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opiate use disorder

Erik David Storholm, Michael J Silverberg, Derek D Satre
Access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a critical issue for women with HIV. This study examined differences in SUD diagnoses, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and predictors of SUD treatment initiation among a diverse sample of HIV-positive women (n = 228) and a demographically similar cohort of HIV-negative women (n = 693). Diagnoses and service utilization data were obtained from electronic health records of members of a large integrated healthcare system in Northern California. HIV-positive women were less likely to initiate SUD treatment...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
Daniel Fuster, Arantza Sanvisens, Ferran Bolao, Paola Zuluaga, Inmaculada Rivas, Magi Farré, Jordi Tor, Robert Muga
BACKGROUND: The health burden of cannabis use in patients with other substance dependencies is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of cannabis use as secondary drug on mortality of patients with other major substance use disorders. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with opiate, cocaine, or alcohol dependence admitted to detoxification from 2001 to 2010 at a teaching hospital in Badalona, Spain. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, medical comorbidities, and urine drug screens were obtained at admission...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Inge Mick, Anna C Ramos, Jim Myers, Paul R Stokes, Samantha Chandrasekera, David Erritzoe, Maria A Mendez, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Graham E Searle, José C F Galduróz, Adam D Waldman, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Luke Clark, David J Nutt, Anne R Lingford-Hughes
As a behavioural addiction, gambling disorder (GD) provides an opportunity to characterize addictive processes without the potentially confounding effects of chronic excessive drug and alcohol exposure. Impulsivity is an established precursor to such addictive behaviours, and GD is associated with greater impulsivity. There is also evidence of GABAergic dysregulation in substance addiction and in impulsivity. This study therefore investigated GABAA receptor availability in 15 individuals with GD and 19 healthy volunteers (HV) using [(11) C]Ro15-4513, a relatively selective α5 benzodiazepine receptor PET tracer and its relationship with impulsivity...
October 13, 2016: Addiction Biology
Bryan Hartzler, Julia C Dombrowski, Heidi M Crane, Joseph J Eron, Elvin H Geng, W Christopher Mathews, Kenneth H Mayer, Richard D Moore, Michael J Mugavero, Sonia Napravnik, Benigno Rodriguez, Dennis M Donovan
Prior efforts to estimate U.S. prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) in HIV care have been undermined by caveats common to single-site trials. The current work reports on a cohort of 10,652 HIV-positive adults linked to care at seven sites, with available patient data including geography, demography, and risk factor indices, and with substance-specific SUDs identified via self-report instruments with validated diagnostic thresholds. Generalized estimating equations also tested patient indices as SUD predictors...
October 13, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Ilias Goranitis, Joanna Coast, Ed Day, Alex Copello, Nick Freemantle, Jennifer Seddon, Carmel Bennett, Emma Frew
BACKGROUND: Measuring outcomes in economic evaluations of social care interventions is challenging because both health and well-being benefits are evident. The ICEpop CAPability instrument for adults (ICECAP-A) and the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) are measures potentially suitable for the economic evaluation of treatments for substance use disorders. Evidence for their validity in this context is, however, lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the construct validity of the ICECAP-A and the EQ-5D-5L in terms of convergent and discriminative validity and sensitivity to change on the basis of standard clinical measures (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure, Treatment Outcomes Profile, Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, and Social Satisfaction Questionnaire)...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Mindy G Kohsman
Neonatal nurses frequently care for babies who have been exposed in utero to potentially harmful substances, both licit and illicit. The risks to the fetus from nicotine, marijuana, alcohol, and opiates are significant. Adverse effects from environmental factors may confound pharmacologic effects of substances. Nurses are called to shift the perception of substance use disorder from that of willful harm to the fetus to that of an opportunity to provide treatment assistance that can positively affect child health and development...
2016: Neonatal Network: NN
Nihit Kumar, Zachary N Stowe, Xiaotong Han, Michael J Mancino
BACKGROUND: Early adverse life events such as childhood trauma have been linked to development of substance use disorders. The prevalence and impact on treatment of early childhood trauma in opioid-dependent individuals has received limited research attention. The present study examined reported childhood trauma and its relation to retention and adherence in an outpatient buprenorphine treatment program. METHODS: Medical records of individuals who completed childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) were reviewed to extract baseline data and demographics (N = 113)...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Sava V Petrov, Maria M Orbetzova, Yanko T Iliev, Doychin T Boyadzhiev
INTRODUCTION: Drug addictions to psychoactive substances are disorders with a complex bio-psycho-social genesis, which are characterized with chronic relapses. Substance addiction causes multifactorial damage to the normal functioning of individuals and requires a multicenter approach for the treatment process. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life of patients undergoing chronic treatment with the opiate agonist methadone using a standardized questionnaire method in Bulgarian...
April 2016: Folia Medica
Georgi Vasilev, Svetla Milcheva, Jasmin Vassileva
The global prevalence in the use of opiates and opioids has remained stable, though there were some unprecedented recent increases in opioid use and associated mortality and morbidity in the United States. Internationally, there is a strong tendency for consolidation of drug treatment strategies in favor of more systematic, structured and balanced approaches to regional and national drug policies. However, there are considerable differences in the scope, focus, and implementation of national drug policies and the political context is shaping drug prevention, treatment and rehabilitation efforts to an extent not typically observed in other public health domains...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
Phoebe A Cushman, Jane M Liebschutz, Bradley J Anderson, Merredith R Moreau, Michael D Stein
BACKGROUND: Buprenorphine has established effectiveness for outpatient treatment of opioid use disorder. Our previously published STOP (Suboxone Transition to Opiate Program) trial showed that buprenorphine induction, stabilization, and linkage to outpatient treatment in opioid-dependent inpatients (injection and non-injection drug users) decreased illicit opioid use over 6months. The present study was a planned subgroup analysis of injection opiate users from STOP. OBJECTIVE: To determine if inpatient buprenorphine initiation and linkage to outpatient buprenorphine reduce injection opiate users' frequency of injection opiate use (IOU)...
September 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Christian Núñez, Susana Ochoa, Elena Huerta-Ramos, Iris Baños, Ana Barajas, Montserrat Dolz, Bernardo Sánchez, Núria Del Cacho, Judith Usall
BACKGROUND: Substance use in psychosis is an important field of study given that it can be a risk factor for the development of psychosis and can give rise to psychotic symptoms. Studies of substance use in first episode psychosis patients do not frequently assess non-pathological substance consumption among patients, but rather the prevalence of substance abuse or dependence disorders. Moreover, most of these studies do not address the effects of sex in sufficient depth, and the consumption of caffeine or tobacco, which are two of the most frequently used substances, is often not assessed...
August 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Sita Chokhavatia, Elizabeth S John, Mary Barna Bridgeman, Deepali Dixit
Constipation is a common and often debilitating condition in the elderly, which may be caused by underlying disease conditions, structural abnormalities in the bowel, and a variety of medications such as anticholinergics, antidepressants, and opiates. In this review, we focus on opioid-induced constipation (OIC), which is often underrecognized and undertreated in the elderly. When opioid therapy is initiated, healthcare providers are encouraged to evaluate risk factors for the development of constipation as part of a thorough patient history...
August 2016: Drugs & Aging
Bettina Zippel-Schultz, Michael Specka, Konrad Cimander, Thomas Eschenhagen, Jörg Gölz, Markus Maryschok, Manfred Nowak, Thomas Poehlke, Heino Stöver, Thomas M Helms, Norbert Scherbaum
BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of duration of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), only few studies have reported outcomes of long-term OMT. OBJECTIVES: To describe outcomes of long-term (> 5 years) OMT patients with respect to substance use, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic characteristics. METHODS: Patients (n = 160) were recruited from 15 OMT offices in different regions of Germany. Data were collected using a structured interview at baseline, and clinical recordings, including urine drug screenings, during 12 monhts follow-up...
September 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Ludwig Kraus, Gordon Hay, Clive Richardson, Ilhan Yargic, Mustafa Necmi Ilhan, Pinar Ay, Füsun Karasahin, Mustafa Pinarci, Tolga Tuncoglu, Daniela Piontek, Bernd Schulte
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Information on high-risk drug use in Turkey, particularly at the regional level, is lacking. The present analysis aims at estimating high-risk cannabis use (HRCU) and high-risk opiate use (HROU) in the cities of Ankara, Istanbul and Izmir. DESIGN AND METHODS: Capture-recapture and multiplier methods were applied based on treatment and police data stratified by age and gender in the years 2009 and 2010. Case definitions refer to ICD-10 cannabis (F...
June 27, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Ryan S Poland, Yun K Hahn, Pamela E Knapp, Patrick M Beardsley, M Scott Bowers
There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cocaine use disorder, indicating a need to identify novel reagents with therapeutic potential. Ibudilast is an anti-inflammatory glial attenuator and non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor currently undergoing clinical evaluations for methamphetamine, opiate, and alcohol abuse disorders. We previously showed that twice daily (b.i.d.) ibudilast reduces the development of methamphetamine sensitization in male mice. However, nothing is known about the ability of ibudilast to modulate the expression of sensitization that occurs after drug re-exposure during abstinence, effects on cocaine-mediated behaviors, or potentially sexually dimorphic effects...
October 2016: Neuropharmacology
Jane A Eastwood, Elizabeth Davison
Pregabalin (PRG) is indicated for the treatment of neuropathic pain, epilepsy and generalised anxiety disorder. Limited data exists on reference blood concentrations for this drug and levels above which death can be attributed to PRG toxicity. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that the drug is subject to abuse. This study reviews the post-mortem blood concentrations of PRG analysed in the authors' laboratory between 2012 and 2014 in order to try and assign the likely therapeutic and fatal ranges. PRG was detected in 70 post-mortem blood samples of which 33% were at concentrations considered to be in excess of the reference range (above 17mg/L)...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
Sharon Baughman Shively, Iren Horkayne-Szakaly, Robert V Jones, James P Kelly, Regina C Armstrong, Daniel P Perl
BACKGROUND: No evidence-based guidelines are available for the definitive diagnosis or directed treatment of most blast-associated traumatic brain injuries, partly because the underlying pathology is unknown. Moreover, few neuropathological studies have addressed whether blast exposure produces unique lesions in the human brain, and if those lesions are comparable with impact-induced traumatic brain injury. We aimed to test the hypothesis that blast exposure produces unique patterns of damage, differing from that associated with impact-induced, non-blast traumatic brain injuries...
August 2016: Lancet Neurology
Alexander J Scott, Adrian J Dunlop, Amanda Brown, Craig Sadler, Geoffrey K Isbister
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Drug induced QT prolongation occurs in patients with substance use disorders from prescription medications that prolong the QT, such as methadone. Knowing the prevalence of QT prolongation in this population is important for prescribers. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of QT prolongation in patients with current substance use disorders. DESIGN AND METHODS: We undertook a retrospective review of electrocardiograms (ECG) from patients with substance use disorders from an urban general hospital with a large drug and alcohol service and toxicology unit...
May 30, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Review
Gaëtan Gentile, Elisabeth Frauger, Adeline Giocanti, Vanessa Pauly, Véronica Orleans, Despina Amaslidou, Xavier Thirion, Joëlle Micallef
AIM: The objective of the study is to describe the characteristics of subjects under opiate maintenance treatment by general practionners (GPs). METHOD: Data analysis from observatory for pharmacodependency in ambulatory medicine survey (observation des pharmacodépendances en médecine ambulatoire [OPEMA]) program in 2013 of the subjects under high dosage buprenorphine (HDB) and methadone prescribed or obtained illegally reported by GPs in France. RESULTS: Survey concerned consumers with 862, 433 and 429 of high dosage buprenorphine and respectively methadone...
June 2016: Thérapie
Marjan Anvar Abnavi, Jamshid Ahmadi, Sajedeh Hamidian, Sara Ghaffarpour
BACKGROUND: Opiate abuse in males has significant effects on their sexual functions. In contrast, sexuality in females is a multidimensional issue that can strongly be affected by several factors in their partners. However, only a limited number of studies have assessed the role of males' opioid dependency in their female partners' sexual function. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of males' opioid dependency on their wives' sexual function compared to the sexual function of the females whose husbands were not opioid dependent...
March 2016: International Journal of High Risk Behaviors & Addiction
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