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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432578/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-rise-a-community-based-culturally-congruent-adherence-intervention-for-black-americans-living-with-hiv
#1
Laura M Bogart, Matt G Mutchler, Bryce McDavitt, David J Klein, William E Cunningham, Kathy J Goggin, Bonnie Ghosh-Dastidar, Nikki Rachal, Kelsey A Nogg, Glenn J Wagner
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based HIV treatment adherence interventions have typically shown medium-sized effects on adherence. Prior evidence-based HIV treatment adherence interventions have not been culturally adapted specifically for Black/African Americans, the population most affected by HIV disparities in the USA, who exhibit lower adherence than do members of other racial/ethnic groups. PURPOSE: We conducted a randomized controlled trial of Rise, a 6-month culturally congruent adherence counseling intervention for HIV-positive Black men and women...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429468/decision-making-in-obesity-without-eating-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-iowa-gambling-task-performances
#2
REVIEW
J-Y Rotge, C Poitou, P Fossati, J Aron-Wisnewsky, J-M Oppert
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that obesity is associated with impairments in executive functions, such as deficits in decision-making, planning or problem solving, which might interfere with weight loss in obese individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of decision-making abilities, as measured with the Iowa gambling task (IGT), in obesity without eating disorders. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted to identify studies comparing IGT performances between groups of obese patients without eating disorders and groups of healthy control groups...
April 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427314/capturing-complexity-in-pulmonary-system-modelling
#3
Alys R Clark, Haribalan Kumar, Kelly Burrowes
Respiratory disease is a significant problem worldwide, and it is a problem with increasing prevalence. Pathology in the upper airways and lung is very difficult to diagnose and treat, as response to disease is often heterogeneous across patients. Computational models have long been used to help understand respiratory function, and these models have evolved alongside increases in the resolution of medical imaging and increased capability of functional imaging, advances in biological knowledge, mathematical techniques and computational power...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423745/reasoning-and-data-representation-in-a-health-and-lifestyle-support-system
#4
Sten Hanke, Karl Kreiner, Johannes Kropf, Marc Scase, Christian Gossy
Case-based reasoning and data interpretation is an artificial intelligence approach that capitalizes on past experience to solve current problems and this can be used as a method for practical intelligent systems. Case-based data reasoning is able to provide decision support for experts and clinicians in health systems as well as lifestyle systems. In this project we were focusing on developing a solution for healthy ageing considering daily activities, nutrition as well as cognitive activities. The data analysis of the reasoner followed state of the art guidelines from clinical practice...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422894/impact-of-telephone-based-problem-solving-treatment-on-the-use-of-medical-and-psychological-services-in-the-military
#5
John S Richardson, Jesse R Fann, Kathleen R Bell, Nancy Temkin
OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of problem-solving treatment (PST) for mild traumatic brain injury in active duty service members on the use of medical and psychological services. PARTICIPANTS: Service members who had a mild traumatic brain injury during their last deployment and enrolled in the CONcussion Treatment After Combat Trauma (CONTACT) study. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Participants were assigned to telephone-based PST, or e-mailed or mailed education only over the course of 6 months...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421865/it-s-not-all-about-moral-reasoning-understanding-the-content-of-moral-case-deliberation
#6
Mia Svantesson, Marit Silén, Inger James
BACKGROUND: Moral Case Deliberation is one form of clinical ethics support described as a facilitator-led collective moral reasoning by healthcare professionals on a concrete moral question connected to their practice. Evaluation research is needed, but, as human interaction is difficult to standardise, there is a need to capture the content beyond moral reasoning. This allows for a better understanding of Moral Case Deliberation, which may contribute to further development of valid outcome criteria and stimulate the normative discussion of what Moral Case Deliberation should contain...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420433/umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-scaffolds-facilitate-collagen-degradation-via-upregulation-of-mmp-9-in-rat-uterine-scars
#7
Lu Xu, Lijun Ding, Lei Wang, Yun Cao, Hui Zhu, Jingjie Lu, Xin'an Li, Tianran Song, Yali Hu, Jianwu Dai
BACKGROUND: Severe injuries of the uterus may trigger uterine scar formation, ultimately leading to infertility or obstetrical complications. To date, few methods have adequately solved the problem of collagen deposition in uterine scars. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) have shown great promise in clinical applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a scaffold/UC-MSCs construct on collagen degradation and functional regeneration in rat uterine scars following full-thickness excision of uterine walls...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420284/a-systematic-review-of-rehabilitation-interventions-to-prevent-and-treat-depression-in-post-stroke-aphasia
#8
Caroline Baker, Linda Worrall, Miranda Rose, Kyla Hudson, Brooke Ryan, Leana O'Byrne
PURPOSE: Stepped psychological care is the delivery of routine assessment and interventions for psychological problems, including depression. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze and synthesize the evidence of rehabilitation interventions to prevent and treat depression in post-stroke aphasia and adapt the best evidence within a stepped psychological care framework. METHOD: Four databases were systematically searched up to March 2017: Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Library...
April 19, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419830/creative-cognition-and-dopaminergic-modulation-of-fronto-striatal-networks-integrative-review-and-research-agenda
#9
REVIEW
Nathalie Boot, Matthijs Baas, Simon van Gaal, Roshan Cools, Carsten K W De Dreu
Creative cognition is key to human functioning yet the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are sparsely addressed and poorly understood. Here we address the possibility that creative cognition is a function of dopaminergic modulation in fronto-striatal brain circuitries. It is proposed that (i) creative cognition benefits from both flexible and persistent processing, (ii) striatal dopamine and the integrity of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is associated with flexible processing, while (iii) prefrontal dopamine and the integrity of the mesocortical dopaminergic pathway is associated with persistent processing...
April 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417921/bioethics-of-clinical-applications-of-stem-cells
#10
Carlo Petrini
The clinical applications of stem cells pose a multitude of problems, including safety, efficacy, information and consent, the right to unproven treatments, the "right to try", costs, access, sustainability, scientific scrupulousness, patents and regulatory aspects, to name but a few. This article does not address individual issues, but rather introduces and discusses some of the possible approaches to solving the problems. The first part compares the consequentialist and deontological approaches, offering an overview of "top-down" and "bottom-up" models and proposing the principles of personalism as applied in clinical settings...
April 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413808/vessel-tree-tracking-in-angiographic-sequences
#11
Dong Zhang, Shanhui Sun, Ziyan Wu, Bor-Jeng Chen, Terrence Chen
We present a method to track vessels in angiography [contrast filled vessels in two-dimensional (2-D) x-ray fluoroscopy]. Finding correspondence of a vessel tree from consecutive angiogram frames provides significant value in computer-aided clinical applications such as fast vessel tree segmentation, three-dimensional (3-D) vessel topology reconstruction from corresponding centerlines, cardiac motion understanding, etc. However, establishing an accurate vessel tree correspondence (vessel tree tracking) is a nontrivial problem due to nonlinear periodic cardiac and breathing motion in 2-D views, foreshortening, false bifurcations due to 3-D to 2-D projection, occlusion from other anatomies, etc...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412667/nurses-perceptions-of-the-impact-of-team-based-learning-participation-on-learning-style-team-behaviours-and-clinical-performance-an-exploration-of-written-reflections
#12
Elizabeth Oldland, Judy Currey, Julie Considine, Josh Allen
Team-Based Learning (TBL) is a teaching strategy designed to promote problem solving, critical thinking and effective teamwork and communication skills; attributes essential for safe healthcare. The aim was to explore postgraduate student perceptions of the role of TBL in shaping learning style, team skills, and professional and clinical behaviours. An exploratory descriptive approach was selected. Critical care students were invited to provide consent for the use for research purposes of written reflections submitted for course work requirements...
March 30, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410857/measuring-participant-effort-in-a-depression-prevention-trial-who-engages-in-problem-solving-therapy
#13
Sarah T Stahl, Steven M Albert, Mary Amanda Dew, Stewart Anderson, Jordan F Karp, Ariel G Gildengers, Meryl A Butters, Charles F Reynolds
OBJECTIVE: To determine the acceptability of clinical interventions for depression prevention, identification of clinical characteristics associated with intervention engagement is needed. The purpose of this study is to describe levels and correlates of participant engagement in Problem Solving Therapy (PST) in adults 60 and older with subthreshold depression. METHODS: As part of a clinical trial to prevent depression among older adults with subthreshold depression, participants who were randomized to receive PST completed 6-8 sessions in which they learned skills to solve self-selected problems that were contributing to stress and reduced quality of life...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408759/reliably-estimating-prevalences-of-atopic-children-an-epidemiological-study-in-an-extensive-and-representative-primary-care-database
#14
David H J Pols, Mark M J Nielen, Joke C Korevaar, Patrick J E Bindels, Arthur M Bohnen
Electronic health records stored in primary care databases might be a valuable source to study the epidemiology of atopic disorders and their impact on health-care systems and costs. However, the prevalence of atopic disorders in such databases varies considerably and needs to be addressed. For this study, all children aged 0-18 years listed in a representative primary care database in the period 2002-2014, with sufficient data quality, were selected. The effects of four different strategies on the prevalences of atopic disorders were examined: (1) the first strategy examined the diagnosis as recorded in the electronic health records, whereas the (2) second used additional requirements (i...
April 13, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408454/bioresorbable-scaffold-the-emerging-reality-and-future-directions
#15
REVIEW
Yohei Sotomi, Yoshinobu Onuma, Carlos Collet, Erhan Tenekecioglu, Renu Virmani, Neal S Kleiman, Patrick W Serruys
In the era of drug-eluting stents, large-scale randomized trials and all-comer registries have shown excellent clinical results. However, even the latest-generation drug-eluting stent has not managed to address all the limitations of permanent metallic coronary stents, such as the risks of target lesion revascularization, neoatherosclerosis, preclusion of late lumen enlargement, and the lack of reactive vasomotion. Furthermore, the risk of very late stent, although substantially reduced with newer-generation drug-eluting stent, still remains...
April 14, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401666/a-model-to-increase-rehabilitation-adherence-to-home-exercise-programmes-in-patients-with-varying-levels-of-self-efficacy
#16
Kelsey J Picha, Dana M Howell
Patient adherence to rehabilitation programmes is frequently low - particularly adherence to home exercise programmes. Home exercise programmes have been identified as complementary to clinic-based physical therapy in an orthopaedic setting. Barriers to patient adherence have previously been identified within the literature. Low self-efficacy is a barrier to adherence that clinicians have the ability to have an impact on and improve. The theory of self-efficacy is defined as a person's confidence in their ability to perform a task...
April 12, 2017: Musculoskeletal Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401441/effect-of-inpatient-multicomponent-occupational-rehabilitation-versus-less-comprehensive-outpatient-rehabilitation-on-sickness-absence-in-persons-with-musculoskeletal-or-mental-health-disorders-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Lene Aasdahl, Kristine Pape, Ottar Vasseljen, Roar Johnsen, Sigmund Gismervik, Vidar Halsteinli, Nils Fleten, Claus Vinther Nielsen, Marius Steiro Fimland
Purpose To assess effects of an inpatient multicomponent occupational rehabilitation program compared to less comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation on sickness absence in persons with musculoskeletal- or mental health disorders. Methods Randomized clinical trial with parallel groups. Participants were individuals 18-60 years old on sick-leave for 2-12 months with a sick-leave diagnosis within the musculoskeletal, psychological or general and unspecified chapters of ICPC-2, identified in a national register...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397450/bethesda-system-in-the-evaluation-of-thyroid-nodules-review
#18
REVIEW
Marta Wesoła, Michał Jeleń
Fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is an important and widely accepted method used in the diagnosis of patients with thyroid nodules.The lack of consistency in reporting FNA taken from the thyroid gland has led to divergences in the calculation of the sensitivity and specificity of the method. Discrepancies depend on what was considered to be true or false negative/positive. This resulted in confusion among doctors, who had to decide how to manage the patient with constantly changing positive or negative results of the FNA...
January 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392673/-life-steps-for-prep-adherence-demonstration-of-a-cbt-based-intervention-to-increase-adherence-to-preexposure-prophylaxis-prep-medication-among-sexual-minority-men-at-high-risk-for-hiv-acquisition
#19
S Wade Taylor, Christina Psaros, David W Pantalone, Jake Tinsley, Steven A Elsesser, Kenneth H Mayer, Steven A Safren
One dramatic advance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention efforts has been the prescription of medications typically used for HIV treatment as prophylaxis against acquiring HIV. As a preventative agent, this practice is referred to as "preexposure prophylaxis" (PrEP). The U.S. Federal Drug Administration approved daily PrEP for adults at risk for HIV who do not consistently use condoms during sex with HIV-infected or unknown-status partners. In this paper, we describe a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) PrEP adherence intervention developed for use in high-risk sexual-minority men in the United States, adapted from "Life-Steps," an evidence-based CBT intervention to promote adherence to HIV treatment...
February 2017: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390503/randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-computerized-interactive-media-based-problem-solving-treatment-for-depression
#20
Luis R Sandoval, Jay C Buckey, Ricardo Ainslie, Martin Tombari, William Stone, Mark T Hegel
This study evaluated the efficacy of an interactive media-based, computer-delivered depression treatment program (imbPST) compared to a no-treatment control condition (NTC) in a parallel-group, randomized, controlled trial conducted in an outpatient psychiatric research clinic. 45 adult participants with major depressive disorder or dysthymia were randomized to receive either 6 weekly sessions of imbPST or no treatment (No Treatment Control; NTC). The primary outcome measure was the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II)...
May 2017: Behavior Therapy
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