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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805351/microbial-melanins-for-radioprotection-and-bioremediation
#1
Radames J B Cordero, Raghav Vij, Arturo Casadevall
Microbial melanins provide a biocompatible and scalable approach for bioremediation and radioprotection technologies due to their physicochemical properties.
August 14, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805346/melanin-quantification-by-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analysis-of-near-infrared-fluorescence
#2
Sunil Kalia, Jianhua Zhao, Haishan Zeng, David McLean, Nikiforos Kollias, Harvey Lui
Objective measurements of melanin can provide important information for differentiating melanoma from benign pigmented lesions and in assessing pigmentary diseases. Herein, we evaluate near infrared fluorescence as a possible tool to quantify melanin. Various concentrations of in vitro Sepia melanin in tissue phantoms were measured with near-infrared fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Similar optic measurements were conducted in vivo on 161 normal human skin sites. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy was used to quantify the melanin content via Stamatas-Kollias algorithm...
August 14, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804723/ethosomes-of-phenylethyl-resorcinol-as-vesicular-delivery-system-for-skin-lightening-applications
#3
Tunyaluk Limsuwan, Prapaporn Boonme, Pasarat Khongkow, Thanaporn Amnuaikit
Ethosome formulations containing phenylethyl resorcinol (PR) were developed. The formulation was produced from 0.5% w/v PR, 0.5% w/v cholesterol from lanolin, 3% w/v L-α-phosphatidylcholine from soybean, 30% v/v absolute ethanol, and water up to 100% v/v. It was characterized by a vesicular size of 389 nm, low polydispersity index of 0.266, zeta potential of -34.19 ± 0.44 mV, high PR entrapment efficiency of 71%, and good stability on storage at 4 and 30°C at 75% RH for 4 months. In vitro studies using pig skin revealed that permeation coefficient of PR from ethosomes was significantly higher than that from liposomes...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803870/industrial-melanism-in-the-seasnake-emydocephalus-annulatus
#4
Claire Goiran, Paco Bustamante, Richard Shine
Although classically associated with urban environments in invertebrates, melanism in terrestrial snakes is more often linked to occupancy of cool climates [1-3]. Thermal advantages to melanism do not apply in aquatic snakes [4], but although turtle-headed seasnakes (Emydocephalus annulatus) are banded or blotched across a wide geographic range [5], most individuals are melanic in polluted inshore bays of the Pacific island of New Caledonia [4]. Why has melanism evolved in these urban sites? Because trace elements bind to melanin, darker feathers enhance a bird's ability to shed pollutants [6]...
August 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795984/electrophoto-biomodulation-in-aesthetic-treatment-of-postburn-hypopigmentation-clinical-response-in-relation-to-histopathological-changes
#5
Nader Elmelegy, Dalia Mohamed Mofreh El Sakka
BACKGROUND: Hypopigmentation is a troublesome often-permanent sequelae after burn injury, particularly in dark races. A number of methods have been described to treat this phenomenon. In this work, we are going to study the effect of E light (intensive pulsed light+radiofrequency+cooling) in repigmentation of partial thickness and full thickness burn wounds in adult patients and light microscopic changes of biopsy material at various stages of repigmentation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, 24 patients with postburn hypopigmentation were selected and E light was used, using different filters, according to the skin color...
September 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793915/the-functional-property-of-royal-jelly-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic-acid-as-a-melanogenesis-inhibitor
#6
Chi-Chung Peng, Hui-Tzu Sun, I-Ping Lin, Ping-Chung Kuo, Jen-Chieh Li
BACKGROUND: It has been reported that royal jelly would reduce melanin synthesis and inhibit the expression of melanogensis related proteins and genes. In this study, we evaluate the anti-melanogenic and depigmenting activity of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) from royal jelly of Apis mellifera. METHODS: In this study, we assesses the 10-HDA whitening activity in comparison with the changes in the intracellular tyrosinase activity, melanin content and melanin production related protein levles in B16F1 melanoma cells after treating with 10-HDA...
August 9, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791605/laser-and-light-treatments-for-hair-reduction-in-fitzpatrick-skin-types-iv-vi-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Rachel A Fayne, Marina Perper, Ariel E Eber, Adam S Aldahan, Keyvan Nouri
Unwanted facial and body hair presents as a common finding in many patients, such as females with hirsutism. With advances in laser and light technology, a clinically significant reduction in hair can be achieved in patients with light skin. However, in patients with darker skin, Fitzpatrick skin types (FST) IV-VI, the higher melanin content of the skin interferes with the proposed mechanism of laser-induced selective photothermolysis, which is to target the melanin in the hair follicle to cause permanent destruction of hair bulge stem cells...
August 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783106/melanin-based-contrast-agents-for-biomedical-optoacoustic-imaging-and-theranostic-applications
#8
REVIEW
Dario Livio Longo, Rachele Stefania, Silvio Aime, Alexander Oraevsky
Optoacoustic imaging emerged in early 1990s as a new biomedical imaging technology that generates images by illuminating tissues with short laser pulses and detecting resulting ultrasound waves. This technique takes advantage of the spectroscopic approach to molecular imaging, and delivers high-resolution images in the depth of tissue. Resolution of the optoacoustic imaging is scalable, so that biomedical systems from cellular organelles to large organs can be visualized and, more importantly, characterized based on their optical absorption coefficient, which is proportional to the concentration of absorbing chromophores...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781051/an-exceptionally-preserved-three-dimensional-armored-dinosaur-reveals-insights-into-coloration-and-cretaceous-predator-prey-dynamics
#9
Caleb M Brown, Donald M Henderson, Jakob Vinther, Ian Fletcher, Ainara Sistiaga, Jorsua Herrera, Roger E Summons
Predator-prey dynamics are an important evolutionary driver of escalating predation mode and efficiency, and commensurate responses of prey [1-3]. Among these strategies, camouflage is important for visual concealment, with countershading the most universally observed [4-6]. Extant terrestrial herbivores free of significant predation pressure, due to large size or isolation, do not exhibit countershading. Modern predator-prey dynamics may not be directly applicable to those of the Mesozoic due to the dominance of very large, visually oriented theropod dinosaurs [7]...
July 31, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780712/relationship-between-salt-tolerance-and-nanoparticle-synthesis-by-williopsis-saturnus-ncim-3298
#10
Pallavi Mohite, Ameeta Ravi Kumar, Smita Zinjarde
This work describes cell associated and extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles by the yeast, Williopsis saturnus. The yeast was able to grow in the absence and presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) and form nanoparticles in a cell associated manner. The content of melanin, a stress-associated pigment was found to be progressively greater in the presence of increasing concentrations of NaCl. With higher quantities of melanin (extracted from yeast cells grown in the presence of 4% of NaCl), smaller sized nanoparticles were obtained...
September 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777326/upregulation-of-melanogenesis-and-tyrosinase-activity-potential-agents-for-vitiligo
#11
REVIEW
Chao Niu, Haji A Aisa
Melanin, the compound primarily responsible in humans for hair, eye and skin pigmentation, is produced by melanocytes through a complicated process called melanogenesis that is catalyzed by tyrosinase and other tyrosinase-related proteins. The abnormal loss of melanin causes dermatological problems such as vitiligo. Hence the regulation of melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity is very important for treating hypopigmentary disorders. Many melanogenesis stimulators have been discovered during the past decade...
August 4, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777149/malignant-melanoma-presenting-as-thoracic-midline-malignancy-clinicopathologic-and-molecular-features
#12
Keluo Yao, Weiqiang Zhao, Saeed Bajestani, Alejandro Gru, Gregory Otterson, Konstantin Shilo
Because of rarity, clinicopathologic and genomic profiles of noncutaneous malignant melanoma (MM) are not well characterized. In this study, we provide a detailed evaluation of 6 cases of MM presenting as thoracic midline malignancy. The tumors occurred in 6 white patients (5 males and 1 female; medium age, 71.5 y; range, 55 to 81 y). At presentation, the disease was confined to the chest (6/6) with 4 cases subsequently showing brain metastasis. All 6 tumors featured epithelioid and 1 case also spindle cell morphology...
August 2, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777094/in-crystallo-activity-tests-with-latent-apple-tyrosinase-and-two-mutants-reveal-the-importance-of-the-mutated-sites-for-polyphenol-oxidase-activity
#13
Ioannis Kampatsikas, Aleksandar Bijelic, Matthias Pretzler, Annette Rompel
Tyrosinases are type 3 copper enzymes that belong to the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) family and are able to catalyze both the ortho-hydroxylation of monophenols and their subsequent oxidation to o-quinones, which are precursors for the biosynthesis of colouring substances such as melanin. The first plant pro-tyrosinase from Malus domestica (MdPPO1) was recombinantly expressed in its latent form (56.4 kDa) and mutated at four positions around the catalytic pocket which are believed to influence the activity of the enzyme...
August 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774590/human-adipose-mesenchymal-cells-inhibit-melanocyte-differentiation-and-the-pigmentation-of-human-skin-via-increased-expression-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1
#14
Agnes S Klar, Thomas Biedermann, Katarzyna Michalak, Teresa Michalczyk, Claudia Meuli-Simmen, Arnaud Scherberich, Martin Meuli, Ernst Reichmann
There is accumulating evidence that interactions between epidermal melanocytes and stromal cells play an important role in the regulation of skin pigmentation. In this study we established a pigmented dermo-epidermal skin model (melDESS) of human origin to investigate the effects of distinct stromal cells on melanogenesis. melDESS is a complex, clinically relevant skin equivalent composed of an epidermis containing both melanocytes and keratinocytes. Its dermal compartment consisted either of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASC), dermal fibroblasts, or a mixture of both cell types...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771832/spectracam-%C3%A2-a-new-polarized-hyperspectral-imaging-system-for-repeatable-and-reproducible-in-vivo-skin-quantification-of-melanin-total-hemoglobin-and-oxygen-saturation
#15
A Nkengne, J Robic, P Seroul, S Gueheunneux, M Jomier, K Vie
BACKGROUND: An accurate way to determine skin pigmentation is to acquire the spectral reflectance of a skin sample and to quantify chromophores by reverse calculation from physical models of light propagation. Therefore, we tested a new hyperspectral imaging device and software suite, the SpectraCam(®) system, and evaluated its accuracy to quantify skin chromophores. METHODS: Validation of the SpectraCam(®) system was performed by, firstly, comparing the known and the acquired reflectance spectra of color phantoms...
August 2, 2017: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771397/complex-plumage-patterns-can-be-produced-only-with-the-contribution-of-melanins
#16
Ismael Galván, Jorge García-Campa, Juan J Negro
Birds exhibit an extraordinary diversity of plumage pigmentation patterns. It has been overlooked, however, that complex patterns can be produced only with the contribution of melanins because these are the only pigments under direct cellular control. We tested this hypothesis for the first time examining the plumage patterning of all species of extant birds. Thirty-two percent of species show complex plumage patterns, the vast majority (98%) including the contribution of colors produced by melanins. Only 53 species show complex patterns that do not contain melanin-based colors, and these species display unusual colorations and belong to three families where innovative metabolic modifications of conventional carotenoid pigments have been described...
September 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768883/structural-coloured-feathers-of-mallards-act-by-simple-multilayer-photonics
#17
Doekele G Stavenga, Casper J van der Kooi, Bodo D Wilts
The blue colours of the speculum of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), both male and female, and the green head feathers of the male arise from light interacting with stacks of melanosomes residing in the feather barbules. Here, we show that the iridescent colours can be quantitatively explained with an optical multilayer model by using a position-dependent effective refractive index, which results from the varying ratio of melanin and keratin. Reflectance spectra obtained by multilayer modelling and three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations were virtually identical...
August 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766970/effect-of-polyphenols-from-vicia-faba-l-on-lipase-activity-and-melanogenesis
#18
Ahmed E Allam, Alaa M Nafady, Toshinori Nakagawa, Naomichi Takemoto, Kuniyoshi Shimizu
Two new flavonoid glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6) (3''-acetyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside 1 and kaempferol 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-5-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside 2, along with six known ones 3-8 were isolated from the flowers of Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae). Methanol extract and the isolated compounds were tested against lipase and melanogenesis inhibition activities and resulted in that compound 2 showed 53 and 77% lipase inhibition activity in concentrations of 400 and 800 μg/mL, respectively...
August 2, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765043/feruloylserotonin-inhibits-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-melanogenesis-and-apoptosis-in-b16f10-and-sk-mel-2-melanoma-cells
#19
Hyejoung Cho, Okjoon Kim, Younghee Lee, Li-Jung Kang, Cam Ngoc Nguyen, Atsushi Ishihara, Hye-Eun Kim
Feruloylserotonin (FS) is a major bioactive component of safflower seeds, with documented strong antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and free radical scavenging activities. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can strongly induce melanogenesis and cell apoptosis. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of FS in preventing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced melanogenesis and cell apoptosis. Melanogenesis and apoptotic cell death were induced by transient exposure to H2O2 in B16F10 and SK-Mel-2 melanoma cells...
July 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763335/validation-of-digital-pathology-for-primary-histopathological-diagnosis-of-routine-inflammatory-dermatopathology-cases
#20
Jonathan J Lee, Jaroslaw Jedrych, Liron Pantanowitz, Jonhan Ho
BACKGROUND: Digital pathology (DP) systems have been validated for routine, histopathological diagnosis by several investigators. The diagnostic matter in previous studies is composed mostly of neoplasms. However, in dermatopathology, inflammatory diseases constitute a greater proportion of cases and have been under-represented in this literature. Herein, we report the results of a prospective, DP side-by-side validation study comparing the histologic assessment of routine, clinical inflammatory dermatopathology cases by whole slide imaging (WSI) and traditional light microscopy (LM)...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
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