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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932380/absence-of-vitamin-d-receptor-vdr-mediated-ppar%C3%AE-suppression-causes-alopecia-in-vdr-null-mice
#1
Vaibhav Saini, Hengguang Zhao, Elizabeth T Petit, Francesca Gori, Marie B Demay
Vitamin D receptor (VDR) mutations in humans and mice cause alopecia. VDR-null mice (VDR(-/-)) exhibit lack of postmorphogenic hair cycles as a result of impaired keratinocyte stem cell (KSC) function. To identify the molecular basis for abnormal KSC function, RNA sequencing of wild-type (WT) and VDR(-/-) KSCs was performed. These studies demonstrated that >80% of differentially expressed genes are up-regulated in VDR(-/-) KSCs; thus, the VDR is a transcriptional suppressor in WT KSCs. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), PPARγ coactivator 1β (PGC1β), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were among the up-regulated genes identified...
December 8, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932255/triolein-reduces-mmp-1-upregulation-in-dermal-fibroblasts-generated-by-ros-production-in-uvb-irradiated-keratinocytes
#2
Gustavo J Leirós, Ana Gabriela Kusinsky, María Eugenia Balañá, Karin Hagelin
BACKGROUND: Cytokine production and oxidative stress generated by ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) skin exposure are main factors of skin photoaging. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) produced by irradiated keratinocytes is proposed to have a role in metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression activation in dermal fibroblasts. OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of triolein treatment of UVB-irradiated keratinocytes on MMP1 (interstitial collagenase) expression response of dermal fibroblasts...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931851/spanish-broom-spartium-junceum-l-fibers-impregnated-with-vancomycin-loaded-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-new-antibacterial-wound-dressing-preparation-characterization-and-antibacterial-activity
#3
T Cerchiara, A Abruzzo, R A Ñahui Palomino, B Vitali, R De Rose, G Chidichimo, L Ceseracciu, A Athanassiou, B Saladini, F Dalena, F Bigucci, B Luppi
In this work, we propose as new wound dressing, the Spanish Broom fibers impregnated with vancomycin (VM) loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Spanish Broom fibers were extracted by patented method DiCoDe and the morphological, physical and mechanical properties were investigated. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation using different weight ratios between chitosan (CH) and tripolyphosphate (TPP). Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, yield, encapsulation efficiency, stability and drug release...
December 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931797/erbb2-is-essential-for-the-growth-of-chemically-induced-skin-tumors-in-mice
#4
Maik Dahlhoff, Sukalp Muzumdar, Matthias Schäfer, Marlon R Schneider
While the epidermal growth factor receptor has established roles in skin carcinogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing, the functions of the structurally related receptor ERBB2 in this tissue remain poorly explored. To assess the functions of ERBB2 in skin homeostasis, tumorigenesis, and wound healing we employed keratin 5-directed, cre recombinase-mediated targeting of Erbb2 alleles in mice. Erbb2(del) mice, lacking ERBB2 specifically in keratinocytes, showed no noticeable spontaneous skin abnormalities...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931516/expansion-of-hair-follicle-stem-cells-sticking-to-isolated-sebaceous-glands-to-generate-in-vivo-epidermal-structures
#5
Huishan Zhang, Huashan Zhao, Jingqiao Qiao, Shoubing Zhang, Shuang Liu, Na Li, Xiaohua Lei, Lina Ning, Yujing Cao, Enkui Duan
Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) are considered one of the useful donor cell types for skin regenerative medicine owing to their robust proliferative capacity and multipotency. However, methods for easily and effectively obtaining HFSCs from a limited skin biopsy are still lacking. Here we report a novel approach for obtaining a subpopulation of HFSCs from a small skin sample from the rat tail, which uses the sebaceous glands (SGs) to capture the adjacent HFSCs. By means of organ culture, keratinocytes were expanded from the detached SGs, which also included adherent HFSCs from the hair follicle that could be passaged at the single-cell level...
November 2016: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931212/pdgf-aa-mediates-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-chemotaxis-to-the-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-tumor-microenvironment
#6
Tammara L Watts, Ruwen Cui, Peter Szaniszlo, Vicente A Resto, Don W Powell, Irina V Pinchuk
BACKGROUND: The robust desmoplasia associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) suggests that the tumor microenvironment may be an important component in the pathophysiology of this cancer. Moreover, the high recurrence rate and poor clinical response to chemotherapy and radiation treatment further underscores that the non-cancerous cells of the microenvironment, such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and pericytes, may be important in the pathophysiology of HNSCC...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929094/peptidylarginine-deiminase-1-catalyzed-histone-citrullination-is-essential-for-early-embryo-development
#7
Xiaoqian Zhang, Xiaoqiu Liu, Mei Zhang, Tingting Li, Aaron Muth, Paul R Thompson, Scott A Coonrod, Xuesen Zhang
Peptidylarginine deiminase (PADI) enzymes are increasingly being associated with the regulation of chromatin structure and gene activity via histone citrullination. As one of the PADI family members, PADI1 has been mainly reported to be expressed in the epidermis and uterus, where the protein in keratinocytes is thought to promote differentiation by citrullinating filament proteins. However, the roles of PADI1 in preimplantation development have not been addressed. Using a PADI1-specific inhibitor and Padi1-morpholino knockdown, we found that citrullination of histone tails at H4R3 and H3R2/8/17 were markedly reduced in the 2- and 4-cell embryos...
December 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925610/ex-vivo-cutaneous-bioavailability-of-topical-mometasone-furoate-in-an-o-w-preparation
#8
Johannes Wohlrab, Reinhard H H Neubert, Elfi Sommer, Julia Michael
Mometasone furoate (MMF) is a modern glucocorticoid of the 4th generation, which has been proven not only for inhalation but also for cutaneous treatment. Due to its lipophilic character, it is mainly used in ointments and creams with an outer lipophilic phase (W/O type). However, this study investigated the cutaneous cytotoxicology of MMF and tried to characterize its pharmacokinetic effects on the skin using an O/W preparation. An HPLC method has been developed and validated for the detection of MMF in cutaneous tissue, and concentration-time curves of MMF were created after cutaneous application on unaffected as well as lesional skin...
December 8, 2016: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923644/s-and-n-alkylating-agents-diminish-the-fluorescence-of-fluorescent-dye-stained-dna
#9
Robert Giesche, Harald John, Kai Kehe, Annette Schmidt, Tanja Popp, Frank Balzuweit, Horst Thiermann, Thomas Gudermann, Dirk Steinritz
Sulfur mustard (SM), a chemical warfare agent, causes DNA alkylation, which is believed to be the main cause of its toxicity. SM DNA adducts are commonly used to verify exposure to this vesicant. However, the required analytical state-of-the-art mass-spectrometry methods are complex, use delicate instruments, are not mobile, and require laboratory infrastructure that is most likely not available in conflict zones. Attempts have thus been made to develop rapid detection methods that can be used in the field...
December 3, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922892/galectin-3-expression-in-benign-and-malignant-skin-diseases-with-epidermal-hyperplasia
#10
Ze-Xin Jiang, Guo-Zhen Tan, Zhen-Rui Shi, Yu-Ping Zhang, Yan-Fang Han, Liangchun Wang
Galectin-3 has been suggested relative to tumor genesis, progression, and metastasis in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma that are the most common skin cancers characterized by malignant epidermal proliferation. In this study, we evaluated galectin-3 expression in seborrheic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, and infectious diseases including verruca vulgaris, condyloma acuminatum, and chromoblastomycosis that are pathologically featured by benign epidermal proliferation. Galectin-3 expression was shown by immunohistochemical staining and quantified using the Image Pro Plus V6...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920775/human-papillomavirus-downregulates-the-expression-of-ifitm1-and-ripk3-to-escape-from-ifn%C3%AE-and-tnf%C3%AE-mediated-antiproliferative-effects-and-necroptosis
#11
Wenbo Ma, Bart Tummers, Edith M G van Esch, Renske Goedemans, Cornelis J M Melief, Craig Meyers, Judith M Boer, Sjoerd H van der Burg
The clearance of a high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection takes time and requires the local presence of a strong type 1 cytokine T cell response, suggesting that hrHPV has evolved mechanisms to resist this immune attack. Using an unique system for non, newly, and persistent hrHPV infection, we show that hrHPV infection renders keratinocytes (KCs) resistant to the antiproliferative- and necroptosis-inducing effects of IFNγ and TNFα. HrHPV-impaired necroptosis was associated with the upregulation of several methyltransferases, including EZH2, and the downregulation of RIPK3 expression...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920272/mcpip1-regnase-1-restricts-il-17a-and-il-17c-dependent-skin-inflammation
#12
Leticia Monin, Johann E Gudjonsson, Erin E Childs, Nilesh Amatya, Xianying Xing, Akash H Verma, Bianca M Coleman, Abhishek V Garg, Meaghan Killeen, Alicia Mathers, Nicole L Ward, Sarah L Gaffen
The IL-17 family cytokines IL-17A and IL-17C drive the pathogenesis of psoriatic skin inflammation, and anti-IL-17A Abs were recently approved to treat human psoriasis. Little is known about mechanisms that restrain IL-17 cytokine-mediated signaling, particularly IL-17C. In this article, we show that the endoribonuclease MCP-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1; also known as regnase-1) is markedly upregulated in human psoriatic skin lesions. Similarly, MCPIP1 was overexpressed in the imiquimod (IMQ)-driven mouse model of cutaneous inflammation...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919950/development-of-a-novel-experimental-in-vitro-model-of-isothiocyanate-induced-apoptosis-in-human-malignant-melanoma-cells
#13
Theodora Mantso, Aristeidis P Sfakianos, Aithne Atkinson, Ioannis Anestopoulos, Melina Mitsiogianni, Sotirios Botaitis, Sebachedin Perente, Constantinos Simopoulos, Stavros Vasileiadis, Rodrigo Franco, Aglaia Pappa, Mihalis I Panayiotidis
BACKGROUND: Isothiocyanates are constituents of cruciferous vegetables which have been associated with reduced cancer risk partially through their ability to induce apoptosis in malignant cells including melanoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have utilized human malignant melanoma (A375), epidermoid carcinoma (A431) and immortalized keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells exposed to various isothiocyanates, under different experimental conditions. RESULTS: An experimental in vitro model utilizing low isothiocyanate concentrations (0...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919618/electric-field-induced-suppression-of-pten-drives-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-mtorc1-activation
#14
Tiantian Yan, Xupin Jiang, Xiaowei Guo, Wen Chen, Di Tang, Junhui Zhang, Xingyue Zhang, Dongxia Zhang, Qiong Zhang, Jiezhi Jia, Yuesheng Huang
BACKGROUND: Naturally occurring electric fields (EFs) are an intrinsic property of wounds. Endogenous EFs in skin wounds play critical roles in the dynamic and well-ordered biological process of wound healing. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows keratinocytes to transition from sedentary cells to motile cells, facilitating wound healing. However, EMT-related studies have been performed without considering endogenous EFs. Thus, the relationship between electrical signals and the EMT remain elusive...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919341/human-epidermal-stem-cells-role-in-adverse-skin-reactions-and-carcinogenesis-from-radiation
#15
Michèle T Martin, Adeline Vulin, Jolyon H Hendry
In human skin, keratinopoiesis is based on a functional hierarchy among keratinocytes, with rare slow-cycling stem cells responsible for the long-term maintenance of the tissue through their self-renewal potential, and more differentiated daughter progenitor cells actively cycling to permit epidermal renewal and turn-over every month. Skin is a radio-responsive tissue, developing all types of radiation damage and pathologies, including early tissue reactions such as dysplasia and denudation in epidermis, and later fibrosis in the dermis and acanthosis in epidermis, with the TGF-beta 1 pathway as a known master switch...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918748/the-cxcl12-cxcr4-signaling-pathway-a-new-susceptibility-factor-in-human-papillomavirus-pathogenesis
#16
Floriane Meuris, Laetitia Carthagena, Agnieszka Jaracz-Ros, Françoise Gaudin, Pasquale Cutolo, Claire Deback, Yuezhen Xue, Françoise Thierry, John Doorbar, Françoise Bachelerie
The productive human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle is tightly linked to the differentiation and cycling of keratinocytes. Deregulation of these processes and stimulation of cell proliferation by the action of viral oncoproteins and host cell factors underlies HPV-mediated carcinogenesis. Severe HPV infections characterize the wart, hypogammaglobulinemia, infection, and myelokathexis (WHIM) immunodeficiency syndrome, which is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the CXCR4 receptor for the CXCL12 chemokine, one of which is CXCR41013...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917823/3d-bioprinting-of-functional-human-skin-production-and-in-vivo-analysis
#17
Nieves Cubo, Marta Garcia, Juan F Del Cañizo, Diego Velasco, Jose L Jorcano
Significant progress has been made over the past 25 years in the development of in vitro-engineered substitutes that mimic human skin, either to be used as grafts for the replacement of lost skin, or for the establishment of in vitro human skin models. In this sense, laboratory-grown skin substitutes containing dermal and epidermal components offer a promising approach to skin engineering. In particular, a human plasma-based bilayered skin generated by our group, has been applied successfully to treat burns as well as traumatic and surgical wounds in a large number of patients in Spain...
December 5, 2016: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917575/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-a-new-topical-nitric-zinc-preparation-for-difficult-to-treat-warts
#18
Camila K Janniger, Robert A Schwartz
Treating plantar, periungual, and external genital warts can be challenging. A prospective study from four centers in Italy evaluated 37 immunocompetent patients with single or multiple warts and treated each lesion with a nitric-zinc topical solution composed of organic and inorganic acids meant to devitalize tissue and destroy HPV DNA in infected keratinocytes. Thirty of the 37 patients had external genital warts, two had plantar warts, two had palm and finger warts, and three had subungual warts for a total of 55 lesions treated...
December 5, 2016: Dermatologic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914933/differential-synthesis-and-release-of-il-18-and-il-18-binding-protein-from-human-platelets-and-their-implications-for-hiv-infection
#19
Ossama Allam, Suzanne Samarani, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-Pierre Routy, Cecile Tremblay, Devendra Amre, Ali Ahmad
IL-18 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine belonging to the IL-1 family and is produced in the body from macrophages, epithelial and dendritic cells, keratinocytes, adrenal cortex etc. The cytokine is produced as an inactive precursor that is cleaved inside cells into its mature form by activated caspase 1, which exists as an inactive precursor in human cells and requires assembly of an inflammasomes for its activation. We show here for the first time that human platelets contain transcripts for the IL-18 gene. They synthesize the cytokine de novo, process and release it upon activation...
December 1, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914762/distribution-of-the-neuro-regulatory-peptide-galanin-in-the-human-eye
#20
Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Andrea Trost, Clemens Strohmaier, Barbara Bogner, Christian Runge, Daniela Bruckner, Bettina Hohberger, Anselm Jünemann, Barbara Kofler, Herbert A Reitsamer, Falk Schrödl
Galanin (GAL) is a neuro-regulatory peptide involved in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. While data of GAL origin/distribution in the human eye are rather fragmentary and since recently the presence of GAL-receptors in the normal human eye has been reported, we here systematically search for sources of ocular GAL in the human eye. Human eyes (n=14) were prepared for single- and double-immunohistochemistry of GAL and neurofilaments (NF). Cross- and flat-mount sections were achieved; confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation...
November 25, 2016: Neuropeptides
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