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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918582/investigating-conservation-of-the-cell-cycle-regulated-transcriptional-program-in-the-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#1
Christina M Kelliher, Adam R Leman, Crystal S Sierra, Steven B Haase
The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans causes fungal meningitis in immune-compromised patients. Cell proliferation in the budding yeast form is required for C. neoformans to infect human hosts, and virulence factors such as capsule formation and melanin production are affected by cell-cycle perturbation. Thus, understanding cell-cycle regulation is critical for a full understanding of virulence factors for disease. Our group and others have demonstrated that a large fraction of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is expressed periodically during the cell cycle, and that proper regulation of this transcriptional program is important for proper cell division...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914762/distribution-of-the-neuro-regulatory-peptide-galanin-in-the-human-eye
#2
Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Andrea Trost, Clemens Strohmaier, Barbara Bogner, Christian Runge, Daniela Bruckner, Bettina Hohberger, Anselm Jünemann, Barbara Kofler, Herbert A Reitsamer, Falk Schrödl
Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While data of GAL origin/distribution in the human eye are rather fragmentary and since recently the presence of GAL-receptors in the normal human eye has been reported, we here systematically search for sources of ocular GAL in the human eye. Human eyes (n=14) were prepared for single- and double-immunohistochemistry of GAL and neurofilaments (NF). Cross- and flat-mount sections were achieved; confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation...
November 25, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913288/autofluorescence-lifetime-variation-in-the-cuticle-of-the-bedbug-cimex-lectularius
#3
Klaus Reinhardt, Hans Georg Breunig, Karsten König
The decay time of the fluorescence of excited molecules, called fluorescence lifetime, can provide information about the cuticle composition additionally to widely used spectral characteristics. We compared autofluorescence lifetimes of different cuticle regions in the copulatory organ of females of the bedbug, Cimex lectularius. After two-photon excitation at 720 nm, regions recently characterised as being rich in resilin showed a longer bimodal distribution of the mean autofluorescence lifetime τm (tau-m) at 0...
November 29, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910904/melanosome-transfer-to-keratinocyte-in-the-chicken-embryonic-skin-is-mediated-by-vesicle-release-associated-with-rho-regulated-membrane-blebbing
#4
Ryosuke Tadokoro, Hidetaka Murai, Ken-Ichiro Sakai, Takahiro Okui, Yasuhiro Yokota, Yoshiko Takahashi
During skin pigmentation in amniotes, melanin synthesized in the melanocyte is transferred to keratinocytes by a particle called the melanosome. Previous studies, mostly using dissociated cultured cells, have proposed several different models that explain how the melanosome transfer is achieved. Here, using a technique that labels the plasma membrane of melanocytes within a three-dimensional system that mimics natural tissues, we have visualized the plasma membrane of melanocytes with EGFP in chicken embryonic skin...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906510/thermohydrogel-containing-melanin-for-photothermal-cancer-therapy
#5
Miri Kim, Hyun Soo Kim, Min Ah Kim, Hyanghwa Ryu, Hwan-Jeong Jeong, Chang-Moon Lee
Melanin is an effective absorber of light and can extend to near infrared (NIR) regions. In this study, a natural melanin is presented as a photothermal therapeutic agent (PTA) because it provides a good photothermal conversion efficiency, shows biodegradability, and does not induce long-term toxicity during retention in vivo. Poloxamer solution containing melanin (Pol-Mel) does not show any precipitation and shows sol-gel transition at body temperature. After irradiation from 808 nm NIR laser at 1.5 W cm(-2) for 3 min, the photothermal conversion efficiency of Pol-Mel is enough to kill cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...
December 1, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905879/transcriptome-profiling-in-the-damselfly-ischnura-elegans-identifies-genes-with-sex-biased-expression
#6
Pallavi Chauhan, Maren Wellenreuther, Bengt Hansson
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism occurs widely across the animal kingdom and has profound effects on evolutionary trajectories. Here, we investigate sex-specific gene expression in Ischnura elegans (Odonata: dragonflies and damselflies), a species with pronounced sexual differences including a female-limited colour polymorphism with two female-like gynochrome morphs and one male-mimicking, androchrome morph. Whole-organism transcriptome profiling and sex-biased gene expression analysis was conducted on adults of both sexes (pooling all females as well as separating the three morphs) to gain insights into genes and pathways potentially associated with sexual development and sexual conflict...
December 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904077/synthesis-characterization-and-evaluation-of-thiazolidine-derivatives-of-cysteine-for-suppressing-eumelanin-production
#7
Yusuke Amino, Yoshinobu Takino, Megumi Kaneko, Fumie Ookura, Mai Yamamoto, Tatsuki Kashiwagi, Keiji Iwasaki
In the pathway of melanin biosynthesis, cysteine (Cys) is utilized for the synthesis of pheomelanin. Accordingly, Cys is considered to suppress the formation of brown-black eumelanin. Although attempts have been made to utilize Cys and its derivatives as skin-whitening agents, their instability and odor hinders their application as a cosmetic agent. Herein, N-acetyl-2-methylthiazolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid ethyl ester (AcCP2Et) was proposed as a candidate for a stable and prolonged-release derivative of Cys to inhibit dopachrome formation after its degradation in melanocytes...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902928/effects-of-aqueous-extracts-of-ecliptae-herba-polygoni-multiflori-radix-praeparata-and-rehmanniae-radix-praeparata-on-melanogenesis-and-the-migration-of-human-melanocytes
#8
Ping Xu, Shulan Su, Cheng Tan, Ren-Sheng Lai, Zhong-Sheng Min
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Polygoni multiflori radix praeparata (PMRP), Ecliptae herba (EH) and Rehmanniae radix praeparata (RRP) are the most frequently-used herbs by Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners for the treatment of vitiligo. Their abilities to stimulate melanogenesis, melanocyte migration and MITF (microphthalmia associated transcription factor) protein expression were evaluated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of aqueous extracts of PMRP, EH and RRP on human melanocytes in vitro were examined by MTT assay, tyrosinase activity, melanin synthesis, migration assay and Western blot...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899504/gene-function-analysis-in-the-ubiquitous-human-commensal-and-pathogen-malassezia-genus
#9
Giuseppe Ianiri, Anna F Averette, Joanne M Kingsbury, Joseph Heitman, Alexander Idnurm
: The genus Malassezia includes 14 species that are found on the skin of humans and animals and are associated with a number of diseases. Recent genome sequencing projects have defined the gene content of all 14 species; however, to date, genetic manipulation has not been possible for any species within this genus. Here, we develop and then optimize molecular tools for the transformation of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia sympodialis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens delivery of transfer DNA (T-DNA) molecules...
November 29, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895382/non-invasive-measurement-of-melanin-derived-radicals-in-living-mouse-tail-using-x-band-epr
#10
Yukihiro Ogawa, Megumi Ueno, Emiko Sekine-Suzuki, Ikuo Nakanishi, Ken-Ichiro Matsumoto, Shingo Fujisaki
The aim of this experiment is to measure in vivo generation of melanin-derived radicals non-invasively, as a quantifiable index of radio-biological effect. Melanin-derived radicals in a living intact mouse tail tip were non-invasively measured in very simple way using an X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer. Colored mouse strains, C57BL/6NCr, BDF1, and C3H/He, have clear EPR signal corresponding to melanin-derived radicals in the tail tip; however, albino mouse strains, BALB/cCr, ddY, ICR, have no EPR signals...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888889/skin-color-and-pigmentation-in-ethnic-skin
#11
REVIEW
Marty O Visscher
Skin coloration is highly diverse, partly due to the presence of pigmentation. Color variation is related to the extent of ultraviolet radiation exposure, as well as other factors. Inherent skin coloration arises from differences in basal epidermal melanin amount and type. Skin color is influenced by both the quantity and distribution of melanocytes. The effectiveness of inherent pigmentation for protecting living cells also varies. This article discusses skin color, pigmentation, and ethnicity in relation to clinical practice...
February 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882071/pigmentation-effect-of-rice-bran-extracted-minerals-comprising-soluble-silicic-acids
#12
Hyun-Jun Jang, Young-Kwon Seo
Our investigation focused on identifying melanogenesis effect of soluble minerals in rice bran ash extract (RBE) which include orthosilicic acid (OSA). Melanocytes were apparently normal in terms of morphology. It was, however, shown that they were stressed a little in the RBE and OSA added media in aspect of LDH activity. Melanin synthesis and intracellular tyrosinase activity were increased by treatment of RBE which is similar to that of OSA. The Western blotting results showed that TRP-1, tyrosinase, and MITF expression levels were 2-3 times higher in the OSA and RBE groups compared to the control group which promoted melanin synthesis through CREB phosphorylation...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879337/interactions-between-melanin-enzymes-and-their-atypical-recruitment-to-the-secretory-pathway-by-palmitoylation
#13
Srijana Upadhyay, Xinping Xu, Xiaorong Lin
: Melanins are biopolymers that confer coloration and protection to the host organism against biotic or abiotic insults. The level of protection offered by melanin depends on its biosynthesis and its subcellular localization. Previously, we discovered that Aspergillus fumigatus compartmentalizes melanization in endosomes by recruiting all melanin enzymes to the secretory pathway. Surprisingly, although two laccases involved in the late steps of melanization are conventional secretory proteins, the four enzymes involved in the early steps of melanization lack a signal peptide or a transmembrane domain and are thus considered "atypical" secretory proteins...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878927/the-septin-protein-sep4-facilitates-host-infection-by-plant-fungal-pathogens-via-mediating-initiation-of-infection-structure-formation
#14
Hui-Qiang Feng, Gui-Hua Li, Du Shun-Wen, Song Yang, Xue-Qian Li, Paul de Figueiredo, Qing-Ming Qin
Many phytopathogenic fungi use infection structures (IFSs, i.e., appressoria and infection cushions) to penetrate host cuticles. However, the conserved mechanisms that mediate initiation of IFS formation in divergent pathogens upon sensing the presence of host plants remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that a conserved septin gene SEP4 plays crucial roles in this process. Disruption of SEP4 in the plant gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea completely blocked IFS formation and abolished the virulence of ΔBcsep4 mutants on unwounded hosts...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877061/aloe-sterol-supplementation-improves-skin-elasticity-in-japanese-men-with-sunlight-exposed-skin-a-12-week-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Miyuki Tanaka, Yuki Yamamoto, Eriko Misawa, Kazumi Nabeshima, Marie Saito, Koji Yamauchi, Fumiaki Abe, Fukumi Furukawa
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Recently, it was confirmed that the daily oral intake of plant sterols of Aloe vera gel (Aloe sterol) significantly increases the skin barrier function, moisture, and elasticity in photoprotected skin. This study aimed to investigate whether Aloe sterol intake affected skin conditions following sunlight exposure in Japanese men. METHODS: We performed a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral Aloe sterol supplementation on skin conditions in 48 apparently healthy men (age range: 30-59 years; average: 45 years)...
2016: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872930/the-inhibition-effect-of-starch-nanoparticles-on-tyrosinase-activity-and-its-mechanism
#16
Jie Yang, Ranran Chang, Shengju Ge, Mei Zhao, Caifeng Liang, Liu Xiong, Qingjie Sun
The objective of the current research was to investigate the effects of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) prepared from waxy maize, potato, normal corn, and tapioca starches on the activity of tyrosinase. As a main polyphenol oxidase, tyrosinase not only induces fruit and vegetable browning but also causes skin diseases by overproducing melanin. Herein, for the first time, we evaluated the inhibitory kinetics of SNPs on tyrosinase. It turned out that SNPs inhibited tyrosinase activity reversibly. The IC50 values of hollow nanoparticles, amylopectin nanoparticles, corn starch nanoparticles, and tapioca starch nanoparticles were 0...
November 22, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870600/a-laccase-gene-sh-lac-is-involved-in-the-growth-and-melanin-biosynthesis-of-scleromitrula-shiraiana
#17
Zhiyuan Lǚ, Xin Kang, Zhonghuai Xiang, Ningjia He
Scleromitrula shiraiana causes the popcorn disease in mulberry trees resulting in severe economic losses. Previous studies have shown that melanin may play a vital role in establishing the pathogenicity of fungi. In the present study, we identified the melanin produced in S. shiraiana belongs to DHN melanin by GC-MS, and cloned the laccase Sh-lac, a potential DHN melanin biosynthesis gene from S. shiraiana. We obtained two stable Sh-lac silenced transformants using RNAi, ilac-4 and 8 to elucidate the DHN melanin biosynthetic pathway in S...
November 21, 2016: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869664/anti-melanogenic-activity-of-gagunin-d-a-highly-oxygenated-diterpenoid-from-the-marine-sponge-phorbas-sp-via-modulating-tyrosinase-expression-and-degradation
#18
Ho Yeon Lee, Eun Jeong Jang, Song Yi Bae, Ju-Eun Jeon, Hyen Joo Park, Jongheon Shin, Sang Kook Lee
Tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme critical for melanin synthesis and controls pigmentation in the skin. The inhibition of tyrosinase is currently the most common approach for the development of skin-whitening cosmetics. Gagunin D (GD), a highly oxygenated diterpenoid isolated from the marine sponge Phorbas sp., has exhibited cytotoxicity toward human leukemia cells. However, the effect of GD on normal cells and the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we identified for the first time the anti-melanogenic activity of GD and its precise underlying mechanisms in mouse melan-a cells...
November 17, 2016: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866941/vayg1-is-required-for-microsclerotium-formation-and-melanin-production-in-verticillium-dahliae
#19
Rong Fan, Steven J Klosterman, Conghao Wang, Krishna V Subbarao, Xiangming Xu, Wenjing Shang, Xiaoping Hu
The fungus Verticillium dahliae causes vascular wilt disease on many plant species, including economically important crop and ornamental plants worldwide. It produces darkly pigmented resting structures known as microsclerotia, which are able to survive for up to 14years in soil, and represent one of the defining characteristics of this species. The pigment produced in V. dahliae is dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin, a form of melanin common among fungi and named so for the intermediary of this melanin biosynthetic pathway...
November 17, 2016: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864061/melanogenesis-inhibits-respiration-in-b16-f10-melanoma-cells-whereas-enhances-mitochondrial-cell-content
#20
Willian Vanderlei Meira, Tassiele Andréa Heinrich, Silvia Maria Suter Correia Cadena, Glaucia Regina Martinez
Melanoma is a rare and aggressive skin tumor; the survival of patients diagnosed late is fairly low. This high mortality rate is due to the characteristics of the cells that allow them to be resistant to radiotherapy and conventional chemotherapy, besides of being able to evade the immune system. Melanin, the pigment responsible for skin, hair and eye color, seems to be involved in this resistance. The main function of melanin is to protect the cells against ultraviolet (UV) light by absorbing this radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging...
November 15, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
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