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Ascending reticular activating system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930506/change-of-ascending-reticular-activating-system-with-recovery-from-vegetative-state-to-minimally-conscious-state-in-a-stroke-patient
#1
Sung Ho Jang, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung, You Sung Seo
RATIONALE: We report on a stroke patient who showed change of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) concurrent with recovery from a vegetative state (VS) to a minimally conscious state (MCS), which was demonstrated on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 59-year-old male patient underwent CT-guided stereotactic drainage 3 times for management of intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage. DIAGNOSIS: After 4 months from onset, when starting rehabilitation, the patient showed impaired consciousness, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 6 and a Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score of 2...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891607/cortical-and-reticular-contributions-to-human-precision-and-power-grip
#2
Toshiki Tazoe, Monica A Perez
It is well accepted that the corticospinal tract contributes to the control of finger muscles during precision and power grip in humans but the neural mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here, we examined motor evoked potentials elicited by cortical and subcortical stimulation of corticospinal axons (MEPs and CMEPs, respectively) and the activity in intracortical circuits (suppression of voluntary electromyography) and spinal motoneurons (F-waves) in an intrinsic hand muscle during index finger abduction (control task), precision grip, and power grip...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880004/causal-relationships-among-neurons-of-the-nucleus-incertus-and-the-hippocampal-theta-activity-in-the-rat
#3
Sergio Martínez-Bellver, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Aina Luque-García, Joana Martínez-Ricós, Alfonso Valverde-Navarro, Manuel Bataller, Juan Guerrero, Vicent Teruel-Marti
In recent years, a body of evidence has shown that the nucleus incertus (NI), in the dorsal tegmental pons, is a key node of the brainstem circuitry involved in hippocampal theta rhythmicity. Ascending reticular brainstem system activation evokes hippocampal theta rhythm with coupled neuronal activity in the NI. In a recent paper, we showed three populations of neurons in the NI with differential firings during hippocampal theta activation. The objective of this work is to better evaluate the causal relationship between the activity of NI neurons and the hippocampus during theta activation in order to further understand the role of the NI in the theta network...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685982/the-noradrenergic-locus-coeruleus-as-a-chronic-pain-generator
#4
REVIEW
Bradley K Taylor, Karin N Westlund
Central noradrenergic centers such as the locus coeruleus (LC) are traditionally viewed as pain inhibitory; however, complex interactions among brainstem pathways and their receptors modulate both inhibition and facilitation of pain. In addition to the well-described role of descending pontospinal pathways that inhibit spinal nociceptive transmission, an emerging body of research now indicates that noradrenergic neurons in the LC and their terminals in the dorsal reticular nucleus (DRt), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), spinal dorsal horn, and spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis participate in the development and maintenance of allodynia and hyperalgesia after nerve injury...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484878/brainstem-monitoring-in-the-neurocritical-care-unit-a-rationale-for-real-time-automated-neurophysiological-monitoring
#5
James L Stone, Julian E Bailes, Ahmed N Hassan, Brian Sindelar, Vimal Patel, John Fino
Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring...
August 2, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368033/recovery-of-consciousness-and-an-injured-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-a-patient-who-survived-cardiac-arrest-a-case-report
#6
Sung Ho Jang, Yi Ji Hyun, Han Do Lee
We report on a patient who survived cardiac arrest and showed recovery of consciousness and an injured ARAS at the early stage of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI- BI) for 3 weeks, which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).A 52-year-old male patient who had suffered cardiac arrest caused by acute coronary syndrome was resuscitated immediately by a layman and paramedics for ∼25 minutes. He was then transferred immediately to the emergency room of a local medical center. When starting rehabilitation at 2 weeks after onset, his consciousness was impaired, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 8 and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (GRS-R) score of 8...
June 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27216823/the-primate-pedunculopontine-nucleus-region-towards-a-dual-role-in-locomotion-and-waking-state
#7
Laurent Goetz, Brigitte Piallat, Manik Bhattacharjee, Hervé Mathieu, Olivier David, Stéphan Chabardès
The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF) mainly composed by the pedunculopontine and the cuneiform nuclei is involved in the control of several fundamental brain functions such as locomotion, rapid eye movement sleep and waking state. On the one hand, the role of MRF neurons in locomotion has been investigated for decades in different animal models, including in behaving nonhuman primate (NHP) using extracellular recordings. On the other hand, MRF neurons involved in the control of waking state have been consistently shown to constitute the cholinergic component of the reticular ascending system...
July 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103547/consciousness-unconsciousness-and-death-in-the-context-of-slaughter-part-i-neurobiological-mechanisms-underlying-stunning-and-killing
#8
REVIEW
Claudia Terlouw, Cécile Bourguet, Véronique Deiss
This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms that are relevant for the stunning and killing process of animals in the abattoir. The mechanisms underlying the loss of consciousness depend on the technique used: mechanical, electrical or gas stunning. Direct exsanguination (without prior stun) causes also a loss of consciousness before inducing death. The underlying mechanisms may involve cerebral anoxia or ischemia, or the depolarisation, acidification and/or the destruction of brain neurons. These effects may be caused by shock waves, electrical fields, the reduction or arrest of the cerebral blood circulation, increased levels of CO2 or low levels of O2 in the inhaled air, or the mechanical destruction of neurons...
August 2016: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27073392/impaired-consciousness-caused-by-injury-of-the-lower-ascending-reticular-activating-system-evaluation-by-diffusion-tensor-tractography
#9
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Han Do Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27003198/injury-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-by-subfalcine-herniation-after-subdural-hematoma-a-case-report
#10
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, You Sung Seo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969100/temperament-and-arousal-systems-a-new-synthesis-of-differential-psychology-and-functional-neurochemistry
#11
REVIEW
Irina Trofimova, Trevor W Robbins
This paper critically reviews the unidimensional construct of General Arousal as utilised by models of temperament in differential psychology for example, to underlie 'Extraversion'. Evidence suggests that specialization within monoamine neurotransmitter systems contrasts with the attribution of a "general arousal" of the Ascending Reticular Activating System. Experimental findings show specialized roles of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin systems in hypothetically mediating three complementary forms of arousal that are similar to three functional blocks described in classical models of behaviour within kinesiology, clinical neuropsychology, psychophysiology and temperament research...
May 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26895076/fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis-assessing-pontine-involvement-using-proton-mr-spectroscopic-imaging
#12
Wan Hazlin Zaini, Fabrizio Giuliani, Christian Beaulieu, Sanjay Kalra, Christopher Hanstock
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The underlying mechanism of fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains poorly understood. Our study investigates the involvement of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), originating in the pontine brainstem, in MS patients with symptoms of fatigue. METHODS: Female relapsing-remitting MS patients (n = 17) and controls (n = 15) underwent a magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging protocol at 1.5T. Fatigue was assessed in every subject using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26883160/top-down-control-of-arousal-and-sleep-fundamentals-and-clinical-implications
#13
Lukas Krone, Lukas Frase, Hannah Piosczyk, Peter Selhausen, Sulamith Zittel, Friederike Jahn, Marion Kuhn, Bernd Feige, Florian Mainberger, Stefan Klöppel, Dieter Riemann, Kai Spiegelhalder, Chiara Baglioni, Annette Sterr, Christoph Nissen
Mammalian sleep emerges from attenuated activity in the ascending reticular arousal system (ARAS), the main arousal network of the brain. This system originates in the brainstem and activates the thalamus and cortex during wakefulness via a well-characterized 'bottom-up' pathway. Recent studies propose that a less investigated cortico-thalamic 'top-down' pathway also regulates sleep. The present work integrates the current evidence on sleep regulation with a focus on the 'top-down' pathway and explores the potential to translate this information into clinically relevant interventions...
January 14, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26871783/injury-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-patients-with-fatigue-and-hypersomnia-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-two-case-reports
#14
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
We report on patients with post-traumatic fatigue and hypersomnia who showed injury of the lower portion of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) between the pontine reticular formation (RF) and the intralaminar thalamic nucleus (ILN) following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).Two patients with mild TBI resulting from a car accident were enrolled in this study. Patient 1 was a 51-year-old woman showed abnormalities as 6.9 (cut off: 3.7 points) and 18 (cut off: 10) on the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale at 11 months after onset...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26829084/recovery-from-vegetative-state-to-minimally-conscious-state-a-case-report
#15
SungHo Jang, SeongHo Kim, HanDo Lee
In this study, we attempted to demonstrate the change of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) concurrent with the recovery from a vegetative state (VS) to a minimally conscious state (MCS) in a patient with brain injury. A 54-year-old male patient had suffered from head trauma and underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation immediately after head trauma. At 10 months after onset, the patient exhibited impaired consciousness, with a Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) score of 7 (auditory function: 1, visual function: 2, motor function: 1, verbal function: 1, communication: 0, and arousal: 2) and underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation for hydrocephalus...
May 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26765455/recovery-of-hypersomnia-concurrent-with-recovery-of-an-injured-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-a-stroke-patient-a-case-report
#16
Sung Ho Jang, Han Do Lee, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung
We report on a stroke patient who showed recovery of hypersomnia concurrent with the recovery of an injured ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).A 70-year-old female patient underwent coiling of the left ruptured posterior communicating artery after subarachnoid hemorrhage and both extraventricular drainage for management of an intraventricular hemorrhage. At 2 months after onset, when she started rehabilitation, she exhibited intact consciousness, with the full score on the Glasgow Coma Scale: 15...
January 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26687971/subcortical-evoked-activity-and-motor-enhancement-in-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Anam Anzak, Huiling Tan, Alek Pogosyan, Sadaquate Khan, Shazia Javed, Steven S Gill, Keyoumars Ashkan, Harith Akram, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Alexander L Green, Tipu Aziz, Peter Brown
Enhancements in motor performance have been demonstrated in response to intense stimuli both in healthy subjects and in the form of 'paradoxical kinesis' in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here we identify a mid-latency evoked potential in local field potential recordings from the region of the subthalamic nucleus, which scales in amplitude with both the intensity of the stimulus delivered and corresponding enhancements in biomechanical measures of maximal handgrips, independent of the dopaminergic state of our subjects with Parkinson's disease...
March 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26687433/transient-coma-due-to-epidural-anesthesia-the-role-of-loss-of-sensory-input
#18
Christopher Dardis, David Lawlor, Courtney M Schusse
BACKGROUND: Epidural anesthesia is the most commonly used method of pain relief during labor in the USA. It is not classically associated with alterations in level of alertness. Coma during the procedure is rare, with a reported incidence of 0.1-0.3%. CASE REPORT: An otherwise healthy patient experienced almost complete loss of brainstem function following routine epidural anesthesia during delivery. The episode lasted for less than 3 hours and the patient made a full recovery...
2015: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26597124/implications-of-gamma-band-activity-in-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus
#19
REVIEW
E Garcia-Rill, B Luster, S D'Onofrio, S Mahaffey, V Bisagno, F J Urbano
The fact that the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is part of the reticular activating system places it in a unique position to modulate sensory input and fight-or-flight responses. Arousing stimuli simultaneously activate ascending projections of the PPN to the intralaminar thalamus to trigger cortical high-frequency activity and arousal, as well as descending projections to reticulospinal systems to alter posture and locomotion. As such, the PPN has become a target for deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, modulating gait, posture, and higher functions...
July 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26411761/pharmacology-of-ultrasonic-vocalizations-in-adult-rats-significance-call-classification-and-neural-substrate
#20
REVIEW
Stefan M Brudzynski
Pharmacological studies of emotional arousal and initiation of emotional states in rats measured by their ultrasonic vocalizations are reviewed. It is postulated that emission of vocalizations is an inseparable feature of emotional states and it evolved from mother-infant interaction. Positive emotional states are associated with emission of 50 kHz vocalizations that could be induced by rewarding situations and dopaminergic activation of the nucleus accumbens and are mediated by D1, D2, and partially D3 dopamine receptors...
2015: Current Neuropharmacology
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