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alcohol use disorder

Huiping Zhang, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is influenced by gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors can affect gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. This review outlines the findings regarding the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. METHODS: We searched PubMed (by April 2016) and identified 29 studies that examined the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. We also evaluated the methods used in these studies...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Susan E Luczak, Rubin Khoddam, Sheila Yu, Tamara L Wall, Anna Schwartz, Steve Sussman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. METHODS: We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Venu Duddu, Abdulhakim Rhouma, Masood Qureshi, Imran Bashir Chaudhry, Terry Drake, Altaf Sumra, Nusrat Husain
Aims and method The need for an age-appropriate in-patient service for 16- to 17-year-olds led to the development of a 6-bed acute admissions unit in a non-metropolitan county in the UK. We provide a descriptive evaluation of the first 2 years of its operation. All admissions from April 2010 to March 2012 were reviewed, clinical details systematically recorded and descriptively analysed. Results Ninety-seven young people were admitted during this period (a third were compulsorily detained under the Mental Health Act 1983)...
October 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
Jan Scott, Pierre Alexis Geoffroy, Sarah Sportiche, Clara Brichant-Petit-Jean, Sebastien Gard, Jean-Pierre Kahn, Jean-Michel Azorin, Chantal Henry, Bruno Etain, Frank Bellivier
BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that reliable and valid assessments of lithium response are needed in order to target more efficiently the use of this medication in bipolar disorders (BD) and to identify genotypes, endophenotypes and biomarkers of response. METHODS: In a large, multi-centre, clinically representative sample of 300 cases of BD, we assess external clinical validators of lithium response phenotypes as defined using three different recommended approaches to scoring the Alda lithium response scale...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Lídia Teixidor López, Cindy Frías-Torres, José Moreno-España, Lluisa Ortega, Pablo Barrio, Antoni Gual
Many alcohol-dependent patients suffer from cognitive impairment of variable severity, manifested by alterations in retrograde and anterograde memory, visuospatial processing, cognitive abilities and attention, some of which are reversible. In this context, cognitive remediation therapies could significantly improve patients' performance; therefore, these are considered a valuable alternative. The aim of this study was to implement cognitive remediation therapy in patients with alcohol dependence and cognitive impairment and evaluate its viability and effectiveness...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Nuria García Marchena, Pedro Araos, Francisco Javier Pavón, Guillermo Ponce, María Pedraz, Antonia Serrano, Francisco Arias, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Juan Suárez, Antoni Pastor, Rafael De la Torre, Marta Torrens, Gabriel Rubio, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca
Alcohol addiction is associated with high psychiatric comorbidity. Objective stratification of patients is necessary to optimize care and improve prognosis. The present study is designed to gain insights into this challenge by addressing the following objectives: a) to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in a sample of outpatients seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, b) to describe the existence of gender differences and c) to validate 2-acyl-glycerols as biomarkers of alcohol use disorder and/or psychiatric comorbidity...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Jürgen Rehm, Gerrit Gmel, Cristina Serra, Antoni Gual
AbstractWith help of a simulation study, the potential effects of better detection of hypertension and improved screening for alcohol problems with subsequent interventions were estimated.  Results showed, that if 50% of Spanish men between 40 and 64 years of age currently not aware of their hypertension could be made aware of their condition and received usual interventions, and 50% among men with hypertension would be screened for alcohol and received interventions for hazardous drinking or treatment for alcohol use disorders, the percentage of uncontrolled hypertension among men with hypertension would decrease from 61...
September 29, 2016: Adicciones
Arpana Agrawal, Julia D Grant, Jon Randolph Haber, Pamela A F Madden, Andrew C Heath, Kathleen K Bucholz, Carolyn E Sartor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the associations of religious attendance during childhood (C-RA) and adulthood (A-RA) with alcohol involvement (ever drinking, timing of first alcohol use, and alcohol use disorder [AUD]) in White and Black female twins. As genetic and environmental factors influence religious attendance and alcohol involvement, we examined the extent to which they contribute to their association. METHODS: Data on 3,234 White and 553 Black female twins (18-29 years) from the Missouri Adolescent Female twin Study...
October 17, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Nicholas W Gilpin, Jeff L Weiner
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are highly co-morbid in humans. Although we have some understanding of the structural and functional brain changes that define each of these disorders, and how those changes contribute to the behavioral symptoms that define them, little is known about the neurobiology of co-morbid PTSD and AUD, which may be due in part to a scarcity of adequate animal models for examining this research question. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the-science on co-morbid PTSD and AUD: we summarize epidemiological data documenting the prevalence of this co-morbidity, review what is known about the potential neurobiological basis for the frequent co-occurrence of PTSD and AUD, and discuss successes and failures of past and current treatment strategies...
October 17, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Garen A Collett, Kangwon Song, Carlos A Jaramillo, Jennifer S Potter, Erin P Finley, Mary Jo Pugh
BACKGROUND: The increase in the quantities of central nervous system (CNS)-acting medications prescribed has coincided with increases in overdose mortality, suicide-related behaviors, and unintentional deaths in military personnel deployed in support of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Data on the extent and impact of prescribing multiple CNS drugs among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans (IAVs) are sparse. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify the characteristics of IAVs with CNS polypharmacy and examine the association of CNS polypharmacy with drug overdose and suicide-related behaviors controlling for known risk factors...
March 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Miranda C Staples, Chitra D Mandyam
Alcohol use disorder currently affects approximately 18 million Americans, with at least half of these individuals having significant cognitive impairments subsequent to their chronic alcohol use. This is most widely apparent as frontal cortex-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where executive function and decision-making are severely compromised, as well as hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where contextual and temporal reasoning are negatively impacted. This review discusses the relevant clinical literature to support the theory that cognitive recovery in tasks dependent on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is temporally different across extended periods of abstinence from alcohol...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Craig S Rosen, Kathryn J Azevedo, Quyen Q Tiet, Carolyn J Greene, Amanda E Wood, Patrick Calhoun, Thomas Bowe, Bruce P Capehart, Eric F Crawford, Mark A Greenbaum, Alex H S Harris, Michael Hertzberg, Steven E Lindley, Brandy N Smith, Paula P Schnurr
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether adding telephone care management to usual outpatient mental health care improved treatment attendance, medication compliance, and clinical outcomes of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: In a multisite randomized controlled trial, 358 veterans were assigned to either usual outpatient mental health treatment (N=165) or usual care plus twice-a-month telephone care management (TCM) and support in the first three months of treatment (N=193)...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Brian E McCabe, Natasha Schaefer Solle, Nilda Peragallo Montano, Victoria B Mitrani
OBJECTIVES: Alcohol misuse and depressive symptoms have been linked to HIV/STI risk, but studies have rarely included Hispanic women, who have over four times greater HIV incidence than white, non-Hispanic women. Understanding the connections among alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and HIV/STI risks may suggest ways to meet specific needs of Hispanic women. This study's objective is to examine the relationships among alcohol misuse, depressive symptoms, and seven HIV/STI risk factors...
October 15, 2016: Ethnicity & Health
J Keszte, H Danker, A Dietz, E Meister, F Pabst, O Guntinas-Lichius, J Oeken, S Singer, A Meyer
In a German multi-center prospective cohort study, we wanted to assess the course of psychiatric comorbidity, utilization of mental health care and psychosocial care needs in laryngeal cancer patients during the first year after partial laryngectomy (PRL). Structured interviews with patients were conducted before surgery, 1 week (1 w), 3 months (3 m) and 1 year (12 m) after PRL. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Psychosocial care needs and utilization of mental health care were evaluated with standardized face-to-face interviews...
October 15, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Kenan Karbeyaz, Mehmet Toygar, Adnan Çelikel
INTRODUCTION: In this study student suicides are classified as a distinct group in Eskisehir-a city located in the western part of our country and famous as a student city. The study aims at describing demographic and suicide specification of cases and compare some important issues between males and females. METHOD: All the judicially deaths in Eskisehir in a 12 year period between 2004 and 2015 have been evaluated. 75 cases that were deemed as suicide cases as a result of criminal investigation have been included in the study...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Dennis E Reidy, Joanne P Smith-Darden, Poco D Kernsmith
INTRODUCTION: Although recognized as a public health problem, little attention has been paid to the problem of stalking among youth. Latent profile analysis was used to identify latent groups of adolescent stalking victims and their behavioral and mental health correlates. METHODS: A cross-sectional sample of 1,236 youths were randomly selected from 13 schools stratified by community risk level (i.e., low, moderate, and high risk) and gender. Students completed surveys assessing behavioral indicators of stalking victimization, as well as substance use, sexual behavior, dating violence, and psychiatric symptoms...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Bethany L Stangl, Vatsalya Vatsalya, Molly R Zametkin, Megan E Cooke, Martin H Plawecki, Sean O'Connor, Vijay A Ramchandani
BACKGROUND: Self-administration is a hallmark of all addictive drugs, including alcohol. Human laboratory models of alcohol self-administration have characterized alcohol-seeking behavior, and served as surrogate measures of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders. Intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA) is a novel method that assess alcohol exposure driven primarily by the pharmacological response to alcohol, and may have utility in characterizing unique behavioral and personality correlates of alcohol-seeking and consumption...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Christie L M Petrenko, Michelle E Alto
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are present across countries and cultures, with prevalence rates threatening to rise in the coming years. In order to support children and families with FASD around the world, researchers must work to disseminate and implement evidence-based interventions. However, each cultural context presents unique elements and barriers to the implementation process. This review considers the challenges of addressing FASD in an international context. It summarizes existing FASD interventions that have empirical support in the domains of parenting and education, attention and self-regulation, adaptive functioning, and nutrition and medication...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Vincent Gouttebarge, Urban Johnson, Pierre Rochcongar, Philippe Rosier, Gino Kerkhoffs
OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and one-season incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, eating disorders, adverse alcohol use) among European professional football referees. A secondary aim was to explore the view of European professional football referees on consequences, support and needs related to these symptoms. METHODS: An observational prospective cohort study with three measurements over a follow-up period of one season (2015-2016) was conducted among central or assistant professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden...
October 14, 2016: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Mette Groenkjaer, Charlotte de Crespigny, Dennis Liu, John Moss, Imelda Cairney, Deb Lee, Nicholas Procter, Cherrie Galletly
Mental health disorder and alcohol and other drug comorbidity is prevalent in Australia. This qualitative study used semistructured interviews (N = 20) to elicit clinicians' and workers' knowledge, experiences, and opinions regarding issues pertaining to service needs of people with comorbidity in a metropolitan region of South Australia. The study revealed barriers to effective access and delivery of comorbidity care by MH and AOD services. Participants reported difficulties with identification, access, suitability, policy, funding, and collaboration between sectors and services responding to comorbidity...
October 14, 2016: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
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