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Ascending reticular activating system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250762/multiple-injuries-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-a-stroke-patient-a-diffusion-tensor-tractography-study
#1
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207526/restoration-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-compressed-by-hematoma-in-a-stroke-patient
#2
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
RATIONALE: We report on restoration of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), compressed by an intracerebral hematoma and perihematomal edema following a stroke. The restoration of the ARAS was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: In a 60-year-old male, a brain MRI taken at 2 weeks after the surgery showed a hematoma and perihematomal edema in the left posterolateral pons and cerebellum, which were markedly resolved on a brain MRI after 5 weeks...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121943/aggravation-of-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-concurrent-with-aggravation-of-an-injured-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-a-patient-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#3
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
BACKGROUND: We report on a patient who developed aggravation of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) concurrent with aggravation of an injured ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), demonstrated by follow-up diffusion tensor tractographies (DTTs). METHODS: A 42-year-old male patient experienced head trauma resulting from flexion-hyperextension injury after collision with another vehicle from behind while stopped at an intersection...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078839/widespread-membrane-potential-changes-and-cardiorespiratory-synchronization-involved-in-anxiety-and-sleep-wake-transitions
#4
R Jerath, S M Cearley, M Jensen
Located within the ascending reticular activating system are nuclei which release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These nuclei have widespread projections that extend into the limbic system and throughout cortex. Activation of these neurotransmitters during awake states leads to arousal, while inhibition leads to the loss of consciousness experienced during slow-wave sleep. Previously, we proposed a mechanism in which cardiorespiratory synchronization may underlie the widespread hyperpolarization that occurs throughout the brain during slow-wave sleep...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072702/hypersomnia-due-to-injury-of-the-ventral-ascending-reticular-activating-system-following-cerebellar-herniation-a-case-report
#5
Sung Ho Jang, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
RATIONALE: We report on a patient with hypersomnia who showed injury of the lower ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) following cerebellar herniation due to a cerebellar infarct, detected on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 53-year-old male patient was diagnosed as a left cerebellar infarct, and underwent decompressive suboccipital craniectomy due to brain edema at 2 days after the onset of a cerebellar infarct. Three weeks after onset when the patient started rehabilitation, he showed hypersomnia without impairment of consciousness; he fell asleep most of daytime without external stimulation and showed an abnormal score on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale: 15 (full score: 24, cut off for hypersomnia: 10)...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977583/injury-of-the-lower-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-patients-with-pontine-hemorrhage-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#6
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Sung Ho Jang, Sang Seok Yeo
Many studies have reported about injury of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) in patients with various brain pathologies, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT); however, little is known about injury of the ARAS in patients with pontine hemorrhage. In this study, using DTT, we attempted to investigate injury of the lower ventral and dorsal ARAS in patients with pontine hemorrhage. Twenty-three consecutive patients with pontine hemorrhage and 14 control subjects were recruited into this study...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930506/change-of-ascending-reticular-activating-system-with-recovery-from-vegetative-state-to-minimally-conscious-state-in-a-stroke-patient
#7
Sung Ho Jang, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung, You Sung Seo
RATIONALE: We report on a stroke patient who showed change of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) concurrent with recovery from a vegetative state (VS) to a minimally conscious state (MCS), which was demonstrated on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old male patient underwent CT-guided stereotactic drainage 3 times for management of intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage. DIAGNOSIS: After 4 months from onset, when starting rehabilitation, the patient showed impaired consciousness, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 6 and a Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score of 2...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891607/cortical-and-reticular-contributions-to-human-precision-and-power-grip
#8
Toshiki Tazoe, Monica A Perez
KEY POINTS: The corticospinal tract contributes to the control of finger muscles during precision and power grip. We explored the neural mechanisms contributing to changes in corticospinal excitability during these gripping configurations. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by cortical, but not by subcortical, stimulation were more suppressed during power grip compared with precision grip and index finger abduction. Intracortical inhibition was more reduced during power grip compared with the other tasks...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880004/causal-relationships-between-neurons-of-the-nucleus-incertus-and-the-hippocampal-theta-activity-in-the-rat
#9
Sergio Martínez-Bellver, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Aina Luque-García, Joana Martínez-Ricós, Alfonso Valverde-Navarro, Manuel Bataller, Juan Guerrero, Vicent Teruel-Marti
KEY POINTS: The nucleus incertus is a key node of the brainstem circuitry involved in hippocampal theta rhythmicity. Synchronisation exists between the nucleus incertus and hippocampal activities during theta periods. By the Granger causality analysis, we demonstrated a directional information flow between theta rhythmical neurons in the nucleus incertus and the hippocampus in theta-on states. The electrical stimulation of the nucleus incertus is also able to evoke a phase reset of the hippocampal theta wave...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685982/the-noradrenergic-locus-coeruleus-as-a-chronic-pain-generator
#10
REVIEW
Bradley K Taylor, Karin N Westlund
Central noradrenergic centers such as the locus coeruleus (LC) are traditionally viewed as pain inhibitory; however, complex interactions among brainstem pathways and their receptors modulate both inhibition and facilitation of pain. In addition to the well-described role of descending pontospinal pathways that inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission, an emerging body of research now indicates that noradrenergic neurons in the LC and their terminals in the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), spinal dorsal horn, and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis participate in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia after nerve injury...
June 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484878/brainstem-monitoring-in-the-neurocritical-care-unit-a-rationale-for-real-time-automated-neurophysiological-monitoring
#11
James L Stone, Julian E Bailes, Ahmed N Hassan, Brian Sindelar, Vimal Patel, John Fino
Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring...
August 2, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368033/recovery-of-consciousness-and-an-injured-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-a-patient-who-survived-cardiac-arrest-a-case-report
#12
Sung Ho Jang, Yi Ji Hyun, Han Do Lee
We report on a patient who survived cardiac arrest and showed recovery of consciousness and an injured ARAS at the early stage of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI- BI) for 3 weeks, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).A 52-year-old male patient who had suffered cardiac arrest caused by acute coronary syndrome was resuscitated immediately by a layman and paramedics for ∼25 minutes. He was then transferred immediately to the emergency room of a local medical center. When starting rehabilitation at 2 weeks after onset, his consciousness was impaired, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (GRS-R) score of 8...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216823/the-primate-pedunculopontine-nucleus-region-towards-a-dual-role-in-locomotion-and-waking-state
#13
Laurent Goetz, Brigitte Piallat, Manik Bhattacharjee, Hervé Mathieu, Olivier David, Stéphan Chabardès
The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) mainly composed by the pedunculopontine and the cuneiform nuclei is involved in the control of several fundamental brain functions such as locomotion, rapid eye movement sleep and waking state. On the one hand, the role of MRF neurons in locomotion has been investigated for decades in different animal models, including in behaving nonhuman primate (NHP) using extracellular recordings. On the other hand, MRF neurons involved in the control of waking state have been consistently shown to constitute the cholinergic component of the reticular ascending system...
July 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103547/consciousness-unconsciousness-and-death-in-the-context-of-slaughter-part-i-neurobiological-mechanisms-underlying-stunning-and-killing
#14
REVIEW
Claudia Terlouw, Cécile Bourguet, Véronique Deiss
This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms that are relevant for the stunning and killing process of animals in the abattoir. The mechanisms underlying the loss of consciousness depend on the technique used: mechanical, electrical or gas stunning. Direct exsanguination (without prior stun) causes also a loss of consciousness before inducing death. The underlying mechanisms may involve cerebral anoxia or ischemia, or the depolarisation, acidification and/or the destruction of brain neurons. These effects may be caused by shock waves, electrical fields, the reduction or arrest of the cerebral blood circulation, increased levels of CO2 or low levels of O2 in the inhaled air, or the mechanical destruction of neurons...
August 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073392/impaired-consciousness-caused-by-injury-of-the-lower-ascending-reticular-activating-system-evaluation-by-diffusion-tensor-tractography
#15
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Han Do Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27003198/injury-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-by-subfalcine-herniation-after-subdural-hematoma-a-case-report
#16
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, You Sung Seo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969100/temperament-and-arousal-systems-a-new-synthesis-of-differential-psychology-and-functional-neurochemistry
#17
REVIEW
Irina Trofimova, Trevor W Robbins
This paper critically reviews the unidimensional construct of General Arousal as utilised by models of temperament in differential psychology for example, to underlie 'Extraversion'. Evidence suggests that specialization within monoamine neurotransmitter systems contrasts with the attribution of a "general arousal" of the Ascending Reticular Activating System. Experimental findings show specialized roles of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin systems in hypothetically mediating three complementary forms of arousal that are similar to three functional blocks described in classical models of behaviour within kinesiology, clinical neuropsychology, psychophysiology and temperament research...
May 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26895076/fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-assessing-pontine-involvement-using-proton-mr-spectroscopic-imaging
#18
Wan Hazlin Zaini, Fabrizio Giuliani, Christian Beaulieu, Sanjay Kalra, Christopher Hanstock
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The underlying mechanism of fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood. Our study investigates the involvement of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), originating in the pontine brainstem, in MS patients with symptoms of fatigue. METHODS: Female relapsing-remitting MS patients (n = 17) and controls (n = 15) underwent a magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging protocol at 1.5T. Fatigue was assessed in every subject using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883160/top-down-control-of-arousal-and-sleep-fundamentals-and-clinical-implications
#19
REVIEW
Lukas Krone, Lukas Frase, Hannah Piosczyk, Peter Selhausen, Sulamith Zittel, Friederike Jahn, Marion Kuhn, Bernd Feige, Florian Mainberger, Stefan Klöppel, Dieter Riemann, Kai Spiegelhalder, Chiara Baglioni, Annette Sterr, Christoph Nissen
Mammalian sleep emerges from attenuated activity in the ascending reticular arousal system (ARAS), the main arousal network of the brain. This system originates in the brainstem and activates the thalamus and cortex during wakefulness via a well-characterized 'bottom-up' pathway. Recent studies propose that a less investigated cortico-thalamic 'top-down' pathway also regulates sleep. The present work integrates the current evidence on sleep regulation with a focus on the 'top-down' pathway and explores the potential to translate this information into clinically relevant interventions...
January 14, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26871783/injury-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-patients-with-fatigue-and-hypersomnia-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-two-case-reports
#20
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
We report on patients with post-traumatic fatigue and hypersomnia who showed injury of the lower portion of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) between the pontine reticular formation (RF) and the intralaminar thalamic nucleus (ILN) following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).Two patients with mild TBI resulting from a car accident were enrolled in this study. Patient 1 was a 51-year-old woman showed abnormalities as 6.9 (cut off: 3.7 points) and 18 (cut off: 10) on the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale at 11 months after onset...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
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