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Calmodulin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431968/cannabinoid-cb1-and-cb2-receptors-differentially-modulate-l-and-t-type-ca-2-channels-in-rat-retinal-ganglion-cells
#1
Wen-Jing Qian, Ning Yin, Feng Gao, Yanying Miao, Qian Li, Fang Li, Xing-Huai Sun, Xiong-Li Yang, Zhongfeng Wang
Endocannabinoid signaling system is involved in regulating multiple neuronal functions in the central nervous system by activating G-protein coupled cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors (CB1Rs and CB2Rs). Growing evidence has shown that CB1Rs and CB2Rs are extensively expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here, modulation of L- and T-types Ca(2+) channels by activating CB1Rs and CB2Rs in RGCs was investigated. Triple immunofluorescent staining showed that L-type subunit CaV1.2 was co-localized with T-type subunits (CaV3...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431901/clozapine-reduces-toll-like-receptor-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammatory-responses-through-inhibition-of-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-akt-activation-in-microglia
#2
Seunghyun Jeon, Se Hyun Kim, Soon Young Shin, Young Han Lee
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent used in the treatment of schizophrenia and severe mood disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is closely associated with the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Clozapine exerts anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of clozapine is poorly understood. In this study, we found that clozapine suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser-32 and of p65/RelA at Ser-468, as well as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-dependent transcriptional activity in microglial cells...
April 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430606/ketamine-administered-pregnant-rats-impair-learning-and-memory-in-offspring-via-the-creb-pathway
#3
Xinran Li, Cen Guo, Yanan Li, Lina Li, Yuxin Wang, Yiming Zhang, Yue Li, Yu Chen, Wenhan Liu, Li Gao
Ketamine has been reported to impair the capacity for learning and memory. This study examined whether these capacities were also altered in the offspring and investigated the role of the CREB signaling pathway in pregnant rats, subjected to ketamine-induced anesthesia. On the 14th day of gestation (P14), female rats were anesthetized for 3 h via intravenous ketamine injection (200 mg/Kg). Morris water maze task, contextual and cued fear conditioning, and olfactory tasks were executed between the 25th to 30th day after birth (B25-30) on rat pups, and rats were sacrificed on B30...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429325/gravitaxis-in-euglena
#4
Donat-P Häder, Ruth Hemmersbach
Motile microorganisms utilize a number of responses to external stimuli including light, temperature, chemicals as well as magnetic and electric fields. Gravity is a major clue to select a niche in their environment. Positive gravitaxis leads an organism down into the water column and negative gravitaxis brings it to the surface. In Euglena the precision of gravitaxis is regulated by an internal rhythm entrained by the daily light/dark cycle. This and the cooperation with phototaxis bring the cells into an optimal position in the water column...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429320/euglena-gracilis-genome-and-transcriptome-organelles-nuclear-genome-assembly-strategies-and-initial-features
#5
ThankGod Echezona Ebenezer, Mark Carrington, Michael Lebert, Steven Kelly, Mark C Field
Euglena gracilis is a major component of the aquatic ecosystem and together with closely related species, is ubiquitous worldwide. Euglenoids are an important group of protists, possessing a secondarily acquired plastid and are relatives to the Kinetoplastidae, which themselves have global impact as disease agents. To understand the biology of E. gracilis, as well as to provide further insight into the evolution and origins of the Kinetoplastidae, we embarked on sequencing the nuclear genome; the plastid and mitochondrial genomes are already in the public domain...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427004/enzymatic-activity-of-the-cam-pde1-system-upon-addition-of-actinyl-ions
#6
Florian Brulfert, Samir Safi, Aurélie Jeanson, Harald Foerstendorf, Stephan Weiss, Catherine Berthomieu, Sandrine Sauge-Merle, Éric Simoni
The threat of a dirty bomb which could cause internal contamination has been of major concern for the past decades. Because of their high chemical toxicity and their presence in the nuclear fuel cycle, uranium and neptunium are two actinides of high interest. Calmodulin (CaM) which is a ubiquitous protein present in all eukaryotic cells and is involved in calcium-dependent signaling pathways has a known affinity for uranyl and neptunyl ions. The impact of the complexation of these actinides on the physiological response of the protein remains, however, largely unknown...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424729/genome-wide-identification-and-analyses-of-calmodulins-and-calmodulin-like-proteins-in-lotus-japonicas
#7
Jinqiu Liao, Jiabin Deng, Zongzhi Qin, Jiayong Tang, Maorong Shu, Chunbang Ding, Jing Liu, Chao Hu, Ming Yuan, Yan Huang, Ruiwu Yang, Yonghong Zhou
L. japonicus, a model plant of legumes plants, is widely used in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. A large number of studies on it have been published based on the genetic, biochemical, structural studies. These results are secondhand reports that CaM is a key regulator during Rhizobial infection. In plants, there are multiple CaM genes encoding several CaM isoforms with only minor amino acid differences. Moreover, the regulation mechanism of this family of proteins during rhizobia infection is still unclear. In the current study, a family of genes encoding CaMs and CMLs that possess only the Ca(2+)-binding EF-hand motifs were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424420/vitexin-protects-against-hypoxic-ischemic-injury-via-inhibiting-ca2-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ii-and-apoptosis-signaling-in-the-neonatal-mouse-brain
#8
Jia-Wei Min, Wei-Lin Kong, Song Han, Nageeb Bsoul, Wan-Hong Liu, Xiao-Hua He, Russell M Sanchez, Bi-Wen Peng
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic is a major cause of death and disability in neonates. In this study, we suggest for the first time that pretreatment with vitexin may suppress a pro-apoptotic signaling pathway in hypoxic-ischemic neuronal injury in neonates by inhibition of the phosphorylation of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Here we found that vitexin pretreatment reduced brain infarct volume in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, vitexin decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells and brain atrophy...
March 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423719/ampk%C3%AE-phosphatase-ppm1e-upregulation-in-human-gastric-cancer-is-required-for-cell-proliferation
#9
Min-Bin Chen, Yuan-Yuan Liu, Li-Bo Cheng, Jian-Wei Lu, Ping Zeng, Pei-Hua Lu
Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a valuable anti-cancer strategy. In the current study, we tested expression and potential function of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (Ppm1E), an AMPKα phosphatase, in human gastric cancers. Ppm1E expression was elevated in human gastric cancer tissues (vs. normal tissues), which was correlated with AMPK (p-AMPKα, Thr-172) dephosphorylation and mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. Ppm1E upregulation, AMPK inhibition and mTORC1 activation were also observed in human gastric cancer cell lines (AGS, HGC-27, and SNU601)...
March 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423675/mir-219-5p-targets-camkii%C3%AE-to-attenuate-morphine-tolerance-in-rats
#10
Jian Wang, Wei Xu, Jiali Shao, Zhenghua He, Zhuofeng Ding, Jiangju Huang, Qulian Guo, Wangyuan Zou
Morphine tolerance is a clinical challenge in pain management. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNA (miRNA) plays a regulatory role in the development of morphine tolerance. miR-219-5p (miR-219) targets calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II γ (CaMKIIγ) to activate central pain sensitization via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Therefore, we hypothesized that miR-219-5p attenuates morphine tolerance by targeting CaMKIIγ. We found that the expression of miR-219-5p was decreased significantly after chronic morphine treatment...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422958/modern-alongside-traditional-taxonomy-integrative-systematics-of-the-genera-gymnangium-hincks-1874-and-taxella-allman-1874-hydrozoa-aglaopheniidae
#11
Marta Ronowicz, Emilie Boissin, Bautisse Postaire, Chloé Annie-France Bourmaud, Nicole Gravier-Bonnet, Peter Schuchert
We studied the diversity within the former genus Gymnangium in the South West Indian Ocean by using an integrative approach of both traditional (morphology-based) and modern molecular taxonomy. Nine species were recorded in the material collected. A total of 97 16S mitochondrial DNA sequences and 54 Calmodulin nuclear sequences from eight Gymnangium/Taxella species were analyzed. We found both morphological and molecular differences in the studied Gymnangium species that make it necessary to split the genus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422741/calmodulin-promotes-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-production-and-cell-migration-by-inhibiting-the-ubiquitination-and-degradation-of-tbc1d3-oncoprotein-in-human-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Huzi Zhao, Lina Zhang, Yongchen Zhang, Lei Zhao, Qing Wan, Bei Wang, Xiaodong Bu, Meiling Wan, Chuanlu Shen
The hominoid oncoprotein TBC1D3 enhances growth factor (GF) signaling and GF signaling, conversely, induces the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of TBC1D3. However, little is known regarding the regulation of this degradation, and the role of TBC1D3 in the progression of tumors has also not been defined. In the present study, we demonstrated that calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous cellular calcium sensor, specifically interacted with TBC1D3 in a Ca2+-dependent manner and inhibited GF signaling-induced ubiquitination and degradation of the oncoprotein in both cytoplasm and nucleus of human breast cancer cells...
March 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420080/delineating-the-common-biological-pathways-perturbed-by-asd-s-genetic-etiology-lessons-from-network-based-studies
#13
REVIEW
Oded Oron, Evan Elliott
In recent decades it has become clear that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) possesses a diverse and heterogeneous genetic etiology. Aberrations in hundreds of genes have been associated with ASD so far, which include both rare and common variations. While one may expect that these genes converge on specific common molecular pathways, which drive the development of the core ASD characteristics, the task of elucidating these common molecular pathways has been proven to be challenging. Several studies have combined genetic analysis with bioinformatical techniques to uncover molecular mechanisms that are specifically targeted by autism-associated genetic aberrations...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419310/calmodulin-as-a-ca2-sensing-subunit-of-arabidopsis-cyclic-nucleotide-gated-channel-complexes
#14
Cornelia Fischer, Thomas A DeFalco, Purva Karia, Wayne A Snedden, Wolfgang Moeder, Keiko Yoshioka, Petra Dietrich
Ca2+ serves as a universal second messenger in eukaryotic signaling pathways, and the spatial and temporal patterns of Ca2+ concentration changes are determined by feedback and feed-forward regulation of the involved transport proteins. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGCs) are Ca2+-permeable channels that interact with the ubiquitous Ca2+ sensor calmodulin (CaM). CNGCs interact with CaMs via diverse CaM-binding sites, including an IQ-motif, which has been identified in the C-termini of CNGC20 and CNGC12...
April 13, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413758/de-novo-modular-development-of-a-foldameric-protein-protein-interaction-inhibitor-for-separate-hot-spots-a-dynamic-covalent-assembly-approach
#15
Éva Bartus, Zsófia Hegedüs, Edit Wéber, Brigitta Csipak, Gerda Szakonyi, Tamás A Martinek
Protein-protein interactions stabilized by multiple separate hot spots are highly challenging targets for synthetic scaffolds. Surface-mimetic foldamers bearing multiple recognition segments are promising candidate inhibitors. In this work, a modular bottom-up approach is implemented by identifying short foldameric recognition segments that interact with the independent hot spots, and connecting them through dynamic covalent library (DCL) optimization. The independent hot spots of a model target (calmodulin) are mapped with hexameric β-peptide helices using a pull-down assay...
April 2017: ChemistryOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409884/altered-protein-expression-pattern-in-colon-tissue-of-mice-upon-supplementation-with-distinct-selenium-compounds
#16
Jette Rahn, Claudia Lennicke, Anna P Kipp, Andreas S Müller, Ludger A Wessjohann, Rudolf Lichtenfels, Barbara Seliger
The essential trace element Selenium (Se) is controversially discussed concerning its role in health and disease. Its various physiological functions are largely mediated by Se incorporation in the catalytic center of selenoproteins. To gain insights into the impact of Se deficiency and of supplementation with different Se compounds (selenite, selenate, selenomethionine) at defined concentrations (recommended, 150 μg/ kg diet; excessive, 750 μg/ kg diet) in murine colon tissues a twenty week feeding experiment was performed followed by analysis of the protein expression pattern of colon tissue specimens by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS...
April 14, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409622/the-activation-of-pka-by-the-calcium-binding-protein-s100a1-is-independent-of-cyclic-amp
#17
Zephan Melville, Erick O Hernandez-Ochoa, Stephen J P Pratt, Yewei Liu, Adam D Pierce, Paul T Wilder, Kaylin A Adipietro, Daniel H Breysse, Krisin Varney, Martin F Schneider, David J Weber
Biochemical and structural studies demonstrate that S100A1 is involved in a Ca2+-dependent interaction with the type-2α and type-2β regulatory subunits of PKA (RIIα and RIIβ) to activate holo-PKA. The interaction was specific for S100A1 since other calcium-binding proteins (i.e. S100B, calmodulin) had no effect. Likewise, a role for S100A1 in PKA-dependent signaling was established since PKA-dependent subcellular redistribution of HDAC4 was abolished in cells derived from S100A1 knockout mice. Thus, the Ca2+-dependent interaction between S100A1 and the type-2 regulatory subunits represents a novel mechanism that provides a link between Ca2+- and PKA-signaling, which is important for the regulation of gene expression in skeletal muscle via HDAC4 cytosolic-nuclear trafficking...
April 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409573/-microscopic-imaging-of-calcium-ions-with-genetically-encoded-calcium-indicators
#18
Kinga Gazda, Michal Bazała, Tomasz Węgierski
Calcium is a second messenger that plays a key role in various cellular processes. Monitoring calcium levels is a prerequisite to their understanding. The first calcium indicators for microscopy were the luminescent protein aequorin and chemical probes. These indicators, however, have serious drawbacks, limiting their use in many types of experiments. Cloning of cDNA for the A. victoria GFP and creation of its first spectral variants has initiated the development of fluorescent, genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECI)...
2017: Postepy Biochemii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409504/comparative-study-of-the-transfection-efficiency-of-commonly-used-viral-vectors-in-rhesus-monkey-macaca-mulatta-brains
#19
Shi-Hao Wu, Zhi-Xing Liao, Joshua D Rizak, Na Zheng, Lin-Heng Zhang, Hen Tang, Xiao-Bin He, Yang Wu, Xia-Ping He, Mei-Feng Yang, Zheng-Hui Li, Dong-Dong Qin, Xin-Tian Hu
Viral vector transfection systems are among the simplest of biological agents with the ability to transfer genes into the central nervous system. In brain research, a series of powerful and novel gene editing technologies are based on these systems. Although many viral vectors are used in rodents, their full application has been limited in non-human primates. To identify viral vectors that can stably and effectively express exogenous genes within non-human primates, eleven commonly used recombinant adeno-associated viral and lentiviral vectors, each carrying a gene to express green or red fluorescence, were injected into the parietal cortex of four rhesus monkeys...
March 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408870/homeostatic-changes-in-gaba-and-glutamate-receptors-on-excitatory-cortical-neurons-during-sleep-deprivation-and-recovery
#20
Esther Del Cid-Pellitero, Anton Plavski, Lynda Mainville, Barbara E Jones
Neuronal activity is regulated in a homeostatic manner through changes in inhibitory GABA and excitatory glutamate (Glu) AMPA (A) receptors (GluARs). Using immunofluorescent staining, we examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα)-labeled (+) excitatory neurons in the barrel cortex undergo such homeostatic regulation following enforced waking with associated cortical activation during the day when mice normally sleep the majority of the time. Sleep deprived mice were prevented from falling asleep by unilateral whisker stimulation and sleep recovery (SR) mice allowed to sleep freely following deprivation...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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