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Childhood obesity

Jungwon Min, Xiaozhong Wen, Hong Xue, Youfa Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Study sex- and ethnic-specific childhood BMI growth trajectories of US children, and explore the potential causes of ethnic disparities in childhood BMI trajectories, including household socio-economic status (SES) and parenting practice using nationally representative longitudinal data. SUBJECTS/METHODS: BMI trajectory curves between 7 months to 16 years of age were fitted using mixed effect models with fractional polynomial functions using pooled 10-year (1998-2008) longitudinal data collected from 29,254 children from two US nationally representative cohorts-Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth (ECLS-B, 2001) and Kindergarten (ECLS-K, 1998-99)...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Elizabeth M Cespedes Feliciano, Mirja Quante, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Susan Redline, Emily Oken, Elsie M Taveras
: media-1vid110.1542/5778442247001PEDS-VA_2017-4085 Video Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Shorter sleep duration is associated with childhood obesity. Few studies measure sleep quantity and quality objectively or examine cardiometabolic biomarkers other than obesity. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of 829 adolescents derived sleep duration, efficiency and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from >5 days of wrist actigraphy recording for >10 hours/day. The main outcome was a metabolic risk score (mean of 5 sex-specific z-scores for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol scaled inversely, and log-transformed triglycerides and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), for which higher scores indicate greater metabolic risk...
June 15, 2018: Pediatrics
Laure Brigitte Kouitcheu Mabeku, Michelle Larissa Noundjeu Ngamga, Hubert Leundji
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately two-thirds of the human population and it is involved in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases. This study sought to determine potential risk factors associated with seroprevalence of H. pylori among dyspepsia patients in Cameroon for a better management of the disease. METHODS: The study was carried out from August to December 2014 at Laquintinie Hospital and District Hospital of Bonassama in Douala metropolis...
June 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Tony Sheldon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 14, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Karin Nordin, Anna-Lena Brorsson, Kerstin Ekbom
BACKGROUND: The positive effects of behavioural treatment and weight management in adolescents with severe obesity are modest. Obesity surgery can be an option for adolescents, but is not the first-hand choice of treatment. The knowledge about adolescents' own experiences of having undergone surgery and their thoughts and feelings of the follow-up period are limited. OBJECTIVES: To describe adolescents' decision to go through obesity surgery as teenager and their experiences of the follow-up period...
April 26, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Sharalyn Steenson, Hilal Özcebe, Umut Arslan, Hande Konşuk Ünlü, Özgür M Araz, Mahmut Yardim, Sarp Üner, Nazmi Bilir, Terry T-K Huang
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity rates have been rising rapidly in developing countries. A better understanding of the risk factors and social context is necessary to inform public health interventions and policies. This paper describes the validation of several measurement scales for use in Turkey, which relate to child and parent perceptions of physical activity (PA) and enablers and barriers of physical activity in the home environment. METHOD: The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of several measurement scales in Turkey using a population sample across three socio-economic strata in the Turkish capital, Ankara...
2018: PloS One
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Randi P Proffitt Leyva, Sarah E Hill
OBJECTIVE: The current research examined whether cognitive schemas that emerge in the context of early life stress predict psychological and behavioral outcomes that increase obesity risk. Three studies tested this hypothesis, predicting that having an unpredictability schema-which is a mindset characterized by the belief that the world and the people in it are unpredictable and unreliable-would predict low body awareness and eating in the absence of hunger. METHOD: Self-report measures of early life environment, unpredictability schema, body awareness, and eating habits were used in Studies 1-3...
July 2018: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
V L Collie-Akers, J A Schultz, S B Fawcett, S Landry, S Obermeier, E A Frongillo, M Forthofer, N Weinstein, S A Weber, A Logan, S S Arteaga, L Nebeling, L E Au
INTRODUCTION: Efforts to address the critical public health problem of childhood obesity are occurring across the USA; however, little is known about how to characterize the intensity of these efforts. OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study are to describe the intensity of community programs and policies (CPPs) to address childhood obesity in 130 US communities and to examine the extent to which observed CPPs targeted multiple behaviours and employed a comprehensive array of strategies...
June 14, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Birgit Hirschmugl, Sarah Crozier, Nina Matthews, Eva Kitzinger, Ingeborg Klymiuk, Hazel M Inskip, Nicholas C Harvey, Cyrus Cooper, Colin P Sibley, Jocelyn Glazier, Christian Wadsack, Keith M Godfrey, Gernot Desoye, Rohan M Lewis
INTRODUCTION: Alkaline phosphatase is implicated in intestinal lipid transport and in the development of obesity. Placental alkaline phosphatase is localised to the microvillous plasma membrane of the placental syncytiotrophoblast at the maternal-fetal interface, but its role is unclear. We investigated the relations of placental alkaline phosphatase activity and mRNA expression with maternal body composition and offspring fat mass in humans. METHODS: Term human placentas from the UK Birthright cohort (n = 52) and the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS) (n = 95) were studied...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Marhazlina Mohamad, See Ling Loy, Poh Ying Lim, Yu Wang, Kah Leng Soo, Hamid Jan Jan Mohamed
The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in Malaysia. Metabolic changes during pregnancy are critical to the development of infant adiposity, due to imbalanced adipokines production. Hence, we aimed to investigate the association of maternal serum and breast milk adipokines with infant adiposity development. The study was conducted from April 2010 until December 2012. A total of 155 healthy pregnant mothers aged 19 to 40 years were recruited during the first and second trimester in Kelantan, Malaysia...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shervin Assari, Maryam Moghani Lankarani
Background: Living above the poverty line reduces the risk of physical illnesses, including childhood asthma (CA). Minorities’ Diminished Return theory, however, suggests that the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health are weaker for racial minorities than White families. It is unknown whether the association between SES and CA differs for White and Black families. Aims: Using a national sample, the current study compared Black and White families for the association between living above the poverty line and CA...
June 12, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Yuesheng Liu, Dong Xu, Chunyan Yin, Sisi Wang, Min Wang, Yanfeng Xiao
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorder such as dyslipidemia has sharply increased in the past few decades. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the development of comorbidities and poor prognosis in obesity. This study aims to evaluate interleukin-10 (IL-10) in childhood obesity with hypertriglyceridemia. METHOD: We evaluated IL-10 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mRNA expression in adipose tissue (AT) as well as serum IL-10 in 62 children of 3 groups and in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese rat...
June 13, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Bin Wang, Jihong Liu, Yongjun Zhang, Chonghuai Yan, Hui Wang, Fan Jiang, Fei Li, Jun Zhang
Mounting evidence has linked postnatal antibiotic use with body mass index (BMI) in children, but the influence of prenatal antibiotic use on offspring obesity risk remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between fetal exposure to antibiotics and obesity at ages 4 and 7 years among 43,332 children using a multi-center prospective cohort of the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (1959-1976). Antibiotic use was ascertained for mothers during pregnancy. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs) of obesity (BMI > 95th percentile) and linear mixed models were applied to assess the association with BMI Z-score...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Andrew Abreo, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Cosby A Stone, Tina V Hartert
Childhood asthma is responsible for significant morbidity and health care expenditures in the United States. The incidence of asthma is greatest in early childhood, and the prevalence is projected to continue rising in the absence of prevention and intervention measures. The prevention of asthma will likely require a multifaceted intervention strategy; however, few randomized controlled trials have assessed such approaches. The purpose of this review was to use previous meta-analyses to identify the most impactful risk factors for asthma development and evaluate the effect of risk factor reduction on future childhood asthma prevalence...
June 11, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Cin Cin Tan, Julie C Lumeng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies on obesogenic eating behaviors in young children have mainly focused on the roles of family environment and parental behaviors. However, intrapersonal characteristics, particularly executive functions, have recently gained more attention in the literature. Therefore, herein we review work on children's executive functions (EFs), particularly the roles of cold and hot executive functions on children's obesogenic eating behaviors. RECENT FINDINGS: Most work examining the associations between EF and obesogenic eating among children has focused on the cool EF, particularly inhibitory control/impulsivity...
June 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Ying Sun, Jiao Fang, Yuhui Wan, Jingjing Hu, Yuanyuan Xu, Fangbiao Tao
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether polygenic susceptibility for body mass index (BMI) interacts with cumulative stress exposure, potentially exacerbating and buffering the effects of chronic stress, to predict obesity during childhood. METHODS: Data were analyzed from an established prospective puberty cohort in Anhui province, China. A total of 1000 children (421 boys and 579 girls, mean (standard deviation) age 8.97 (0.86) years) who had complete DNA genotyping, hair cortisol concentration and BMI were eligible for the study...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Megan Hetherington-Rauth, Jennifer W Bea, Robert M Blew, Janet L Funk, Vinson R Lee, Tiffany C Varadi, Denise J Roe, Mark D Wheeler, Scott B Going
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Childhood obesity has been separately associated with cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRs) and increased risk of fracture. However, both augmented and compromised bone mass have been reported among overweight/obese children. Metabolic dysfunction, often co-existing with obesity, may explain the discrepancy in previous studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between adiposity and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) derived bone mass differed in young girls with and without CMR(s)...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Shervin Assari
Background: Although the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on obesity and cardiovascular disease are well established, these effects may differ across racial and ethnic groups. Aims: Using a national sample, this study investigated racial variation in the association between family income and childhood obesity in White and Black families. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH), 2003⁻2004, a nationally representative survey in the United States...
June 10, 2018: Children
David S Freedman, Hannah G Lawman, Deborah A Galuska, Alyson B Goodman, Gerald S Berenson
OBJECTIVE: Although the tracking of BMI levels from childhood to adulthood has been examined, there is little information on the within-person variability of BMI. METHODS: Longitudinal data from 11,591 schoolchildren, 3,096 of whom were reexamined as adults, were used to explore the tracking and variability of BMI levels. This article focuses on changes in age-adjusted levels of BMI. RESULTS: There was strong tracking of BMI levels. The correlation of adjusted BMI levels was r = 0...
June 11, 2018: Obesity
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