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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930068/risk-for-alcohol-exposed-pregnancies-among-women-at-drinking-venues-in-cape-town-south-africa
#1
Melissa H Watt, Brandon A Knettel, Karmel W Choi, Elizabeth T Knippler, Philip A May, Soraya Seedat
OBJECTIVE: South Africa's Western Cape Province has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder globally. Alcohol-serving venues are likely important sites to identify women at high risk of having a child with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. The goal of this study was to examine the risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies among women who drink in alcohol-serving venues. METHOD: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with 200 women of reproductive age at seven drinking venues in a single Cape Town community...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930061/promoting-adoption-of-medication-for-opioid-and-alcohol-use-disorders-through-system-change
#2
James H Ford, Amanda J Abraham, Nicoleta Lupulescu-Mann, Raina Croff, Kim A Hoffman, Kelly Alanis-Hirsch, Mady Chalk, Laura Schmidt, Dennis McCarty
OBJECTIVE: The Medication Research Partnership (MRP), a collaboration between a national commercial health plan and nine addiction treatment centers, implemented organizational and system changes to promote use of federally approved medications for treatment of alcohol and opioid use disorders. METHOD: A difference-in-differences analysis examined change over time in the percentage of patients receiving a prescription medication for alcohol or opioid use disorders treated in MRP (n = 9) and comparison (n = 15) sites...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930059/the-role-of-alcohol-on-antiretroviral-therapy-adherence-among-persons-living-with-hiv-in-urban-india
#3
Stephen L Schensul, Toan Ha, Jean J Schensul, Melita Vaz, Rajendra Singh, Joseph A Burleson, Kendall Bryant
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use among men living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and examine the association of alcohol use and psychosocial variables on ART adherence. The study was a cross-sectional survey supplemented by medical records and qualitative narratives as a part of the initial formative stage of a multilevel, multicentric intervention and evaluation project. METHOD: A screening instrument was administered to men living with HIV (n = 3,088) at four ART Centers using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-consumption questions (AUDIT-C) to determine alcohol use for study eligibility...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930057/tlr4-methylation-moderates-the-relationship-between-alcohol-use-severity-and-gray-matter-loss
#4
Hollis C Karoly, Rachel E Thayer, Sarah L Hagerty, Kent E Hutchison
OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with decreased gray matter, and neuroinflammation is one mechanism through which alcohol may confer such damage, given that heavy alcohol use may promote neural damage via activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated inflammatory signaling cascades. We previously demonstrated that TLR4 is differentially methylated in AUD compared with control subjects, and the present study aims to extend this work by examining whether TLR4 methylation moderates the relationship between alcohol use and gray matter...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930051/addiction-and-the-role-of-circadian-genes
#5
Laura A Forde, Gursharan Kalsi
OBJECTIVE: In mammals, intimate interactions exist between the circadian system and other molecular systems, and mounting evidence is suggesting that these relationships may affect substance use disorders. Research in preclinical models supports the role of circadian genes as risk factors for addiction. Here, we explore the evidence and review human genetic studies testing the association between specific circadian genes and substance use disorders. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in PubMed for studies testing variants in eight circadian genes known to be central to the functioning of the master clock in the brain...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929996/why-are-psychotic-experiences-associated-with-self-injurious-thoughts-and-behaviours-a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-potential-confounding-and-mediating-factors
#6
E Hielscher, J E DeVylder, S Saha, M Connell, J G Scott
Psychotic experiences (PEs), including hallucination- and delusion-like experiences, are robustly associated with self-injurious thoughts and behaviours (SITB) in the general population. However, it remains unclear as to why there is an association. The purpose of this systematic review was to elucidate the role of other factors that influence the association between PEs and SITB and, in doing so, highlight potential mechanisms underlying the relationship. A search of electronic international databases was undertaken, including PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE, and eligible studies were grouped according to seven confounder categories: sociodemographics, mental disorders, alcohol and substance use, environmental, psychological, intervention and family history/genetic factors...
September 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927865/a-latent-class-analysis-of-brief-postpartum-psychiatric-hospital-admissions
#7
Inbal Shlomi Polachek, Kinwah Fung, Karen Putnam, Samantha Meltzer Brody, Simone N Vigod
Almost 40% of postpartum psychiatric hospital admissions are brief, lasting 72h or less. We aimed to identify unique subgroups of women within this group to inform better intervention. All women in Ontario, Canada with a brief postpartum psychiatric admission (≤ 72h) (2007-2012)(N = 631) were studied using latent class analysis. We identified distinct subtypes of women and compared women within each subtype on post-discharge mental health indicators: physician visits, emergency department (ED) visits and readmissions...
September 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927583/differences-in-decision-making-as-a-function-of-drug-of-choice
#8
REVIEW
Joshua L Gowin, Matthew E Sloan, Vijay A Ramchandani, Martin P Paulus, Scott D Lane
Poor decision-making is a central feature of all substance use disorders (SUD), but substances vary in the legal and health consequences associated with their use. For example, while the negative health consequences associated with cigarette smoking are often years away, the consequences of heroin abuse can be fatal in mere hours. It remains unclear if users of these substances show decision-making patterns that differ with the relative riskiness of their drug of choice. To address this question, we reviewed studies that compared decision-making of individuals using different substances...
September 16, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927302/igfbp-1-and-igf-i-as-markers-for-advanced-fibrosis-in-nafld-a-pilot-study
#9
Hannes Hagström, Per Stål, Rolf Hultcrantz, Kerstin Brismar, Ishrath Ansurudeen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease globally. Advanced fibrosis (stage 3-4) is the most robust marker for future mortality, but diagnosis requires liver biopsy. Current non-invasive scoring systems aimed to identify advanced fibrosis are imperfect. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding protein IGFBP-1 are liver derived proteins, that are involved in various liver disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the possible association between advanced fibrosis and IGF-I and IGFBP-1 in NAFLD...
September 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926484/alcohol-and-drug-use-before-and-during-the-first-year-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Simon Beaulieu-Bonneau, Frédéric St-Onge, Marie-Claude Blackburn, Andrée Banville, Andrée-Anne Paradis-Giroux, Marie-Christine Ouellet
OBJECTIVES: To compare individuals with mild and moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) on alcohol and drug use and substance use disorders before and in the first year post-TBI; to explore sociodemographic and injury-related variables associated with substance use disorders. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 225 adults hospitalized in a level I trauma center after TBI. DESIGN: Observational cohort study with retrospective (pre-TBI) and prospective (4, 8, and 12 months post-TBI) assessments...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926304/substance-use-in-youth-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#11
Franco Scalzo, Carol A Hulbert, Jennifer K Betts, Sue M Cotton, Andrew M Chanen
Co-occurring substance misuse and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adults is associated with more severe dysfunction and poorer prognosis than BPD alone. However, it is unknown to what extent substance use in youth with BPD is normative for this age group or pathological. This study compared substance use in 117 help-seeking youth (aged 15-25 years) with their first presentation for treatment of BPD, with an epidemiological general population sample and with healthy, age- and gender-matched controls...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924278/main-predictors-for-repetition-of-suicidal-behaviour-among-women-referred-to-a-single-public-sector-tertiary-care-hospital-in-iran
#12
Babak Mostafazadeh, Esmaeil Farzaneh
OBJECTIVE: To assess the main predictors for repetition of suicidal behaviour among women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran, in 2014, and comprised women patients. The patients were divided into two groups, i.e. women repeating suicide and women without repeating suicide. Data was collected through a checklist and then analysed with SPSS 20. RESULTS: Of the 300 women, 121(40.3%) repeated suicide and 179(59...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922965/informational-videos-about-alcohol-use-feasibility-and-acceptability
#13
Jenna Brager, Tamar Rodney, Deborah Finnell
BACKGROUND: An estimated 15.1 million adults ages 18 years and older are classified with an alcohol use disorder, which includes 9.8 million men and 5.3 million women. A brief intervention is indicated for those identified to be at risk because of alcohol use. OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of informational videos about alcohol use. DESIGN: This feasibility study provided participants with the opportunity to choose one of two videos, Alcohol and the Brain or Rethinking Drinking...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922592/determining-if-borderline-personality-disorder-and-bipolar-disorder-are-alternative-expressions-of-the-same-disorder-results-from-the-national-epidemiologic-survey-on-alcohol-and-related-conditions
#14
Iris de la Rosa, María A Oquendo, Gemma García, Barbara Stanley, Ana González-Pinto, Shang-Min Liu, Carlos Blanco
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder represent 2 different disorders or alternative manifestations of the same disorder. METHODS: The data were collected between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2005. The analyses were conducted between December 21 and December 27, 2010. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed on 25 symptoms assessing depression, mania, and borderline personality disorder from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large nationally representative sample of the US adult population (N = 34,653)...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921778/alcohol-e-help-study-protocol-for-a-web-based-self-help-program-to-reduce-alcohol-use-in-adults-with-drinking-patterns-considered-harmful-hazardous-or-suggestive-of-dependence-in-middle-income-countries
#15
Michael P Schaub, Marcela Tiburcio, Nora Martinez, Atul Ambekar, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Andreas Wenger, André Luiz Monezi Andrade, Dzianis Padruchny, Sergey Osipchik, Elise Gehring, Vladimir Poznyak, Dag Rekve, Maria Lucia Oliveira Souza-Formigoni
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Given the scarcity of alcohol prevention and alcohol use disorder treatments in many low and middle-income countries, the World Health Organization launched an e-health portal on alcohol and health that includes a Web-based self-help program. This paper presents the protocol for a multicenter randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy of the Internet-based self-help intervention to reduce alcohol use. DESIGN: Two-arm RCT with follow-up 6 months after randomisation...
September 17, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921654/influence-of-cocaine-related-images-and-alcohol-administration-on-inhibitory-control-in-cocaine-users
#16
Erika Pike, Katherine R Marks, William W Stoops, Craig R Rush
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use and impulsivity, including decreased inhibitory control, predict poor treatment outcomes for individuals with cocaine use disorders. This study sought to determine the effects of alcohol administration on inhibitory control following cocaine-related and neutral cues on the Attentional Bias-Behavioral Activation (ABBA) task in cocaine users. We hypothesized that the proportion of inhibitory failures would increase following cocaine cues compared to neutral cues...
September 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919445/cognitive-effects-of-labeled-addictolytic-medications
#17
REVIEW
Camille Noélie Pujol, Cecilia Paasche, Vincent Laprevote, Benoit Trojak, Pierre Vidailhet, Elisabeth Bacon, Laurence Lalanne
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug usage is pervasive throughout the world, and abuse of these substances is a major contributor to the global disease burden. Many pharmacotherapies have been developed over the last 50years to target addictive disorders. While the efficacy of these pharmacotherapies is largely recognized, their cognitive impact is less known. However, all substance abuse disorders are known to promote cognitive disorders like executive dysfunction and memory impairment...
September 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918668/current-status-and-future-prospects-for-the-development-of-substance-abuse-vaccines
#18
Thomas R Kosten, Daryl Shorter, David Heekin
Substance use disorders (SUD) are a significant threat to both individual and public health. To date, SUD pharmacotherapy has focused primarily on agonist medications (i.e., nicotine replacement therapy for tobacco use disorder; methadone and buprenorphine for opioid use disorder), antagonist medications (i.e., naltrexone for opioid use disorder), and aversive therapy (i.e., disulfiram for alcohol use disorder). Pharmacotherapeutic approaches utilizing an immunological framework for medication development represent an important focus of study for treatment of these illnesses...
September 18, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918416/-the-methodology-and-sample-description-of-the-national-survey-on-addiction-problems-in-hungary-2015-nsaph-2015
#19
Borbala Paksi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Magi, Katalin Felvinczi
This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS)...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918344/accesses-for-alcohol-intoxication-to-the-emergency-department-and-the-risk-of-re-hospitalization-an-observational-retrospective-study
#20
Maurizio Baldassarre, Fabio Caputo, Raimondo Maria Pavarin, Matteo Massimo Bossi, Maria Elena Bonavita, Paolo Caraceni, Alice Grignaschi, Mimosa Balloni, Mario Cavazza, Mauro Bernardi, Marco Domenicali
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are a frequent cause of admission to emergency departments (EDs) for acute alcohol intoxication (AAI). Patients with AUD present a higher risk of readmission to EDs for AAI than the general population, however, the distinction between sporadic AAI and AAI in the context of AUD in the ED setting is difficult. AIMS: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of patients admitted to EDs because of AAI and to identify factors associated with repeated admissions in order to develop a risk stratification system for patients with AUD based on objective data that can be easily applied in an ED setting...
September 1, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
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