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Calmodulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773804/smooth-muscle-like-ca-2-regulation-of-actin-myosin-interaction-in-adult-jellyfish-striated-muscle
#1
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Shiori Ishimaru, Yasuhiro Nagatsuka, Keisuke Ohashi
Cnidaria is an animal phylum, whose members probably have the most ancestral musculature. We prepared and characterized, for the first time to our knowledge, native actomyosin from the striated myoepithelium of the adult moon jelly Aurelia sp. The actomyosin contained myosin, paramyosin-like protein, Ser/Thr-kinase, actin, and two isoforms of tropomyosin, but not troponin, which is known to activate contraction dependent on intracellular Ca2+ signaling in almost all striated muscles of bilaterians. Notably, the myosin comprised striated muscle-type heavy chain and smooth muscle-type regulatory light chains...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773555/prostaglandin-f-2%C3%AE-facilitates-hepatic-glucose-production-through-camkii%C3%AE-p38-foxo1-signaling-pathway-in-fasting-and-obesity
#2
Yuanyang Wang, Shuai Yan, Bing Xiao, Shengkai Zuo, Qianqian Zhang, Guilin Chen, Yu Yu, Di Chen, Qian Liu, Yi Liu, Yujun Shen, Ying Yu
Gluconeogenesis is drastically increased in patients with type 2 diabetes and accounts for increased fasting plasma glucose concentrations. Circulating prostaglandin (PG) F2α is also markedly elevated in diabetes mellitus; however, whether and how PGF2α regulates hepatic glucose metabolism remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that PGF2α receptor (F-prostanoid receptor; FP) was upregulated in livers of mice upon fasting- and diabetic stress. Hepatic deletion of the FP receptor suppressed fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis, whereas FP overexpression enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice...
May 17, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773102/-over-expression-of-bdnf-inhibits-angiotensin-ii-induced-apoptosis-of-cardiomyocytes-in-sd-rats
#3
Jingli Cao, Yingfeng Wu, Geming Liu, Zhenlong Li
Objective To investigate the role and molecular mechanism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) against the process of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. Methods Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were estabolished by angiotensin II (Ang II) in neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro and incomplete ligature of abdominal aorta of SD rats in vivo. BDNF over-expressing recombinant vector pcDNA5-BDNF was transfected into cardiomyocytes by liposomes. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the effect of BDNF transfection on the surface area of myocardial cells...
March 2018: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772550/exploring-the-conformations-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-with-fluorescence
#4
David C Arnett, Sheila K Bailey, Carey K Johnson
Multi-domain oxidoreductases are a family of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions through a series of electron transfers. Efficient electron transfer requires a sequence of protein conformations that position electron donor and acceptor domains in close proximity to each other so that electron transfer can occur efficiently. An example is mammalian nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which consists of an N-terminal oxygenase domain containing heme and a C-terminal reductase domain containing NADPH/FAD and FMN subdomains...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772536/investigation-of-the-structure-and-dynamic-of-calmodulin-nitric-oxide-synthase-complexes-using-nmr-spectroscopy
#5
Michael Piazza, Thorsten Dieckmann, Joseph Guy Guillemette
NMR spectroscopy allows for the determination of high resolution structures, as well as being an efficient method for studying the dynamics of protein-protein and protein-peptide complexes. 15 N relaxation and H/D exchange experiments allow for the analysis of these structural dynamics at a residue specific level. Calmodulin (CaM) is a small cytosolic Ca2+ binding protein that serves as a control element for many enzymes. An important target of CaM are the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes that play a major role in a number of key physiological and pathological processes...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772530/deciphering-mechanism-of-conformationally-controlled-electron-transfer-in-nitric-oxide-synthases
#6
Jinghui Li, Huayu Zheng, Changjian Feng
Electron transfer is a fundamental process in life that is very often coupled to catalysis within redox enzymes through a stringent control of protein conformational movements. Mammalian nitric oxide synthase (NOS) proteins are redox flavo-hemoproteins consisting of multiple modular domains. The NOS enzyme is exquisitely regulated in vivo by its partner, the Ca2+ sensing protein calmodulin (CaM), to control production of nitric oxide (NO). The importance of functional domain motion in NOS regulation has been increasingly recognized...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771437/works-on-heart-how-about-brain-effect-of-hyperkalemia-on-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#7
T Qin, N Li, X-F Tan, J-H Zheng, R Tao, M-H Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of hyperkalemia on the brain after I/R in h transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 adult male SD rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) hyperkalemia 80 µg/g (HK80) group; (2) hyperkalemia 40 µg/g (HK40) group; (3) normal saline (NS) group; (4) sham (SH) group. The concentration of serum K+ was elevated in HK80 and HK40 groups. The transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model was used to assess the effect of hyperkalemia on the brain after I/R...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769309/etoposide-induced-protein-2-4-functions-as-a-regulator-of-the-calcium-atpase-and-protects-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-survival
#8
Lin Yuan, Huiyu Wang, Qi Liu, Zhe Wang, Mingshu Zhang, Yan Zhao, Kuo Liang, Liangyi Chen, Tao Xu, Pingyong Xu
Calcium homeostasis is essential for maintaining the viability and function of pancreatic β cells and plays a key role in preventing the development of diabetes. Decreased levels of ATPase sarco-plasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -transporting 2 (ATP2a2), the main calcium pump in β cells, are often found in individuals with diabetes and in diabetic animal models. However, the regulators of ATP2a2 and the molecular mechanisms responsible for controlling ATP2a2 activity remain unclear. Etoposide-induced protein 2...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768484/herbivory-responsive-calmodulin-like-protein-cml9-does-not-guide-jasmonate-mediated-defenses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Monika Heyer, Sandra S Scholz, Dagmar Voigt, Michael Reichelt, Didier Aldon, Ralf Oelmüller, Wilhelm Boland, Axel Mithöfer
Calcium is an important second messenger in plants that is released into the cytosol early after recognition of various environmental stimuli. Decoding of such calcium signals by calcium sensors is the key for the plant to react appropriately to each stimulus. Several members of Calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) act as calcium sensors and some are known to mediate both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Here, we study the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana CML9 in different stress responses. CML9 was reported earlier as defense regulator against Pseudomonas syringae...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768002/synergistic-enhancement-of-enzyme-performance-and-resilience-via-orthogonal-peptide-protein-chemistry-enabled-multilayer-construction
#10
Xue-Jian Zhang, Xiao-Wei Wang, Jiaxing Sun, Chao Su, Shuguang Yang, Wen-Bin Zhang
Protein immobilization is critical to utilize their unique functions in diverse applications. Herein, we report that orthogonal peptide-protein chemistry enabled multilayer construction can facilitate the incorporation of various folded structural domains, including calmodulin in different states, affibody and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). An extended conformation is found to be the most advantageous for steady film growth. The resulting protein thin films exhibit sensitive and selective responsive behaviors to bio-signals (Ca2+, TFP, NADPH, etc...
May 16, 2018: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765103/identification-of-a-flagellar-protein-implicated-in-the-gravitaxis-in-the-flagellate-euglena-gracilis
#11
Adeel Nasir, Aude Le Bail, Viktor Daiker, Janine Klima, Peter Richter, Michael Lebert
Flagellated cells are of great evolutionary importance across animal and plant species. Unlike higher plants, flagellated cells are involved in reproduction of macro-algae as well as in early diverging land plants. Euglena gracilis is an emerging flagellated model organism. The current study reports that a specific calmodulin (CaM2) involved in gravitaxis of E. gracilis interacts with an evolutionary conserved flagellar protein, EgPCDUF4201. The subsequent molecular analysis showed clearly that EgPCDUF4201 is also involved in gravitaxis...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760186/hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-mutations-increase-myofilament-ca-2-buffering-alter-intracellular-ca-2-handling-and-stimulate-ca-2-dependent-signalling
#12
Paul Robinson, Xing Liu, Alexander Sparrow, Suketu Patel, Yin Hua Zhang, Barbara Casadei, Hugh Watkins, Charles S Redwood
Mutations in thin filament regulatory proteins that cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) increase myofilament Ca2+ -sensitivity. Mouse models exhibit increased Ca2+ buffering and arrhythmias, and we hypothesized that these changes are primary effects of the mutations (independent of compensatory changes) and that increased Ca2+ - buffering and altered Ca2+ -handling contribute to HCM pathogenesis via activation of Ca2+ -dependent signalling. Here, we determined the primary effects of HCM mutations on intracellular Ca2+ -handling and Ca2+ -dependent signalling in a model system possessing Ca2+ -handling mechanisms and contractile protein isoforms close to human in the absence of potentially confounding remodeling...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756279/designed-enzyme-promotes-selective-post-translational-acylation
#13
Pallavi Gosavi, Megha Jayachandran, Joel Rempillo, Oleksii Zozulia, Olga Makhlyents, Ivan Korendovych
A computationally designed allosterically regulated catalyst (CaM M144H) produced by substituting a single residue in calmodulin, a non-enzymatic protein, is capable of efficient and site selective post-translational acylation of lysines in peptides with highly diverse sequences. Calmodulin binding partners are involved in regulating a large number of cellular processes, this new chemical biology tool will help identify them and provide structural insight into their interactions with calmodulin.
May 13, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753725/ca-2-signaling-and-src-kinases-controlled-cellular-functions
#14
REVIEW
Estefanía Anguita, Antonio Villalobo
Calcium-mediated signaling and the functionality of Src-family tyrosine kinases (SFKs) are two interconnected processes. Activation of these kinases, which are coupled to a series of receptors, mediates Ca2+ mobilization by regulating Ca2+ channels, and the generated Ca2+ signal in turn exerts control on the kinase activity via calmodulin. In this review, we shall cover the regulation of selected processes where crosstalk between the functionality of SFKs and the Ca2+ signal occurs during the lifespan of the cell, when subjected to different extracellular or intracellular stimuli...
May 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752964/identification-and-characterization-of-a-calmodulin-binding-domain-in-the-plasma-membrane-ca-2-atpase-from-trypanosoma-equiperdum
#15
José Rubén Ramírez-Iglesias, María Carolina Pérez-Gordones, Jesús Rafael Del Castillo, Alfredo Mijares, Gustavo Benaim, Marta Mendoza
The plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase (PMCA) from trypanosomatids lacks a classical calmodulin (CaM) binding domain, although CaM stimulated activities have been detected by biochemical assays. Recently we proposed that the Trypanosoma equiperdum CaM-sensitive PMCA (TePMCA) contains a potential 1-18 CaM-binding motif at the C-terminal region of the pump. In the present study, we evaluated the potential CaM-binding motifs using CaM from Trypanosoma cruzi and either the recombinant full length TePMCA C-terminal sequence (P14) or synthetic peptides comprising different regions of the C-terminal domain...
May 9, 2018: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752843/propofol-anesthesia-exposure-and-nonaversive-memory-retrieval-and-the-expression-of-molecules-involved-in-memory-process-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-in-peripubertal-rats
#16
Željko Pavković, Desanka Milanović, Sabera Ruždijić, Selma Kanazir, Vesna Pešić
BACKGROUND: The effects of anesthetic drugs on postoperative cognitive function in children are not well defined and have not been experimentally addressed. AIMS: The present study aimed to examine the influence of propofol anesthesia exposure on nonaversive hippocampus-dependent learning and biochemical changes involved in memory process in the dorsal hippocampus, in peripubertal rats as the rodent model of periadolescence. METHODS: The intersession spatial habituation and the novel object recognition tasks were used to assess spatial and nonspatial, nonaversive hippocampus-dependent learning...
May 12, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748249/maf-links-neuregulin1-signaling-to-cholesterol-synthesis-in-myelinating-schwann-cells
#17
Minchul Kim, Hagen Wende, Jan Walcher, Johannes Küehnemund, Cyril Cheret, Stefan Kempa, Erik McShane, Matthias Selbach, Gary R Lewin, Carmen Birchmeier
Cholesterol is a major constituent of myelin membranes, which insulate axons and allow saltatory conduction. Therefore, Schwann cells, the myelinating glia of the peripheral nervous system, need to produce large amounts of cholesterol. Here, we define a crucial role of the transcription factor Maf in myelination and cholesterol biosynthesis and show that Maf acts downstream from Neuregulin1 (Nrg1). Maf expression is induced when Schwann cells begin myelination. Genetic ablation of Maf resulted in hypomyelination that resembled mice with defective Nrg1 signaling...
May 10, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742403/alternative-splicing-at-n-terminus-and-domain-i-modulates-ca-v-1-2-inactivation-and-surface-expression
#18
Peter Bartels, Dejie Yu, Hua Huang, Zhenyu Hu, Stefan Herzig, Tuck Wah Soong
The CaV 1.2 L-type calcium channel is a key conduit for Ca2+ influx to initiate excitation-contraction coupling for contraction of the heart and vasoconstriction of the arteries and for altering membrane excitability in neurons. Its α1C pore-forming subunit is known to undergo extensive alternative splicing to produce many CaV 1.2 isoforms that differ in their electrophysiological and pharmacological properties. Here, we examined the structure-function relationship of human CaV 1.2 with respect to the inclusion or exclusion of mutually exclusive exons of the N-terminus exons 1/1a and IS6 segment exons 8/8a...
May 8, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738804/alcohol-aggravates-ketamine-induced-behavioral-morphological-and-neurochemical-alterations-in-adolescent-rats-the-involvement-of-creb-related-pathways
#19
Daiying Zuo, Yumiao Liu, Zi Liu, Jiahui Cui, Xuejiao Zhou, Yang Liu, Zengqiang Li, Yingliang Wu
Currently, an increasing proportion of adolescent ketamine users simultaneously consume alcohol. However, the potential behavioural and neurological alterations induced by such a drug combination and the underlying mechanisms have not been systematically examined. Therefore, in the present study, the behavioural and morphological changes and the underlying mechanisms were studied in adolescent rats after repeated alcohol and/or ketamine treatment. This study provided the first evidence that co-administration of alcohol (2 and 4 g/kg, i...
May 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737974/ca2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-camkii-increases-small-conductance-ca2-activated-k-current-in-patients-with-chronic-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Xuehui Fan, Yiyan Yu, Huan Lan, Xianhong Ou, Lijie Yang, Tao Li, Jiming Cao, Xiaorong Zeng, Miaoling Li
BACKGROUND Increased small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ current (SK), abnormal intracellular Ca2+ handling, and enhanced expression and activity of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) have been found in clinical and/or experimental models of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the cumulative effect of these phenomena and their mechanisms in AF are still unclear. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that CaMKII increases SK current in human chronic AF. MATERIAL AND METHODS Right atrial appendage tissues from patients with either sinus rhythm (SR) or AF and neonatal rat atrial myocytes were used...
May 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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