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Larissa Bueno Tofani, Lívia Vieira Depieri, Patrícia Mazureki Campos, Thalita Bachelli Riul, Kamilla Swiech Antonietto, Márcia Carvalho de Abreu Fantini, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra Bentley
PURPOSE: Vitiligo is a skin disease characterized by depigmentation and the presence of white patches that are associated with the loss of melanocytes. The most common explanation for the cause of this condition is that it is an autoimmune condition. TyRP-1 is involved in melanin pigment synthesis but can also function as a melanocyte differentiation antigen. This protein plays a role in the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, which results in the depigmentation, characteristic of this disease...
March 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Tobias M R Houlton, Caroline Wilkinson
Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Cheong-Yong Yun, Seon Mi Ko, Yong Pyo Choi, Beom Joon Kim, Jungno Lee, Jae Mun Kim, Ju Yeon Kim, Jin Yong Song, Song-Hee Kim, Bang Yeon Hwang, Jin Tae Hong, Sang-Bae Han, Youngsoo Kim
Rationale: cAMP up-regulates microphthalmia-associated transcription factor subtype M (MITF-M) and tyrosinase (Tyro) in the generation of heavily pigmented melanosomes. Here, we communicate a therapeutic mechanism of hyperpigmented disorder by α-viniferin, an active constituent of Caragana sinica . Methods: We used cAMP-elevated melanocyte cultures or facial hyperpigmented patches for pigmentation assays, and applied immunoprecipitation, immunobloting, RT-PCR or reporter gene for elucidation of the antimelanogenic mechanism...
2018: Theranostics
Liang Zhang, Danli Sheng, Dong Wang, Yuanzhi Yao, Ke Yang, Zhigang Wang, Liming Deng, Yu Chen
Background: The construction of theranostic nanosystems with concurrently high biosafety and therapeutic performance is a challenge but has great significance for the clinical translation of nanomedicine for combating cancer. Methods: Bio-inspired melanin-based nanoliposomes (Lip-Mel) as theranostic agents were constructed for simultaneous photoacoustic (PA) imaging- and T1 -weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided photothermal ablation of tumors, which was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo . The high biosafety of Lip-Mel was also systematically evaluated...
2018: Theranostics
Hannah Klaassen, Yongfu Wang, Kay Adamski, Nicolas Rohner, Johanna E Kowalko
Understanding the genetic basis of trait evolution is critical to identifying the mechanisms that generated the immense amount of diversity observable in the living world. However, genetically manipulating organisms from natural populations with evolutionary adaptations remains a significant challenge. Astyanax mexicanus, the blind Mexican cavefish, exists in two interfertile forms, a surface-dwelling form and multiple independently evolved cave-dwelling forms. Cavefish have evolved a number of morphological and behavioral traits and multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses have been performed to identify loci underlying these traits...
March 16, 2018: Developmental Biology
Monira M Rageh, Reem H El-Gebaly
The radioprotective and antioxidant activities of melanin nanoparticles (MNP) were investigated in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro and BALB/C mice in vivo. The endpoints measured were cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, DNA damage (comet assay), and histopathological examination of tissues. Irradiated groups showed decreased SOD activity and increased MDA levels. Irradiation caused a 3-10-fold increase in comet parameters such as % tail DNA. Treatment with MNP protected cells from DNA damage and death, restored SOD activity, and decreased MDA production...
April 2018: Mutation Research
Taisuke Matsuo, Aki Fujiwara, Kazuhiro Nakamura, Yasuyuki Sadzuka
B16F10 murine melanoma cells are frequently used for the study of cancer and melanogenesis. The cells are usually cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, with the addition of 20 µM pyridoxal (PL) or pyridoxine (PN) for vitamin B6 . The difference between these vitamin B6 compounds is thought not to affect cell proliferation, whereas their influence on other physiological effects is poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of PL and PN on cell proliferation and melanogenesis in B16F10 cells were compared...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
P Bouschon, A-C Bursztejn, J Waton, F Brault, J-L Schmutz
BACKGROUND: Hair bleaching is increasingly being carried out in hairdressing salons. The products used are a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and persulfates, both active chemical agents. Scalp burns secondary to hair bleaching are a traumatic adverse effect rarely discussed in publications that continue to be little known among healthcare professionals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a plaque of scarring alopecia on the vertex. This lesion resulted from a deep burn following a hair-bleaching procedure...
March 14, 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
Arturo Casadevall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2018: Nature
Zhen-Hua Duan, Hua-Zhong Liu, Ping Luo, Yi-Peng Gu, Yan-Qun Li
BACKGROUND: Preservative effect of melanin-free extract of Sepia esculenta ink (MFESI) on Sparus latus fillet has been verified in our previous work. This study aims to further approach the mechanism of MFESI for extending the shelf-life of fish fillet during cold storage. Tilapia fillets were treated with different dosage of MFESI (0, 15, 25 and 35 mg/ml) and packed with preservative film for succedent cold-storage at 4 °C for scheduled time. Contents of total volatile basic nitrogen and sulfydryl and carbanyl groups were measured for evaluating protein oxidation...
March 14, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Kamal U Zaidi, Sharique A Ali, Ayesha S Ali
Background: Human skin exists in a wide range of different colors and gradations, ranging from white to brown to black. This is due to the presence of a chemically inert and stable pigment known as melanin, which is produced deep inside the skin but is displayed as a mosaic at the surface of the body. Methods & Materials: In mammalian melanocytes, melanosome is a highly specialized organelle where melanin is synthesized. Melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the vital enzyme in melanogenic pathway...
2018: Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal
Natalya Cherno, Sophya Osolina, Oleksandra Nikitina
One of the methods for curing obesity is the inclusion of some substances with the antilipase activity in the diet and thus reducing the uptake of fat components from food. The aim of this research is to provide a stabilized form of lipase inhibitor by immobilization of enzyme on the biopolymers from Agaricus bisporus cell walls. The phenolic compounds extracted from the rapeseed were considered as the lipase inhibitor. The activity of the inhibitor was considerably reduced in the gastric juice, as well as at temperatures above 37 °C and during its storage, which determined the suitability of the inhibitor for stabilization on the matrix...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Nwet Nwet Win, So-Yeun Woo, Hla Ngwe, Prema, Chin Piow Wong, Takuya Ito, Yasuko Okamoto, Masami Tanaka, Hiroshi Imagawa, Yoshinori Asakawa, Ikuro Abe, Hiroyuki Morita
Two new tetrahydrofuran lignans, taungtangyiols A (1) and B (2), and eight known furofuran lignans (3-10), were isolated from the chloroform extract of Premna integrifolia wood collected in Myanmar. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques. The X-ray crystal structure of 1 clearly indicated its relative configuration. Taungtangyiols A (1) and B (2) inhibited the deposition of melanin in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells, with IC50 values of 50.7 and 40.9 μM, respectively, without notable cytotoxicity...
March 11, 2018: Fitoterapia
Claudia Laperchia, Yuan-Zhong Xu, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Tiziana Cotrufo, Marina Bentivoglio
Neuron populations of the lateral hypothalamus which synthesize the orexin (OX)/hypocretin or melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) peptides play crucial, reciprocal roles in regulating wake stability and sleep. The disease human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called sleeping sickness, caused by extracellular Trypanosoma brucei ( T. b .) parasites, leads to characteristic sleep-wake cycle disruption and narcoleptic-like alterations of the sleep structure. Previous studies have revealed damage of OX and MCH neurons during systemic infection of laboratory rodents with the non-human pathogenic T...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Donato Gerin, Luis González-Candelas, Ana-Rosa Ballester, Stefania Pollastro, Rita Milvia De Miccolis Angelini, Francesco Faretra
Aspergillus carbonarius, belonging to the group Nigri , is the main species responsible for contamination by ochratoxin A (OTA) in grapes and derivative products. OTA can accumulate in the mycelium and in black conidia of the fungus and released into the matrix. Here, we have deleted in A. carbonarius the alb1 orthologue gene of A. fumigatus , involved in melanin biosynthesis. Three A. carbonarius Δ alb1 mutants were characterized for morphologic traits and OTA production on different media and temperatures...
March 12, 2018: Toxins
Vishnu Manirethan, Keyur Raval, Reju Rajan, Harsha Thaira, Raj Mohan Balakrishnan
The difficulty in removal of heavy metals at concentrations below 10 mg/L has led to the exploration of efficient adsorbents for removal of heavy metals. The adsorption capacity of biosynthesized melanin for Mercury (Hg(II)), Chromium (Cr(VI)), Lead (Pb(II)) and Copper (Cu(II)) was investigated at different operating conditions like pH, time, initial concentration and temperature. The heavy metals adsorption process was well illustrated by the Lagergren's pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the equilibrium data fitted excellently to Langmuir isotherm...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Abeer A Alm-Eldeen, Thoria Donia, Salma Alzahaby
Heavy metals are the most dangerous hazards affecting aquatic biota in Egypt specially the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, which is an important species in commercial fisheries. Some areas were not fully studied to screen the hazards that may affect this economic fish. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the potential hazards of heavy metals on O. niloticus in Al-Gharbiya Governorate in the Middle delta of Egypt. Water and fish samples were collected from Al-Qased canal, Kafr El-Zayaat Nile, El-Maash canal in Al-Gharbiya Governorate plus a reference site which is a fish farm at the Faculty of Agriculture, Damietta University, Damitta Governorate, Egypt...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Loes H M Peeters, Hendrik P Huinink, Benjamin Voogt, Olaf C G Adan
Aureobasidium melanogenum is the main fungus found in a spontaneously formed biofilm on a oil-treated wood. This dark colored biofilm functions as a protective coating. To better understand biofilm formation, in this study A. melanogenum was cultured on olive oil and raw linseed oil. Metabolic activity and oil conversion were measured. The results show that A. melanogenum is able to grow on linseed oil and olive oil as a single carbon source. The fungus produces the enzyme lipase to convert the oil into fatty acids and glycerol...
March 12, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Qinghao Jin, Xiang Hua Han, Cheong-Yong Yun, Chul Lee, Jin Woo Lee, Dongho Lee, Mi Kyeong Lee, Sang-Hun Jung, Jin Tae Hong, Youngsoo Kim, Bang Yeon Hwang
Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract from the roots of Cynanchum atratum has resulted in the isolation of three new pregnane glycosides (1-3) along with four known compounds (4-7). Their structures were identified by analysis of the spectroscopic data including extensive 2D NMR. All of the isolates were evaluated for their potential to inhibit the melanin production in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-activated B16 melanoma cells. Of these, compounds 4-7 dose-dependently inhibited the melanin production with the IC50 values ranging from 4 μM to 33 μM...
January 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Suh-Yeon Choi, Bum-Ho Bin, Wanil Kim, Eunkyung Lee, Tae Ryong Lee, Eun-Gyung Cho
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a well-known factor in skin aging and pigmentation, and daily exposure to subcytotoxic doses of UVR might accelerate senescence and senescence-associated phenomena in human melanocytes. OBJECTIVE: To establish an in vitro melanocyte model to mimic the conditions of repeated exposure to subcytotoxic doses of UVB irradiation and to investigate key factor(s) for melanocyte senescence and senescence-associated phenomena. METHODS: Human epidermal melanocytes were exposed twice with 20 mJ/cm2 UVB over a 24-h interval and subsequently cultivated for 2 weeks...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
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