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Growth factors in brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526811/proteomic-analysis-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-children-with-central-nervous-system-tumors-identifies-candidate-proteins-relating-to-tumor-metastatic-spread
#1
Filippo Spreafico, Italia Bongarzone, Sara Pizzamiglio, Ruben Magni, Elena Taverna, Maida De Bortoli, Chiara M Ciniselli, Elena Barzanò, Veronica Biassoni, Alessandra Luchini, Lance A Liotta, Weidong Zhou, Michele Signore, Paolo Verderio, Maura Massimino
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumors in childhood. Since the sensitivity of combined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and radiological neuroimaging in detecting meningeal metastases remains relatively low, we sought to characterize the CSF proteome of patients with CSF tumors to identify biomarkers predictive of metastatic spread. CSF samples from 27 children with brain tumors and 13 controls (extra-CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma) were processed using core-shell hydrogel nanoparticles, and analyzed with reverse-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524001/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-promotes-growth-of-neurons-and-neural-stem-cells-possibly-by-triggering-the-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-akt-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#2
Jin-Wei Yang, Zhang Liang, Shi-Kang Deng Deng, Wei Ma, Xian-Bin Wang, Xing-Tong Li, Tong-Tong Wang, Yun-Fei Dai, Jian-Hui Guo, Li-Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in promoting survival and differentiation of neurons and neural stem cells (NSCs), but the downstream regulating mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether BDNF exerts its effect by triggering the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B, PKB (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and β-catenin signaling pathway in cultured neurons and NSCs derived from the rat embryonic spinal cord...
May 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523540/rubinstein-taybi-syndrome-and-epigenetic-alterations
#3
Edward Korzus
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder in humans characterized by growth and psychomotor delay, abnormal gross anatomy, and mild to severe mental retardation (Rubinstein and Taybi, Am J Dis Child 105:588-608, 1963, Hennekam et al., Am J Med Genet Suppl 6:56-64, 1990). RSTS is caused by de novo mutations in epigenetics-associated genes, including the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREBBP), the gene-encoding protein referred to as CBP, and the EP300 gene, which encodes the p300 protein, a CBP homologue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522569/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-airway-fibrosis-in-asthma
#4
Michelle R Freeman, Venkatachalem Sathish, Logan J Manlove, Shengyu Wang, Rodney D Britt, Michael A Thompson, Christina M Pabelick, Y S Prakash
Airway remodeling in asthma driven by inflammation involves proliferation of epithelial cells and airway smooth muscle (ASM), as well as enhanced extracellular matrix (ECM) generation and deposition, i.e. fibrosis. Accordingly, understanding pro-fibrotic mechanisms is important for developing novel therapeutic strategies in asthma. Recent studies, including our own, have suggested a role for locally-produced growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mediating and modulating inflammation effects...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521651/miliary-metastases-are-associated-with-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutations-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-population-based-study
#5
Fred Hsu, Alan Nichol, Ted Toriumi, Alex De Caluwe
BACKGROUND: Miliary metastases are characterized by metastatic nodules that are diffuse, innumerable and small. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence, prognostic significance and impact of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations for miliary metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients were identified from a Provincial cancer registry (British Columbia, Canada) for the period 2010-2012. Inclusion criteria were stage IV NSCLC at presentation and conclusive EGFR mutation testing...
May 19, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521439/arteriovenous-malformation-and-thyroid-metastasis-from-underlying-renal-cell-carcinoma-an-unusual-presentation-of-malignancy-a-case-report
#6
H J Albandar, E S Roberto, J R H See, J H Sabiers
Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (RCC) comprises over 80% of renal malignancies in adults. Thyroid gland metastasis is rare in RCC. Few studies have described cases of RCC mistaken for benign arteriovenous malformation (AVM). To the best of our knowledge, an AVM arising from underlying RCC metastasis to the brain has not yet been reported. The current study presents a case of RCC metastasis to the thyroid gland, with an AVM identified to be a result of metastatic involvement in the brain. A 45-year-old African-American female presented with left-sided weakness, slurred speech, facial droop and seizure...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521298/insulin-like-growth-factor-2-axis-supports-the-serum-independent-growth-of-malignant-rhabdoid-tumor-and-is-activated-by-microenvironment-stress
#7
Ting Li, Jin Wang, Pengfei Liu, Jiadong Chi, Han Yan, Lei Lei, Zexing Li, Bing Yang, Xi Wang
Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are rare, lethal, pediatric tumors predominantly found in the kidney, brain and soft tissues. MRTs are driven by loss of tumor suppressor SNF5/INI1/SMARCB1/BAF47. The prognosis of MRT is poor using currently available treatments, so new treatment targets need to be identified to expand treatment options for patients experiencing chemotherapy resistance. The growth hormone insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) signaling pathway is a promising target to overcome drug resistance in many cancers...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520468/the-hierarchy-of-brain-networks-is-related-to-insulin-growth-factor-1-in-a-large-middle-aged-healthy-cohort-an-exploratory-magnetoencephalography-study
#8
Pierpaolo Sorrentino, Dagmar Nieboer, Jos Twisk, Cornelis J Stam, Linda Douw, Arjan Hillebrand
Recently, a large study demonstrated that lower serum levels of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) relate to brain atrophy and to greater risk for developing Alzheimer's disease in a healthy elderly population. We set out to test if functional brain networks relate to IGF-1 levels in the middle-aged. Hence, we studied the association between IGF-1 and magnetoencephalography-based functional network characteristics in a middle-aged population. The functional connections between brain areas were estimated for six frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta, gamma) using the phase lag index (PLI)...
May 18, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516072/bevacizumab-in-recurrent-glioma-patterns-of-treatment-failure-and-implications
#9
REVIEW
Yi Li, Saad Ali, Jennifer Clarke, Soonmee Cha
Glioblastoma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, is highly aggressive and associated with a poor prognosis. Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, has increasingly been used in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. It has achieved excellent rates of radiographic response, but most patients will progress after only a few months. Upon recurrence, tumors may not enhance, secondary to vascular normalization. We describe four patterns of radiographic progression commonly associated with Bevacizumab failure: 1) Distant enhancing tumor, 2) Local tumor progression without enhancement, 3) Diffuse gliomatosis-like infiltration, and 4) Local or multifocal progression, with enhancement...
April 2017: Brain Tumor Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515690/brain-renin-angiotensin-system-and-microglial-polarization-implications-for-aging-and-neurodegeneration
#10
REVIEW
Jose L Labandeira-Garcia, Ana I Rodríguez-Perez, Pablo Garrido-Gil, Jannette Rodriguez-Pallares, Jose L Lanciego, Maria J Guerra
Microglia can transform into proinflammatory/classically activated (M1) or anti-inflammatory/alternatively activated (M2) phenotypes following environmental signals related to physiological conditions or brain lesions. An adequate transition from the M1 (proinflammatory) to M2 (immunoregulatory) phenotype is necessary to counteract brain damage. Several factors involved in microglial polarization have already been identified. However, the effects of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on microglial polarization are less known...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513109/separation-and-identification-of-mouse-brain-tissue-microproteins-using-top-down-method-with-high-resolution-nanocapillary-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#11
Wenxue Li, Filomena Petruzziello, Nan Zhao, Huiyuan Zhao, Xueting Ye, Xiaozhe Zhang, Gregor Rainer
Microproteins and endogenous peptides in the brain contain important substances that have critical roles in diverse biological processes, contributing to signal transduction and inter-cellular signaling. However, variability in their physical or chemical characteristics, such as molecule size, hydrophobicity and charge states, complicate the simultaneous analysis of these compounds, although this would be highly beneficial for the field of neuroscience research. Here, we present a top-down analytical method for simultaneous analysis of microproteins and endogenous peptides using high-resolution nanocapillary liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
May 16, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512445/the-therapeutic-value-of-bone-marrow-derived-endothelial-progenitor-cell-transplantation-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-rats
#12
Rui Zhang, Jing Yang, Jingjing Yuan, Bo Song, Yan Wang, Yuming Xu
AIMS: To study the effect of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) treatment on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats and elucidate possible mechanisms. METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into three groups: (1) EPC group: ICH + EPC, (2) phosphate-buffered saline group: ICH + PBS, and (3) sham group. EPCs were transplanted intravenously 6 h after ICH. Modified neurological severity score was used to evaluate neurological function. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity was evaluated...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512255/immune-consequences-of-penfluridol-treatment-associated-with-inhibition-of-glioblastoma-tumor-growth
#13
Alok Ranjan, Stephen Wright, Sanjay K Srivastava
Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal brain tumor associated with only 12% median survival rate of patients. Despite the development of advanced surgical, radiation or use of combinations of anti-cancer drugs, treatment for glioblastoma patients is still a challenge. The major contributing factor in glioblastoma progression and resistive nature is its ability to evade the immune surveillance. Hence, modulating the immune system in glioblastoma tumors could be an important strategy for anticancer therapeutics...
April 26, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510766/detection-of-3-3-dichlorobiphenyl-in-human-maternal-plasma-and-its-effects-on-axonal-and-dendritic-growth-in-primary-rat-neurons
#14
Sunjay Sethi, Kimberly P Keil, Hao Chen, Keri Hayakawa, Xueshu Li, Yanping Lin, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Birgit Puschner, Pamela J Lein
3,3'-Dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11), a byproduct of pigment production, is increasingly detected in environmental samples. While more highly chlorinated PCB congeners are known developmental neurotoxicants, nothing is known about the potential developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 11. To address this critical data gap, we measured PCB 11 levels in human maternal plasma and quantified the effects of PCB 11 and its major metabolites on morphometric parameters of neuronal connectivity in cultured primary neurons. Mass spectrometry analyses of plasma from 241 pregnant women enrolled in the MARBLES study (University of California, Davis) detected PCB 11 in all samples at concentrations ranging from 0...
May 16, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509387/progranulin-increases-phagocytosis-by-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells-in-culture
#15
Hiromi Murase, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Yoshiki Kuse, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells take part in retinal preservation, such as phagocytizing the shed photoreceptor outer segments (POS), every day. The incomplete phagocytic function accelerates RPE degeneration and formation of the toxic by-product lipofuscin. Excessive lipofuscin accumulation is characteristic of various blinding diseases in the human eye. Progranulin is a cysteine-rich protein that has multiple biological activities, and it has a high presence in the retina. Progranulin has been recognized to be involved in macrophage phagocytosis in the brain...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508612/the-longevity-hormone-klotho-is-a-new-player-in-the-interacion-of-the-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-axis
#16
Tami Rubinek, Ido Wolf, Dalit Modan-Moses
Klotho was first discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. Mice that do not express klotho die prematurely with multiple symptoms of aging, several of which are also characteristic of decreased GH/IGF-1 axis activity. Klotho is highly expressed in the brain, the kidney, and parathyroid and pituitary glands, but can also serve as a circulating hormone by its shedding, forming soluble klotho (sKlotho) that can be detected in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Several lines of evidence suggest an association between klotho levels and activity of the GH/IHG-1 axis: The GH-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary of klotho-deficient mice are hypotrophic; klotho levels are altered in subjects with pathologies of the GH/IGF-1 axis; and accumulating data indicate that klotho is a direct regulator of GH secretion...
September 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508575/upregulation-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-the-ventricular-zone-after-cortical-stroke
#17
Adrianna N Gunton, Juan C Sanchez-Arias, Esther O Carmona-Wagner, Leigh E Wicki-Stordeur, Leigh Anne Swayne
PURPOSE: After cortical stroke, neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the distal ventricular zone (VZ) proliferate more rapidly and migrate towards the injured cortex. While evidence suggests this can enhance stroke recovery, the underlying molecular mechanisms initiating the response are poorly understood. Here we identified changes in protein expression in the ipsilateral VZ early (4 hours) after stroke to gain insight into the initial mechanisms involved in NPC activation post-stroke. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Four hours after photothrombotic stroke (or sham surgery control) in the sensorimotor cortex, adult mice (10 stroke, 10 sham) were subjected to cardiac perfusion with PBS, and ipsilateral and contralateral VZ tissue was microdissected...
May 15, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508358/degradomics-in-neurotrauma-profiling-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Fares Sukhon, Edwyn Jeremy Assaf, Hisham Bahmad, Hussein Abou-Abbass, Hussam Jourdi, Firas H Kobeissy
Degradomics has recently emerged as a subdiscipline in the omics era with a focus on characterizing signature breakdown products implicated in various disease processes. Driven by promising experimental findings in cancer, neuroscience, and metabolomic disorders, degradomics has significantly promoted the notion of disease-specific "degradome." A degradome arises from the activation of several proteases that target specific substrates and generate signature protein fragments. Several proteases such as calpains, caspases, cathepsins, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases that disturb the physiologic balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508312/trpc-channels-and-programmed-cell-death
#19
Jian Zhou, Yichang Jia
Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), bind to their high-affinity receptors to promote neuronal survival during brain development. One of the key downstream pathways is the phospholipase C (PLC) pathway, which not only plays a central role in calcium release from internal store but also in activation of TRPC channels coupled with neurotrophin receptors. TRPC channels are required for the neurotrophin-mediated neuronal protective effects. In addition, activation of TRPC channels is able to protect neurons in the absence of neurotrophin...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507206/real-world-data-on-prognostic-factors-for-overall-survival-in-egfr-mutation-positive-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-treated-with-first-line-gefitinib
#20
Zong-Han Yao, Wei-Yu Liao, Chao-Chi Ho, Kuan-Yu Chen, Jin-Yuan Shih, Jin-Shing Chen, Zhong-Zhe Lin, Chia-Chi Lin, James Chih-Hsin Yang, Chong-Jen Yu
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring an activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and receiving gefitinib as first-line treatment in real-world practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 226 patients from June 2011 to May 2013. During this period, gefitinib was the only EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor reimbursed by the Bureau of National Health Insurance of Taiwan...
May 15, 2017: Oncologist
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