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Calmodulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937250/role-of-exercise-induced-calmodulin-protein-kinase-camk-ii-activation-in-the-regulation-of-omega-6-fatty-acids-and-lipid-metabolism-genes-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#1
J S Joseph, A O Ayeleso, E Mukwevho
Activation of calmodulin dependent protein kinase (CaMK)II by exercise is beneficial in controlling membrane lipids associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Regulation of lipid metabolism is crucial in the improvement of type 2 diabetes and obesity associated symptoms. The role of CaMKII in membrane associated lipid metabolism was the focus of this study. Five to six weeks old male Wistar rats were used in this study. GC×GC-TOFMS technique was used to determine the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and 11,14-eicosadienoic acid)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934144/the-recognition-of-calmodulin-to-the-target-sequence-of-calcineurin-a-novel-binding-mode
#2
Chia-Lin Chyan, Deli Irene, Sin-Mao Lin
Calcineurin (CaN) is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent Ser/Thr protein phosphatase, which plays essential roles in many cellular and developmental processes. CaN comprises two subunits, a catalytic subunit (CaN-A, 60 kDa) and a regulatory subunit (CaN-B, 19 kDa). CaN-A tightly binds to CaN-B in the presence of minimal levels of Ca(2+), but the enzyme is inactive until activated by CaM. Upon binding to CaM, CaN then undergoes a conformational rearrangement, the auto inhibitory domain is displaced and thus allows for full activity...
September 21, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934133/understanding-the-mechanism-of-translocation-of-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-across-biological-membranes
#3
REVIEW
Helena Ostolaza, César Martín, David González-Bullón, Kepa B Uribe, Asier Etxaniz
Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is one of the principal virulence factors secreted by the whooping cough causative bacterium Bordetella pertussis, and it has a critical role in colonization of the respiratory tract and establishment of the disease. ACT targets phagocytes via binding to the CD11b/CD18 integrin and delivers its N-terminal adenylate cyclase (AC) domain directly to the cell cytosol, where it catalyzes unregulated conversion of cytosolic ATP into cAMP upon activation by binding to cellular calmodulin...
September 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930443/hydrogel-tethering-enhances-interdomain-stabilization-of-single-chain-antibodies
#4
Yijia Xiong, Nicole R Ford, Karen A Hecht, Guritno Roesijadi, Thomas C Squier
Here we identify the importance of molecular crowding agents in the functional stabilization of scFv antibodies. Antibodies were tethered through an engineered calmodulin (CaM) binding peptide into a stimulus-responsive hydrogel composed of poly-(ethylene glycol) (PEG) functionalized CaM. Macromolecular crowding is modulated by transient heating, which acts to decrease effective pore sizes. Using a fluorescent ligand bound to the scFv, frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy was used to assess the structural coupling between the VH and VL domains and relationships with functional stabilization...
September 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927135/comparison-of-the-protein-expression-of-calpain-1-calpain-2-calpastatin-and-calmodulin-between-gastric-cancer-and-normal-gastric-mucosa
#5
Bide Liu, Yu Zhou, Dan Lu, Yong Liu, Si-Quan Zhang, Yan Xu, Wei Li, Xiao Gu
The understanding of molecular mechanisms that are involved in the development and the progression of gastric cancer (GC) are of importance for the diagnosis and treatment. The calpain system, which contains the calpains and the endogenous inhibitor, has been suggested as an important factor in the tumorigenesis and migration of colorectal adenocarcinoma, breast and ovarian cancer, and as a prognostic marker for GC. However, the expression level of calpain system proteins in GC and normal-appearing peritumoral gastric mucosa remain unknown...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925524/hypothermia-increases-aquaporin-4-aqp4-plasma-membrane-abundance-in-human-primary-cortical-astrocytes-via-a-calcium-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-trpv4-and-calmodulin-mediated-mechanism
#6
Mootaz M Salman, Philip Kitchen, M Nicola Woodroofe, James E Brown, Roslyn M Bill, Alex C Conner, Matthew T Conner
Human aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the primary water channel protein in brain astrocytes. Hypothermia is known to cause astrocyte swelling in culture, but the precise role of AQP4 in this process is unknown. Primary human cortical astrocytes were cultured under hypothermic (32°C) or normothermic (37°C) conditions. AQP4 transcript, total protein and surface localized protein were quantified using RT-qPCR, sandwich ELISA with whole cell lysates, or cell-surface biotinylation followed by ELISA analysis of the surface-localized protein, respectively...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924233/pharmacological-inhibition-of-camkk2-with-the-selective-antagonist-sto-609-regresses-nafld
#7
Brian York, Feng Li, Fumin Lin, Kathrina L Marcelo, Jianqiang Mao, Adam Dean, Naomi Gonzales, David Gooden, Suman Maity, Cristian Coarfa, Nagireddy Putluri, Anthony R Means
Binding of calcium to its intracellular receptor calmodulin (CaM) activates a family of Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinases. CaMKK2 (Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent protein kinase kinase 2) is a central member of this kinase family as it controls the actions of a CaMK cascade involving CaMKI, CaMKIV or AMPK. CaMKK2 controls insulin signaling, metabolic homeostasis, inflammation and cancer cell growth highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target for a variety of diseases. STO-609 is a selective, small molecule inhibitor of CaMKK2...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923357/conformational-landscape-mapping-the-difference-between-n-lobes-and-c-lobes-of-calmodulin
#8
Hiroshi Kawasaki, Robert H Kretsinger
Calmodulin is a calcium binding protein that consists of four EF-hand domains. The two EF-lobes of calmodulin, called the N-lobe and the C-lobe, arose from duplication and fusion of a precursor EF-hand. The amino acid sequences and the structures of the N-lobe and of the C-lobe are quite similar to each other. The N-lobe and the C-lobe, however, have subtle differences in structure and function. We analyzed the helix positions of calmodulin lobes by the alignment with the pseudo-two fold axis of the EF-lobe...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921967/quantifying-secondary-structure-changes-in-calmodulin-using-2d-ir-spectroscopy
#9
Lucy Minnes, Daniel John Shaw, Benjamin P Cossins, Paul M Donaldson, Gregory M Greetham, Michael Towrie, Anthony Parker, Matthew James Baker, Alistair J Henry, Richard J Taylor, Neil T Hunt
Revealing the details of biomolecular processes in solution needs tools that can monitor structural dynamics over a range of time and length scales. We assess the ability of 2D-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis to quantify changes in secondary structure of the multifunctional calcium-binding messenger protein Calmodulin (CaM) as a function of temperature and Ca2+ concentration. Our approach produced quantitative agreement with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy in detecting the domain melting transitions of Ca2+-free (apo) CaM (reduction in α-helix structure by 13% (CD) and 15% (2D))...
September 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921934/mirror-trends-of-plasticity-and-stability-indicators-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#10
Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Mary Kate P Joyce, Yohan J John, Basilis Zikopoulos, Helen Barbas
Research on plasticity markers in the cerebral cortex has largely focused on their timing of expression and role in shaping circuits during critical and normal periods. By contrast, little attention has been focused on the spatial dimension of plasticity-stability across cortical areas. The rationale for this analysis is based on the systematic variation in cortical structure that parallels functional specialization and raises the possibility of varying levels of plasticity. Here we investigated in adult rhesus monkeys the expression of markers related to synaptic plasticity or stability in prefrontal limbic and eulaminate areas that vary in laminar structure...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918083/topical-fluorometholone-treatment-and-desiccating-stress-change-inflammatory-protein-expression-in-tears
#11
Janika Nättinen, Antti Jylhä, Ulla Aapola, Amalia Enríquez-de-Salamanca, José Pinto-Fraga, Alberto López-Miguel, María J González-García, Michael E Stern, Margarita Calonge, Lei Zhou, Matti Nykter, Hannu Uusitalo, Roger Beuerman
PURPOSE: It was hypothesized that tear protein biomarkers could predict the effects of topical steroid treatment and desiccating stress in patients with dry eye disease (DED). To test this concept, a randomized, double-masked, controlled clinical trial with 41 patients was conducted. METHODS: The patients were treated topically with either 0.1% fluorometholone (FML) or polyvinyl alcohol (PA). Tear samples were collected using 1 μl glass capillaries at recruitment into the study and after a 3-week treatment period, both before and after 2 h exposure to desiccating stress, in a controlled environment chamber...
September 13, 2017: Ocular Surface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916724/a-novel-mechanism-for-ca-2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-targeting-to-l-type-ca-2-channels-that-initiates-long-range-signaling-to-the-nucleus
#12
Xiaohan Wang, Christian R Marks, Tyler L Perfitt, Terunaga Nakagawa, Amy Lee, David A Jacobson, Roger J Colbran
Neuronal excitation can induce new mRNA transcription, a phenomenon called excitation-transcription (E-T) coupling. Among several pathways implicated in E-T coupling, activation of voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) in the plasma membrane can initiate a signaling pathway that ultimately increases nuclear CREB phosphorylation and, in most cases, expression of immediate early genes. Initiation of this long-range pathway has been shown to require recruitment of Ca(2+)-sensitive enzymes to a nanodomain in the immediate vicinity of the LTCC by an unknown mechanism...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916300/distinct-neuronal-populations-in-the-basolateral-and-central-amygdala-are-activated-with-acute-pain-conditioned-fear-and-fear-conditioned-analgesia
#13
Ryan K Butler, Sarah Ehling, Megan Barbar, Jess Thomas, Mary A Hughes, Charles E Smith, Vladimir M Pogorelov, Dipendra K Aryal, William C Wetsel, B Duncan X Lascelles
Fear-conditioned analgesia (FCA) is modulated by brain areas involved in the descending inhibitory pain pathway such as the basolateral (BLA) and central amygdala (CEA). The BLA contains Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and parvalbumin (PV) neurons. CEA neurons are primarily inhibitory (GABAergic) that comprise enkephalin (ENK) interneurons and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) - neurons that project to the periaqueductal grey. The purpose of our experiment was to determine the pattern of activation of CaMKII/PV and ENK/CRF neurons following the expression of acute pain, conditioned fear, and FCA...
September 12, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912854/comparative-proteomics-analysis-of-primary-cutaneous-amyloidosis
#14
Daxing Cai, Yang Li, Chunlei Zhou, Yulin Jiang, Jian Jiao, Lin Wu
Primary cutaneous amyloidosis (PCA) is a localized skin disorder that is characterized by the abnormal deposition of amyloid in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the dermis. The pathogenesis of PCA is poorly understood. The objective of the present study was to survey proteome changes in PCA lesions in order to gain insight into the molecular basis and pathogenesis of PCA. Total protein from PCA lesions and normal skin tissue samples were extracted and analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation technique...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910660/toxic-effects-of-pb-2-entering-sperm-through-ca-2-channels-in-the-freshwater-crab-sinopotamon-henanense
#15
Na Li, Peng Xu, Wei-Xin Jing, Jiang-Shiou Hwang, Lan Wang
Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal that can damage animal sperm. To study the effects of Pb on calcium homeostasis and calcium channel in the sperm of freshwater crab Sinopotamon henanense, the induction of acrosome reaction (AR) and acrosin activity were investigated when crabs were exposed to different Pb concentrations (0, 3.675, 7.35, 14.7, 29.4 and 58.8mg/L) for 3, 5 and 7 d separately. Fluorescent probe Fluo-3/AM was loaded into the sperm, and [Ca(2+)] in the sperm was measured by fluorescence microscopy and using microplate reader...
September 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903979/calcium-dependent-o-glcnac-signaling-drives-liver-autophagy-in-adaptation-to-starvation
#16
Hai-Bin Ruan, Yina Ma, Sara Torres, Bichen Zhang, Colleen Feriod, Ryan M Heck, Kevin Qian, Minnie Fu, Xiuqi Li, Michael H Nathanson, Anton M Bennett, Yongzhan Nie, Barbara E Ehrlich, Xiaoyong Yang
Starvation induces liver autophagy, which is thought to provide nutrients for use by other organs and thereby maintain whole-body homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) is required for glucagon-stimulated liver autophagy and metabolic adaptation to starvation. Genetic ablation of OGT in mouse livers reduces autophagic flux and the production of glucose and ketone bodies. Upon glucagon-induced calcium signaling, calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) phosphorylates OGT, which in turn promotes O-GlcNAc modification and activation of Ulk proteins by potentiating AMPK-dependent phosphorylation...
September 13, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902962/combined-genotyping-strategy-reveals-structural-differences-between-aspergillus-flavus-lineages-from-different-habitats-impacting-human-health
#17
Nikolett Baranyi, Sándor Kocsubé, Daniela Jakšić Despot, Maja Šegvić Klarić, András Szekeres, Ottó Bencsik, Anita Kecskeméti, Palanisamy Manikandan, Beáta Tóth, László Kredics, Jamal M Khaled, Naiyf S Alharbi, Csaba Vágvölgyi, János Varga
Aspergillus flavus is a filamentous fungus which is widespread on agricultural products and also able to cause various human diseases. This species is frequently isolated from indoor air as well, furthermore, it is known as a common causal agent of keratomycosis, particularly in subtropical and tropical areas. It is also able to produce aflatoxins, one of the most carcinogenic mycotoxins which are harmful to animals and humans. In this study, 59 A. flavus isolates from four different habitats and 1 A. minisclerotigenes isolate were investigated...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902403/s-nitrosylation-denitrosylation-as-a-regulatory-mechanism-of-salt-stress-sensing-in-sunflower-seedlings
#18
Prachi Jain, Christine von Toerne, Christian Lindermayr, Satish C Bhatla
Nitric oxide (NO) and various reactive nitrogen species (RNS) produced in cells in normal growth conditions and their enhanced production under stress conditions, are responsible for a variety of biochemical aberrations. Present findings demonstrate that sunflower seedling roots exhibit high sensitivity to salt stress in terms of nitrite accumulation. A significant reduction in S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) activity is evident in response to salt stress. Restoration of GSNOR activity with dithioerythritol (DTT) shows that the enzyme is reversibly inhibited under conditions of 120 mM NaCl...
September 13, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900935/metabolic-disorders-and-cancer-hepatocyte-store-operated-ca-2-channels-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
Eunüs S Ali, Grigori Y Rychkov, Greg J Barritt
In steatotic hepatocytes, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is substantially altered compared to normal. Decreased Ca(2+) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can lead to ER stress, an important mediator of the progression of liver steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, type 2 diabetes, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCs) in hepatocytes are composed principally of Orai1 and STIM1 proteins. Their main role is the maintenance of adequate Ca(2+) in the lumen of the ER. In steatotic hepatocytes, store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is substantially inhibited...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900930/cardiac-remodeling-and-disease-soce-and-trpc-signaling-in-cardiac-pathology
#20
Petra Eder
TRPC channels have been suggested as potential candidates mediating store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) in cardiomyocytes. There is increasing evidence that the TRPC isoforms TRPC1 and TRPC4 might fulfill the function as SOCs, in concert with or in parallel to the key players of SOCE, Orai1, and STIM1. Several other isoforms, e.g., TRPC3, TRPC6, and TRPC7, might rather associate to receptor-activated diacylglycerol (DAG)-sensitive ion channels. However, the exact activation mode has not been elucidated yet, given the characteristic of TRPC channels to heteromerize to unpredictable ion channel assemblies...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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