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Childhood obesity

Ryan D Sheldon, Kayla M Kanosky, Kevin D Wells, Lili Miles, James W Perfield, Stavra Xanthakos, Thomas H Inge, R Scott Rector
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms responsible for progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) to steatohepatitis (NASH) remain poorly defined. METHODS: To examine the potential contribution of adipose tissue to NAFLD progression, we performed a complete transcriptomic analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAT) from severely obese adolescents (Mage 16.9±0.4 yrs; BMI z-score 2.7±0.1) undergoing bariatric surgery and liver biopsy categorized into 3 groups; No steatosis (Normal, n=8), steatosis only (n=13), or NASH (n=10) by liver histology...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Emmeline Chuang, Julian Brunner, Jamie Moody, Leticia Ibarra, Helina Hoyt, Thomas L McKenzie, Amy Binggeli-Vallarta, Griselda Cervantes, Tracy L Finlayson, Guadalupe X Ayala
INTRODUCTION: Ecological approaches to health behavior change require effective engagement from and coordination of activities among diverse community stakeholders. We identified facilitators of and barriers to implementation experienced by project leaders and key stakeholders involved in the Imperial County, California, Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project, a multilevel, multisector intervention to prevent and control childhood obesity. METHODS: A total of 74 semistructured interviews were conducted with project leaders (n = 6) and key stakeholders (n = 68) representing multiple levels of influence in the health care, early care and education, and school sectors...
October 20, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
Mohsen Pourghasem, Nematollah Kamali, Mehrdad Farsi, Nabiollah Soltanpour
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between the flat-footedness and obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1158 school children (653 male and 505 female) participated in this cross sectional descriptive study. According to their age, children were divided into three groups for each gender (6-10, 11-13, 14-18 years old). Diagnosis and severity of flatfoot was assessed in using the Dennis method. BMI of children were calculated as body weight divided by height squared (kg*m(-2))...
October 16, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Susann Weihrauch-Blüher, Stefanie Koormann, Jana Brauchmann, Susanna Wiegand
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is - amongst other factors - due to changed leisure time habits with decreased physical activity and increased media consumption. However, electronic media such as tablets and smartphones might also provide a novel intervention approach to prevent obesity in childhood and adolescence. OBJECTIVES: A summary of interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity is provided to investigate short term effects as well as long term results of these interventions...
October 18, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Birgit Babitsch, Raimund Geene, Holger Hassel, Thomas Kliche, Britta Bacchetta, Simon Baltes, Sandra Nold, Daniel Rosenfeldt
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are serious health risks for children and adolescents. Hence, various prevention projects have been initiated and implemented. Until now, a systematic overview of interventions in different settings has been lacking. AIM(S)/RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of the "Prevention of child overweight" project (SkAP-project) is to prepare a systematic overview of the conceptual approaches used in universal prevention of overweight among children and adolescents...
October 18, 2016: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Tonje Holte Stea, Tommy Haugen, Sveinung Berntsen, Vigdis Guttormsen, Nina Cecilie Øverby, Kristin Haraldstad, Eivind Meland, Eirik Abildsnes
BACKGROUND: In light of the high prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, there is a need of developing effective prevention programs to address the rising prevalence and the concomitant health consequences. The main aim of the present study is to systematically develop and implement a tailored family-based intervention for improving lifestyle habits among overweight and obese children, aged 6-10 years old, enhancing parental self-efficacy, family engagement and parent-child interaction...
October 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
Markus Gerber, Katharina Endes, Christian Herrmann, Flora Colledge, Serge Brand, Lars Donath, Oliver Faude, Uwe Pühse, Henner Hanssen, Lukas Zahner
PURPOSE: A better understanding of how social and environmental contexts impact on childhood overweight/obesity is needed to develop more effective prevention strategies. Because the relationship between physical activity, stress and obesity measures has received limited attention, this study examined for the first time in first grade schoolchildren whether physical activity and fitness moderate the relationship between psychosocial stress and obesity-related measures. METHODS: 325 children (51% girls, Mage=7...
October 14, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Li Kheng Chai, Tracy Burrows, Chris May, Katherine Brain, Denise Wong See, Clare Collins
The main objective of this umbrella review is to identify the effectiveness of family-based interventions that target overweight or obesity in children aged 18 years and under. The umbrella review intends to compare and summarize existing systematic reviews of experimental studies that address a range of family-based interventions for overweight children. Family-based is defined as the involvement of first- or second-degree relatives or carers who are cohabiting under one roof. The second objective of this umbrella review is to identify strategies that are effective in improving children's body weight or body mass index (primary outcomes) and, where applicable, changes in child/family behavior, including dietary intake or physical activity...
September 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Lena Davidsson, Jameela Al-Ghanim, Tareq Al-Ati, Nawal Al-Hamad, Anwar Al-Mutairi, Lulwa Al-Olayan, Thomas Preston
The aim of this pilot study was to assess body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in 35 obese 7-9 years old Kuwaiti children (18 girls and 17 boys). Total body water (TBW) and TEE were assessed by doubly-labeled water technique. TBW was derived from the intercept of the elimination rate of deuterium and TEE from the difference in elimination rates of (18)O and deuterium. TBW was used to estimate fat-free mass (FFM), using hydration factors for different ages and gender. Fat mass (FM) was calculated as the difference between body weight and FFM...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hui Fan, Yingkun Yan, HongBo Dong, Jie Mi
OBJECTIVE: It was recommended that the diagnosis of hypertension among children should be established on at least three separate occasions. However, the national prevalence of hypertension after three separate occasions was scant in China. The goal of our study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension on up to three separate visits in a Chinese pediatric population, and examined the association between hypertension and weight status. DESIGN AND METHOD: Data were obtained from a national representative sample of 43304 children aged 6-17 years...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Abdullah Mamun
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to investigate the developmental stages of hypertension between males and females and identify why young males have higher blood pressure than young females. DESIGN AND METHOD: The study used a sub-sample of 2000 offspring from the original cohort of the Mater University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes. The MUSP is a prospective birth cohort study which commenced in early 1980 s in Brisbane, Australia and followed their offspring till young adulthood...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jina Choo, Hye-Jin Kim, Sooyeon Park
This study aimed to identify the actual and perceived features of neighborhood environments linked to health behaviors and obesity status in vulnerable children by using geographic information systems, walking surveys, and focus group interviews. The participants were 126 children registered at community child centers and 10 mothers of study participants. Increased availability of fast food outlets and convenience stores was significantly and positively associated with fast food and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and inversely with physical activity...
October 16, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Ramon Vilallonga, José Manuel Moreno Villares, Diego Yeste Fernández, Raquel Sánchez Santos, Felipe Casanueva Freijo, Francisco Santolaya Ochando, Nuria Leal Hernando, Albert Lecube Torelló, Luis Antonio Castaño González, Albert Feliu, Gontrand Lopez-Nava, Dolores Frutos, Antonio J Torres Garcia, Juan Carlos Ruiz de Adana
PURPOSE: In recent years, the incidence of childhood obesity in Europe, and Spain in particular, has increased dramatically. Bariatric surgery could play a major role in treating of adolescents with severe obesity. However, no specific guidelines for bariatric surgery currently exist in Spain. METHODS: The Board of the Spanish Society for Obesity Surgery and Metabolic Diseases (SECO) proposed a study of childhood obesity by using the Delphi method. This prospective study involved 60 experts from nine national societies...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Marko Šimunović, Joško Božić, Lukrecija Milić, Ivana Unić, Veselin Škrabić
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are one of the biggest public health issues in child and adolescent population. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this hospital based study is the first report on the prevalence of MS in obese children and adolescents in Dalmatia, the Mediterranean part of Croatia. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of individual cardiovascular risk factors and MS. Between January 2009 and June 2014, 201 obese subjects aged 6 to 18 were analyzed retrospectively from our Pediatric Endocrine Unit database...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
S A Yuca, E A Cimbek, Y Şen, O Güvenç, H Vatansev, F Buğrul, F Gün, B Oran
Objective: Childhood obesity which is a predictor of adulthood obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases and subclinical inflammation. Growth differentiation factor-15, also known as macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) is a member of the transforming growth factor- β super family and increases during inflammatory states. Adults with obesity have increased serum concentrations of MIC-1/GDF15. MIC-1/GDF15 is associated with cardio metabolic risk in adults...
October 17, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
L Frerichs, O Ataga, G Corbie-Smith, S Tessler Lindau
A growing number of childhood obesity interventions involve children and youth in participatory roles, but these types of interventions have not been systematically reviewed. We aimed to identify child and youth participatory interventions in the peer-reviewed literature in order to characterize the approaches and examine their impact on obesity and obesity-related lifestyle behaviours. We searched PubMed/Medline, psychINFO and ERIC for quasi-experimental and randomized trials conducted from date of database initiation through May 2015 that engaged children or youth in implementing healthy eating, physical activity or weight management strategies...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
B Patro-Gołąb, B M Zalewski, M Kołodziej, S Kouwenhoven, L Poston, K M Godfrey, B Koletzko, J B van Goudoever, H Szajewska
This study, performed as part of the international EarlyNutrition research project (, provides a systematic review of systematic reviews on the effects of nutritional interventions or exposures in children (up to 3 years of age) on the subsequent risk of obesity, overweight and adiposity. Electronic databases (including MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library) were searched up until September 2015. Forty systematic reviews were included. A consistent association of breastfeeding with a modest reduction in the risk of later overweight and obesity in childhood and adulthood was found (the odds decreased by 13% based on high-quality studies), but residual confounding cannot be excluded...
October 17, 2016: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Mads V Lind, Anni Larnkjær, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F Michaelsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity...
October 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Victor Grech, Samuel Aquilina, Erin Camilleri, Karl Camilleri, Maria-Louisa Busuttil, Victoria Farrugia Sant'Angelo, Neville Calleja
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a chronic disease that often commences in childhood. Over quarter of Maltese children are overweight or obese. This study was carried out in order to measure height and weight (and Body Mass Index) for all school children in Malta in order to precisely quantify the extent of the problem. METHODS: Schooling in Malta is provided by: A. Free State schools, B. Subsidised Roman-Catholic Church-run schools and C. Independent Private schools. All were included...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
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