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Childhood obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335575/public-preferences-for-the-use-of-taxation-and-labelling-policy-measures-to-combat-obesity-in-young-children-in-australia
#1
Tracy Comans, Nicole Moretto, Joshua Byrnes
Objective: Childhood obesity is a serious concern for developed and developing countries. This study aimed to assess the level of support in Australia for regulation and to assess whether systematic differences occur between individuals who support increased regulation and individuals who oppose it. Methods: An online survey (n = 563) was used to assess parental/caregiver preferences for taxation policy options and nutrition labelling designed to address the incidence of childhood obesity. Participants were parents or caregivers of young children (3 to 7 years) who were actively enrolled in an existing birth cohort study in South-East Queensland, Australia...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334476/implementing-guidelines-for-preventing-identifying-and-treating-adolescent-overweight-and-obesity-school-nurses-perceptions-of-the-challenges-involved
#2
Sølvi Helseth, Kirsti Riiser, Bettina Holmberg Fagerlund, Nina Misvaer
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to gain a better understanding of school nurses' perceptions of the challenges involved in implementing national guidelines on managing overweight and obesity in adolescents. BACKGROUND: National guidelines for the management of childhood overweight and obesity are developed in many countries to translate scientific knowledge into practice. However, several challenges are involved in their implementation. DESIGN AND METHODS: A qualitative design with focus group interviews was chosen for data collection...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331932/pulmonary-embolism-and-in-situ-pulmonary-artery-thrombosis-in-paediatrics-a-systematic-review
#3
Madhvi Rajpurkar, Tina Biss, Ernest Amankwah, Denise Martinez, Suzan Williams, C Heleen Van Ommen, Neil A Goldenberg
Data on paediatric pulmonary embolism (PE) are scarce. We sought to systematically review the current literature on childhood PE and conducted a search on paediatric PE via PubMed (1946-2013) and Embase (1980-2013). There was significant heterogeneity in reported data. Two patterns were noted: classic thromboembolic PE (TE-PE) and in situ pulmonary artery thrombosis (ISPAT). Mean age of presentation for TE-PE was 14.86 years, and 51 % of cases were males. The commonest method for diagnosis of TE-PE was contrast CT with angiography (74 % of patients)...
March 23, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331454/family-based-behavioral-treatment-for-childhood-obesity-caretaker-reported-barriers-and-facilitators
#4
Amanda E Staiano, Arwen M Marker, James Comeaux, Johannah M Frelier, Daniel S Hsia, Stephanie T Broyles
BACKGROUND: Family-based behavioral treatments are effective ways to promote children's weight management through healthy eating and exercise. However, programs typically have high attrition and low attendance. The aim of this study was to obtain in-depth caregiver input on barriers and facilitators to participate in a family-based, behavioral childhood obesity treatment program. METHODS: Three focus groups were facilitated among 21 parents/guardians at 2 school-based health centers and 1 federally qualified health center...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330819/childhood-excess-weight-in-spain-from-2006-to-2012-determinants-and-parental-misperception
#5
María D Ramiro-González, Belén Sanz-Barbero, Miguel Ángel Royo-Bordonada
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Due to the high prevalence of childhood obesity in Spain, we analyzed changes in its prevalence from 2006 to 2007 and from 2011 to 2012, as well as diet, sleep, and sedentary habits in 5- to 14-year-olds and parental misperceptions about their children's excess weight. METHODS: The sample was from the Spanish National Health Surveys for 2006 to 2007 (n=5590) and for 2011 to 2012 (n=3601). Data were collected by trained personnel through telephone interviews with parents/guardians...
March 18, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326536/risk-factors-for-obesity-in-preschool-aged-children-in-china
#6
Jyu-Lin Chen, Jill Howie Esquivel, Jia Guo, Catherine A Chesla, Siyuan Tang
AIMS: To examine the relationship between child, mother, and environmental factors and increased body mass index in preschool-aged children in China. BACKGROUND: There are about 120 million children in China are classified as overweight or obese. Understanding the key factors associated with childhood obesity (i.e. child, mother and environment) is the first step in combating the growing obesity epidemic in China, as well as in the global community, where large numbers of Chinese immigrants can be found...
March 21, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325931/body-mass-index-adjustments-to-increase-the-validity-of-body-fatness-assessment-in-uk-black-african-and-south-asian-children
#7
M T Hudda, C M Nightingale, A S Donin, M S Fewtrell, D Haroun, S Lum, J E Williams, C G Owen, A R Rudnicka, J C K Wells, D G Cook, P H Whincup
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: BMI (weight/height(2)) is the most widely used marker of childhood obesity and total body fatness (BF). However, its validity is limited, especially in children of South Asian and black African origins. We aimed to quantify BMI adjustments needed for UK children of black African and South Asian origins so that adjusted BMI related to BF in the same way as for white European children. METHODS: We used data from four recent UK studies which made deuterium dilution BF measurements in UK children of white European, South Asian and black African origins...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325825/very-long-term-sequelae-of-craniopharyngioma
#8
Mark Wijnen, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Joseph A M J L Janssen, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Erna M C Michiels, Marie-Lise C van Veelen-Vincent, Alof H G Dallenga, Jan H van den Berge, Carolien M van Rij, A J Van der Lely, Sebastian J C M M Neggers
OBJECTIVE: Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and do generally not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324701/stress-reactivity-and-its-effects-on-subsequent-food-intake-in-depressed-and-healthy-women-with-and-without-adverse-childhood-experiences
#9
Katja Wingenfeld, Linn K Kuehl, Anita Boeker, Katharina Schultebraucks, Kristin Ritter, Julian Hellmann-Regen, Christian Otte, Carsten Spitzer
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increase the risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity or metabolic syndrome in adulthood. In addition, ACE may be associated with an exaggerated endocrine response to stress, which, in turn, may lead to enhanced food intake resulting in obesity and metabolic problems. METHODS: We systematically examined the stress response and consecutive food intake in 32 women with MDD and ACE as determined by a clinical interview (Early Trauma Inventory), 52 women with MDD without ACE, 22 women with ACE but no current or lifetime MDD and 37 healthy women without either MDD or ACE...
March 12, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321980/relationship-between-food-insecurity-child-weight-status-and-parent-reported-child-eating-and-snacking-behaviors
#10
Tanja V E Kral, Jesse Chittams, Reneé H Moore
PURPOSE: Prior studies showed that food insecurity may increase the odds of obesity in children and adults. We still know very little about the familial aggregation of obesity in food-insecure households or the mechanisms by which food insecurity confers an increased risk of obesity to children. The purpose of this study was to compare children and mothers from food-insecure and food-secure households in their weight status, child eating patterns/behaviors, and maternal feeding practices...
March 21, 2017: Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing: JSPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320465/reduced-microbial-diversity-in-adult-survivors-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-and-microbial-associations-with-increased-immune-activation
#11
Ling Ling Chua, Reena Rajasuriar, Mohamad Shafiq Azanan, Noor Kamila Abdullah, Mei San Tang, Soo Ching Lee, Yin Ling Woo, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Hany Ariffin, P'ng Loke
BACKGROUND: Adult survivors of childhood cancers such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have health problems that persist or develop years after cessation of therapy. These late effects include chronic inflammation-related comorbidities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, but the underlying cause is poorly understood. RESULTS: We compared the anal microbiota composition of adult survivors of childhood ALL (N = 73) with healthy control subjects (N = 61)...
March 20, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318480/supervision-in-motivational-interviewing-an-exploratory-study
#12
Maria Beckman, Benjamin Bohman, Lars Forsberg, Finn Rasmussen, Ata Ghaderi
BACKGROUND: Although supervision is believed to be an important strategy for training practitioners in evidence-based practice, little is known about how it should be organized and conducted to promote implementation fidelity. AIMS: To explore supervisor behaviours that might facilitate supervisees' proficiency in motivational interviewing. METHOD: In this exploratory study, ten supervisors from a primary prevention intervention of childhood obesity responded to semi-structured interviews about their supervision behaviours...
March 20, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318371/p-selectin-endocan-and-some-adhesion-molecules-in-obese-children-and-adolescents-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
Ala Ustyol, Esra Aycan Ustyol, Figen Gurdol, Funda Kokali, Seldag Bekpınar
There is increasing evidence for a direct relationship between the vascular system and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to investigate endocan and adhesion molecules such as P-selectin derived from the endothelium and platelets in obese children and adolescents with NAFLD. One hundred obese patients and 40 lean controls were enrolled. The obese subjects were divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of fatty liver. Blood samples were assayed for endocan, P-selectin, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1...
May 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318184/preventing-childhood-obesity-contributions-from-the-social-sciences-to-intervention
#14
Muriel Lamarque, Alicia Bibiana Orden
Programming and implementation of health policies for the prevention of overweight and obesity have traditionally focused on the dissemination of specific messages identifying healthy foods and pointing out the importance of physical activity. Despite recurrent efforts, the prevalence of obesity in both adult and children populations continues to rise. The configuration of preventive proposals seems to neglect the more complex reality of the eating phenomenon, whose nature goes beyond its biological basis. Behind the presence of overweight or obesity, there are factors that exceed individual behaviors, which are constituted as elements of social order...
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317611/accumulated-exposure-to-rural-areas-of-residence-over-the-life-course-is-associated-with-overweight-and-obesity-in-adulthood-a-25-year-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Kira A E Patterson, Seana L Gall, Alison J Venn, Petr Otahal, Leigh Blizzard, Terry Dwyer, Verity J Cleland
PURPOSE: This prospective cohort study investigated whether body mass index (BMI) and weight status in mid-adulthood were predicted by trajectories of urban-rural residence from childhood to adulthood. METHODS: Participants aged 7-15 years in 1985 (n = 8498) were followed up in 2004-2006 (n = 3999, aged 26-36 years) and 2009-2011 (n = 3049, aged 31-41 years). Area of residence (AOR) was classified as urban or rural at each time point. BMI and/or weight status was calculated from self-reported weight and height (2009-2011)...
March 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316908/exploring-childhood-obesity-prevention-among-diverse-ethnic-groups-in-schools-and-places-of-worship-recruitment-acceptability-and-feasibility-of-data-collection-and-intervention-components
#16
Maria Maynard, Graham Baker, Seeromanie Harding
Small-scale, detailed exploration of the recruitment, assessment, and evaluation processes of obesity intervention among minority ethnic children. The study took place in schools and places of worship during 2008-2010 in London, UK. Measures included 3-day food diaries, 24 h dietary recalls, the Youth Physical Activity Questionnaire, accelerometry, and diet and physical activity self-efficacy questionnaires. Potential intervention components were evaluated via observation, questionnaires, and focus group discussions...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315898/modifiable-risk-factors-and-interventions-for-childhood-obesity-prevention-within-the-first-1-000-days
#17
Anne M Dattilo
Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315896/responsive-feeding-strategies-to-promote-healthy-mealtime-interactions
#18
Maureen M Black, Kristen M Hurley
Responsive feeding is a derivative of responsive parenting that has been applied to infant and young child feeding. With a theoretical basis in the reciprocal interactions between parents and children, responsive feeding is particularly relevant during complementary feeding as young children progress from an exclusively milk-based liquid diet to the family diet and self-feeding. The period of complementary feeding includes multiple developmental changes that may threaten a successful transition and lead to growth and feeding problems...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315895/healthy-growth-and-development
#19
Ken K Ong
Observational and experimental studies indicate a remarkably consistent association between rapid growth and weight gain during infancy and higher risks for obesity in later childhood and adult life. This association appears to be equally relevant to breastfed and formula milk-fed infants, and infants small for gestational age and with normal birth weight. The type of infant milk feeding, energy intake, and milk nutrient composition are important determinants of infant growth and weight gain. There is also accumulating evidence that genetic factors related to adult obesity susceptibility act in the central nervous system to regulate intrinsic levels of infant appetite and satiety, and they impact on infant dietary behaviors to influence growth and weight gain...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#20
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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