA markers. Genomic rearrangements that are present in the vast majority of cancers provide such markers.Tumour DNA isolated from two fresh-frozen lung tumours underwent whole genome sequencing. Genomic rearrangements were detected using a new computational algorithm, GRIDSS. Four genomic rearrangements from each tumour were chosen for further study using rearrangement-specific primers...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Stefan Holdenrieder
Liquid profiling is a traditional concept in laboratory diagnostics using patterns of blood-derived biochemical molecules for disease detection and characterization. Beyond protein and cellular parameters, molecular biomarkers at the DNA, RNA and miRNA level have been developed as promising diagnostic tools in metabolic and malignant diseases as new technologies for ultrasensitive profiling of nucleic acids in blood and body fluids became available. In cancer disease, they are successfully applied for the stratification of patients for individually tailored therapies, treatment monitoring and the sensitive detection of minimal residual disease...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zhen-Yao Chen, Xin Chen, Zhao-Xia Wang
MicroRNAs are a large group of non-coding RNAs that have emerged as regulators of various biological processes, especially carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Recent evidence has shown that microRNA-196a (miR-196a) is upregulated in most types of tumors and involved in multiple biological processes via translational inhibition and mRNA cleavage, such as cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, mostly functioning as an oncogene. Dysregulation of miR-196a promotes oncogenesis and tumor progression. In this review, we summarize the upstream regulators, target genes, signaling pathways, and single nucleotide polymorphisms of miR-196a, which collectively affect cell proliferation, migration, and invasion...
October 18, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Jun-Feng Wang, Hui Li, Hua Xiong, He Huang, Yan-Mei Zou
The influence of the position and radiation technique on the organs at risk (OARs) in radiotherapy of rectal cancer was evaluated. The relationship between the volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute bowel toxicity was determined. A total of 97 cases of rectal cancer were retrospectively randomized to receive radiotherapy with the designated treatment positions and radiation plans. Among 64 patients in the supine position, 32 patients were given three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCR) and 32 patients were subjected to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Wen-Juan Zhou, Zhen-Ni Luo, Chang-Min Tang, Xiao-Xu Zou, Lu Zhao, Peng-Qian Fang
The improvement of antibiotic rational use in China was studied by usage analysis of combination antibiotic therapy for type I incisions in 244 hospitals. Five kinds of hospitals, including general hospital, maternity hospital, children's hospital, stomatological hospital and cancer hospital, from 30 provinces were surveyed. A systematic random sampling strategy was employed to select outpatient prescriptions and inpatient cases in 2011 and 2012. A total of 29 280 outpatient prescriptions and 73 200 inpatient cases from 244 hospitals in each year were analyzed...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Xin Long, Jian Wang, Jian-Ping Zhao, Hui-Fang Liang, Peng Zhu, Qi Cheng, Qian Chen, Yan-Hui Wu, Zhan-Guo Zhang, Bi-Xiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Chen
The function of the spleen in tumor development has been investigated for years. The relationship of the spleen with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a huge health burden worldwide, however, remains unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effect of splenectomy on the development of HCC and the possible mechanism. Mouse hepatic carcinoma lines H22 and Hepa1-6 as well as BALB/c and C57 mice were used to establish orthotopic and metastatic mouse models of liver cancer. Mice were divided into four groups, including control group, splenectomy control group (S group), tumor group (T group) and tumor plus splenectomy group (T+S group)...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
M E Cazzaniga, L Cortesi, A Ferzi, L Scaltriti, F Cicchiello, M Ciccarese, S Della Torre, F Villa, M Giordano, C Verusio, M Nicolini, A R Gambaro, L Zanlorenzi, E Biraghi, L Legramandi, E Rulli
PURPOSE: The VICTOR-1 study demonstrated that the all-oral metronomic combination of vinorelbine and capecitabine is highly active and well tolerated in hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative patients. The VICTOR-2 study was designed to confirm these results. METHODS: Patients received mVNR 40 mg three times a week and mCAPE 500 mg three times a day, continuously. The primary endpoint was the clinical benefit rate (CBR); secondary endpoints were toxicity, objective response rate (ORR), and progression-free survival (PFS)...
October 17, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Andreas Maus, Godefridus J Peters
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common type of primary brain tumor. It has a devastating prognosis with a 2-year-overall survival rate of only 26 % after standard treatment, which includes surgery, radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Also lower grade gliomas are difficult to treat, because they diffusely spread into the brain, where extensive removal of tissue is critical. Better understanding of the cancer's biology is a key for the development of more effective therapy approaches...
October 17, 2016: Amino Acids
C-Y Hsu, P-R Chen, H-J Chen, J-A Liang
The present study investigated the association between radical prostatectomy (RP) and the risk of herpes zoster (HZ). Male patients aged ≥ 40 years and diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) between 2000 and 2005 were included in this study. Patients who underwent RP for the first time during 2000-2006 were included in the RP group. Randomly selected individuals from among the remaining patients with PCa who did not undergo RP were included in the non-RP group. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to analyze the association between PCa and HZ...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Satoshi Nagayama, Suguru Hasegawa, Koya Hida, Kenji Kawada, Etsuro Hatano, Kojiro Nakamura, Satoru Seo, Kojiro Taura, Kentaro Yasuchika, Takashi Matsuo, Masazumi Zaima, Akiyoshi Kanazawa, Hiroaki Terajima, Masaharu Tada, Yukihito Adachi, Ryuta Nishitai, Dai Manaka, Tsunehiro Yoshimura, Koji Doi, Takahiro Horimatsu, Akira Mitsuyoshi, Kenichi Yoshimura, Miyuki Niimi, Shigemi Matsumoto, Yoshiharu Sakai, Shinji Uemoto
BACKGROUND: Although liver resection combined with preoperative chemotherapy is expected to improve outcomes of patients with resectable colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM), there is as yet insufficient clinical evidence supporting the efficacy of preoperative systemic chemotherapy. The aim of this phase II study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of preoperative FOLFOX systemic chemotherapy for patients with initially resectable CRLM. METHODS: A prospective multi-institutional phase II study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of preoperative chemotherapy for resectable CRLM (ClinicalTrials...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
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