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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911316/risk-factors-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-german-primary-care-practices
#1
Louis Jacob, Jens Bohlken, Karel Kostev
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a common mental disorder affecting around 16% of elderly people without dementia. MCI is considered an intermediate state between normal cognition and dementia. OBJECTIVE: To analyze risk factors for the development of MCI in German primary care practices. METHODS: In total, 3,604 MCI patients and 3,604 controls without MCI were included between January 2010 and December 2015. Several disorders potentially associated with MCI were determined...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911073/reducing-risky-alcohol-use-what-health-care-systems-can-do
#2
Amity E Quinn, Mary Brolin, Maureen T Stewart, Brooke Evans, Constance Horgan
Risky, non-dependent alcohol use is prevalent in the United States, affecting 25% of adults (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b). Massachusetts has higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking than most states (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015). Serious physical, social, and economic consequences result. Excessive alcohol use contributes to cancer, cardiovascular disease, sleep disorders, birth defects, motor vehicle injuries, and suicide, and it complicates management of chronic illnesses (Green, McKnight-Eily, Tan, Mejia, & Denny, 2016; Laramee et al...
April 27, 2016: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911004/a-comparison-of-the-neuropsychological-profiles-of-people-living-in-squalor-without-hoarding-to-those-living-in-squalor-associated-with-hoarding
#3
Sook Meng Lee, Matthew Lewis, Deborah Leighton, Ben Harris, Brian Long, Stephen Macfarlane
OBJECTIVE: Squalor affects 1 in 1000 older people and is regarded as a secondary condition to other primary disorders such as dementia, intellectual impairment and alcohol abuse. Squalor frequently is associated with hoarding behaviour. We compared the neuropsychological profile of people living in squalor associated with hoarding to those presenting with squalor only. METHODS: This study is a retrospective case series of hospital inpatient and community healthcare services of 69 people living in squalor (49 from aged care, 16 from aged psychiatry, 3 from acute medical and 1 from a memory clinic)...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909991/the-role-of-orexins-hypocretins-in-alcohol-use-and-abuse
#4
Leigh C Walker, Andrew J Lawrence
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and drug taking despite negative consequences. Alcohol abuse and addiction have major social and economic consequences and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available therapeutics are inadequate, outlining the need for alternative treatments. Detailed knowledge of the neurocircuitry and brain chemistry responsible for aberrant behavior patterns should enable the development of novel pharmacotherapies to treat addiction...
December 2, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909449/association-between-dsm-iv-anxiety-disorders-and-suicidal-behaviors-in-a-community-sample-of-south-korean-adults
#5
Seong-Jin Cho, Jin Pyo Hong, Jun-Young Lee, Jeong Soo Im, Kyoung-Sae Na, Jee Eun Park, Maeng Je Cho
OBJECTIVE: There are conflicting reports about whether individual anxiety disorders are independently associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We examined whether anxiety disorders are related to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a community sample of South Korean adults. METHODS: In-person interviews based on the South Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were conducted to diagnose mental disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether anxiety disorders were associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts...
November 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908844/quittr-the-design-of-a-video-game-to-support-smoking-cessation
#6
Ivan Bindoff, Kristy de Salas, Gregory Peterson, Tristan Ling, Ian Lewis, Lindsay Wells, Peter Gee, Stuart G Ferguson
BACKGROUND: Smoking is recognized as the largest, single, preventable cause of death and disease in the developed world. While the majority of smokers report wanting to quit, and many try each year, smokers find it difficult to maintain long-term abstinence. Behavioral support, such as education, advice, goal-setting, and encouragement, is known to be beneficial in improving the likelihood of succeeding in a quit attempt, but it remains difficult to effectively deliver this behavioral support and keep the patient engaged with the process for a sufficient duration...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908524/genetic-correlation-between-alcohol-preference-and-conditioned-fear-exploring-a-functional-relationship
#7
Julia A Chester, Marcus M Weera
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorders have a high rate of co-occurrence, possibly because they are regulated by common genes. In support of this idea, mice selectively bred for high (HAP) alcohol preference show greater fear potentiated startle (FPS), a model for fear-related disorders such as PTSD, compared to mice selectively bred for low (LAP) alcohol preference. This positive genetic correlation between alcohol preference and FPS behavior suggests that the two traits may be functionally related...
November 23, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906494/alcohol-dependent-molecular-adaptations-of-the-nmda-receptor-system
#8
REVIEW
Nadege Morisot, Dorit Ron
Phenotypes such as motivation to consume alcohol, goal-directed alcohol seeking and habit formation contribute to the mechanisms underlying heavy alcohol use. Learning and memory processes greatly contribute to the establishment and maintenance of these behavioral phenotypes. The N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a driving force of synaptic plasticity, a key cellular hallmark of learning and memory. Here, we describe data in rodents and humans linking signaling molecules that center around the NMDARs and behaviors associated with the development and/or maintenance of alcohol abuse...
December 1, 2016: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905952/mental-health-and-urban-living-in-sub-saharan-africa-major-depressive-episodes-among-the-urban-poor-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso
#9
Géraldine Duthé, Clémentine Rossier, Doris Bonnet, Abdramane Bassiahi Soura, Jamaica Corker
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan African cities, the epidemiological transition has shifted a greater proportion of the burden of non-communicable diseases, including mental and behavioral disorder, to the adult population. The burden of major depressive disorder and its social risk factors in the urban sub-Saharan African population are not well understood and estimates vary widely. We conducted a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, in order to estimate the prevalence of major depressive episodes among adults in this urban setting...
May 5, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905916/study-protocol-a-dose-escalating-phase-2-study-of-oral-lisdexamfetamine-in-adults-with-methamphetamine-dependence
#10
Nadine Ezard, Adrian Dunlop, Brendan Clifford, Raimondo Bruno, Andrew Carr, Alexandra Bissaker, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The treatment of methamphetamine dependence is a continuing global health problem. Agonist type pharmacotherapies have been used successfully to treat opioid and nicotine dependence and are being studied for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. One potential candidate is lisdexamfetamine, a pro-drug for dexamphetamine, which has a longer lasting therapeutic action with a lowered abuse potential. The purpose of this study is to determine the safety of lisdexamfetamine in this population at doses higher than those currently approved for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or binge eating disorder...
December 1, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903560/commonly-prescribed-drugs-associate-with-cognitive-function-a-cross-sectional-study-in-uk-biobank
#11
Alejo J Nevado-Holgado, Chi-Hun Kim, Laura Winchester, John Gallacher, Simon Lovestone
OBJECTIVE: To investigate medications associated with cognitive function. DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: UK Biobank participants aged 37-73 years who completed cognitive tests at the baseline visit in 2006-2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive test outcomes on verbal-numerical reasoning test (n=165 493), memory test (n=482 766) and reaction time test (n=496 813)...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901585/a-review-of-positron-emission-tomography-studies-exploring-the-dopaminergic-system-in-substance-use-with-a-focus-on-tobacco-as-a-co-variate
#12
Thulasi Thiruchselvam, Saima Malik, Bernard Le Foll
With the evolving sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) and the emergence of novel radiotracers, greater insight has been gained into the dopaminergic system as it relates to substance use. In this review, we summarize PET investigations from the last ten years that explore the dopaminergic system in tobacco, alcohol, stimulant, opiates, and cannabis addiction. In light of the prevalence of substance co-use, this review will also explore the effect of tobacco and other substance abuse co-morbidity on the dopaminergic system across study samples in the reviewed literature...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901240/prevalence-of-chronic-spinal-pain-and-identification-of-associated-factors-in-a-sample-of-the-population-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil-cross-sectional-study
#13
Jidiene Dylese Presecatan Depintor, Eduardo Sawaya Botelho Bracher, Dayane Maia Costa Cabral, José Eluf-Neto
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic spinal pain, especially low-back pain and neck pain, is a leading cause of years of life with disability. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic spinal pain among individuals aged 15 years or older and to identify the factors associated with it. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional epidemiological study on a sample of the population of the city of São Paulo. METHOD: Participants were selected using random probabilistic sampling and data were collected via face-to-face interviews...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901086/glycycoumarin-inhibits-hepatocyte-lipoapoptosis-through-activation-of-autophagy-and-inhibition-of-er-stress-gsk-3-mediated-mitochondrial-pathway
#14
Enxiang Zhang, Shutao Yin, Xinhua Song, Lihong Fan, Hongbo Hu
Herbal medicine as an alternative approach in the treatment of disease has drawn growing attention. Identification of the active ingredient is needed for effective utilization of the herbal medicine. Licorice is a popular herbal plant that is widely used to treat various diseases including liver diseases. Glycycoumarin (GCM) is a representative of courmarin compounds isolated from licorice. In the present study, the protective effect of GCM on hepatocyte lipoapoptosis has been evaluated using both cell culture model of palmitate-induced lipoapoptosis and animal model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900733/web-based-self-help-for-problematic-alcohol-use-a-large-naturalistic-study
#15
Magnus Johansson, Kristina Sinadinovic, Anders Hammarberg, Christopher Sundström, Ulric Hermansson, Sven Andreasson, Anne H Berman
PURPOSE: This observational study examined user characteristics, intervention use patterns, and variables associated with reductions in alcohol consumption for anonymous Internet help-seekers using a Web-based self-help program. METHOD: A Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program with eight modules delivered over 10 weeks was offered to participants with at least hazardous use of alcohol according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) (n = 4165)...
November 29, 2016: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900069/validity-of-alcohol-use-disorder-identification-test-korean-revised-version-for-screening-alcohol-use-disorder-according-to-diagnostic-and-statistical-manual-of-mental-disorders-fifth-edition-criteria
#16
Jung Wei Chang, Jong Sung Kim, Jin Gyu Jung, Sung Soo Kim, Seok Joon Yoon, Hak Sun Jang
BACKGROUND: The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) has been widely used to identify alcohol use disorder (AUD). This study evaluated the validity of the AUDIT-Korean revised version (AUDIT-KR) for screening AUD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria. METHODS: This research was conducted with 443 subjects who visited the Chungnam National University Hospital for a comprehensive medical examination...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899849/statin-therapy-review-of-safety-and-potential-side-effects
#17
REVIEW
Satish Ramkumar, Ajay Raghunath, Sudhakshini Raghunath
BACKGROUND: Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins...
November 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899281/sex-differences-in-responses-of-the-basolateral-central-amygdala-circuit-to-alcohol-corticosterone-and-their-interaction
#18
Marian L Logrip, Christopher Oleata, Marisa Roberto
Alcohol use disorders are chronically relapsing conditions that pose significant health challenges for our society. Stress is a prevalent trigger of relapse, particularly for women, yet the mechanisms by which alcohol and stress interact, and how this differs between males and females, remain poorly understood. The glutamatergic circuit connecting the basolateral (BLA) and central (CeA) nuclei of the amygdala is a likely locus for such adaptations, yet the impact of alcohol, corticosterone and their interaction on this circuit has been understudied...
November 26, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899082/interventions-to-improve-gross-motor-performance-in-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-meta-analysis
#19
Barbara R Lucas, Elizabeth J Elliott, Sarah Coggan, Rafael Z Pinto, Tracy Jirikowic, Sarah Westcott McCoy, Jane Latimer
BACKGROUND: Gross motor skills are fundamental to childhood development. The effectiveness of current physical therapy options for children with mild to moderate gross motor disorders is unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to investigate the effectiveness of conservative interventions to improve gross motor performance in children with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted...
November 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897965/factors-associated-with-substance-use-in-older-homeless-adults-results-from-the-hope-home-study
#20
Matthew A Spinelli, Claudia Ponath, Lina Tieu, Emily E Hurstak, David Guzman, Margot Kushel
BACKGROUND: The median age of the single adult homeless population is 50 and rising. While the prevalence of substance use decreases as individuals age, older adults now have a higher prevalence of substance use than older adults did ten years ago. Homeless individuals have a higher prevalence of substance use disorders than the general population. However, little is known about substance use in older homeless adults. METHODS: We examined prevalence of and factors associated with substance use in a population-based sample (n = 350) of homeless individuals aged 50 and older in Oakland, CA...
November 29, 2016: Substance Abuse
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