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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333369/in-vivo-multiphoton-microscopy-of-picosecond-laser-induced-optical-breakdown-in-human-skin
#1
Mihaela Balu, Griffin Lentsch, Dorota Z Korta, Karsten König, Kristen M Kelly, Bruce J Tromberg, Christopher B Zachary
IMPORTANCE: Improvements in skin appearance resulting from treatment with fractionated picosecond-lasers have been noted, but optimizing the treatment efficacy depends on a thorough understanding of the specific skin response. The development of non-invasive laser imaging techniques in conjunction with laser therapy can potentially provide feedback for guidance and optimizing clinical outcome. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the capability of multiphoton microscopy (MPM), a high-resolution, label-free imaging technique, to characterize in vivo the skin response to a fractionated non-ablative picosecond-laser treatment...
March 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333105/anti-melanogenic-properties-of-greek-plants-a-novel-depigmenting-agent-from-morus-alba-wood
#2
Eliza Chaita, George Lambrinidis, Christina Cheimonidi, Adamantia Agalou, Dimitris Beis, Ioannis Trougakos, Emmanuel Mikros, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis, Nektarios Aligiannis
In therapeutic interventions associated with melanin hyperpigmentation, tyrosinase is regarded as a target enzyme as it catalyzes the rate-limiting steps in mammalian melanogenesis. Since many known agents have been proven to be toxic, there has been increasing impetus to identify alternative tyrosinase inhibitors, especially from natural sources. In this study, we investigated 900 extracts from Greek plants for potential tyrosinase inhibitive properties. Among the five most potent extracts, the methanol extract of Morus alba wood (MAM) demonstrated a significant reduction in intracellular tyrosinase and melanin content in B16F10 melanoma cells...
March 23, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331308/highly-effective-photothermal-chemotherapy-with-ph-responsive-polymer-coated-drug-loaded-melanin-like-nanoparticles
#3
Chengwei Zhang, Xiaozhi Zhao, Suhan Guo, Tingsheng Lin, Hongqian Guo
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter commonly used in clinical treatment. Polydopamine (PDA) has excellent histocompatibility and biosafety and can efficiently convert near-infrared reflection (NIR) to thermal energy. In this study, PDA was used as a promising carrier, and pH-responsive polymer-coated drug-loaded PDA nanoparticles (NPs; doxorubicin@ poly(allylamine)-citraconic anhydride [Dox@PAH-cit]/PDA NPs) were developed. As expected, the Dox@PAH-cit/PDA NPs exhibited excellent photothermal efficiency. In addition, at a low pH condition, the loaded Dox was released from the NPs due to the amide hydrolysis of PAH-cit...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330217/sulfitolytic-and-keratinolytic-potential-of-chryseobacterium-sp-rbt-revealed-hydrolysis-of-melanin-containing-feathers
#4
Ranjit G Gurav, Jingchun Tang, Jyoti P Jadhav
In black feathers, melanin is embedded in keratin matrix that makes feather more resistance to the microbial degradation. Chryseobacterium sp. RBT previously isolated from the poultry waste disposable site revealed strong sulfitolytic and keratinolytic activities. Maximum keratinase activity was observed at 48 h (89.12 U ml(-1)) showed 83 % of native black feather degradation. The concentration of free sulfhydryl groups released during degradation was 0.648 × 10(-4) M (12 h), 2.144 × 10(-4) M (96 h), and however, declined on prolong incubation to 1...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328709/the-clinical-and-histological-effect-of-a-low-fluence-q-switched-1-064-nm-neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet-laser-for-the-treatment-of-melasma-and-solar-lentigo-in-asians-prospective-randomized-and-split-face-comparative-study
#5
Chikako Kaminaka, Fukumi Furukawa, Yuki Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: The low-fluence Q-switched 1,064-nm neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (QSNYL) is popular for melasma treatment among Asians. OBJECTIVE: This study was to evaluate the clinical and histological effects of the low-fluence QSNYL for treatment of melasma and solar lentigo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized split-face clinical study, 22 patients with melasma or solar lentigo received low-fluence QSNYL weekly for 10 sessions on one cheek...
March 21, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323131/mechanistic-insights-into-the-bleaching-of-melanin-by-alkaline-hydrogen-peroxide
#6
R A W Smith, B Garrett, K R Naqvi, A Fülöp, S Godfrey, J Marsh, V Chechik
This work aims to determine the roles of reactive oxygen species HO∙ and HO2(-) in the bleaching of melanins by alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Experiments using melanosomes isolated from human hair indicated that the HO∙ radical generated in the outside solution does not contribute significantly to bleaching. However, studies using soluble Sepia melanin demonstrated that both HO2(-) and HO∙ will individually bleach melanin. Additionally, when both oxidants are present, bleaching is increased dramatically in both rate and extent...
March 16, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322939/do-we-need-to-study-metabolism-and-distribution-in-the-eye-why-when-and-are-we-there-yet
#7
Upendra A Argikar, Jennifer L Dumouchel, Valerie M Kramlinger, Amanda L Cirello, Mithat Gunduz, Christine E Dunne, Bindi Sohal
Liver is known to be the principal site of drug metabolism. Depending on the route of administration, especially in cases of topical/local delivery, evaluation of local drug metabolism in extrahepatic tissues is vital to assess fraction metabolized. This parameter becomes important from the point of view of drug availability or the contribution to overall clearance. Examples include fraction metabolized in the gut for oral drugs and contribution of pulmonary or renal clearance to total clearance of a drug. Diseases of the eye represent a rising unmet medical need, and a number of therapeutics are currently being developed in the form of small molecules and biologics...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322083/diurnal-variation-of-the-melanin-concentrating-hormone-level-in-the-hypothalamus
#8
Balázs Gerics, Ferenc Szalay, Péter Sótonyi, Veronika Jancsik
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), the neuropeptide produced mainly in the hypothalamus, plays an operative role in regulating food intake and the sleep/wake cycle. Considering that these physiological functions pursue diurnal variations, we checked whether the total hypothalamic MCH level depends on the time of the day. The aggregated MCH peptide content of the whole MCH neuron population was significantly higher at the end of the sleeping period (lights on), than at the end of the active period (lights off)...
March 2017: Acta Biologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321929/the-effect-of-butin-on-the-vitiligo-mouse-model-induced-by-hydroquinone
#9
Shi-Xia Huo, Qiong Wang, Xin-Min Liu, Chun-Hui Ge, Li Gao, Xiao-Ming Peng, Ming Yan
Vernonia anthelmintica (L.) Willd has been traditionally used in the treatment of vitiligo in Uyghur medicine. This study used butin, the main component of V. anthelmintica, to study the influence on hydroquinone-induced vitiligo in mice. The animals were randomly divided into six groups: control, model, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, 4.25 mg/kg), and butin (0.425, 4.25, and 42.5 mg/kg) groups. The number of melanin-containing hair follicles, basal layer melanocytes, melanin-containing epidermal cells, the expression of tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), the malondialdehyde (MDA), and cholinesterase (CHE) activity in serum were measured...
March 21, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316605/detection-of-potential-chloroplastic-substrates-for-polyphenol-oxidase-suggests-a-role-in-undamaged-leaves
#10
Tinne Boeckx, Ana Winters, K Judith Webb, Alison H Kingston-Smith
Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have a recognized role during pathogen and arthropod attack. As an immediate consequence of such wounding, cellular compartmentation is destroyed allowing the chloroplastic PPO enzyme to interact with vacuolar substrates catalyzing the oxidation of monophenols and/or o-diphenols to o-diquinones. This ultimately results in a reduction in the nutritional value of wounded tissue through the formation of non-digestible secondary melanin pigments. However, the chloroplastic location of PPO enzyme could indicate a role for PPO in undamaged tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315112/sponge-associated-bacteria-produce-non-cytotoxic-melanin-which-protects-animal-cells-from-photo-toxicity
#11
Vijitha Vijayan, Chekidhenkuzhiyil Jasmin, Abdulaziz Anas, Sreelakshmi Parakkaparambil Kuttan, Saradavey Vinothkumar, Parameswaran Perunninakulath Subrayan, Shanta Nair
Melanin is a photo-protective polymer found in many organisms. Our research shows that the bacteria associated with darkly pigmented sponges (Haliclona pigmentifera, Sigmadocia pumila, Fasciospongia cavernosa, Spongia officinalis, and Callyspongia diffusa) secrete non-cytotoxic melanin, with antioxidant activity that protects animal cells from photo-toxicity. Out of 156 bacterial strains screened, 22 produced melanin and these melanin-producing bacteria (MPB) were identified as Vibrio spp., Providencia sp., Bacillus sp...
March 17, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314912/differences-in-the-melanosome-distribution-within-the-epidermal-melanin-units-and-its-association-with-the-impairing-background-of-leukoderma-in-vitiligo-and-halo-nevi-a-retrospective-study
#12
Xi-Xi Xiong, Gao-Zhong Ding, Wen-E Zhao, Xue Li, Yu-Ting Ling, Li Sun, Qing-Li Gong, Yan Lu
Skin color is determined by the number of melanin granules produced by melanocytes that are transferred to keratinocytes. Melanin synthesis and the distribution of melanosomes to keratinocytes within the epidermal melanin unit (EMU) within the skin of vitiligo patients have been poorly studied. The ultrastructure and distribution of melanosomes in melanocytes and surrounding keratinocytes in perilesional vitiligo and normal skin were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, we performed a quantitative analysis of melanosome distribution within the EMUs with scatter plot...
March 17, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303328/effects-of-palmitoyl-kvk-l-ascorbic-acid-on-skin-wrinkles-and-pigmentation
#13
Hyeong Mi Kim, Hyo Sun An, Jung-Soo Bae, Jung Yun Kim, Chi Ho Choi, Ju Yeon Kim, Joo Hyuck Lim, Joon-Hun Choi, Hyunnam Song, Sung Ho Moon, Young Jun Park, Shin-Jae Chang, Sun Young Choi
Wrinkle formation and abnormal pigmentation are major clinical alterations associated with skin aging. As the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid on skin aging, the anti-wrinkle and depigmentation effects of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid were evaluated by measuring collagen expression in dermal fibroblast cells and inhibition of melanogenesis in B16F1 cells, respectively. The anti-aging effect of palmitoyl-KVK-L-ascorbic acid cream was also evaluated against a placebo cream in a clinical trial...
March 16, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300612/characterization-of-melanin-concentrating-hormone-mch-and-its-receptor-in-chickens-tissue-expression-functional-analysis-and-fasting-induced-up-regulation-of-hypothalamic-mch-expression
#14
Lin Cui, Chan Lv, Jiannan Zhang, Chunheng Mo, Dongliang Lin, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide expressed in the brain and exerts its actions through interaction with the two known G protein-coupled receptors, namely melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 and 2 (MCHR1 and MCHR2) in mammals. However, the information regarding the expression and functionality of MCH and MCHR(s) remains largely unknown in birds. In this study, using RT-PCR and RACE PCR, we amplified and cloned a MCHR1-like receptor, which is named cMCHR4 according to its evolutionary origin, and a MCHR2 from chicken brain...
March 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300201/identification-of-a-novel-locus-associated-with-skin-colour-in-african-admixed-populations
#15
Natalia Hernandez-Pacheco, Carlos Flores, Santos Alonso, Celeste Eng, Angel C Y Mak, Scott Hunstman, Donglei Hu, Marquitta J White, Sam S Oh, Kelley Meade, Harold J Farber, Pedro C Avila, Denise Serebrisky, Shannon M Thyne, Emerita Brigino-Buenaventura, William Rodriguez-Cintron, Saunak Sen, Rajesh Kumar, Michael Lenoir, Jose R Rodriguez-Santana, Esteban G Burchard, Maria Pino-Yanes
Skin pigmentation is a complex trait that varies largely among populations. Most genome-wide association studies of this trait have been performed in Europeans and Asians. We aimed to uncover genes influencing skin colour in African-admixed individuals. We performed a genome-wide association study of melanin levels in 285 Hispanic/Latino individuals from Puerto Rico, analyzing 14 million genetic variants. A total of 82 variants with p-value ≤1 × 10(-5) were followed up in 373 African Americans. Fourteen single nucleotide polymorphisms were replicated, of which nine were associated with skin colour at genome-wide significance in a meta-analysis across the two studies...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300140/corrigendum-comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-raccoon-dog-skin-to-determine-melanin-content-in-hair-and-melanin-distribution-in-skin
#16
Zhanyu Du, Kai Huang, Jiaping Zhao, Xingchao Song, Xiumei Xing, Qiong Wu, Linbo Zhang, Chao Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298193/identification-of-two-novel-mutations-in-the-slc45a2-gene-in-a-hungarian-pedigree-affected-by-unusual-oca-type-4
#17
Lola Tóth, Beáta Fábos, Katalin Farkas, Adrienn Sulák, Kornélia Tripolszki, Márta Széll, Nikoletta Nagy
BACKGROUND: Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a clinically and genetically heterogenic group of pigmentation abnormalities. OCA type IV (OCA4, OMIM 606574) develops due to homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the solute carrier family 45, member 2 (SLC45A2) gene. This gene encodes a membrane-associated transport protein, which regulates tyrosinase activity and, thus, melanin content by changing melanosomal pH and disrupting the incorporation of copper into tyrosinase. METHODS: Here we report two Hungarian siblings affected by an unusual OCA4 phenotype...
March 15, 2017: BMC Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296736/dermoscopic-features-of-livedoid-vasculopathy
#18
Stephen Chu-Sung Hu, Gwo-Shing Chen, Chi-Ling Lin, Yang-Chun Cheng, Yung-Song Lin
Livedoid vasculopathy (atrophie blanche) is a form of thrombotic vasculopathy. It is characterized by small ulcers that become crusted, and heal after several months to produce white atrophic scars. The most commonly affected sites are the lower legs, in particular the dorsum of the feet and ankles. To date, the dermoscopic features of livedoid vasculopathy have not been clearly described in the literature. In this observational study, we sought to evaluate the dermoscopic patterns of livedoid vasculopathy and determine whether the dermoscopic features are associated with certain histopathological characteristics...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294346/skin-erythema-pigmentation-and-hydration-kinetics-after-ultraviolet-radiation-induced-photodamage-in-southern-chinese-women
#19
MiaoJian Wan, Rong Hu, Xiaoyuan Xie, Zijian Gong, Jinling Yi, Haiyan Chen, Lin Xie, Xiaomin Guan, Lei Guan, Wei Lai
Although there have been some studies about changes of skin erythema and pigmentation following ultraviolet radiation in other races, the relevant data in Chinese have never been achieved. Thus we evaluated the long-time course of skin erythema, pigmentation and hydration changes after different doses of solar-simulated ultraviolet (SSUV) irradiation in 26 Chinese women for 168 days. The erythema index increased abruptly and peaked during 3 days of SSUV exposure, then slowly returned to the baseline level starting at day 7 and completely recovered during 168-day course of this study only in one minimal erythema doses (MED) SSUV irradiation...
March 15, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292562/a-quantitative-analysis-of-multilineage-differentiating-stress-enduring-muse-cells-in-human-adipose-tissue-and-efficacy-of-melanocytes-induction
#20
Takeshi Yamauchi, Kenshi Yamasaki, Kenichiro Tsuchiyama, Saaya Koike, Setsuya Aiba
We have shown previously that multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells in neonatal fibroblasts can differentiate into functional melanocytes. In this study, we quantitate Muse cells in adipose-mesenchymal stem cells (adipose-MSCs) of human subcutaneous tissue obtained from 11 subjects of various ages, and measured efficacy of melanocytes induction from Adipose-MSC-derived Muse cells (hASC-Muse cells). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the age of donors and the numbers of adipose-MSCs recovered per g fat as well as the percentage of SSEA3+ cells in the adipose-MSC populations, but isolated hASC-Muse cells showed pluripotency and growth curves equally regardless the age of donors...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
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