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Rafiq Ahmad, Nirmalya Tripathy, Min-Sang Ahn, Jin-Young Yoo, Yoon-Bong Hahn
Seed layer plays a crucial role to achieve high electrical conductivity and ensure higher performance of the devices. In this study, we report fabrication of a solution-gated field-effect transistor (FET) sensor based on zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) modified iron oxide nanoparticles (α-Fe2O3 NPs) grown on a highly conductive sandwich-like seed layer (ZnO seed layer/Ag nanowires/ZnO seed layer). The sandwich-like seed layer and ZnO NRs modification with α-Fe2O3 NPs provide excellent conductivity and prevent possible ZnO NRs surface damage from low pH enzyme immobilization, respectively...
March 16, 2018: ACS Sensors
Chengyuan Lin, Jin Bai, Mulan He, Anderson O L Wong
In this study, structural analysis of grass carp prolactin (PRL) gene was performed and the signaling mechanisms for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) regulation of PRL promoter activity were investigated. In αT3-1 cells, PRL promoter activity could be induced by oPACAP38 which was blocked by PACAP antagonist but not the VIP antagonist. The stimulatory effect of oPACAP38 was mimicked by activation of AC/cAMP and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel (VSCC) signaling, or induction of Ca2+ entry...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sean C Edington, Andrea Gonzalez, Thomas R Middendorf, D Brent Halling, Richard W Aldrich, Carlos R Baiz
The Ca2+ -sensing protein calmodulin (CaM) is a popular model of biological ion binding since it is both experimentally tractable and essential to survival in all eukaryotic cells. CaM modulates hundreds of target proteins and is sensitive to complex patterns of Ca2+ exposure, indicating that it functions as a sophisticated dynamic transducer rather than a simple on/off switch. Many details of this transduction function are not well understood. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultrafast 2D infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy, and electronic structure calculations were used to probe interactions between bound metal ions (Ca2+ and several trivalent lanthanide ions) and the carboxylate groups in CaM's EF-hand ion-coordinating sites...
March 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Daniela Sorriento, Gaetano Santulli, Michele Ciccarelli, Angela Serena Maione, Maddalena Illario, Bruno Trimarco, Guido Iaccarino
We have recently demonstrated that the amino-terminal domain of G protein coupled receptor kinase (GRK) type 5, (GRK5-NT) inhibits NFκB activity in cardiac cells leading to a significant amelioration of LVH. Since GRK5-NT is known to bind calmodulin, this study aimed to evaluate the functional role of GRK5-NT in the regulation of calcium-calmodulin-dependent transcription factors. We found that the overexpression of GRK5-NT in cardiomyoblasts significantly reduced the activation and the nuclear translocation of NFAT and its cofactor GATA-4 in response to phenylephrine (PE)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Qian Chen, Mengyang Liu, Haiyang Yu, Jian Li, Sijian Wang, Yi Zhang, Feng Qiu, Tao Wang
Scutellaria baicalensis has been reported to improve the lipid metabolism of high-fat diet-induced liver dysfunction, but direct evidence is rare. This study aimed to explore the effects and mechanisms of S. baicalensis and its major constituent baicalin on hepatic lipotoxicity. KK-Ay mice and orotic acid (OA)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats were used to evaluate lipid metabolism regulatory effects. Sodium oleate-induced triglyceride-accumulated HepG2 cells were used for the mechanism study, pretreated with or without compound C or STO-609 or transfected with liver kinase B1 (LKB1) siRNA...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Uma Mahesh R Avula, Jonathan J Hernandez, Masatoshi Yamazaki, Carmen R Valdivia, Antony Chu, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Kuljeet Kaur, Roberto Ramos-Mondragón, Justus M Anumonwo, Stanley Nattel, Héctor H Valdivia, Jérôme Kalifa
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying spontaneous atrial fibrillation (AF) associated with atrial ischemia/infarction are incompletely elucidated. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underlying spontaneous AF in an ovine model of left atrial myocardial infarction (LAMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: LAMI was created by ligating the atrial branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. ECG loop recorders were implanted to monitor AF episodes. In 7 sheep, dantrolene-a ryanodine receptor blocker-was administered in vivo during the 8-day observation period (LAMI-D, 2...
March 2018: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Omar Ramos-Lopez, Mirian Samblas, Fermin I Milagro, M Angeles Zulet, Maria L Mansego, Jose I Riezu-Boj, J Alfredo Martinez
Folate deficiency has been putatively implicated in the onset of diverse metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, by altering epigenetic processes on key regulatory genes. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) is involved in the regulation of critical metabolic processes such as adiposity and glucose homeostasis. This study hypothesized associations between low folate intakes and lower methylation levels of the CAMKK2 gene, with the presence of metabolic alterations in subjects with obesity...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Victor Matveev
Fundamental cell processes such as synaptic neurotransmitter release, endocrine hormone secretion, and myocyte contraction are controlled by highly localized calcium (Ca2+ ) signals resulting from brief openings of trans-membrane Ca2+ channels. On short temporal and spatial scales, the corresponding local Ca2+ nanodomains formed in the vicinity of a single or several open Ca2+ channels can be effectively approximated by quasi-stationary solutions. The rapid buffering approximation (RBA) is one of the most powerful of such approximations, and is based on the assumption of instantaneous equilibration of the bimolecular Ca2+ buffering reaction, combined with the conservation condition for the total Ca2+ and buffer molecule numbers...
March 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Krzysztof Kucharz, Martin Lauritzen
Cortical spreading depolarization waves, the cause underlying migraine aura, are also the markers and mechanism of pathology in the acutely injured human brain. Propagation of spreading depolarization wave uniquely depends on the interaction between presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In the normally perfused brain, even a single wave causes a massive depolarization of neurons and glia, which results in transient loss of neuronal function and depression of the ongoing electrocorticographic activity...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Lie Wang, Giri Kumar Chandaka, Robert C Foehring, Joseph C Callaway, William E Armstrong
Oxytocin (OT) neurons exhibit larger afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) following spike trains during pregnancy and lactation, when these neurons burst and release more OT. Calcium-dependent AHPs mediated by SK channels show this plasticity, and are reduced when the channel is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2), and increased when dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), by altering Ca2+ sensitivity. We compared AHP currents in supraoptic OT neurons after CK2 inhibition with 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), or PP1-PP2A inhibition with okadaic acid (OA) focusing on the peak current at 100 ms representing the SK-mediated, medium AHP (ImAHP )...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Matharage Gayani Dilshara, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga Jayasooriya, Ilandarage Menu Neelaka Molagoda, Jin-Woo Jeong, Seungheon Lee, Sang Rul Park, Gi-Young Kim, Yung Hyun Choi
In this study, we addressed how silibinin enhances tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-mediated apoptosis in various cancer cells. Combined treatment with silibinin and TRAIL (silibinin/TRAIL) induced apoptosis accompanied by the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and Bax, and cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome c. Anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2, IAP-1, and IAP-2 were inhibited as well. Silibinin also triggered TRAIL-induced apoptosis in A549 cells through upregulation of death receptor 5 (DR5)...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Guoyu Yu, Chien-Jui Cheng, Song-Chang Lin, Yu-Chen Lee, Daniel E Frigo, Li-Yuan Yu-Lee, Gary E Gallick, Mark A Titus, Leta K Nutt, Sue-Hwa Lin
Although emerging evidence suggests a potential role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) in prostate cancer (PCa), its role in PCa tumorigenesis is largely unknown. Here we examine whether the acetyl CoA-CaMKII pathway, first described in frog oocytes, promotes PCa tumorigenesis. In human PCa specimens, metastatic PCa expressed higher levels of active CaMKII compared to localized PCa. Correspondingly, basal CaMKII activity was significantly higher in the more tumorigenic PC3 and PC3-mm2 cells relative to the less tumorigenic LNCaP and C4-2B4 cells...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Research
Dong-Dong Shi, Celia M Dong, Leon C Ho, C T W Lam, Xi-Dan Zhou, Ed X Wu, Zhong-Jun Zhou, Xiao-Min Wang, Zhang-Jin Zhang
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment, also known as "chemobrain," is a common side effect. The purpose of this study was to examine whether resveratrol, a natural polyphenol that has nootropic effects, could prevent chemobrain and its underlying mechanisms. Mice received three injections of docetaxel, adriamycin, and cyclophosphamide (DAC) in combination, a common chemotherapy regimen, at two-day intervals within one week. Resveratrol (50 and 100 mg/kg per day) was orally administered for three weeks, beginning one week before the DAC treatment...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Xiaoli Qin, Yan Liang, Yuna Guo, Xiaorui Liu, Weihong Zeng, Fan Wu, Yi Lin, Yan Zhang
PROBLEM: Trophoblast cells regulate embryo implantation and placental development. Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is an initiator of translation involved in cellular processes, such as migration, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, the function of eIF5A in trophoblast cells is unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: We inhibited eIF5A and Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1D (CAMK1D) expression in HTR8 cells using RNA interference. The effects of eIF5A and CAMK1D on HTR8 cells were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, flow cytometry, cell transfection assays, cell migration assays, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Lai-Ling Du, Zhida Shen, Zhengwei Li, Xuewei Ye, Meiping Wu, Lihui Hong, Yanbo Zhao
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote angiogenesis and play a pivotal role in endothelial repair and re-endothelialization after vascular injury. Transient receptor potential-canonical1 (TRPC1) has been recently implied to play important roles on EPC function. Here, we studied the role of TRPC1 in regulating EPC function in vivo and in vitro. EPCs were cultured from TRPC1-knockout mice and their controls. In vitro, TRPC1 knockout reduced EPC functional activities, including migration and tube formation...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Rahul Banerjee, Jesse B Yoder, David T Yue, L Mario Amzel, Gordon F Tomaselli, Sandra B Gabelli, Manu Ben-Johny
Calmodulin (CaM) regulation of voltage-gated calcium (CaV ) channels is a powerful Ca2+ feedback mechanism that adjusts Ca2+ influx, affording rich mechanistic insights into Ca2+ decoding. CaM possesses a dual-lobed architecture, a salient feature of the myriad Ca2+ -sensing proteins, where two homologous lobes that recognize similar targets hint at redundant signaling mechanisms. Here, by tethering CaM lobes, we demonstrate that bilobal architecture is obligatory for signaling to CaV channels. With one lobe bound, CaV carboxy tail rearranges itself, resulting in a preinhibited configuration precluded from Ca2+ feedback...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Irina Kramerova, Jorge A Torres, Ascia Eskin, Stanley F Nelson, Melissa J Spencer
Mutations in CAPN3 cause autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2A. Calpain 3 (CAPN3) is a calcium dependent protease residing in the myofibrillar, cytosolic and triad fractions of skeletal muscle. At the triad, it colocalizes with calcium calmodulin kinase IIβ (CaMKIIβ). CAPN3 knock out mice (C3KO) show reduced triad integrity and blunted CaMKIIβ signaling, which correlates with impaired transcriptional activation of myofibrillar and oxidative metabolism genes in response to running exercise...
March 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Simone Decontardi, Célia Soares, Nelson Lima, Paola Battilani
Penicillium and Aspergillus genera, both including mycotoxin producing species, were reported as associated to cheese and cheese working environment, but never studied in an extensive way in Italian grana cheese (Grana Padano and Parmigiano Reggiano). The aim of this work was to address the identification of Aspergilli and Penicillia associated to grana cheese in order to lay down the basis for risk assessment and safe processing for a high quality production. One hundred and four strains belonging to Aspergillus and Penicillium genera were obtained from cheese crust and from ripening room air (with the latter largely dominant), and identified following a polyphasic approach, strongly required for the identification at the species level...
August 2018: Food Microbiology
Yoko Maruyama, Satoko Ueno, Mitsuhiro Morita, Fumio Hayashi, Shohei Maekawa
Neurons have well-developed membrane microdomains called "rafts" that are recovered as a detergent-resistant membrane microdomain fraction (DRM). NAP-22 is one of the major protein components of neuronal DRM. In a previous study, we showed that DRM-derived NAP-22 binds ganglioside and the inhibitory effect of ganglioside to calcineurin (CaN), a neuron-enriched calmodulin-regulated phosphoprotein phosphatase. Considering the important roles of CaN in neurons, identification of other cellular regulators of CaN could be a good clue to understand the molecular background of neuronal function...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Min Hyeop Park, Miyeon Choi, Yong-Seok Kim, Hyeon Son
3-(2-Carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant-like effects in animal models of depression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these behavioral actions remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CPP rapidly stimulates histone deacetylase (HDAC) 5 phosphorylation and nuclear export in rat hippocampal neurons. These effects are accompanied by calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) and protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylation...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
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