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Biophysic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937829/nonlinearity-coherence-and-complexity-biophysical-aspects-related-to-health-and-disease
#1
Alberto Foletti, Larissa Brizhik
Biological organisms are complex open dissipative systems whose dynamical stability is sustained due to the exchange of matter, energy and information. Dynamical stability occurs through a number of mechanisms that sustain efficient adaptive dynamics. Such properties of living matter can be the consequence of a self-consistent state of matter and electromagnetic field (EMF). Based on the soliton model of charge transport in redox processes, we describe a possible mechanism of the origin of endogenous EMF and coherence...
September 22, 2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935446/mitochondrial-adaptation-in-steatotic-mice
#2
Claudia Einer, Simon Hohenester, Ralf Wimmer, Lena Wottke, Renate Artmann, Sabine Schulz, Christian Gosmann, Alisha Simmons, Christin Leitzinger, Carola Eberhagen, Sabine Borchard, Sabine Schmitt, Stefanie M Hauck, Christine von Toerne, Martin Jastroch, Ellen Walheim, Christian Rust, Alexander L Gerbes, Bastian Popper, Doris Mayr, Max Schnurr, Angelika M Vollmar, Gerald Denk, Hans Zischka
Western lifestyle-associated malnutrition causes steatosis that may progress to liver inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a key factor in promoting this disease. Here we have molecularly, biochemically and biophysically analyzed mitochondria from steatotic wild type and immune-compromised mice fed a Western diet (WD) - enriched in saturated fatty acids (SFAs). WD-mitochondria demonstrated lipidomic changes, a decreased mitochondrial ATP production capacity and a significant sensitivity to calcium...
September 18, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935239/te-dependent-diffusion-imaging-teddi-distinguishes-between-compartmental-t2-relaxation-times
#3
Jelle Veraart, Dmitry S Novikov, Els Fieremans
Biophysical modeling of macroscopic diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI) signal in terms of microscopic cellular parameters holds the promise of quantifying the integrity of white matter. Unfortunately, even fairly simple multi-compartment models of proton diffusion in the white matter do not provide a unique, biophysically plausible solution. Here we report a nontrivial diffusion MRI signal dependence on echo time (TE) in human white matter in vivo. We demonstrate that such TE dependence originates from compartment-specific T2 values and that it is a promising "orthogonal measure" able to break the degeneracy in parameter estimation, and to yield important relaxation metrics robustly...
September 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934908/characterization-of-methylglyoxal-modified-human-igg-by-physico-chemical-methods
#4
Mohd Adnan Khan, Zarina Arif, Moin Uddin, Khursheed Alam
Human IgG is a defence protein and quite reactive to dicarbonyls. In this study, methylglyoxal-induced modification of IgG was examined by various biochemical and biophysical methods. The methylglyoxal-induced changes in IgG were monitored by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) and thermal denaturation studies. Aggregate formation was studied by Thioflavin T (ThT), Congo red (CR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934795/comparisons-of-lesion-volumes-and-shapes-produced-by-a-radiofrequency-system-with-a-cooled-a-protruding-or-a-monopolar-probe
#5
David L Cedeno, Alejandro Vallejo, Courtney A Kelley, Dana M Tilley, Nitesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency (RF) ablation for denervation has been utilized for decades in chronic pain management. This relies on the proper targeting of the affected nerve which may be obtained by creating an ablation lesion with a shape and volume that optimizes targeting. Various systems designed to improve lesion size are available. These include cooling the active tip (cooled-RF) and protruding the RF electrode outside the active tip (PERF). OBJECTIVES: This study compares lesion volumes of 3 commercially available RF systems: cooled-RF, "V" shaped active cannula and protruding electrode (18 g and 20 g), and monopolar RF (MRF; 16 g, 18 g, and 20 g)...
September 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934733/exosomes-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-hipsc-mscs-protect-liver-against-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-activating-sphingosine-kinase-and-sphingosine-1-phosphate-signaling-pathway
#6
Yingdong Du, Dawei Li, Conghui Han, Haoyu Wu, Longmei Xu, Ming Zhang, Jianjun Zhang, Xiaosong Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exosomes produced by human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hiPSC-MSCs-Exo) on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, as well as the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Exosomes derived from hiPSC-MSCs were isolated and characterized both biochemically and biophysically. hiPSC-MSCs-Exo were injected systemically into a murine ischemia/reperfusion injury model via the inferior vena cava, and then the therapeutic effects were evaluated...
September 21, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933844/mind-the-metal-a-fragment-library-derived-zinc-impurity-binds-the-e2-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-ube2t-and-induces-structural-rearrangements
#7
Francesca E Morreale, Andrea Testa, Viduth K Chaugule, Alessio Bortoluzzi, Alessio Ciulli, Helen Walden
Efforts to develop inhibitors, activators and effectors of biological reactions using small molecule libraries are often hampered by interference compounds, artifacts and false positives that permeate the pool of initial hits. Here we report the discovery of a promising initial hit compound targeting the Fanconi anemia ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ube2T and describe its biophysical and biochemical characterization. Analysis of the co-crystal structure led to the identification of a contaminating zinc ion as solely responsible for the observed effects...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933642/epitope-characterization-of-anti-jam-a-antibodies-using-orthogonal-mass-spectrometry-and-surface-plasmon-resonance-approaches
#8
Guillaume Terral, Thierry Champion, François Debaene, Olivier Colas, Maxime Bourguet, Elsa Wagner-Rousset, Nathalie Corvaia, Alain Beck, Sarah Cianferani
Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is an adherens and tight junction protein expressed by endothelial and epithelial cells and associated with cancer progression. We present here the extensive characterization of immune complexes involving JAM-A antigen and three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including hz6F4-2, a humanized version of anti-tumoral 6F4 mAb identified by a functional and proteomic approach in our laboratory. A specific workflow that combines orthogonal approaches has been designed to determine binding stoichiometries along with JAM-A epitope mapping determination at high resolution for these three mAbs...
September 21, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933537/membrane-fluidity-sensing-on-the-single-virus-particle-level-with-plasmonic-nanoparticle-transducers
#9
Amin Feizpour, David N Stelter, Crystal Wong, Hisashi Akiyama, Suryaram Gummuluru, Tom Keyes, Bjoern M Reinhard
Viral membranes are nanomaterials whose fluidity depends on their composition, in particular the cholesterol (chol) content. As differences in the membrane composition of individual virus particles can lead to different intracellular fates, biophysical tools capable of sensing the membrane fluidity on the single-virus level are required. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that fluctuations in the polarization of light scattered off gold or silver nanoparticle (NP)-labeled virus-like-particles (VLPs) encode information about the membrane fluidity of individual VLPs...
September 21, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933278/an-insight-into-biophysical-characterization-and-genotoxicity-assessment-of-concanavalin-a-immobilized-on-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles
#10
Aabgeena Naeem, Taqi Khan, Tauqir Alam, Qayyum Husain
Concanavalin A (Con A) immobilized on the hexagonal zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, using various techniques like atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed changes in morphology of Con A and ZnO nanoparticles. FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the linking of Con A amino groups with ZnO nanoparticles. Con A immobilized nanoparticles in contrast to native lectin showed visible changes in hemagglutination activity as confirmed by pH dependence studies using fluorimetry. The Con A coated ZnO nanoparticles did not induce any significant damage to whole cell DNA as revealed from comet assay or plasmid DNA...
September 19, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933195/biophysical-stimuli-a-review-of-electrical-and-mechanical-stimulation-in-hyaline-cartilage
#11
Juan J Vaca-González, Johana M Guevara, Miguel A Moncayo, Hector Castro-Abril, Yoshie Hata, Diego A Garzón-Alvarado
Objective Hyaline cartilage degenerative pathologies induce morphologic and biomechanical changes resulting in cartilage tissue damage. In pursuit of therapeutic options, electrical and mechanical stimulation have been proposed for improving tissue engineering approaches for cartilage repair. The purpose of this review was to highlight the effect of electrical stimulation and mechanical stimuli in chondrocyte behavior. Design Different information sources and the MEDLINE database were systematically revised to summarize the different contributions for the past 40 years...
September 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933014/size-exclusion-chromatography-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-coupling-a-step-toward-structural-biology
#12
Guillaume Van der Rest, Frédéric Halgand
Noncovalent interactions are essential for the structural organization of biomacromolecules in cells. For this reason, the study of the biophysical, dynamic, and architectural interactions among biomacromolecules is essential. Since mass spectrometry requires compatible solutions while preserving the noncovalent bonding network, we envisioned that size exclusion chromatography coupled with ion mobility and mass spectrometry would be a valuable technique to desalt the initial sample and provide solution and gas-phase structural information in a single stage experiment...
September 20, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932674/propulsion-and-chemotaxis-in-bacteria-driven-microswimmers
#13
Jiang Zhuang, Byung-Wook Park, Metin Sitti
Despite the large body of experimental work recently on biohybrid microsystems, few studies have focused on theoretical modeling of such systems, which is essential to understand their underlying functioning mechanisms and hence design them optimally for a given application task. Therefore, this study focuses on developing a mathematical model to describe the 3D motion and chemotaxis of a type of widely studied biohybrid microswimmer, where spherical microbeads are driven by multiple attached bacteria. The model is developed based on the biophysical observations of the experimental system and is validated by comparing the model simulation with experimental 3D swimming trajectories and other motility characteristics, including mean squared displacement, speed, diffusivity, and turn angle...
September 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931853/flexible-polarimetric-probe-for-3%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-3-mueller-matrix-measurements-of-biological-tissue
#14
Sarah Forward, Adam Gribble, Sanaz Alali, Andras A Lindenmaier, I Alex Vitkin
Polarimetry is a noninvasive method that uses polarised light to assess biophysical characteristics of tissues. A series of incident polarisation states illuminates a biological sample, and analysis of sample-altered polarisation states enables polarimetric tissue assessment. The resultant information can, for example, help quantitatively differentiate healthy from pathologic tissue. However, most bio-polarimetric assessments are performed using free-space optics with bulky optical components. Extension to flexible fibre-based systems is clinically desirable, but is challenging due to polarisation-altering properties of optical fibres...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931678/ikk%C3%AE-mimetic-peptides-block-the-resistance-to-apoptosis-associated-with-kshv-infection
#15
Louise C Briggs, A W Edith Chan, Christopher A Davis, Nicholas Whitelock, Hajira A Hotiana, Mehdi Baratchian, Claire Bagnéris, David L Selwood, Mary K Collins, Tracey E Barrett
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a lymphogenic disorder associated with KSHV infection. Key to the survival and proliferation of PEL is the canonical NF-kB pathway that becomes constitutively activated following overexpression of the viral oncoprotein ks-vFLIP. This arises from its capacity to form a complex with the modulatory subunit of the IKK kinase, IKKγ (or NEMO) resulting in the overproduction of proteins that promote cellular survival and prevent apoptosis; both of which are important drivers of tumourigenesis...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931677/structurally-guided-removal-of-deisgylase-biochemical-activity-from-papain-like-protease-originating-from-the-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#16
Courtney M Daczkowski, Octavia Goodwin, John V Dzimianski, Jonathan J Farhat, Scott D Pegan
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging human pathogen that is the causative agent for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). With MERS outbreaks resulting in over 35% fatalities and now spread to 27 countries, MERS-CoV poses a significant on-going threat to global human health. As part of its viral genome, MERS-CoV encodes for a papain-like protease (PLpro) that has been observed to act as a deubiquitinase and deISGylase to antagonize IFN-I immune pathways. This activity is in addition to its viral polypeptide cleavage function...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930581/biophysical-mechanisms-complementing-classical-cell-biology
#17
Richard H W Funk
This overview addresses phenomena in cell- and molecular biology which are puzzling by their fast and highly coordinated way of organization. Generally, it appears that informative processes probably involved are more on the biophysical than on the classical biochemical side. The coordination problem is explained within the first part of the review by the topic of endogenous electrical phenomena. These are found e.g. in fast tissue organization and reorganization processes like development, wound healing and regeneration...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928627/a-novel-truncation-mutation-in-crybb1-associated-with-autosomal-dominant-congenital-cataract-with-nystagmus
#18
Yan Rao, Sufang Dong, Zuhua Li, Guohua Yang, Chunyan Peng, Ming Yan, Fang Zheng
PURPOSE: To identify the potential candidate genes for a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital cataract (ADCC) and nystagmus, and investigate the possible molecular mechanism underlying the role of the candidate genes in cataractogenesis. METHODS: We combined the linkage analysis and direct sequencing for the candidate genes in the linkage regions to identify the causative mutation. The molecular and bio-functional properties of the proteins encoded by the candidate genes was further explored with biophysical and biochemical studies of the recombinant wild-type and mutant proteins...
2017: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928466/magnetic-field-effect-in-natural-cryptochrome-explored-with-model-compound
#19
Shubhajit Paul, Alexey S Kiryutin, Jinping Guo, Konstantin L Ivanov, Jörg Matysik, Alexandra V Yurkovskaya, Xiaojie Wang
Many animals sense the Earth's magnetic-field and use it for navigation. It is proposed that a light-dependent quantum effect in cryptochrome proteins, residing in the retina, allows for such an iron-free spin-chemical compass. The photochemical processes, spin-dynamics and its magnetic field dependence in natural cryptochrome are not fully understood by the in vivo and in vitro studies. For a deeper insight into these biophysical mechanisms in cryptochrome, we had introduced a flavin-tryptophan dyad (F10T)...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928065/molecular-cloning-and-biophysical-characterization-of-cxcl3-chemokine
#20
Khushboo Gulati, Krishnakant Gangele, Nipanshu Agarwal, Minal Jamsandekar, Dinesh Kumar, Krishna Mohan Poluri
CXCL3 is a neutrophil activating chemokine that belongs to GRO subfamily of CXC chemokines. GRO chemokine family comprises of three chemokines GRO α (CXCL1), GROβ (CXCL2), and GRO γ (CXCL3) that arose as a result of gene duplication events during the course of chemokine evolution. Studies reported that the primary sequences of GRO chemokines are highly similar, but performs several protein specific functions in addition to their common property of neutrophil trafficking. However, the molecular basis for their differential functions has not well understood...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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