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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319059/camk2%C3%AE-in-intestinal-epithelial-cells-modulates-colitis-associated-colorectal-carcinogenesis-via-enhancing-stat3-activation
#1
X Ma, Z Meng, L Jin, Z Xiao, X Wang, W M Tsark, L Ding, Y Gu, J Zhang, B Kim, M He, X Gan, J E Shively, H Yu, R Xu, W Huang
Inflammation is one of the major risk factors for cancer. Here, we show that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma (CAMK2γ) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) modulates inflammatory signals and promotes colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in mice. We have identified CAMK2γ as a downstream target of colitis-induced WNT5A signaling. Furthermore, we have shown that CAMK2γ protects against intestine tissue injury by increasing IEC survival and proliferation. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma knockout mice displayed reduced CAC...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318265/cytoskeletal-like-filaments-of-camkii-are-formed-in-a-regulated-and-zn2-dependent-manner
#2
Laurel Hoffman, Lin Li, Emil Alexov, Hugo Sanabria, Melvin Neal Waxham
Ca2+-Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is highly abundant in neurons, where its concentration reaches that typically found for cytoskeletal proteins. Functional reasons for such a high concentration are not known, but given the multitude of known binding partners for CaMKII, a role as a scaffolding molecule has been proposed. In this report, we provide experimental evidence that demonstrates a novel structural role for CaMKII. We discovered that CaMKII forms filaments that can extend for several microns in the presence of certain divalent cations (Zn2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+) but not with others (Ca2+, Mg2+, Co2+ and Ni2+)...
March 20, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317895/upregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-through-the-elevation-of-cyclic-amp-levels-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-enhances-exercise-performance
#3
Toshiya Matsukawa, Hideko Motojima, Yuki Sato, Shinya Takahashi, Myra O Villareal, Hiroko Isoda
Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α's ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299960/molecular-dissection-of-the-response-of-the-rice-systemic-acquired-resistance-deficient-1-sard1-gene-to-different-types-of-ionizing-radiation
#4
In Jung Jung, Jung Eun Hwang, Sung Min Han, Dong Sub Kim, Joon-Woo Ahn, Hong-Il Choi, Soon-Jae Kwon, Si-Yong Kang, Jin-Baek Kim
PURPOSE: Exposure to ionizing radiation induces plant defenses by regulating the expression of response genes. The systemic acquired resistance deficient 1 (SARD1) is a key gene in plant defense response. In this study, the function of Oryza sativa SARD1 (OsSARD1) was investigated after exposure of seeds/plants to ionizing radiation, jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rice seeds exposed to two types of ionizing radiations (gamma ray [GR] and ion beam [IB]) were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to identify the genes that are altered in response to ionizing radiation...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295725/the-effects-of-macromolecular-crowding-on-calmodulin-structure-and-function
#5
Guohua Xu, Jiajing Zhao, Kai Cheng, Qiong Wu, Xiaoli Liu, Maili Liu, Conggang Li
Macromolecular crowding and confinement are two factors that potentially affect protein structure and function in complex cellular environment. The confinement effect on the structure and function of holoCaM (Ca2+-loaded CaM), a two-domain protein involved in many calcium-mediated signaling pathways, has been investigated previously. However, little is known about how macromolecular crowding affects holoCaM structure and function. Here, the structure-function correlations of holoCaM are investigated in macromolecular crowded environments...
March 13, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295333/calmodulin-kinases-essential-regulators-in-health-and-disease
#6
REVIEW
Sayaka Takemoto-Kimura, Kanzo Suzuki, Shin-Ichiro Horigane, Satoshi Kamijo, Masatoshi Inoue, Masayuki Sakamoto, Hajime Fujii, Haruhiko Bito
Neuronal activity induces intracellular Ca(2+) increase, which triggers activation of a series of Ca(2+) -dependent signalling cascades. Among these, the multifunctional Ca(2+) / calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs, or calmodulin kinases) play key roles in neuronal transmission, synaptic plasticity, circuit development and cognition. The most investigated CaMKs for these roles in neuronal functions are CaMKI, CaMKII, CaMKIV and we will shed light on these neuronal CaMKs' functions in this review. Catalytically active members of CaMKs currently are CaMKI, CaMKII, CaMKIV and CaMKK...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289928/human-rotavirus-strain-wa-downregulates-nhe1-and-nhe6-expressions-in-rotavirus-infected-caco-2-cells
#7
Honglang Chen, Lijun Song, Guixian Li, Wenfeng Chen, Shumin Zhao, Ruoxia Zhou, Xiaoying Shi, Zhenying Peng, Wenchang Zhao
Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis and fatal dehydration in human infants and neonates of different species. However, the pathogenesis of rotavirus-induced diarrhea is poorly understood. Secretory diarrhea caused by rotavirus may lead to a combination of excessive secretion of fluid and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. Fluid absorption in the small intestine is driven by Na(+)-coupled transport mechanisms at the luminal membrane, including Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE). Here, we performed qRT-PCR to detect the transcription of NHEs...
March 13, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289905/expression-profile-of-desiccation-tolerance-factors-in-intertidal-seaweed-species-during-the-tidal-cycle
#8
Camila Fierro, Camilo López-Cristoffanini, Andrés Meynard, Carlos Lovazzano, Francisco Castañeda, Eduardo Guajardo, Loretto Contreras-Porcia
The transcriptional modulation of desiccation tolerance factors in P. orbicularis explains its successful recuperation after water deficit. Differential responses to air exposure clarify seaweed distribution along intertidal rocky zones. Desiccation-tolerant seaweed species, such as Pyropia orbicularis, can tolerate near 96% water loss during air exposure. To understand the phenotypic plasticity of P. orbicularis to desiccation, several tolerance factors were assessed by RT-qPCR, Western-blot analysis, and enzymatic assays during the natural desiccation-rehydration cycle...
March 13, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289331/screening-of-breast-cancer-stem-cell-inhibitors-using-a-protein-kinase-inhibitor-library
#9
Hack Sun Choi, Dal-Ah Kim, Heesung Chung, In Ho Park, Bo Hye Kim, Eok-Soo Oh, Duk-Hee Kang
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation in tumors, are known to cause drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. Based on the characteristic formation of mammospheres in in vitro conditions, the mammosphere formation assay has become an essential tool for quantifying CSC activity in breast cancer research. However, manual counting of mammospheres is a time-consuming process that is not amenable to high-throughput screening, and there are occasional inaccuracies in the process of determining the mammosphere diameter...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289282/the-schizophrenia-and-autism-associated-gene-transcription-factor-4-regulates-the-columnar-distribution-of-layer-2-3-prefrontal-pyramidal-neurons-in-an-activity-dependent-manner
#10
S C Page, G R Hamersky, R A Gallo, M D Rannals, N E Calcaterra, M N Campbell, B Mayfield, A Briley, B N Phan, A E Jaffe, B J Maher
Disruption of the laminar and columnar organization of the brain is implicated in several psychiatric disorders. Here, we show in utero gain-of-function of the psychiatric risk gene transcription factor 4 (TCF4) severely disrupts the columnar organization of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a transcription- and activity-dependent manner. This morphological phenotype was rescued by co-expression of TCF4 plus calmodulin in a calcium-dependent manner and by dampening neuronal excitability through co-expression of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir2...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288938/on-the-ca-2-binding-and-conformational-change-in-ef-hand-domains-experimental-evidence-of-ca-2-saturated-intermediates-of-n-domain-of-calmodulin
#11
Abdessamad Ababou, Mariola Zaleska, Mark Pfuhl
Double mutation of Q41L and K75I in the N-domain of calmodulin (N-Cam) stabilizes the closed form of N-Cam such that binding of Ca(2+) in solution no longer triggers a conformational change to the open form, and its Ca(2+) binding affinity decreases dramatically. To further investigate the solvation effects on the structure, Ca(2+) binding affinity and conformational dynamics of this N-Cam double mutant in the Ca(2+) saturated state, we solved its X-ray structure. Surprisingly, the structure revealed an open conformation of the domain which contradicts its closed conformation in solution...
March 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286177/screening-for-novel-central-nervous-system-biomarkers-in-veterans-with-gulf-war-illness
#12
Mohamed B Abou-Donia, Lisa A Conboy, Efi Kokkotou, Eric Jacobson, Eman M Elmasry, Passent Elkafrawy, Megan Neely, Cameron R 'Dale' Bass, Kimberly Sullivan
Gulf War illness (GWI) is primarily diagnosed by symptom report; objective biomarkers are needed that distinguish those with GWI. Prior chemical exposures during deployment have been associated in epidemiologic studies with altered central nervous system functioning in veterans with GWI. Previous studies from our group have demonstrated the presence of autoantibodies to essential neuronal and glial proteins in patients with brain injury and autoantibodies have been identified as candidate objective markers that may distinguish GWI...
March 9, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285986/calcium-dependent-regulation-of-protein-ubiquitination-interplay-between-e3-ligases-and-calcium-binding-proteins
#13
REVIEW
Rukmini Mukherjee, Aneesha Das, Saikat Chakrabarti, Oishee Chakrabarti
The ubiquitination status of proteins and intracellular calcium levels are two factors which keep changing inside any living cell. These two events appear to be independent of each other but recent experimental evidences show that ubiquitination of cellular proteins are influenced by calcium, Calmodulin, Calmodulin-dependent kinase II and other proteins of calcium dependent pathways. E3 ligases like Nedd4, SCF complex, APC, GP78 and ITCH are important regulators of calcium mediated processes. A bioinformatics analysis to inspect sequences and interacting partners of 242 candidate E3 ligases show the presence of calcium and/or Calmodulin binding motifs/domains within their sequences...
March 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283921/new-insights-into-the-operative-network-of-faeo-an-enone-oxidoreductase-from-fragaria-x-ananassa-duch
#14
Gabriella Collu, Domenica Farci, Francesca Esposito, Francesca Pintus, Joanna Kirkpatrick, Dario Piano
The 2-methylene-furan-3-one reductase or Fragaria x ananassa Enone Oxidoreductase (FaEO) catalyses the last reductive step in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, a major component in the characteristic flavour of strawberries. In the present work, we describe the association between FaEO and the vacuolar membrane of strawberry fruits. Even if FaEO lacks epitopes for stable or transient membrane-interactions, it contains a calmodulin-binding region, suggesting that in vivo FaEO may be associated with the membrane via a peripheral protein complex with calmodulin...
March 11, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270756/role-of-the-lateral-habenula-in-pain-associated-depression
#15
Yanhui Li, Yumeng Wang, Chengluan Xuan, Yang Li, Lianhua Piao, Jicheng Li, Hua Zhao
Patients with chronic pain have significantly higher incidences of depression and anxiety than the average person. However, the mechanism underlying this link has not been elucidated in terms of how chronic pain causes significant mood changes and further develops into severe anxiety or depression. The serotonergic system in the raphe nuclei is an important component in both pain processing and the pathogenesis of depression. Since the lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) controls the raphe nuclei, it may participate in the regulation of pain-associated depression...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266018/cell-type-dependent-axonal-localization-of-translational-regulators-and-mrna-in-mouse-peripheral-olfactory-neurons
#16
Lulu I T Korsak, Katherine A Shepard, Michael R Akins
Local protein synthesis in mature axons may play a role in synaptic plasticity, axonal arborization, or functional diversity of the circuit. To gain insight into this question, we investigated the axonal localization of translational regulators and associated mRNAs in five parallel olfactory circuits, four in the main olfactory bulb and one in the accessory olfactory bulb. Axons in all four main olfactory bulb circuits exhibited axonal localization of Fragile X granules (FXGs), structures that comprise ribosomes, mRNA, and RNA binding proteins including the Fragile X protein FMRP (Fragile X mental retardation protein) and the related protein FXR2P...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264990/an-eight-residue-deletion-in-escherichia-coli-fabg-causes-temperature-sensitive-growth-and-lipid-synthesis-plus-resistance-to-the-calmodulin-inhibitor-trifluoperazine
#17
Swaminath Srinivas, John E Cronan
FabG performs the NADPH-dependent reduction of ß-keto acyl-acyl carrier protein substrates in the elongation cycle of fatty acid synthesis. We report the characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutation (fabGΔ8) in Escherichia colifabG that results from an in frame eight amino acid residue deletion in the α6/α7 subdomain. This region forms part of one of the two dimerization interfaces of this tetrameric enzyme and is reported to undergo significant conformational changes upon cofactor binding which define the entrance to the active site cleft...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264849/genetic-diversity-and-in-vitro-antifungal-susceptibility-of-200-clinical-and-environmental-aspergillus-flavus-isolates
#18
Mojtaba Taghizadeh-Armaki, Mohammad Taghi Hedayati, Saham Ansari, Saeed Mahdavi Omran, Sasan Saber, Haleh Rafati, Jan Zoll, Henrich A van der Lee, Willem J G Melchers, Paul E Verweij, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
Aspergillus flavus has been frequently reported as the leading cause of invasive aspergillosis in certain tropical and sub-tropical countries.Two hundred A. flavus strains originating from clinical and environmental sources and collected between 2008 and 2015 were phylogenetically identified at the species level by analyzing partial β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed against antifungals using the EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) broth microdilution method...
March 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264448/paeoniflorin-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-induced-injury-by-regulating-ca-2-camkii-creb-signaling-pathway
#19
Yuqin Zhang, Lifei Qiao, Wen Xu, Xiaoying Wang, Huang Li, Wei Xu, Kedan Chu, Yu Lin
Paeoniflorin (PF) is an active ingredient of Paeoniae Radix which possesses the neuroprotective effect. However, so far, the neuroprotective mechanism of PF has still not been fully uncovered. The Ca(2+)/Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)/cAMP response element-binding (CREB) signaling pathway plays an important role in the intracellular signal transduction pathway involved in cell proliferation, cell survival, inflammation and metabolism. Herein, the neuroprotective roles of PF in the models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion in rats and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity in primary hippocampal neurons were investigated...
February 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263185/laminar-flow-downregulates-notch-activity-to-promote-lymphatic-sprouting
#20
Dongwon Choi, Eunkyung Park, Eunson Jung, Young Jin Seong, Jaehyuk Yoo, Esak Lee, Mingu Hong, Sunju Lee, Hiroaki Ishida, James Burford, Janos Peti-Peterdi, Ralf H Adams, Sonal Srikanth, Yousang Gwack, Christopher S Chen, Hans J Vogel, Chester J Koh, Alex K Wong, Young-Kwon Hong
The major function of the lymphatic system is to drain interstitial fluid from tissue. Functional drainage causes increased fluid flow that triggers lymphatic expansion, which is conceptually similar to hypoxia-triggered angiogenesis. Here, we have identified a mechanotransduction pathway that translates laminar flow-induced shear stress to activation of lymphatic sprouting. While low-rate laminar flow commonly induces the classic shear stress responses in blood endothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), only LECs display reduced Notch activity and increased sprouting capacity...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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