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Growth factors in brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791316/roles-of-the-exon-junction-complex-components-in-the-central-nervous-system-a-mini-review
#1
Katarzyna Bartkowska, Beata Tepper, Kris Turlejski, Ruzanna L Djavadian
The exon junction complex (EJC) consists of four core proteins: Magoh, RNA-binding motif 8A (Rbm8a, also known as Y14), eukaryotic initiation factor 4A3 (eIF4A3, also known as DDX48), and metastatic lymph node 51 (MLN51, also known as Casc3 or Barentsz), which are involved in the regulation of many processes occurring between gene transcription and protein translation. Its main role is to assemble into spliceosomes at the exon-exon junction of mRNA during splicing. It is, therefore, a range of functions concerning post-splicing events such as mRNA translocation, translation, and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD)...
May 23, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790427/simulated-microgravity-culture-enhances-the-neuroprotective-effects-of-human-cranial-bone-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Takashi Otsuka, Takeshi Imura, Kei Nakagawa, Looniva Shrestha, Shinya Takahashi, Yumi Kawahara, Taijiro Sueda, Kaoru Kurisu, Louis Yuge
Fundamental cures of central nervous system (CNS) diseases are rarely achieved due to the low regenerative ability of the CNS. Recently, cell-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been explored as effective treatments for CNS diseases. Among the various tissue-derived MSCs, we have isolated human cranial bone-derived MSCs (cMSCs) in our laboratory. In addition, we have focused on simulated microgravity (MG) as a valuable culture environment of MSCs. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying functional recovery from the transplantation of MSCs cultured under MG conditions remain unclear...
May 23, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790398/acute-inflammatory-biomarker-responses-to-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat-monitored-by-a-novel-microdialysis-technique
#3
Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund, Lars Hillered
Neuroinflammation is a major contributor to the progressive brain injury process induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI), and may play an important role in the pathophysiology of axonal injury. The immediate neuroinflammatory cascade cannot be characterized in the human setting. Therefore, we used the midline fluid percussion injury model of diffuse TBI in rats and a novel microdialysis (MD) method providing stable diffusion-driven biomarker sampling. Immediately post-injury, bilateral amphiphilic tri-block polymer coated MD probes (100 kDa cut off membrane) were inserted and perfused with Dextran 500 kDa-supplemented artificial CSF to optimize protein capture...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789021/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-egfr-t790m-mutation-identified-in-plasma-indicates-failure-sites-and-predicts-clinical-prognosis-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-progression-during-first-generation-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-therapy-a-prospective-observational
#4
Shirong Zhang, Lucheng Zhu, Bing Xia, Enguo Chen, Qiong Zhao, Xiaochen Zhang, Xueqin Chen, Xufeng Chen, Shenglin Ma
INTRODUCTION: Plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is an ideal approach to detecting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation, which is a major mechanism of resistance to first-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. The present study aimed to explore the association of ctDNA-identified T790M mutation with disease failure sites and clinical prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: Patients who progressed on first-generation TKIs were categorized into failure site groups of chest limited (CF), brain limited (BF) and other (OF)...
May 22, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787856/the-association-of-disease-activity-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-neurotrophic-factors-with-depression-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#5
Yun-Hong Cheon, Seung-Geun Lee, Mingyo Kim, Hyun-Ok Kim, Young Sun Suh, Ki-Soo Park, Rock Bum Kim, Hyun-Su Yang, Ji-Min Kim, Chang-Nam Son, Eun Kyoung Park, Sang-Hyon Kim, Sang-Il Lee
Inflammation and trophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF], vascular endothelial growth factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1) are associated with depression in the general population. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic representative inflammatory autoimmune disease; however, the association of disease activity, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and neurotrophic factors with depression has not been sufficiently investigated. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of depression and risk factors for depression and deterioration of depressive symptoms in RA patients...
May 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787768/the-angiotensin-ii-type-i-receptor-antagonist-losartan-retards-amygdala-kindling-induced-epileptogenesis
#6
Toshiki Nozaki, Hiroyuki Ura, Ichiro Takumi, Shiro Kobayashi, Eiichi Maru, Akio Morita
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and the subsequent exposure of the cerebral cortex to serum albumin are known to activate transforming growth factor β (TGF- β) signaling in astrocytes and to play key roles in epileptogenesis after brain injury. It was recently reported that the angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist losartan suppresses activation of TGF- β signaling and prevents epileptogenesis in a rat vascular injury model. Here, we investigated the effects of losartan on epileptogenesis following amygdala kindling in rats...
May 19, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786481/rat-cranial-bone-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-promotes-functional-recovery-in-ischemic-stroke-model-rats
#7
Masaru Abiko, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Takahito Okazaki, Takeshi Imura, Kei Nakagawa, Takashi Otsuka, Jumpei Oshita, Masaaki Takeda, Yumi Kawahara, Louis Yuge, Kaoru Kurisu
The functional disorders caused by central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as ischemic stroke, are clinically incurable and current treatments have limited effects. Previous studies suggested that cell-based therapy using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exerts therapeutic effects for ischemic stroke. In addition, the characteristics of MSCs may depend on their sources. Among the derived tissues of MSCs, we have focused on cranial bones originating from the neural crest. We previously demonstrated that the neurogenic potential of human cranial bone-derived MSCs (cMSCs) was higher than that of human iliac bone-derived MSCs...
May 22, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786075/tp53-gain-of-function-mutation-promotes-inflammation-in-glioblastoma
#8
Seok Won Ham, Hee-Young Jeon, Xiong Jin, Eun-Jung Kim, Jun-Kyum Kim, Yong Jae Shin, Yeri Lee, Se Hoon Kim, Seon Yong Lee, Sunyoung Seo, Min Gi Park, Hye-Mi Kim, Do-Hyun Nam, Hyunggee Kim
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most severe and common brain tumor in adults, is characterized by multiple somatic mutations and aberrant activation of inflammatory responses. Immune cell infiltration and subsequent inflammation cause tumor growth and resistance to therapy. Somatic loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding tumor suppressor protein p53 (TP53) are frequently observed in various cancers. However, numerous studies suggest that TP53 regulates malignant phenotypes by gain-of-function (GOF) mutations...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782958/changes-in-behavioural-parameters-oxidative-stress-and-neurotrophins-in-the-brain-of-adult-offspring-induced-to-an-animal-model-of-schizophrenia-the-effects-of-fa-deficient-or-fa-supplemented-diet-during-the-neurodevelopmental-phase
#9
L Canever, T G Freire, G A Mastella, L Damázio, S Gomes, I Fachim, C Michels, G Carvalho, A K Godói, B R Peterle, F F Gava, S Valvassori Sda, J Budni, J Quevedo, A I Zugno
A deficiency of maternal folic acid (FA) can compromise the function and development of the brain, and may produce a susceptibility to diseases such as schizophrenia (SZ) in the later life of offspring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of both FA deficient and FA supplemented diets during gestation and lactation on behavioural parameters, the markers of oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors in adult offspring which had been subjected to an animal model of SZ. Female mother rats (Dam's) were separated into experimental maternal groups, which began receiving a special diet (food) consisting of the AIN-93 diet, a control diet, or an FA deficient diet during the periods of pregnancy and lactation...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782359/brca1-mutations-associated-with-increased-risk-of-brain-metastases-in-breast-cancer-a-1-2-matched-pair-analysis
#10
Peter J Zavitsanos, David E Wazer, Jaroslaw T Hepel, Yihong Wang, Kamaljeet Singh, Kara L Leonard
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases (BM) occur in ∼5% of breast cancer patients. BRCA1-associated cancers are often basal-like and basal-like cancers are known to have a predilection for central nervous system metastases. We performed a matched-pair analysis of breast cancer patients with and without BRCA mutations and compared the frequency of BM in both groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From a database of 1935 patients treated for localized breast cancer at our institution from 2009 to 2014 we identified 20 patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and manually matched 40 patients without BRCA mutations accounting for age, stage, estrogen receptor expression, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780293/serial-changes-of-cytokines-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-who-received-intravenous-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-followed-by-autologous-mobilized-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#11
Hani Koh, Wee-Jin Rah, Yong-Joo Kim, Jin-Hwa Moon, Mi-Jung Kim, Young-Ho Lee
Background: This study was performed to assess serial cytokine changes and their clinical impact in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) followed by infusion of autologous mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mPBMCs). Methods: Peripheral blood (PB) samples were collected from 16 CP children at enrollment, and 1 month and 7 months after G-CSF infusion as well as at the end of the study. Cytokine levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with plasma samples...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778778/swimming-improves-cognitive-reserve-in-ovariectomized-rats-and-enhances-neuroprotection-after-global-cerebral-ischemia
#12
Meng Zhang, Yating Zhai, Yaping Sun, Wenli Zhang, Qian Li, Darrell Brann, Ruimin Wang
Cognitive reserve has been proposed to account for different responses to brain damage or pathology. Factors implicated to influence cognitive reserve include cognitive engagement, physical activity, leisure activities, stress levels, and diet. Furthermore, long-term ovariectomy (OVX), such as occurs in women that have underwent surgical menopause, has been reported to increase the risk of cognitive impairment. In the current study, we examined whether swimming improves cognitive function in long-term OVX-rats...
May 17, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776451/myeloid-specific-tak1-deletion-results-in-reduced-brain-monocyte-infiltration-and-improved-outcomes-after-stroke
#13
Anjali Chauhan, Jacob Hudobenko, Abdullah Al Mamun, Edward C Koellhoffer, Anthony Patrizz, Rodney M Ritzel, Bhanu P Ganesh, Louise D McCullough
BACKGROUND: Activation of transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) occurs after stroke and leads to an exacerbation of brain injury. TAK1 is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, but it has divergent inflammatory effects that are dependent on the cell type in which it is activated. There is a robust infiltration of myeloid cells after stroke; however, the contribution of myeloid TAK1 to cerebral ischemia is currently unknown. We hypothesized that myeloid-specific deletion of TAK1 would protect against ischemic brain injury...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775875/the-reduced-level-of-growth-factors-in-an-animal-model-of-depression-is-accompanied-by-regulated-necrosis-in-the-frontal-cortex-but-not-in-the-hippocampus
#14
Mateusz Kucharczyk, Anna Kurek, Bartosz Pomierny, Jan Detka, Mariusz Papp, Katarzyna Tota, Bogusława Budziszewska
In the present study, we asked if the different types of stress alter neuronal plasticity markers distinctively in the frontal cortex (FCx) and in the hippocampus (Hp). To do so, we implemented various stress regimens to analyze changes evoked in these rat brain structures. We utilized several molecular techniques, including western blot, ELISA, quantitative RT-PCR, and various biochemical assays, to examine a range of proteins and subjected rats to behavioral tests to evaluate potential maladaptive alterations...
May 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775479/acute-intermittent-hypoxia-and-rehabilitative-training-following-cervical-spinal-injury-alters-neuronal-hypoxia-and-plasticity-associated-protein-expression
#15
Atiq Hassan, Breanna M Arnold, Sally Caine, Behzad M Toosi, Valerie M K Verge, Gillian D Muir
One of the most promising approaches to improve recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) is the augmentation of spontaneously occurring plasticity in uninjured neural pathways. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH, brief exposures to reduced O2 levels alternating with normal O2 levels) initiates plasticity in respiratory systems and has been shown to improve recovery in respiratory and non-respiratory spinal systems after SCI in experimental animals and humans. Although the mechanism by which AIH elicits its effects after SCI are not well understood, AIH is known to alter protein expression in spinal neurons in uninjured animals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775160/site-specific-expression-of-amine-oxidases-in-breast-cancer-metastases
#16
Yoon Jin Cha, Woo Hee Jung, Ja Seung Koo
We aimed to evaluate the expression of amine oxidase-related proteins in metastatic breast cancer tissue and determine its clinical implication. A tissue microarray was constructed from a total of 126 metastatic breast tumors (31 bone metastases (24.6%), 36 brain metastases (28.6%), 11 liver metastases (8.7%), and 48 lung metastases (38.1%)). Immunohistochemical staining for amine oxidase-related proteins (lysyl oxidase, diamine oxidase, and monoamine oxidase A and B) was performed. In metastatic breast cancer tissue, lysyl oxidase ( p = 0...
May 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774773/mir-711-induced-down-regulation-of-angiopoietin-1-mediates-neuronal-cell-death
#17
Boris Sabirzhanov, Alan Faden, Taryn Aubrecht, Rebecca Henry, Ethan Glaser, Bogdan A Stoica
Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) is a well-known endothelial growth factor but its effects on neurons have yet to be elucidated. We show that Ang-1 is rapidly down-regulated in the injured brain after controlled cortical impact (CCI), a mouse experimental TBI model and in etoposide-induced neuronal apoptosis in vitro. Ang-1 treatment inhibits etoposide-induced up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members Noxa, Puma, Bim, and Bax; reduces markers of caspase-dependent (cytochrome c release/caspase activation) and caspase-independent (apoptosis-inducing factor release) pathways; and limits neuronal cell death...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774144/effects-of-passage-and-cryopreservation-on-neurotrophic-factor-secretion-from-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells
#18
Feng Zhao, Xiao-Yan Ding, Feng Wu, Xiao-Hui Li, Yu-Huan Li, Sheng-Li Huang
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of passage and cryopreservation of choroid plexus epithelial cells on their secretion of neurotrophic factors. Choroid plexus epithelial cells were cryopreserved and thawed following primary culture or passage cultured for up to two passages. The supernatant of primary, first/second passage and cryopreserved-thawed choroid plexus epithelial cells was collected when cells reached 80-90% confluence. ELISA was used to quantify brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) levels in the cell supernatant...
June 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774119/periostin-a-signal-transduction-intermediate-in-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-emt-in-u-87mg-human-glioblastoma-cells-and-its-inhibition-by-anthocyanidins
#19
Amira Ouanouki, Sylvie Lamy, Borhane Annabi
Periostin is a secreted protein that is highly expressed in glioblastoma cells as compared to normal brain tissue, and is therefore considered as a potential biomarker in therapeutic modalities. Its contribution in the cancer cells invasive phenotype is, however, poorly understood. This work investigates the role of periostin in U-87 MG glioblastoma cell invasion, cell migration and in Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Periostin gene silencing, using small interfering RNA, decreased TGF-β-induced mesenchymal marker expression of fibronectin and vimentin, partly through reduced Smad2, Akt and Fak phosphorylation as well as U-87 MG cell invasion and migration...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773872/computational-identification-of-specific-genes-for-glioblastoma-stem-like-cells-identity
#20
Giulia Fiscon, Federica Conte, Valerio Licursi, Sergio Nasi, Paola Paci
Glioblastoma, the most malignant brain cancer, contains self-renewing, stem-like cells that sustain tumor growth and therapeutic resistance. Identifying genes promoting stem-like cell differentiation might unveil targets for novel treatments. To detect them, here we apply SWIM - a software able to unveil genes (named switch genes) involved in drastic changes of cell phenotype - to public datasets of gene expression profiles from human glioblastoma cells. By analyzing matched pairs of stem-like and differentiated glioblastoma cells, SWIM identified 336 switch genes, potentially involved in the transition from stem-like to differentiated state...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
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