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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429200/achalasia-it-is-not-all-black-and-white
#1
REVIEW
Santosh Sanagapalli, Rami Sweis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to shed light on subtleties of achalasia diagnosis, including potential pitfalls that may lead to errors. Optimal methods for assessment of disease severity and the relationship between achalasia and other motility disorders will also be reviewed with an emphasis on recent findings from the literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Adjunctive testing with viscous substances or larger water volumes should be used routinely as it improves the accuracy of achalasia diagnosis...
June 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428748/resting-state-neuroimaging-and-neuropsychological-findings-in-opioid-use-disorder-during-abstinence-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Hada Fong-Ha Ieong, Zhen Yuan
Dependence to opiates, including illicit heroin and prescription pain killers, and treatment of the opioid use disorder (OUD) have been longstanding problems over the world. Despite intense efforts to scientific investigation and public health care, treatment outcomes have not significantly improved for the past 50 years. One reason behind the continuing use of heroin worldwide despite such efforts is its highly addictive nature. Brain imaging studies over the past two decades have made significant contribution to the understanding of the addictive properties as to be due in part to biological processes, specifically those in the brain structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412916/cannabis-epidemiological-neurobiological-and-psychopathological-issues-an-update
#3
Maria Antonietta De Luca, Gaetano Di Chiara, Cristina Cadoni, Daniele Lecca, Laura Orsolini, Duccio Papanti, John Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Cannabis is the illicit drug with both the largest current levels of consumption and the highest lifetime prevalence in the world. Across different countries, the prevalence of cannabis use varies according to the individual income, with the highest use reported in North America, Australia and Europe. Despite its 'soft drug' reputation, cannabis misuse may be associated with several acute and chronic adverse effects. The present article aims at reviewing several papers on epidemiological, neurobiological and psychopathological aspects of the use of cannabis...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363609/maternal-fetal-monitoring-of-opioid-exposed-pregnancies-analysis-of-a-pilot-community-based-protocol-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Gareth Ryan, Joe Dooley, Rory Windrim, Megan Bollinger, Lianne Gerber Finn, Len Kelly
OBJECTIVES: To describe/analyse a novel, community-based prenatal monitoring protocol for opioid-exposed pregnancies developed by our centre in 2014 to optimize prenatal care for this population. A literature review of published monitoring protocols for this population is also presented. METHODS: Retrospective comparison of pre-protocol (n = 215) and post-protocol (n = 251) cohorts. Medline and Embase were searched between 2000-2016 using MeSH terms: [fetal monitoring OR prenatal care] AND [opioid-related disorders OR substance-related disorders] in Medline and [fetal monitoring OR prenatal care] AND [opiate addiction OR substance abuse] in Embase, producing 518 results...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343423/management-of-precipitated-opiate-withdrawal-syndrome-induced-by-nalmefene-mistakenly-prescribed-in-opiate-dependent-patients-a-review-for-clinicians
#5
Nicolas Franchitto, Benedicte Jullian, Juliette Salles, Fanny Pelissier, Benjamin Rolland
Nalmefene, a long-acting µ-opioid antagonist approved to treat alcohol use disorder, is occasionally mistakenly prescribed to opiate-dependent or opioid-treated patients. We review recent literature on drug-drug interactions between nalmefene and opioids that lead to precipitated opioid withdrawal, and focus on its management and planning for care at discharge. Areas covered: This article provides a brief and comprehensive review of management of precipitated opioid withdrawal syndrome when nalmefene is associated with an opioid, whether misused or legally prescribed...
March 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323538/relationships-between-a-dissociative-subtype-of-ptsd-and-clinical-characteristics-in-patients-with-substance-use-disorders
#6
Michaela Mergler, Martin Driessen, Christel Lüdecke, Martin Ohlmeier, Claudia Chodzinski, Steffen Weirich, Detlef Schläfke, Dirk Wedekind, Ursula Havemann-Reinecke, Walter Renner, Ingo Schäfer
The increasing support for a dissociative subtype of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD-D) has led to its inclusion in DSM-5. We examined relationships between PTSD-D and relevant variables in patients with substance use disorders (SUD). The sample comprised N = 459 patients with SUD. The International Diagnostic Checklist and the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale were used to diagnose PTSD. In addition, participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The course of SUD was assessed by means of the European Addiction Severity Index...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306543/peripheral-levels-of-bdnf-and-opiate-use-disorder-literature-review-and-update
#7
Raul Felipe Palma-Álvarez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Kristopher Amaro-Hosey, Laia Rodriguez-Cintas, Lara Grau-López, Margarida Corominas-Roso, Cristina Sánchez-Mora, Carlos Roncero
Several neurobiological factors are related to opiate-use disorder (OUD), and among them, neurotrophins have a relevant role. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a central neurotrophin involved in many neuronal processes, and it has been related to several psychiatric diseases and addictive disorders. BDNF can be measured in plasma and serum; its levels may reflect BDNF concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS) and, indirectly, CNS processes. Hence, peripheral BDNF could be a biomarker in clinical practice...
March 17, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291977/five-factor-model-personality-profiles-the-differences-between-alcohol-and-opiate-addiction-among-females
#8
Diana Raketic, Jasmina V Barisic, Snezana M Svetozarevic, Tatjana Gazibara, Darija Kisic Tepavcevic, Srdjan D Milovanovic
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of female alcohol and substance abusers has markedly increased. The main objective of this research was to explore personality profiles among females who had alcohol and opiate dependence. AIM: The aim of the study is to analyse if there is differences in personality profiles of females addicted to alcohol and opiates. We hypothesized that there might be significant differences in personality profiles among subgroups of women who present with alcohol and opiate use disorders...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282324/predictive-validity-of-outpatient-follow-up-after-detoxification-as-a-quality-measure
#9
Eric M Schmidt, Shalini Gupta, Thomas Bowe, Laura S Ellerbe, Tyler E Phelps, John W Finney, Keith Humphreys, Jodie Trafton, Megan E Vanneman, Alex H S Harris
OBJECTIVES: Care coordination for substance use disorder (SUD) treatment is a persistent challenge. Timely outpatient follow-up after detoxification from alcohol and opiates is associated with improved outcomes, leading some care systems to attempt to measure and incentivize this practice. This study evaluated the predictive validity of a 7-day outpatient follow-up after detoxification quality measure used by the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). METHODS: A national sample of patients who received detoxification from alcohol or opiates (N = 25,354) was identified in VHA administrative data...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247526/naltrexone-ameliorates-functional-network-abnormalities-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals
#10
Laurel S Morris, Kwangyeol Baek, Roger Tait, Rebecca Elliott, Karen D Ersche, Remy Flechais, John McGonigle, Anna Murphy, Liam J Nestor, Csaba Orban, Filippo Passetti, Louise M Paterson, Ilan Rabiner, Laurence Reed, Dana Smith, John Suckling, Eleanor M Taylor, Edward T Bullmore, Anne R Lingford-Hughes, Bill Deakin, David J Nutt, Barbara J Sahakian, Trevor W Robbins, Valerie Voon
Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is commonly used as a relapse prevention medication in alcohol and opiate addiction, but its efficacy and the mechanisms underpinning its clinical usefulness are not well characterized. In the current study, we examined the effects of 50-mg naltrexone compared with placebo on neural network changes associated with substance dependence in 21 alcohol and 36 poly-drug-dependent individuals compared with 36 healthy volunteers. Graph theoretic and network-based statistical analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data revealed that alcohol-dependent subjects had reduced functional connectivity of a dispersed network compared with both poly-drug-dependent and healthy subjects...
February 28, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246098/opiate-addiction-and-overdose-experiences-attitudes-and-appetite-for-community-naloxone-provision
#11
Tomás Barry, Jan Klimas, Helen Tobin, Mairead Egan, Gerard Bury
BACKGROUND: More than 200 opiate overdose deaths occur annually in Ireland. Overdose prevention and management, including naloxone prescription, should be a priority for healthcare services. Naloxone is an effective overdose treatment and is now being considered for wider lay use. AIM: To establish GPs' views and experiences of opiate addiction, overdose care, and naloxone provision. DESIGN AND SETTING: An anonymous postal survey to GPs affiliated with the Department of Academic General Practice, University College Dublin, Ireland...
February 28, 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212516/sex-disparities-in-substance-abuse-research-evaluating-23-years-of-structural-neuroimaging-studies
#12
Kimberly E Lind, Eric J Gutierrez, Dorothy J Yamamoto, Michael F Regner, Sherry A McKee, Jody Tanabe
BACKGROUND: Sex differences in brain structure and clinical course of substance use disorders underscores the need to include women in structural brain imaging studies. The NIH has supported the need for research to address sex differences. We evaluated female enrollment in substance abuse structural brain imaging research and the methods used to study sex differences in substance effects. METHODS: Structural brain imaging studies published through 2016 (n=230) were evaluated for number of participants by sex and substance use status and methods used to evaluate sex differences...
April 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135387/the-opioid-epidemic-what-does-it-mean-for-nurses
#13
Laura G Leahy
The United States is facing a major crisis with the current opioid epidemic. Tens of thousands of individuals are dying each year due to abuse and misuse of heroin and prescription opiate drugs. Nurses play an integral role in these aspects of health care and offer solutions by providing education; preventive measures; treatments, including medication-assisted treatments (MATs); and ongoing recovery options for individuals with opioid use disorders. Nurses provide education, issue prescriptions and dispense medications, and provide overall physical and mental health care to patients struggling with this "disease of the brain," and with the signing of the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act, advanced practice RNs will soon be able to include MATs related to buprenorphine as part of their treatment plan...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051842/the-use-of-auricular-acupuncture-in-opioid-use-disorder-a-systematic-literature-review
#14
REVIEW
Tanya E Baker, Grace Chang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic disease with significant personal, societal, and public health consequences. Even for the minority who receive the most effective evidence-based treatments, morbidity, and mortality remain significant. These facts, along with the recovery movement calling for individualized, holistic, culturally sensitive care, have led to the exploration of adjunctive interventions including acupuncture. Despite hundreds of international trials, however, there is a lack of consensus regarding its efficacy in OUD due in large part to methodological issues of trials to date...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051839/social-context-and-perspectives-of-non-medical-prescription-opioid-use-among-young-adults-in-rhode-island-a-qualitative-study
#15
Jesse L Yedinak, Elizabeth N Kinnard, Scott E Hadland, Traci C Green, Melissa A Clark, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This pilot study examined the context of nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use and related risk behaviors among young adults in Rhode Island, a New England region with markedly high prevalence of NMPO use and overdose mortality. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews (n = 13) with young adults (18-29 year-olds) who reported current or recent NMPO use. We also conducted focus groups (two groups, n = 14 total) with professional service providers recruited from service organizations...
December 2016: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050185/comparing-acceptance-and-commitment-group-therapy-and-12-steps-narcotics-anonymous-in-addict-s-rehabilitation-process-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Manoochehr Azkhosh, Ali Farhoudianm, Hemn Saadati, Fateme Shoaee, Leila Lashani
Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936337/alcohol-use-in-an-older-adult-referred-to-a-consultation-liaison-psychiatry-service-a-case-report
#17
Adam Searby, Natalie van Swet, Phil Maude, Ian McGrath
Alcohol use disorder in older adults is associated with a number of substantial medical complications, including cognitive decline. Due to limited success and application of screening approaches in this cohort, older adults are more likely to present to general hospital settings with undiagnosed problematic alcohol use. Consultation-liaison psychiatry services operating in general hospital settings are likely to be referred older adults with alcohol use disorders for assessment and management. A 77-year-old female presented to a metropolitan hospital with symptoms including frequent falls, slurred speech, difficulty judging distance, hypersomnia, poor reasoning, and odd behaviours...
January 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933094/the-newer-opioid-agonist-treatment-with-lower-substitutive-opiate-doses-is-associated-with-better-toxicology-outcome-than-the-older-harm-reduction-treatment
#18
Jacopo V Bizzarri, Valentina Casetti, Livia Sanna, Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani, Luca Rovai, Silvia Bacciardi, Daria Piacentino, Andreas Conca, Icro Maremmani
BACKGROUND: Charge-free heroin use disorder treatment in Italy follows two main approaches, i.e., harm reduction treatment (HRT) strategy in community low-threshold facilities for drug addiction and opioid agonist treatment (OAT) in high-threshold facilities for opioid addiction, focusing on pharmacological maintenance according to the Dole and Nyswander strategy. We aimed to compare the impact of HRT and OAT on patient outcome, as assessed through negativity for drugs on about 1-year urinalyses...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901585/a-review-of-positron-emission-tomography-studies-exploring-the-dopaminergic-system-in-substance-use-with-a-focus-on-tobacco-as-a-co-variate
#19
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Saima Malik, Bernard Le Foll
With the evolving sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) and the emergence of novel radiotracers, greater insight has been gained into the dopaminergic system as it relates to substance use. In this review, we summarize PET investigations from the last ten years that explore the dopaminergic system in tobacco, alcohol, stimulant, opiates, and cannabis addiction. In light of the prevalence of substance co-use, this review will also explore the effect of tobacco and other substance abuse co-morbidity on the dopaminergic system across study samples in the reviewed literature...
March 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877102/inhibition-of-gabaergic-neurotransmission-by-hiv-1-tat-and-opioid-treatment-in-the-striatum-involves-%C3%AE-opioid-receptors
#20
Changqing Xu, Sylvia Fitting
Due to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is considered a chronic disease with high prevalence of mild forms of neurocognitive impairments, also referred to as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although opiate drug use can exacerbate HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal damage, it remains unknown how and to what extent opioids interact with Tat on the GABAergic system. We conducted whole-cell recordings in mouse striatal slices and examined the effects of HIV-1 Tat in the presence and absence of morphine (1 μM) and damgo (1 μM) on GABAergic neurotransmission...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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