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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919895/mind-the-gaps-in-tumor-immunity-impact-of-connexin-mediated-intercellular-connections
#1
REVIEW
María Alejandra Gleisner, Mariela Navarrete, Francisca Hofmann, Flavio Salazar-Onfray, Andrés Tittarelli
Gap junctions (GJs)-mediated intercellular communications (GJICs) are connexin (Cx)-formed plasma membrane channels that allow for the passage of small molecules between adjacent cells, and are involved in several physiopathological processes, including immune responses against cancer. In general, tumor cells are poorly coupled through GJs, mainly due to low Cx expression or reduced channel activity, suggesting that Cxs may have tumor suppressor roles. However, more recent data indicate that Cxs and/or GJICs may also in some cases promote tumor progression...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917982/connexin-hemichannels-and-cochlear-function
#2
REVIEW
Vytas K Verselis
Connexins play vital roles in hearing, including promoting cochlear development and sustaining auditory function in the mature cochlea. Mutations in connexins expressed in the cochlear epithelium, Cx26 and Cx30, cause sensorineural deafness and in the case of Cx26, is one of the most common causes of non-syndromic, hereditary deafness. Connexins function as gap junction channels and as hemichannels, which mediate intercellular and transmembrane signaling, respectively. Both channel configurations can play important, but very different roles in the cochlea...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916327/glycogen-metabolism-in-brain-and-neurons-astrocytes-metabolic-cooperation-can-be-altered-by-pre-and-neonatal-lead-pb-exposure
#3
Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Anna Falkowska, Izabela Gutowska, Magdalena Gąssowska, Agnieszka Kolasa-Wołosiuk, Maciej Tarnowski, Karina Chibowska, Marta Goschorska, Dariusz Chlubek
Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxin which particularly affects the developing brain but the molecular mechanism of its neurotoxicity still needs clarification. The aim of this paper was to examine whether pre- and neonatal exposure to Pb (concentration of Pb in rat offspring blood below the "threshold level") may affect the brain's energy metabolism in neurons and astrocytes via the amount of available glycogen. We investigated the glycogen concentration in the brain, as well as the expression of the key enzymes involved in glycogen metabolism in brain: glycogen synthase 1 (Gys1), glycogen phosphorylase (PYGM, an isoform active in astrocytes; and PYGB, an isoform active in neurons) and phosphorylase kinase β (PHKB)...
September 12, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910394/up-regulation-of-gap-junction-in-peripheral-blood-t-lymphocytes-contributes-to-the-inflammatory-response-in-essential-hypertension
#4
Xin Ni, Ai Wang, Liang Zhang, Li-Ya Shan, Hai-Chao Zhang, Li Li, Jun-Qiang Si, Jian Luo, Xin-Zhi Li, Ke-Tao Ma
Inflammation has been shown to play an important role in the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Connexins (Cxs)-based gap junction channels (GJCs) or hemichannels (HCs) are involved in the maintenance of homeostasis in the immune system. However, the role of Cx43-based channels in T-lymphocytes in mediating the immune response in essential hypertension is not fully understand. The present study was designed to investigate the role of Cxs-based channels in T lymphocytes in the regulation of hypertension-mediated inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903013/spatiotemporally-non-uniform-ca-2-dynamics-of-cardiac-purkinje-fibers-in-mouse-myocardial-infarct
#5
Taka-Aki Matsuyama, Hideo Tanaka, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Tetsuro Takamatsu
Surviving Purkinje fibers in myocardial infarct are regarded as an important substrate in arrhythmogenesis. However, poorly understood are functional properties of Purkinje fibers in the infarcted heart. We sought to visualize intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) dynamics of Purkinje fiber networks in the mouse myocardial infarct. Using 3- to 4-day-old or 7- to 9-day-old infarcted hearts after the left coronary-artery ligation corresponding, respectively, to acute or healing phase, we conducted rapid fluo4-fluorescence imaging on the endocardial surface of the left ventricular septum by macro-zoom fluorescence microscopy and rapid-scanning confocal microscopy...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902345/cx32-suppresses-extrinsic-apoptosis-in-human-cervical-cancer-cells-via-the-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signalling-pathway
#6
Yongchang Lai, Lixia Fan, Yifan Zhao, Hui Ge, Xue Feng, Qin Wang, Xiaomin Zhang, Yuexia Peng, Xiyan Wang, Liang Tao
Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and TNF‑related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) usually trigger either survival or apoptosis signals in various cell types, and nuclear factor κB (NF‑κB) is a key factor that regulates their biological effects. Connexin 32 (Cx32) is a gap junction (GJ) protein that plays vital roles in tumourigenesis and tumour progression. Our previous study explored abnormal Cx32 expression in para‑nuclear areas, exacerbated prognostic parameters and suppressed streptonigrin/cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer (CaCx) cells...
August 29, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902343/connexin%C3%A2-43-in-the-development-and-progression-of-breast-cancer-what-s-the-connection-review
#7
Stephanie L Phillips, Carly Bess Williams, Joelle N Zambrano, Christina J Williams, Elizabeth S Yeh
Connexin 43 is a prominent gap junction protein within normal human breast tissue. Thus far, there have been a number of research studies performed to determine the function of connexin 43 in breast tumor formation and progression. Within primary tumors, research suggests that the level of connexin 43 expression in breast tumors is altered when compared to normal human breast tissue. While some reports indicate that connexin 43 levels decrease, other evidence suggests that connexin 43 levels are increased and protein localization shifts from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901429/monocytic-cell-junction-proteins-serve-important-roles-in-atherosclerosis-via-the-endoglin-pathway
#8
Lina Chen, Zhongliang Chen, Menghua Ge, Oushan Tang, Yinhong Cheng, Haoliang Zhou, Yu Shen, Fengming Qin
The formation of atherosclerosis is recognized to be caused by multiple factors including pathogenesis in monocytes during inflammation. The current study provided evidence that monocytic junctions were significantly altered in patients with atherosclerosis, which suggested an association between cell junctions and atherosclerosis. Claudin‑1, occludin‑1 and ZO‑1 were significantly enhanced in atherosclerosis, indicating that the tight junction pathway was activated during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
September 8, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893592/connexins-and-pannexins-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
REVIEW
Christian Giaume, Juan C Sáez, Weihong Song, Luc Leybaert, Christian C Naus
By 2040 neurodegenerative diseases will become the world's second leading cause of death after cardiovascular disease (WHO). Major efforts are required to elucidate the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. Connexin and pannexin membrane channel proteins are conduits through which neuronal, glial, and vascular tissues interact. In the normal brain, this interaction underlies homeostasis, metabolic supply and neuroprotection. In models of neuroinflammation these channels present aberrant functioning...
September 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891194/suspended-graphene-oxide-nanoparticle-for-accelerated-multilayer-osteoblast-attachment
#10
Tahereh Foroutan, Negin Nazemi, Mohadeseh Tavana, Mohammad Zaman Kassaee, Elaheh Motamedi, Shima Soieshargh, Hadi Zare Zardini
Mimicking bone tissues having layered structures is still a significant challenge because of the lack of technologies to assemble osteoblast cell types into bone structures. One of the promising and attractive materials in biomedical and different engineering fields is graphene and graphene-based nanostructures such as graphene oxide (GO) because of their unique properties. In most studies, GO was synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CDV) method, and was coated on the substrate. In this study, we proposed a simple technique for assembly of cells that facilitates the construction of osteoblast -like structures using suspended GO synthesized by graphite powder, H2SO4, and KMnO4...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888784/malignant-ascites-determine-the-transmesothelial-invasion-of-ovarian-cancer-cells
#11
Justyna Mikuła-Pietrasik, Paweł Uruski, Sebastian Szubert, Dariusz Szpurek, Stefan Sajdak, Andrzej Tykarski, Krzysztof Książek
The exact role of malignant ascites in the development of intraperitoneal ovarian cancer metastases remains unclear. In this report we sought to establish if ascites can determine the efficiency of transmesothelial invasion of ovarian cancer cells, and, if so, whether the fluid generated by highly aggressive serous and undifferentiated tumors will promote the invasion more effectively than ascites from less aggressive clear cell and endometrioid cancers. The study showed that the invasion of ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3 and primary cancer cells) across monolayered peritoneal mesothelial cells was elevated upon mesothelial cell exposure to fluid produced by serous and undifferentiated cancers, as compared with cells subjected to ascites from clear cell and endometrioid tumors...
September 6, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888046/gap-junctional-intercellular-communication-in-adipose-derived-stromal-stem-cells-is-cell-density-dependent-and-positively-impacts-adipogenic-differentiation
#12
Wiesner Miriam, Berberich Oliver, Hoefner Christiane, Blunk Torsten, Bauer-Kreisel Petra
Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) represent a widely used cell source with multi-lineage differentiation capacity in approaches for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Despite the multitude of literature on their differentiation capacity, little is reported about the physiological properties contributing to and controlling the process of lineage differentiation. Direct intercellular communication between adjacent cells via gap junctions has been shown to modulate differentiation processes in other cell types, with connexin 43 (Cx43) being the most abundant isoform of the gap junction-forming connexins...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888004/cardiomyocyte-coculture-on-layered-fibrous-scaffolds-assembled-from-micropatterned-electrospun-mats
#13
Yaowen Liu, Guisen Xu, Jiaojun Wei, Qiang Wu, Xiaohong Li
Challenges remain in engineering cardiac tissues with functional and morphological properties similar to those of native myocardium. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats are obtained by deposition of electrospun fibers on lithographic collectors to reproduce the anisotropic structure of myocardium, and carbon nanotubes are included in fibers to provide conductivities at the same level of cardiac muscles. The patterned mats are assembled layer-by-layer into patterned scaffolds for coculture of primary cardiomyocytes (CMs) with cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and endothelial cells (ECs)...
December 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886986/role-of-connexin-and-pannexin-containing-channels-in-hiv-infection-and-neuroaids
#14
REVIEW
Shaily Malik, Eliseo A Eugenin
Neuron-Glia crosstalk is essential for efficient synaptic communication, cell growth and differentiation, neuronal activity, neurotransmitter recycling, and brain immune response. The master regulators of this neuron-glia communication are connexin containing Gap Junctions (GJs) and Hemichannels (HCs) as well as pannexin HCs. However, the role of these channels under pathological conditions, especially in infectious diseases is still in exploratory stages. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) is one such infectious agent that takes advantage of the host intercellular communication systems, GJs and HCs, to exacerbate viral pathogenesis in the brain in spite of the antiretroviral therapy effectively controlling viral replication in the periphery...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886388/snapshot-connexins-and-disease
#15
Dale W Laird, Christian C Naus, Paul D Lampe
The connexin family of membrane proteins enable gap junction formation and homeostasis, supporting communication between adjacent cells. This SnapShot highlights mutations in different connexins associated with human pathologies and how they affect gap junction function.
September 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883041/normoxic-cells-remotely-regulate-the-acid-base-balance-of-cells-at-the-hypoxic-core-of-connexin-coupled-tumor-growths
#16
Tobias H Dovmark, Alzbeta Hulikova, Steven A Niederer, Richard D Vaughan-Jones, Pawel Swietach
ATP fuels the removal of metabolic end-products, including H(+) ions that profoundly modulate biological activities. Energetic resources in hypoxic tumor regions are constrained by low-yielding glycolysis, and any means of reducing the cost of acid extrusion, without compromising pH homeostasis, would therefore be advantageous for cancer cells. Some cancers express connexin channels that allow solute exchange between cells, and we propose that, via this route, normoxic cells supply hypoxic neighbors with acid-neutralizing HCO3(-) ions...
September 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881621/connexin40-controls-endothelial-activation-by-dampening-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation
#17
Jean-Francois Denis, K E Ludwig Scheckenbach, Anna Pfenniger, Merlijn J Meens, Rob Krams, Lucile Miquerol, Steven Taffet, Marc Chanson, Mario Delmar, Brenda R Kwak
Connexins are proteins forming gap junction channels for intercellular communication. Connexin40 (Cx40) is highly expressed by endothelial cells (ECs) of healthy arteries but this expression is lost in ECs overlying atherosclerotic plaques. Low/oscillatory shear stress observed in bends and bifurcations of arteries is atherogenic partly through activation of the pro-inflammatory NFκB pathway in ECs. In this study, we investigated the relation between shear stress, Cx40 and NFκB. Shear stress-modifying casts were placed around carotid arteries of mice expressing eGFP under the Cx40 promoter (Cx40(+/eGFP) )...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878301/epa-dha-6-1-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-hypertension-and-endothelial-dysfunction-in-rats-role-of-nadph-oxidase-and-cox-derived-oxidative-stress
#18
Zahid Rasul Niazi, Grazielle C Silva, Thais Porto Ribeiro, Antonio J León-González, Mohamad Kassem, Abdur Mirajkar, Azhar Alvi, Malak Abbas, Faraj Zgheel, Valérie B Schini-Kerth, Cyril Auger
Eicosapentaenoic acid:docosahexaenoic acid (EPA:DHA) 6:1, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid formulation, has been shown to induce a sustained formation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase-derived NO, a major vasoprotective factor. This study examined whether chronic intake of EPA:DHA 6:1 prevents hypertension and endothelial dysfunction induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) in rats. Male Wister rats received orally corn oil or EPA:DHA 6:1 (500 mg kg(-1) per day) before chronic infusion of Ang II (0...
September 7, 2017: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878091/kisspeptin-regulates-steroidogenesis-and-spermiation-in-anuran-amphibian
#19
Rosanna Chianese, Vincenza Ciaramella, Silvia Fasano, Riccardo Pierantoni, Rosaria Meccariello
Kisspeptin (Kp) system has a recognized role in the control of gonadotropic axis, at multiple levels. Recently, a major focus of research has been to assess any direct activity of this system on testis physiology. Using the amphibian anuran, Pelophylax esculentus, as animal model, we demonstrate - for the first time in non-mammalian vertebrate - that testis expresses both Kiss-1 and Gpr54 proteins during the annual sexual cycle and that ex vivo 17B-estradiol (E2, 10(-6) M) increases both proteins over control group...
October 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875331/implication-of-connexin30-on-the-stemness-of-glioma-connexin30-reverses-the-malignant-phenotype-of-glioma-by-modulating-igf-1r-cd133-and-cmyc
#20
Sankaradoss Arun, Shantha Ravisankar, Arambakkam Janardhanam Vanisree
Gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays a major role in the malignant growth of glioma. Although the mechanistic aspects of GJIC have been extensively studied, the role of connexins in the regulation of the malignant behavior of glioma stem cells (GSCs) remains unclear. In our previous studies, we have shown that connexin30 can interfere with the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), which is known for self-renewal and pluripotency. Following our earlier in vitro observation, in this work, we aimed to study the consequence of this influence of Cx30 on IGF-1R by evaluating the marker of GSCs, CD133 and oncoprotein, cMyc...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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