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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226571/mouse-models-of-psoriasis-and-their-relevance
#1
REVIEW
Kimiko Nakajima, Shigetoshi Sano
Psoriasis is an inflammatory skin disorder that includes dynamic interactions between the immune system and skin and is clinically characterized by keratinocyte proliferation and distinct inflammatory cell infiltrates. Cross-talk between keratinocytes and immunocytes is essential for the development of psoriasis given that it mediates the production of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. To resolve the pathogenesis of psoriasis, numerous experimental animal models have been generated. In this review, we discuss recent findings from mouse models, their relevancy to psoriasis and use, including the discovery of new therapies...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226422/pathogenesis-of-psoriasis-and-development-of-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Eisaku Ogawa, Yuki Sato, Akane Minagawa, Ryuhei Okuyama
The pathogenesis of psoriasis can be explained by dysregulation of immunological cell function as well as keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation. Recently, the immunological pathomechanism has been clarified substantially. Whereas T-helper (Th)1 overactivation was thought to induce occurrence of psoriasis, it has been demonstrated that Th17 cells play a key role. Th17 development is maintained by interleukin (IL)-23 mainly produced by dendritic cells. Th17 cells produce various cytokines, including IL-17A, IL-17F and IL-22...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226159/immunohistopathological-findings-of-severe-cutaneous-adverse-drug-reactions
#3
REVIEW
Mari Orime
Diagnosis of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions should involve immunohistopathological examination, which gives insight into the pathomechanisms of these disorders. The characteristic histological findings of erythema multiforme (EM), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) provide conclusive evidence demonstrating that SJS/TEN can be distinguished from EM. Established SJS/TEN shows full-thickness, extensive keratinocyte necrosis that develops into subepidermal bullae. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) and exanthema in drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) each display a variety of histopathological findings, which may partly correlate with the clinical manifestations...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226072/a-thermal-gradient-modulates-the-oxidative-metabolism-and-growth-of-human-keratinocytes
#4
Marta Viano, Daniela Alotto, Alessia Aillon, Carlotta Castagnoli, Francesca Silvagno
During their spatial and differentiative progression, keratinocytes face a thermal gradient, from 37 °C in the proliferating basal layer to 32 °C found in skin surface. In our study, we hypothesized that this difference in temperature must be balanced by increasing the heat produced during respiratory activity. We demonstrated that at 33 °C human primary keratinocytes and HaCaT cells raised mitochondrial energy metabolism, but not glycolytic activity. At 33 °C, the increased mitochondrial ATP synthesis was associated with a strong induction of the modulator of the respiratory chain estrogen receptor β, whereas uncoupling protein 1 expression was not changed...
December 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224829/plasticity-of-oral-mucosal-cell-sheets-for-accelerated-and-scarless-skin-wound-healing
#5
Jong-Lyel Roh, Jaewang Lee, Eun Hye Kim, Daiha Shin
OBJECTIVES: Wound healing is generally faster and associated with less scarring in the oral mucosa than in the skin. Although rarely studied, oral mucosa equivalents may contribute to rapid, scarless cutaneous wound healing. Therefore, we examined the potential utility of our newly developed oral mucosal cell sheet in skin wound healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oral mucosa and skin samples were obtained from surgical patients and Sprague-Dawley rats. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts were primarily cultured for in vitro cell expansion...
December 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224735/a-novel-three-dimensional-cell-culture-method-enhances-antiviral-drug-screening-in-primary-human-cells
#6
Robert Koban, Markus Neumann, Aila Daugs, Oliver Bloch, Andreas Nitsche, Stefan Langhammer, Heinz Ellerbrok
Gefitinib is a specific inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and FDA approved for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In a previous study we could show the in vitro efficacy of gefitinib for treatment of poxvirus infections in monolayer (2D) cultivated cell lines. Permanent cell lines and 2D cultures, however, are known to be rather unphysiological; therefore it is difficult to predict whether determined effective concentrations or the drug efficacy per se are transferable to the in vivo situation...
December 7, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223573/biocompatibility-of-designed-micno-zno-particles-cytotoxicity-genotoxicity-and-phototoxicity-in-human-skin-keratinocyte-cells
#7
Hatice Genç, Banu Barutca, A Tansu Koparal, Uğurcan Özöğüt, Yücel Şahin, Ender Suvacı
Recently, designed platelet shaped micron particles that are composed of nano primary particles, called MicNo (=Micron+naNo) particles, have been developed to exploit the benefits of nano size, while removing the adverse effects of nanoparticles. It has been shown that MicNo-ZnO particles exhibit both micron and nanosized particle characteristics. Although physical and chemical properties of MicNo-ZnO particles have been studied, their biocompatibility has not yet been evaluated. Accordingly, the research objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and phototoxicity behaviors of designed MicNo-ZnO particles over human epidermal keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells...
December 6, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223109/genome-wide-analysis-of-barrett-s-adenocarcinoma-a-first-step-towards-identifying-patients-at-risk-and-developing-therapeutic-paths
#8
Yiyang Dai, Qing Wang, Adrian Gonzalez Lopez, Mario Anders, Peter Malfertheiner, Michael Vieth, Wolfgang Kemmner
BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus metaplasia is the key precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to find a subset of markers that may allow the identification of patients at risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma, and to determine genes differentially expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: Laser capture microdissection technique was applied to procure cells from defined regions. Genome-wide RNA profiling was performed on esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 21), Barrett's esophagus (n = 20), esophageal squamous carcinoma (n = 9) and healthy esophageal biopsies (n = 18) using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133plus 2...
December 6, 2017: Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221590/activit%C3%A3-s-immunomodulatrice-anti-inflammatoire-antiprurigineuse-et-tol%C3%A3-rog%C3%A3-nique-induites-par-i-modulia%C3%A2-un-extrait-issu-de-culture-d%C3%A2-aquaphilus-dolomiae-dans-les-mod%C3%A3-les-pharmacologiques-de-dermatite-atopique-immunomodulatory-anti-inflammatory-anti-pruritus
#9
T Nguyen, N Castex-Rizzi, D Redoulès
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory and pruritic dermatosis of multifactorial origin. Topical steroids are the first line treatment for severe AD however alternatives treatment are increasingly needed. A biological concentrate was elaborated from culture of an Avène aquatic microflora isolate namely Aquaphilus dolomiae. Numerous extracts were evaluated in relevant AD in vitro models with human keratinocytes. Among these extracts, a particular one I-modulia® was found to be remarkable in terms of pharmacological activities: innate immunity modulating by agonizing Toll like receptor (TLR)2, TLR4 and TLR5, induction of anti-microbial peptides, inhibition of cytokines characteristics of T helper (Th)1, Th2 and Th17 responses, inhibition of Protease-activated-receptor (PAR) 2 and Thymic-stromal-lymphopoeitin (TSLP) both being known to be upregulated in pruritus...
January 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221588/eau-thermale-d%C3%A2-av%C3%A3-ne-et-dermatite-atopique-av%C3%A3-ne%C3%A2-s-thermal-water-and-atopic-dermatitis
#10
D Guerrero, E Garrigue
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most frequent disease treated at the Avène hydrotherapy center. Children represent a large part of the population due to the high prevalence of AD in early childhood. Avène thermal spring water (ATSW) has been known for its therapeutic effects since the middle of the 18th century. It has been greatly studied over the last decades, with a comprehensive fundamental, pharmaco-clinical and clinical approach. Cohort studies using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) clinical score and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) or the Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index [CDLQI]) quality of life scores, allowed to confirm the clinical results obtained from the previous studies...
January 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220720/induction-of-thymic-stromal-lymphopoietin-by-a-steroid-alkaloid-derivative-in-mouse-keratinocytes
#11
Yan Weng, Natsumi Mizuno, Jiangxu Dong, Ryosuke Segawa, Takayuki Yonezawa, Byung Yoon Cha, Je-Tae Woo, Takahiro Moriya, Masahiro Hiratsuka, Noriyasu Hirasawa
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays critical roles in inducing and exacerbating allergic diseases. Chemical compounds that induce TSLP production can enhance sensitization to antigens and exacerbate allergic inflammation. Hence, identifying such chemicals will be important to prevent an increase in allergic diseases. In the present study, we found, for the first time, that a steroid alkaloid derivative, code no. 02F04, concentration and time dependently induced mRNA expression and production of TSLP in a mouse keratinocyte cell line, PAM212...
December 5, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220632/immunohistochemical-localization-of-fibrinogen-c-domain-containing-1-on-epithelial-and-mucosal-surfaces-in-human-tissues
#12
Sebastian von Huth, Jesper B Moeller, Anders Schlosser, Niels Marcussen, Ole Nielsen, Vicki Nielsen, Grith L Sorensen, Uffe Holmskov
Fibrinogen C domain containing 1 (FIBCD1) is a transmembrane receptor that binds chitin and other acetylated compounds with high affinity. FIBCD1 has previously been shown to be present in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we performed a detailed analysis of normally structured human tissues for the expression of FIBCD1 by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. We find that FIBCD1 is expressed in epithelial cells derived from all three germ layers. Endodermal-derived epithelial cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract and the respiratory system showed high expression of FIBCD1 and also mesodermal-derived cells in the genitourinary system and ectodermal-derived epidermis and sebaceous glands cells expressed FIBCD1...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218493/direct-biological-effects-of-fractional-ultrapulsed-co2-laser-irradiation-on-keratinocytes-and-fibroblasts-in-human-organotypic-full-thickness-3d-skin-models
#13
L Schmitt, S Huth, P M Amann, Y Marquardt, R Heise, K Fietkau, L Huth, T Steiner, F Hölzle, J M Baron
Molecular effects of various ablative and non-ablative laser treatments on human skin cells-especially primary effects on epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts-are not yet fully understood. We present the first study addressing molecular effects of fractional non-sequential ultrapulsed CO2 laser treatment using a 3D skin model that allows standardized investigations of time-dependent molecular changes ex vivo. While histological examination was performed to assess morphological changes, we utilized gene expression profiling using microarray and qRT-PCR analyses to identify molecular effects of laser treatment...
December 7, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218091/angiogenic-and-wound-healing-potency-of-fermented-virgin-coconut-oil-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies
#14
Ahmad H Ibrahim, Haibo Li, Sawsan S Al-Rawi, Aman Shah Abdul Majid, Omar Am Al-Habib, Xiaobo Xia, Amin Ms Abdul Majid, Dan Ji
OBJECTIVE: The process of wound healing involves activation of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, etc. Angiogenesis is crucial during the process of wound healing. Virgin coconut oil is widely utilized in South Asia for various purposes including food, medicinal and industrial applications. This study aimed to evaluate the potency of fermented virgin coconut oil (FVCO) in angiogenesis and wound healing via both in vitro and in vivo assays. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC), fibroblast (CCD-18) and retinal ganglion (RGC-5) cells were cultured in medium containing different concentrations of FVCO...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216394/circlrp6-regulation-of-zeb1-via-mir-455-is-involved-in-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-during-arsenite-induced-malignant-transformation-of-human-keratinocytes
#15
Junchao Xue, Chao Chen, Fei Luo, Xueli Pan, Hui Xu, Ping Yang, Qian Sun, Xinlu Liu, Lu Lu, Qianlei Yang, Tian Xiao, Xiangyu Dai, Peng Luo, Jiachun Lu, Aihua Zhang, Qizhan Liu
Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a class of noncoding RNAs generated from pre-mRNAs, participate in the regulation of tumorigenesis. The mechanism for regulation, however, is unclear. Here, to determine if circular RNAs are involved in arsenite-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignant transformation in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, the up-regulation of circLRP6 was confirmed in arsenite-transformed HaCaT (T-HaCaT) cells. In HaCaT cells, circLRP6 acted as a microRNA (miR)-455 sponge. For these cells, chronic exposure to arsenite caused an increase of circLRP6 and the transcription factor ZEB1, which induced the EMT...
December 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215741/analysis-of-sensitive-skin-barrier-function-basic-indicators-and-sebum-composition
#16
Linna Fan, Yan Jia, Le Cui, Xinchao Li, Congfen He
Sensitive skin (SS) is a condition characterised by high reactivity, low tolerance, and susceptibility to allergies of the skin. Owing to changes in the environment and marketing strategies, as well as the increasing public awareness about skin care, attention to skin condition is gradually increasing. To explore the differences in the skin barrier of SS and normal skin (NS), a questionnaire survey was conducted and basic indicators of the skin barrier were analysed. It was found that sebum secretion in the SS group was lower than that in the NS group, suggesting that the development of SS might be associated with sebum secretion and its specific components...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213102/e-cadherin-dynamics-is-regulated-by-galectin-7-at-epithelial-cell-surface
#17
Tamara Advedissian, Véronique Proux-Gillardeaux, Rachel Nkosi, Grégoire Peyret, Thao Nguyen, Françoise Poirier, Mireille Viguier, Frédérique Deshayes
Re-epithelialisation of wounded epidermis is ensured by collective cell migration of keratinocytes. Efficient collective migration requires the maintenance of intercellular adhesion, notably through adherens junctions, to favour cell communication, support tension forces and coordinated movement . Galectin-7, a soluble lectin expressed in stratified epithelia, has been previously implicated in cell migration and intercellular adhesion. Here, we revealed a new function of galectin-7 in the control of directionality and collective behaviour in migrating keratinocytes...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212228/inhibition-of-tumor-cell-growth-by-adenine-is-mediated-by-apoptosis-induction-and-cell-cycle-s-phase-arrest
#18
Ming Han, Xin Cheng, Zhiqin Gao, Rongrong Zhao, Shizhuang Zhang
Gekko swinhonis has a long standing history in Chinese traditional medicine recognized for its application in treating patients with terminal cancer.In order to discover novel anticancer drugs with high anti-tumor efficacy and low toxicity to normal cells, we aim to investigate the anti-tumor components from Gekko swinhonis. Four nucleosides from the extracted samples were enriched, namely adenosine, guanosine, thymidine and inosine. We evaluated the antitumor effect of the four nucleosides and found that adenosine possessed the strongest anti-tumor effect...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212013/cell-type-of-origin-dictates-the-route-to-pluripotency
#19
Christian M Nefzger, Fernando J Rossello, Joseph Chen, Xiaodong Liu, Anja S Knaupp, Jaber Firas, Jacob M Paynter, Jahnvi Pflueger, Sam Buckberry, Sue Mei Lim, Brenda Williams, Sara Alaei, Keshav Faye-Chauhan, Enrico Petretto, Susan K Nilsson, Ryan Lister, Mirana Ramialison, David R Powell, Owen J L Rackham, Jose M Polo
Our current understanding of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) generation has almost entirely been shaped by studies performed on reprogramming fibroblasts. However, whether the resulting model universally applies to the reprogramming process of other cell types is still largely unknown. By characterizing and profiling the reprogramming pathways of fibroblasts, neutrophils, and keratinocytes, we unveil that key events of the process, including loss of original cell identity, mesenchymal to epithelial transition, the extent of developmental reversion, and reactivation of the pluripotency network, are to a large degree cell-type specific...
December 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212005/desmoglein-3-order-and-dynamics-in-desmosomes-determined-by-fluorescence-polarization-microscopy
#20
Emily I Bartle, Tara M Urner, Siddharth S Raju, Alexa L Mattheyses
Desmosomes are macromolecular cell-cell junctions that provide adhesive strength in epithelial tissue. Desmosome function is inseparably linked to structure, and it is hypothesized that the arrangement, or order, of desmosomal cadherins in the intercellular space is critical for adhesive strength. However, due to desmosome size, molecular complexity, and dynamics, the role that order plays in adhesion is challenging to study. Herein, we present an excitation resolved fluorescence polarization microscopy approach to measure the spatiotemporal dynamics of order and disorder of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) in living cells...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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