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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640738/evaluation-of-the-effect-and-mechanism-of-action-of-local-phenytoin-in-treatment-of-vitiligo
#1
Asmaa Gaber Abdou, Mohammed Abdelwahed Gaber, Nada Farag Elnaidany, Ayat Elnagar
There are many theories explaining vitiligo such as genetic, autoimmune, neural, free radicals, biochemical, intrinsic defect, melanocytorrhagy and convergent theories. Phenytoin is a widely used anticonvulsant, which is used in cutaneous medicine for treatment of ulcers and epidermolysis bullosa. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of topical phenytoin gel in treatment of vitiligo patients and explaining the underlying mechanism using immunohistochemistry for evaluation of HMB45, CD4 and CD8...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640309/computational-analysis-of-histidine-mutations-on-the-structural-stability-of-human-tyrosinases-leading-to-albinism-insurgence
#2
Mubashir Hassan, Qamar Abbas, Hussain Raza, Ahmed A Moustafa, Sung-Yum Seo
Misfolding and structural alteration in proteins lead to serious malfunctions and cause various diseases in humans. Mutations at the active binding site in tyrosinase impair structural stability and cause lethal albinism by abolishing copper binding. To evaluate the histidine mutational effect, all mutated structures were built using homology modelling. The protein sequence was retrieved from the UniProt database, and 3D models of original and mutated human tyrosinase sequences were predicted by changing the residual positions within the target sequence separately...
June 22, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639791/insight-into-the-final-step-of-the-supramolecular-buildup-of-eumelanin
#3
Anne Büngeler, Benjamin Hämisch, Klaus Huber, Wolfgang Bremser, Oliver Ingolf Strube
The final step in the supramolecular buildup of eumelanin particles is investigated regarding involved species and mechanism. Time resolved in situ light scattering and scanning electron microscopy reveal an aggregation of particles with narrow size distribution around 40 nm, previously only observed as substructures. These form larger particles with again very uniform size and diameters around 200 nm. Aggregation of each single particle takes only a few minutes to complete, whereas the entire process goes on for at least three hours, partly due to kinetics of the precursors...
June 22, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639704/genome-wide-association-analysis-identifies-potential-regulatory-genes-for-eumelanin-pigmentation-in-chicken-plumage
#4
L Yang, X Du, S Wei, L Gu, N Li, Y Gong, S Li
Plumage color in chicken is determined by the proportion of eumelanin and pheomelanin pigmentation. As the main ingredient in plumage melanin, eumelanin plays a key role in the dark black, brown and grey coloration. However, very few studies have been performed to identify the related genes and mutations on a genome-wide scale. Herein, a resource family consisting of one backcross population and two F2 cross populations between a black roster and Yukou Brown I parent stockbreed was constructed for identification of genes related to eumelanin pigmentation...
June 22, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638878/effect-of-fucoidan-on-b16-murine-melanoma-cell-melanin-formation-and-apoptosis
#5
Zhi-Jiang Wang, Wei Xu, Jian-Wen Liang, Cai-Sheng Wang, Yani Kang
BACKGROUND: Fucoidan is a complex sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed and has a wide variety of biological activities. It not only inhibits cancer cell growth but also inhibits tyrosinase in vitro. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the effect of fucoidan on B16 murine melanoma cells as the findings may provide new insights into the underlying mechanism regarding the inhibition of melanin formation by fucoidan. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-melanogenic effect of fucoidan and its inhibitory effect on B16 cells...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638859/a-review-of-the-aetiopathogenesis-and-clinical-and-histopathological-features-of-oral-mucosal-melanoma
#6
REVIEW
Liviu Feller, Razia A G Khammissa, Johan Lemmer
Oral mucosal melanoma is an uncommon, usually heavily melanin-pigmented, but occasionally amelanotic aggressive tumour with a poor prognosis. Despite radical surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy, local recurrence and distant metastasis are frequent. Microscopical examination is essential for diagnosis, and routine histological staining must be supplemented by immunohistochemical studies. The aetiology is unknown, the pathogenesis is poorly understood, and the 5-year survival rate rarely exceeds 30%. In most cases, oral mucosal melanoma arises from epithelial melanocytes in the basal layer of the epithelium and less frequently from immature melanocytes arrested in the lamina propria...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638317/emergence-time-and-skin-melanin-spot-patterns-do-not-correlate-with-growth-performance-social-competitive-ability-or-stress-response-in-farmed-rainbow-trout
#7
Manuel Gesto, Peter V Skov, Alfred Jokumsen
In wild salmonid fish, specific individual behavioral traits have been correlated with the timing of fry emergence from their gravel spawning nests; Early emerging fish display more aggressive behavior and have a higher probability of becoming socially dominant, compared to fish that emerge at a later stage. Apart from aggression and dominance, other behavioral and metabolic traits, such as boldness, metabolic rate, or growth, have also been linked to emergence time. Altogether, the traits of early- and late-emerging fish resemble those of the proactive and reactive stress-coping style, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636748/e-cadherin-mediates-uvr-and-calcium-induced-melanin-transfer-in-human-skin-cells
#8
Suman K Singh, Richard Baker, Stephen K Sikkink, Carine Nizard, Sylvianne Schnebert, Robin Kurfurst, Desmond J Tobin
Skin pigmentation is directed by epidermal-melanin units, characterized by long-lived and dendritic epidermal melanocytes (MC) that interact with viable keratinocytes (KC) to contribute melanin to the epidermis. Previously we reported that MC:KC contact is required for melanosome transfer, that this can be enhanced by filopodial and by UVR/UVA irradiation, which can up-regulate melanosome transfer via Myosin X-mediated control of MC filopodia. Both MC and KC express Ca(2+) -dependent E-cadherins. These homophilic adhesion contacts induce transient increases in intra-KC Ca(2+) , while ultraviolet radiation (UVR) raises intra-MC Ca(2+) via calcium selective ORAI1 ion channels; both are associated with regulating melanogenesis...
June 21, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635676/comment-on-melanisation-of-aspergillus-terreus-is-butyrolactone-i-involved-in-the-regulation-of-both-dopa-and-dhn-types-of-pigments-in-submerged-culture-microorganisms-2017-5-22
#9
Elena Geib, Matthias Brock
A recent article by Palonen et al. describes the effect of butyrolactone I on the expression of a secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene cluster from Aspergillus terreus that shows similarities to fusarubin biosynthesis gene clusters from Fusarium species. The authors claim that two different types of pigments are formed in Aspergillus terreus conidia, whereby one pigment is termed a DOPA-type melanin and the second a DHN-type melanin. Unfortunately, the terminology of the classification of melanin-types requires revision as Asp-melanin present in A...
June 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629701/a-polymethoxyflavone-mixture-extracted-from-orange-peels-mainly-containing-nobiletin-3-3-4-5-6-7-8-heptamethoxyflavone-and-tangeretin-suppresses-melanogenesis-through-the-acidification-of-cell-organelles-including-melanosomes
#10
Norihiro Yoshizaki, Ron Hashizume, Hitoshi Masaki
BACKGROUND: Skin color is determined by melanin contents and its distribution. Melanin is synthesized in melanosomes of melanocytes, catalyzed by tyrosinase, melanogenic enzymes. Regarding the process of melanin synthesis, melanosomal pH is considered to play an important role, because it has been reported to differ between Caucasian and Black melanocytes. OBJECTIVE: Although polymethoxyflavone (PMF) has many beneficial effects, it has not been reported which PMF suppresses melanogenesis...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628832/young-leaves-of-reed-phragmites-communis-suppress-melanogenesis-and-oxidative-stress-in-b16f10-melanoma-cells
#11
Mi-Ok Sim, Ju Ri Ham, Mi-Kyung Lee
This study investigated the effects young leaves of reed (Phragmites communis) water extract (YLR) on melanogenesis and oxidative stress using B16F10 cells. YLR decreased the intracellular melanin content, protein expression and enzyme activity of tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. YLR significantly decreased the gene and protein expression of melanogeneis-related proteins, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and tyrosinase-related protein-1 and -2. In addition, YLR up-regulated the melanogenesis inhibitory proteins, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase B (AKT), while it dose-dependently down-regulated p38 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)...
June 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628688/effectiveness-of-a-nutraceutical-during-non-ablative-1927-nm-fractional-laser-on-patients-with-facial-hyperpigmentation-and-photoaging
#12
Joely Kaufman-Janette, Alex Cazzaniga, Annelyse Ballin, Rachel Swanson-Garcell
<p>Background: Fractional lasers have been proven to treat hyperpigmentation and photoaging. Little research has been done on the effects of supplements on healing post-laser resurfacing. A nutraceutical could offer the benefit of faster healing of the skin and fewer side effects.</p> <p>Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of a nutraceutical associated with fractional 1927 nm laser in healing time and effectiveness on hyperpigmentation and photoaging.</p> <p>Methods & Materials: A prospective, randomized, evaluator-blinded, pilot study included Fitzpatrick skin types I-III patients with hyperpigmentation and photoaging randomly assigned to two groups...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627959/two-cases-of-primary-leptomeningeal-melanomatosis-mimicking-subacute-meningitis
#13
Sabina Aslan, Rahsan Gocmen, Nazire Pınar Acar, Farid Khasiyev, Ekim Gumeler, Figen Soylemezoglu, Aslı Tuncer, Ethem Murat Arsava, Mehmet Akif Topçuoglu, Isin Unal Cevik
Primary involvement of leptomeninges with melanocytic tumours is rarely seen and its diagnosis is challenging. Here we summarise two cases of primary leptomeningeal melanomatosis presenting as subacute meningitis. Both cases have pleocytosis and high protein on cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and demonstrated atypical cells on cytology. On magnetic resonance imaging, there is diffuse leptomeningal thickening and avid enhancement of intracranial and intraspinal leptomeninges. One of them demonstrates T1 shortening due to magnetic effects of melanin, the other case is amelanotic and shows hypointensity on precontrast T1-weighted images...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626527/systematic-data-mining-reveals-synergistic-h3r-mchr1-ligands
#14
David Schaller, Stefanie Hagenow, Gina Alpert, Alexandra Naß, Robert Schulz, Marcel Bermudez, Holger Stark, Gerhard Wolber
In this study, we report a ligand-centric data mining approach that guided the identification of suitable target profiles for treating obesity. The newly developed method is based on identifying target pairs for synergistic positive effects and also encompasses the exclusion of compounds showing a detrimental effect on obesity treatment (off-targets). Ligands with known activity against obesity-relevant targets were compared using fingerprint representations. Similar compounds with activities to different targets were evaluated for the mechanism of action since activation or deactivation of drug targets determines the pharmacological effect...
June 8, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626485/isolation-and-characterization-of-isofraxidin-7-o-6-o-p-coumaroyl-%C3%AE-glucopyranoside-from-artemisia-capillaris-thunberg-a-novel-nontoxic-hyperpigmentation-agent-that-is-effective-in-vivo
#15
Soon-Ho Yim, Nadia Tabassum, Woong-Hee Kim, Haaglim Cho, Ji-Hyung Lee, Galzad J Batkhuu, Hyun Jung Kim, Won Keun Oh, Da-Woon Jung, Darren R Williams
Abnormalities in skin pigmentation can produce disorders such as albinism or melasma. There is a research need to discover novel compounds that safely and effectively regulate pigmentation. To identify novel modulators of pigmentation, we attempted to purify compounds from a bioactive fraction of the Korean medicinal plant Artemisia capillaris Thunberg. The novel compound isofraxidin 7-O-(6'-O-p-coumaroyl)-β-glucopyranoside (compound 1) was isolated and its pigmentation activity was characterized in mammalian melanocytes...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625749/preclinical-evaluation-of-melanocortin-1-receptor-mc1-r-specific-68-ga-and-44-sc-labeled-dota-napamide-in-melanoma-imaging
#16
Gábor Nagy, Noémi Dénes, Adrienn Kis, Judit P Szabó, Ervin Berényi, Ildikó Garai, Péter Bai, István Hajdu, Dezső Szikra, György Trencsényi
PURPOSE: Alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) enhances melanogenesis in melanoma malignum by binding to melanocortin-1 receptors (MC1-R). Earlier studies demonstrated that alpha-MSH analog NAPamide molecule specifically binds to MC1-R receptor. Radiolabeled NAPamide is a promising radiotracer for the non-invasive detection of melanin producing melanoma tumors by Positron Emission Tomography (PET). In this present study the MC1-R selectivity of the newly developed Sc-44-labeled DOTA-NAPamide was investigated in vitro and in vivo using melanoma tumors...
June 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623168/access-to-nicotine-in-drinking-water-reduces-weight-gain-without-changing-caloric-intake-on-high-fat-diet-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#17
Cali A Calarco, Somin Lee, Marina R Picciotto
Nicotine and tobacco use is associated with lower body weight, and many smokers report concerns about weight. In animal studies, nicotine reduces weight gain, reduces food consumption, and alters energy expenditure, but these effects vary with duration and route of nicotine administration. Previous studies have used standardized nicotine doses, however, in this study, male and female mice had free access to nicotine drinking water for 30 days while fed either a high fat diet (HFD) or chow, allowing animals to titrate their nicotine intake...
June 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623131/fgf21-regulates-melanogenesis-in-alpaca-melanocytes-via-erk1-2-mediated-mitf-downregulation
#18
Ruiwei Wang, Tianzhi Chen, Bingling Zhao, Ruiwen Fan, Kaiyuan Ji, Xiuju Yu, Xianjun Wang, Changsheng Dong
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is known as a metabolic regulator to regulate the metabolism of glucose and lipids. However, the underlying mechanism of FGF21 on melanin synthesis remains unknown. Therefore, the current study investigates the effect of FGF21 on melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. We transfected the FGF21 into alpaca melanocytes, then detected the melanin contents, protein and mRNA levels of pigmentation-related genes in order to determine the melanogenesis-regulating pathway of FGF21. The results showed that FGF21 overexpression suppressed melanogenesis and decreased the expression of the major target genes termed microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and its downstream genes, including tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2)...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620422/special-considerations-for-vitamin-d-in-the-south-asian-population-in-the-uk
#19
REVIEW
Nicola M Lowe, Issak Bhojani
The human requirement for vitamin D is achieved primarily through the synthesis of this prehormone in the skin during exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, with only a minor contribution from the diet, year round. Achieving optimal vitamin D status is therefore largely dependent upon adequate exposure of the skin to sunlight, however, the length of exposure required varies with latitude and season, and is also dependent upon skin pigmentation, with darker skin requiring greater exposure than fair skin due to the protective effects of melanin against UVB radiation...
June 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616680/melanization-of-fusarium-keratoplasticum-f-solani-species-complex-during-disseminated-fusariosis-in-a-patient-with-acute-leukemia
#20
Siri Chiewchanvit, Siriporn Chongkae, Pongsak Mahanupab, Joshua D Nosanchuk, Soraya Pornsuwan, Nongnuch Vanittanakom, Sirida Youngchim
Fusarium spp. are recognized as the second most frequently filamentous fungi causing opportunistic infections and particularly important due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. F. keratoplasticum (a member of F. solani species complex) is one of the Fusarium species commonly associated with human infection, and therefore, studies on the virulence of this fungus are needed. This study aimed to confirm the presence of melanin in F. keratoplasticum from a patient with systemic fusariosis. Immunofluorescence labeling with anti-melanin monoclonal antibody (MAb) was used to examine an expression of melanin in F...
June 14, 2017: Mycopathologia
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