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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051842/the-use-of-auricular-acupuncture-in-opioid-use-disorder-a-systematic-literature-review
#1
REVIEW
Tanya E Baker, Grace Chang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic disease with significant personal, societal, and public health consequences. Even for the minority who receive the most effective evidence-based treatments, morbidity, and mortality remain significant. These facts, along with the recovery movement calling for individualized, holistic, culturally sensitive care, have led to the exploration of adjunctive interventions including acupuncture. Despite hundreds of international trials, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding its efficacy in OUD due in large part to methodological issues of trials to date...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051839/social-context-and-perspectives-of-non-medical-prescription-opioid-use-among-young-adults-in-rhode-island-a-qualitative-study
#2
Jesse L Yedinak, Elizabeth N Kinnard, Scott E Hadland, Traci C Green, Melissa A Clark, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This pilot study examined the context of nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use and related risk behaviors among young adults in Rhode Island, a New England region with markedly high prevalence of NMPO use and overdose mortality. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 13) with young adults (18-29 year-olds) who reported current or recent NMPO use. We also conducted focus groups (two groups, n = 14 total) with professional service providers recruited from service organizations...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050185/comparing-acceptance-and-commitment-group-therapy-and-12-steps-narcotics-anonymous-in-addict-s-rehabilitation-process-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Manoochehr Azkhosh, Ali Farhoudianm, Hemn Saadati, Fateme Shoaee, Leila Lashani
Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936337/alcohol-use-in-an-older-adult-referred-to-a-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-service-a-case-report
#4
Adam Searby, Natalie van Swet, Phil Maude, Ian McGrath
Alcohol use disorder in older adults is associated with a number of substantial medical complications, including cognitive decline. Due to limited success and application of screening approaches in this cohort, older adults are more likely to present to general hospital settings with undiagnosed problematic alcohol use. Consultation-liaison psychiatry services operating in general hospital settings are likely to be referred older adults with alcohol use disorders for assessment and management. A 77-year-old female presented to a metropolitan hospital with symptoms including frequent falls, slurred speech, difficulty judging distance, hypersomnia, poor reasoning, and odd behaviours...
January 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933094/the-newer-opioid-agonist-treatment-with-lower-substitutive-opiate-doses-is-associated-with-better-toxicology-outcome-than-the-older-harm-reduction-treatment
#5
Jacopo V Bizzarri, Valentina Casetti, Livia Sanna, Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani, Luca Rovai, Silvia Bacciardi, Daria Piacentino, Andreas Conca, Icro Maremmani
BACKGROUND: Charge-free heroin use disorder treatment in Italy follows two main approaches, i.e., harm reduction treatment (HRT) strategy in community low-threshold facilities for drug addiction and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) in high-threshold facilities for opioid addiction, focusing on pharmacological maintenance according to the Dole and Nyswander strategy. We aimed to compare the impact of HRT and OAT on patient outcome, as assessed through negativity for drugs on about 1-year urinalyses...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901585/a-review-of-positron-emission-tomography-studies-exploring-the-dopaminergic-system-in-substance-use-with-a-focus-on-tobacco-as-a-co-variate
#6
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Saima Malik, Bernard Le Foll
With the evolving sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) and the emergence of novel radiotracers, greater insight has been gained into the dopaminergic system as it relates to substance use. In this review, we summarize PET investigations from the last ten years that explore the dopaminergic system in tobacco, alcohol, stimulant, opiates, and cannabis addiction. In light of the prevalence of substance co-use, this review will also explore the effect of tobacco and other substance abuse co-morbidity on the dopaminergic system across study samples in the reviewed literature...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877102/inhibition-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-by-hiv-1-tat-and-opioid-treatment-in-the-striatum-involves-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors
#7
Changqing Xu, Sylvia Fitting
Due to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease with high prevalence of mild forms of neurocognitive impairments, also referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although opiate drug use can exacerbate HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal damage, it remains unknown how and to what extent opioids interact with Tat on the GABAergic system. We conducted whole-cell recordings in mouse striatal slices and examined the effects of HIV-1 Tat in the presence and absence of morphine (1 μM) and damgo (1 μM) on GABAergic neurotransmission...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863698/striatal-h3k27-acetylation-linked-to-glutamatergic-gene-dysregulation-in-human-heroin-abusers-holds-promise-as-therapeutic-target
#8
Gabor Egervari, Joseph Landry, James Callens, John F Fullard, Panos Roussos, Eva Keller, Yasmin L Hurd
BACKGROUND: Opiate abuse and overdose reached epidemic levels in the United States. However, despite significant advances in animal and in vitro models, little knowledge has been directly accrued regarding the neurobiology of the opiate-addicted human brain. METHODS: We used postmortem human brain specimens from a homogeneous European Caucasian population of heroin users for transcriptional and epigenetic profiling, as well as direct assessment of chromatin accessibility in the striatum, a brain region central to reward and emotion...
September 28, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842794/clinical-toxicology-and-its-relevance-to-asthma-and-atopy
#9
REVIEW
Rauno Joks, Martin H Bluth
Although both the prevalence of asthma and the prescription drug use, notably the opiate analgesic class, epidemics are increasing, there is a complex interplay between both disorders, with both protective and exacerbating factors involved in the effect of opiates on asthma pathogenesis and clinical severity. This review examines the airway effects, both immunologic and neurologic, of opiates, which may interact and result in protection or exacerbation of asthma.
December 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779447/routine-drug-screening-for-patients-in-the-emergency-department-of-a-state-psychiatric-hospital-a-naturalistic-cohort-study
#10
Anatoly Margolis, Paola Rosca, Rena Kurs, Sharon R Sznitman, Alexander Grinshpoon
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the proportion of drug users among patients with mental disorders who attended the emergency department of one major psychiatric hospital in Northern Israel, the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses associated with drug use, and the impact of confirmed drug use on hospital admission. We hypothesized that the proportion of individuals with positive urine drug test results presenting at the psychiatric emergency department during the study period would be 20% to 30%...
July 2016: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767406/racial-and-ethnic-differences-in-substance-use-diagnoses-comorbid-psychiatric-disorders-and-treatment-initiation-among-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-women-in-an-integrated-health-plan
#11
Erik David Storholm, Michael J Silverberg, Derek D Satre
Access to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a critical issue for women with HIV. This study examined differences in SUD diagnoses, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and predictors of SUD treatment initiation among a diverse sample of HIV-positive women (n = 228) and a demographically similar cohort of HIV-negative women (n = 693). Diagnoses and service utilization data were obtained from electronic health records of members of a large integrated healthcare system in Northern California. HIV-positive women were less likely to initiate SUD treatment...
November 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753720/cannabis-as-secondary-drug-is-not-associated-with-a-greater-risk-of-death-in-patients-with-opiate-cocaine-or-alcohol-dependence
#12
Daniel Fuster, Arantza Sanvisens, Ferran Bolao, Paola Zuluaga, Inmaculada Rivas, Magi Farré, Jordi Tor, Robert Muga
BACKGROUND: The health burden of cannabis use in patients with other substance dependencies is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of cannabis use as secondary drug on mortality of patients with other major substance use disorders. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with opiate, cocaine, or alcohol dependence admitted to detoxification from 2001 to 2010 at a teaching hospital in Badalona, Spain. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Sociodemographic characteristics, drug use, medical comorbidities, and urine drug screens were obtained at admission...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739164/evidence-for-gaba-a-receptor-dysregulation-in-gambling-disorder-correlation-with-impulsivity
#13
Inge Mick, Anna C Ramos, Jim Myers, Paul R Stokes, Samantha Chandrasekera, David Erritzoe, Maria A Mendez, Roger N Gunn, Eugenii A Rabiner, Graham E Searle, José C F Galduróz, Adam D Waldman, Henrietta Bowden-Jones, Luke Clark, David J Nutt, Anne R Lingford-Hughes
As a behavioural addiction, gambling disorder (GD) provides an opportunity to characterize addictive processes without the potentially confounding effects of chronic excessive drug and alcohol exposure. Impulsivity is an established precursor to such addictive behaviours, and GD is associated with greater impulsivity. There is also evidence of GABAergic dysregulation in substance addiction and in impulsivity. This study therefore investigated GABAA receptor availability in 15 individuals with GD and 19 healthy volunteers (HV) using [(11) C]Ro15-4513, a relatively selective α5 benzodiazepine receptor PET tracer and its relationship with impulsivity...
October 13, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738780/prevalence-and-predictors-of-substance-use-disorders-among-hiv-care-enrollees-in-the-united-states
#14
Bryan Hartzler, Julia C Dombrowski, Heidi M Crane, Joseph J Eron, Elvin H Geng, W Christopher Mathews, Kenneth H Mayer, Richard D Moore, Michael J Mugavero, Sonia Napravnik, Benigno Rodriguez, Dennis M Donovan
Prior efforts to estimate U.S. prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) in HIV care have been undermined by caveats common to single-site trials. The current work reports on a cohort of 10,652 HIV-positive adults linked to care at seven sites, with available patient data including geography, demography, and risk factor indices, and with substance-specific SUDs identified via self-report instruments with validated diagnostic thresholds. Generalized estimating equations also tested patient indices as SUD predictors...
October 13, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712710/measuring-health-and-broader-well-being-benefits-in-the-context-of-opiate-dependence-the-psychometric-performance-of-the-icecap-a-and-the-eq-5d-5l
#15
Ilias Goranitis, Joanna Coast, Ed Day, Alex Copello, Nick Freemantle, Jennifer Seddon, Carmel Bennett, Emma Frew
BACKGROUND: Measuring outcomes in economic evaluations of social care interventions is challenging because both health and well-being benefits are evident. The ICEpop CAPability instrument for adults (ICECAP-A) and the five-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) are measures potentially suitable for the economic evaluation of treatments for substance use disorders. Evidence for their validity in this context is, however, lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the construct validity of the ICECAP-A and the EQ-5D-5L in terms of convergent and discriminative validity and sensitivity to change on the basis of standard clinical measures (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure, Treatment Outcomes Profile, Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, and Social Satisfaction Questionnaire)...
September 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636690/ethical-considerations-for-perinatal-toxicology-screening
#16
Mindy G Kohsman
Neonatal nurses frequently care for babies who have been exposed in utero to potentially harmful substances, both licit and illicit. The risks to the fetus from nicotine, marijuana, alcohol, and opiates are significant. Adverse effects from environmental factors may confound pharmacologic effects of substances. Nurses are called to shift the perception of substance use disorder from that of willful harm to the fetus to that of an opportunity to provide treatment assistance that can positively affect child health and development...
2016: Neonatal Network: NN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629823/impact-of-early-childhood-trauma-on-retention-and-phase-advancement-in-an-outpatient-buprenorphine-treatment-program
#17
Nihit Kumar, Zachary N Stowe, Xiaotong Han, Michael J Mancino
BACKGROUND: Early adverse life events such as childhood trauma have been linked to development of substance use disorders. The prevalence and impact on treatment of early childhood trauma in opioid-dependent individuals has received limited research attention. The present study examined reported childhood trauma and its relation to retention and adherence in an outpatient buprenorphine treatment program. METHODS: Medical records of individuals who completed childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) were reviewed to extract baseline data and demographics (N = 113)...
October 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552788/chronic-treatment-with-opiate-agonists-in-bulgaria-assessing-the-quality-of-life-using-sf-36-v-2
#18
Sava V Petrov, Maria M Orbetzova, Yanko T Iliev, Doychin T Boyadzhiev
INTRODUCTION: Drug addictions to psychoactive substances are disorders with a complex bio-psycho-social genesis, which are characterized with chronic relapses. Substance addiction causes multifactorial damage to the normal functioning of individuals and requires a multicenter approach for the treatment process. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life of patients undergoing chronic treatment with the opiate agonist methadone using a standardized questionnaire method in Bulgarian...
April 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493878/opioid-use-in-the-twenty-first-century-similarities-and-differences-across-national-borders
#19
Georgi Vasilev, Svetla Milcheva, Jasmin Vassileva
The global prevalence in the use of opiates and opioids has remained stable, though there were some unprecedented recent increases in opioid use and associated mortality and morbidity in the United States. Internationally, there is a strong tendency for consolidation of drug treatment strategies in favor of more systematic, structured and balanced approaches to regional and national drug policies. However, there are considerable differences in the scope, focus, and implementation of national drug policies and the political context is shaping drug prevention, treatment and rehabilitation efforts to an extent not typically observed in other public health domains...
September 2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431049/buprenorphine-initiation-and-linkage-to-outpatient-buprenorphine-do-not-reduce-frequency-of-injection-opiate-use-following-hospitalization
#20
Phoebe A Cushman, Jane M Liebschutz, Bradley J Anderson, Merredith R Moreau, Michael D Stein
BACKGROUND: Buprenorphine has established effectiveness for outpatient treatment of opioid use disorder. Our previously published STOP (Suboxone Transition to Opiate Program) trial showed that buprenorphine induction, stabilization, and linkage to outpatient treatment in opioid-dependent inpatients (injection and non-injection drug users) decreased illicit opioid use over 6months. The present study was a planned subgroup analysis of injection opiate users from STOP. OBJECTIVE: To determine if inpatient buprenorphine initiation and linkage to outpatient buprenorphine reduce injection opiate users' frequency of injection opiate use (IOU)...
September 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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