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Ascending reticular activating system

Bradley K Taylor, Karin N Westlund
Central noradrenergic centers such as the locus coeruleus (LC) are traditionally viewed as pain inhibitory; however, complex interactions among brainstem pathways and their receptors modulate both inhibition and facilitation of pain. In addition to the well-described role of descending pontospinal pathways that inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission, an emerging body of research now indicates that noradrenergic neurons in the LC and their terminals in the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), spinal dorsal horn, and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis participate in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia after nerve injury...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
James L Stone, Julian E Bailes, Ahmed N Hassan, Brian Sindelar, Vimal Patel, John Fino
Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring...
August 2, 2016: Neurocritical Care
Sung Ho Jang, Yi Ji Hyun, Han Do Lee
We report on a patient who survived cardiac arrest and showed recovery of consciousness and an injured ARAS at the early stage of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI- BI) for 3 weeks, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).A 52-year-old male patient who had suffered cardiac arrest caused by acute coronary syndrome was resuscitated immediately by a layman and paramedics for ∼25 minutes. He was then transferred immediately to the emergency room of a local medical center. When starting rehabilitation at 2 weeks after onset, his consciousness was impaired, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (GRS-R) score of 8...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Laurent Goetz, Brigitte Piallat, Manik Bhattacharjee, Hervé Mathieu, Olivier David, Stéphan Chabardès
The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) mainly composed by the pedunculopontine and the cuneiform nuclei is involved in the control of several fundamental brain functions such as locomotion, rapid eye movement sleep and waking state. On the one hand, the role of MRF neurons in locomotion has been investigated for decades in different animal models, including in behaving nonhuman primate (NHP) using extracellular recordings. On the other hand, MRF neurons involved in the control of waking state have been consistently shown to constitute the cholinergic component of the reticular ascending system...
July 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Claudia Terlouw, Cécile Bourguet, Véronique Deiss
This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms that are relevant for the stunning and killing process of animals in the abattoir. The mechanisms underlying the loss of consciousness depend on the technique used: mechanical, electrical or gas stunning. Direct exsanguination (without prior stun) causes also a loss of consciousness before inducing death. The underlying mechanisms may involve cerebral anoxia or ischemia, or the depolarisation, acidification and/or the destruction of brain neurons. These effects may be caused by shock waves, electrical fields, the reduction or arrest of the cerebral blood circulation, increased levels of CO2 or low levels of O2 in the inhaled air, or the mechanical destruction of neurons...
August 2016: Meat Science
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Han Do Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, You Sung Seo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Irina Trofimova, Trevor W Robbins
This paper critically reviews the unidimensional construct of General Arousal as utilised by models of temperament in differential psychology for example, to underlie 'Extraversion'. Evidence suggests that specialization within monoamine neurotransmitter systems contrasts with the attribution of a "general arousal" of the Ascending Reticular Activating System. Experimental findings show specialized roles of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin systems in hypothetically mediating three complementary forms of arousal that are similar to three functional blocks described in classical models of behaviour within kinesiology, clinical neuropsychology, psychophysiology and temperament research...
May 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Wan Hazlin Zaini, Fabrizio Giuliani, Christian Beaulieu, Sanjay Kalra, Christopher Hanstock
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The underlying mechanism of fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood. Our study investigates the involvement of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), originating in the pontine brainstem, in MS patients with symptoms of fatigue. METHODS: Female relapsing-remitting MS patients (n = 17) and controls (n = 15) underwent a magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging protocol at 1.5T. Fatigue was assessed in every subject using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)...
2016: PloS One
Lukas Krone, Lukas Frase, Hannah Piosczyk, Peter Selhausen, Sulamith Zittel, Friederike Jahn, Marion Kuhn, Bernd Feige, Florian Mainberger, Stefan Klöppel, Dieter Riemann, Kai Spiegelhalder, Chiara Baglioni, Annette Sterr, Christoph Nissen
Mammalian sleep emerges from attenuated activity in the ascending reticular arousal system (ARAS), the main arousal network of the brain. This system originates in the brainstem and activates the thalamus and cortex during wakefulness via a well-characterized 'bottom-up' pathway. Recent studies propose that a less investigated cortico-thalamic 'top-down' pathway also regulates sleep. The present work integrates the current evidence on sleep regulation with a focus on the 'top-down' pathway and explores the potential to translate this information into clinically relevant interventions...
January 14, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
We report on patients with post-traumatic fatigue and hypersomnia who showed injury of the lower portion of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) between the pontine reticular formation (RF) and the intralaminar thalamic nucleus (ILN) following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).Two patients with mild TBI resulting from a car accident were enrolled in this study. Patient 1 was a 51-year-old woman showed abnormalities as 6.9 (cut off: 3.7 points) and 18 (cut off: 10) on the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale at 11 months after onset...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
SungHo Jang, SeongHo Kim, HanDo Lee
In this study, we attempted to demonstrate the change of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) concurrent with the recovery from a vegetative state (VS) to a minimally conscious state (MCS) in a patient with brain injury. A 54-year-old male patient had suffered from head trauma and underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation immediately after head trauma. At 10 months after onset, the patient exhibited impaired consciousness, with a Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) score of 7 (auditory function: 1, visual function: 2, motor function: 1, verbal function: 1, communication: 0, and arousal: 2) and underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation for hydrocephalus...
May 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Sung Ho Jang, Han Do Lee, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung
We report on a stroke patient who showed recovery of hypersomnia concurrent with the recovery of an injured ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).A 70-year-old female patient underwent coiling of the left ruptured posterior communicating artery after subarachnoid hemorrhage and both extraventricular drainage for management of an intraventricular hemorrhage. At 2 months after onset, when she started rehabilitation, she exhibited intact consciousness, with the full score on the Glasgow Coma Scale: 15...
January 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anam Anzak, Huiling Tan, Alek Pogosyan, Sadaquate Khan, Shazia Javed, Steven S Gill, Keyoumars Ashkan, Harith Akram, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Alexander L Green, Tipu Aziz, Peter Brown
Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of 'paradoxical kinesis' in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the intensity of the stimulus delivered and corresponding enhancements in biomechanical measures of maximal handgrips, independent of the dopaminergic state of our subjects with Parkinson's disease...
March 2016: Experimental Neurology
Christopher Dardis, David Lawlor, Courtney M Schusse
BACKGROUND: Epidural anesthesia is the most commonly used method of pain relief during labor in the USA. It is not classically associated with alterations in level of alertness. Coma during the procedure is rare, with a reported incidence of 0.1-0.3%. CASE REPORT: An otherwise healthy patient experienced almost complete loss of brainstem function following routine epidural anesthesia during delivery. The episode lasted for less than 3 hours and the patient made a full recovery...
2015: American Journal of Case Reports
E Garcia-Rill, B Luster, S D'Onofrio, S Mahaffey, V Bisagno, F J Urbano
The fact that the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is part of the reticular activating system places it in a unique position to modulate sensory input and fight-or-flight responses. Arousing stimuli simultaneously activate ascending projections of the PPN to the intralaminar thalamus to trigger cortical high-frequency activity and arousal, as well as descending projections to reticulospinal systems to alter posture and locomotion. As such, the PPN has become a target for deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, modulating gait, posture, and higher functions...
July 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Stefan M Brudzynski
Pharmacological studies of emotional arousal and initiation of emotional states in rats measured by their ultrasonic vocalizations are reviewed. It is postulated that emission of vocalizations is an inseparable feature of emotional states and it evolved from mother-infant interaction. Positive emotional states are associated with emission of 50 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by rewarding situations and dopaminergic activation of the nucleus accumbens and are mediated by D1, D2, and partially D3 dopamine receptors...
2015: Current Neuropharmacology
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Precise evaluation of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) is important for diagnosis, prediction of prognosis, and management of patients with disorders of impaired consciousness. In the current study, we attempted to reconstruct the direct neural pathway between the brainstem reticular formation (RF) and the cerebral cortex in normal subjects, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Forty-one healthy subjects were recruited for this study. DTIs were performed using a sensitivity-encoding head coil at 1...
October 8, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
Bror Alstermark, Carl-Fredrik Ekerot
Cerebellar control of movements is dependent on mossy fiber input conveying information about sensory and premotor activity in the spinal cord. While much is known about spino-cerebellar systems, which provide the cerebellum with detailed sensory information, much less is known about systems conveying motor information. Individual motoneurones do not have projections to spino-cerebellar neurons. Instead, the fastest route is from last order spinal interneurons. In order to identify the networks that convey ascending premotor information from last order interneurons, we have focused on the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN), which provides the major mossy fiber input to cerebellum from spinal interneuronal systems...
2015: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Michael P Stryker
Neurons in the visual cortex were first found to be exquisitely selective for particular properties of visual stimuli in anesthetized animals, including mice. Studies of alert mice in an apparatus that allowed them to stand or run revealed that locomotion causes a change in cortical state that dramatically increases the magnitude of responses in neurons of the visual cortex without altering selectivity, effectively changing the gain of sensory responses. Locomotion also dramatically enhances adult plasticity in the recovery from long-term visual deprivation...
2014: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
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