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Childhood obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432848/trends-in-the-prevalence-of-extreme-obesity-among-korean-children-and-adolescents-from-2001-to-2014
#1
Hyo-Kyoung Nam, Hye Ryun Kim, Young-Jun Rhie, Kee-Hyoung Lee
BACKGROUND: We assessed nationwide trends in extreme obesity prevalence and its impact on metabolic syndrome in Korean youth. METHODS: Data from 19,593 youth (10,271 boys) aged 2-19 were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2001-2014). The prevalence of extreme obesity and the odds ratio of metabolic syndrome were calculated. Questionnaires on body weight perceptions and weight control behaviors were administered. RESULTS: The prevalence of extreme obesity increased significantly among boys (p<0...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432036/increased-inflammation-from-childhood-to-adolescence-predicts-sleep-apnea-in-boys-a-preliminary-study
#2
Jordan Gaines, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Fan He, Susan L Calhoun, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
While chronic systemic inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been traditionally considered a consequence of intermittent hypoxia, several treatment studies targeting inflammation suggest that this process may precede the development of the disorder. A recent cross-sectional study in the Penn State Child Cohort (PSCC) revealed that inflammation largely mediates the association between visceral adiposity and OSA in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine for the first time whether, longitudinally, inflammation precedes OSA during this developmental period...
April 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431549/household-food-insecurity-is-associated-with-abdominal-but-not-general-obesity-among-iranian-children
#3
Fateme Jafari, Simin Ehsani, Azadeh Nadjarzadeh, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Mahmood Noori-Shadkam, Amin Salehi-Abargouei
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is increasing all over the world. Food insecurity is mentioned as a possible risk factor; however, previous studies have led to inconsistent results in different societies while data are lacking for the Middle East. We aimed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and general or abdominal obesity in Iranian children in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Anthropometric data including height, weight, and waist circumference were measured by trained nutritionists...
April 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431377/metabolic-regulation-and-the-anti-obesity-perspectives-of-human-brown-fat
#4
REVIEW
Camilla Scheele, Søren Nielsen
Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans increase glucose and fatty acid clearance as well as resting metabolic rate, whereas a prolonged elevation of BAT activity improves insulin sensitivity. However, substantial reductions in body weight following BAT activation has not yet been shown in humans. This observation raise the possibility for feedback mechanisms in adult humans in terms of a brown fat-brain crosstalk, possibly mediated by batokines, factors produced by and secreted from brown fat...
April 11, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430971/association-between-native-american-owned-casinos-and-the-prevalence-of-large-for-gestational-age-births
#5
Jessica C Jones-Smith, William H Dow, Vanessa M Oddo
Background: A small number of studies have used a natural experiment approach to examine the health impacts of increased economic resources stemming from Native American-owned casinos. We build on this work by examining whether casinos are associated with obesity-related health in utero . Methods: We examined whether casino openings or expansion (as proxy for increased economic resources) are associated with a decreased likelihood of infants being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA), an important risk factor for childhood overweight/obesity...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430137/parent-partner-co-parent-or-partnership-the-need-for-clarity-as-family-systems-thinking-takes-hold-in-the-quest-to-motivate-behavioural-change
#6
Chris May, Li Kheng Chai, Tracy Burrows
Research is increasingly pointing to the importance of extending the focus of childhood obesity intervention to include fathers, fathering figures, and other members of a child's primary parenting network. Advances in communication technology are now making it possible to achieve this aim, within current resources, using modalities such text messaging, web-based resources and apps that extend intervention to parents not in attendance at face to face interactions. However, published research is often unclear as to which parent/s they targeted or engaged with, whether interventions planned to influence behaviours and capabilities across family systems, and how this can be achieved...
April 21, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429895/interleukin-6-and-resistin-in-relation-to-anthropometric-measurements-in-school-children
#7
Carolina Del Pilar Escalona-Villasmil, Jorymar Yoselyn Leal-Montiel, Pablo Antonio Ortega-Fernindez, Carlos Javier Chavez
The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly over the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Although the precise mechanisms are still unclear, dysregulated production or secretion of adipokines caused by excess adipose tissue and adipose tissue dysfunction can contribute to the development of obesity-related me- tabolic diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the serum levels of interleukin-6 and resistin in relation to anthropometric measurements in school children...
June 2016: Investigación Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429877/normal-weight-obesity-and-cardiometabolic-risk-a-7-year-longitudinal-study-in-girls-from-prepuberty-to-early-adulthood
#8
Petri Wiklund, Timo Törmäkangas, Yi Shi, Na Wu, Aki Vainionpää, Markku Alen, Sulin Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To study whether normal-weight obesity in childhood is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk in early adulthood. METHODS: This study assessed data for 236 girls followed from prepuberty to early adulthood. Growth chart data were obtained from birth to 18 years. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and cardiometabolic risk by calculating continuous clustered risk score (at ages 11, 14, and 18). The association of body weight status with cardiometabolic risk from childhood to early adulthood was examined...
April 21, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428959/copy-number-variations-in-candidate-genes-and-intergenic-regions-affect-body-mass-index-and-abdominal-obesity-in-mexican-children
#9
Diana Lizzete Antúnez-Ortiz, Eugenia Flores-Alfaro, Ana Isabel Burguete-García, Amélie Bonnefond, Jesús Peralta-Romero, Philippe Froguel, Mónica Espinoza-Rojo, Miguel Cruz
Introduction. Increase in body weight is a gradual process that usually begins in childhood and in adolescence as a result of multiple interactions among environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between copy number variants (CNVs) in five genes and four intergenic regions with obesity in Mexican children. Methods. We studied 1423 children aged 6-12 years. Anthropometric measurements and blood levels of biochemical parameters were obtained. Identification of CNVs was performed by real-time PCR...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426647/association-of-prenatal-urinary-phthalate-metabolite-concentrations-and-childhood-bmi-and-obesity
#10
Kim G Harley, Kimberly Berger, Stephen Rauch, Katherine Kogut, Birgit Claus Henn, Antonia M Calafat, Karen Huen, Brenda Eskenazi, Nina Holland
BACKGROUND: Although experiments in animals suggest phthalates may have obesogenic effects, studies of prenatal exposure in children show inconsistent results. METHODS: We measured urinary concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites collected twice during pregnancy from mothers in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) cohort study (N=345). Height, weight, waist circumference, and percent body fat were assessed in their children between 5 and 12 years of age...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426252/intervention-effects-on-stage-of-change-membership-and-transitions-among-adolescent-energy-balance-behaviors
#11
Leslie A Brick, Colleen A Redding, Andrea L Paiva, Lisa L Harlow, Wayne F Velicer
The transition from childhood to adolescence is a crucial period for the development of healthy behaviors to be sustained later in life. With obesity a leading public health problem, the promotion of healthy behaviors has the potential to make a huge impact. The current study evaluated Stage of Change progression in a large (N = 4158) computer-delivered, Transtheoretical Model-tailored intervention focusing on physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption (FV). Markov models were used to explore stage transitions and patterns of discrete change from sixth to ninth grade...
April 20, 2017: Multivariate Behavioral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425896/a-longitudinal-cohort-study-examining-determinants-of-overweight-and-obesity-in-adulthood
#12
Caroline Barakat-Haddad, Usman Saeed, Susan Elliott
OBJECTIVES: Adulthood overweight and obesity are multifaceted conditions influenced by a combination of biological, environmental and socio-cultural factors across the lifespan. Using a longitudinal study design, we aimed to identify determinants of adulthood overweight and obesity, in relation to: 1) childhood and life course factors, 2) geographical differences in air quality, and 3) gender-specific factors, in a cohort followed from childhood into adulthood. METHODS: Childhood data were acquired (1978-1986) from children residing in four distinct Hamilton neighbourhoods (Ontario, Canada), including air-quality assessments...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424674/global-fecal-and-plasma-metabolic-dynamics-related-to-helicobacter-pylori-eradication
#13
Theresa Wan-Chen Yap, Alex Hwong-Ruey Leow, Ahmad Najib Azmi, Damien L Callahan, Guillermo I Perez-Perez, Mun-Fai Loke, Khean-Lee Goh, Jamuna Vadivelu
Background:Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than half of the world's population. There is increasing evidence H. pylori protects against the development of obesity and childhood asthma/allergies in which the development of these diseases coincide with transient dysbiosis. However, the mechanism underlying the association of H. pylori eradication with human metabolic and immunological disorders is not well-established. In this study, we aimed to investigate the local and systemic effects of H...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422119/current-lifestyle-factors-that-increase-risk-of-t2dm-in-china
#14
REVIEW
N Zhang, S M Du, G S Ma
The Report on the Status of Nutrition and Chronic Diseases of Chinese residents (2015) indicated that the prevalence of diabetes was 9.7% among adults aged ⩾18 years, which markedly increased from 2.6% in 2002 within 10 years. In addition to the social economic factors, transitions in food consumption, behavioral and lifestyle playing the important roles in the fast increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 2010-2012, the cereal food consumption of Chinese residents was 337 g/d, vegetables consumption 269 g/d, fruit consumption 41 g/d, legume and legume products 11 g/d, dairy and dairy products consumption 25 g/d, meat consumption 90 g/d, edible oil consumption 42 g/d and dietary fiber 10...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422081/non-responsive-feeding-practices-unhealthy-eating-behaviors-and-risk-of-child-overweight-and-obesity-in-southeast-asia-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Ana Cristina Lindsay, Somporn Sitthisongkram, Mary L Greaney, Sherrie F Wallington, Praewrapee Ruengdej
Childhood obesity is increasing dramatically in many Southeast Asian countries, and becoming a significant public health concern. This review summarizes the evidence on associations between parental feeding practices, child eating behaviors, and the risk of overweight and obesity in Southeast Asian children 2-12 years old. We systematically searched five electronic academic/research (PubMed, PsycINFO, ProQuest Nursing, Medline, and CINAHL) databases using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement for peer-reviewed studies published in English between January 2000 and December 2016...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421785/association-between-vitamin-d-levels-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-obese-children-and-adolescents
#16
Ali Gul, Samet Ozer, Resul Yılmaz, Ergun Sonmezgoz, Tuba Kasap, Sahin Takcı, Osman Demir
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease. We aimed to determine the association between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular risks in obese children. METHOD: The studied children were selected from obese children who were followed up at obesity clinic, aged 6-17 years. Basic demographic information and laboratory data were collected retrospectively from hospital records. RESULTS: A total of 310 students (178 [57...
March 30, 2017: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421691/the-impact-of-maternal-employment-on-children-s-adiposity-evidence-from-china-s-labor-policy-reform
#17
Young Jo, Qing Wang
BACKGROUND: China has experienced a rapid growth in childhood adiposity in recent years. Although a large number of studies examine the effect of maternal employment on children's adiposity in developed countries, only a few studies investigate the issue in developing countries. Moreover, existing studies tend to suffer from a potential endogeneity issue. AIMS: We provide new evidence on the causal effect of maternal employment on children's adiposity in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employ a difference-in-difference strategy that takes advantage of China's 1995 legislative change to labor regulations, which reduced the number of workdays from 6 to 5 days per week...
April 19, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421471/social-marketing-as-a-framework-for-youth-physical-activity-initiatives-a-10-year-retrospective-on-the-legacy-of-cdc-s-verb-campaign
#18
REVIEW
Marian Huhman, Ryan P Kelly, Timothy Edgar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In 2002, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the VERB. It's what you do! campaign to increase physical activity among tweens and concomitantly respond to the rise in childhood obesity. This retrospective study summarizes the history of the VERB campaign's social marketing approach and its effectiveness in promoting behavior change in the targeted population. RECENT FINDINGS: The legacy of VERB, which ended in 2006, is discussed, with an emphasis on examining initiatives over the last decade and the degree to which they followed (or did not follow) the structural and thematic lead of the campaign...
April 18, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421143/the-dual-burden-of-malnutrition-and-associated-dietary-and-lifestyle-habits-among-lebanese-school-age-children-living-in-orphanages-in-north-lebanon
#19
Germine El-Kassas, Fouad Ziade
Childhood is a crucial period affecting physical and intellectual development. Although children living in orphanages are among the most vulnerable groups at risk of malnutrition, there is scarcity of data concerning their nutritional status in Lebanon. To investigate these data, a cross-sectional survey was conducted including a sample of 153 institutionalized children aged 5-14 years from all orphanages in Tripoli. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric, clinical, and dietary tools. Interpretation of anthropometric data showed that 13...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419373/trends-in-the-prevalence-of-morbid-obesity-among-children-and-adolescents-in-shandong-china-1995-2014
#20
Ying-Xiu Zhang, Zun-Hua Chu, Su-Yun Li, Jin-Shan Zhao, Jing-Yang Zhou
Background: : Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades; however, data on the prevalence of morbid obesity is limited. The present study examined the prevalent trends in morbid obesity among children and adolescents during the past 19 years (1995-2014) in Shandong, China. Methods: : Data for this study were obtained from five cross-sectional surveys (1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014) of schoolchildren in Shandong Province, China. A total of 41 500 students aged 7-18 years were included in this study...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
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