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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033637/cognitive-functioning-in-euthymic-bipolar-patients-on-monotherapy-with-novel-antipsychotics-or-mood-stabilizers
#1
Vesile Şentürk Cankorur, Hilal Demirel, Cem Atbaşoğlu
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder is associated with cognitive dysfunction in several domains. Medication effect is a potential confounder that can only be statistically controlled in many studies. The cognitive profile in bipolar disorder during remission on maintenance antipsychotics or mood stabilizers medication has not been compared before. METHODS: We compared the cognitive profile of bipolar disorder patients euthymic for 2 month or more on monotherapy with novel antipsychotics (AP) (n=16), lithium carbonate (Li) (n=25) or valproic acid (VPA; n=26)...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028643/pharmacotherapy-of-borderline-personality-disorder-replacing-confusion-with-prudent-pragmatism
#2
Vladan Starcevic, Aleksandar Janca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article aims to examine trends in the pharmacological treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and shed more light on the attendant controversies. RECENT FINDINGS: Although specialized, BPD-centred psychotherapy is considered first-line treatment for BPD and no psychotropic drug has been licensed for BPD, medications are frequently prescribed in the management of this condition. Various classes of psychopharmacological agents are used for BPD and there is a prominent polypharmacy...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021832/pharmacogenomics-in-the-treatment-of-mood-disorders-strategies-and-opportunities-for-personalized-psychiatry
#3
REVIEW
Azmeraw T Amare, Klaus Oliver Schubert, Bernhard T Baune
Personalized medicine (personalized psychiatry in a specific setting) is a new model towards individualized care, in which knowledge from genomics and other omic pillars (microbiome, epigenomes, proteome, and metabolome) will be combined with clinical data to guide efforts to new drug development and targeted prescription of the existing treatment options. In this review, we summarize pharmacogenomic studies in mood disorders that may lay the foundation towards personalized psychiatry. In addition, we have discussed the possible strategies to integrate data from omic pillars as a future path to personalized psychiatry...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019422/pharmacotherapy-of-mood-disorders-and-psychosis-in-pre-and-post-natal-women
#4
Beth Smith, Steven L Dubovsky
Untreated mood and psychotic disorders can have substantial adverse impacts on the patient, the fetus and the family, while treatment can ameliorate such problems. To address concerns by clinicians about the risks of psychotropic medications, this review addresses the risk/benefit analysis of somatic therapies for psychiatric disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Areas covered: All available research was reviewed on the impact on pregnancy and breastfeeding of mood and psychotic disorders, and of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotic drugs, and electroconvulsive therapy...
October 11, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017623/the-genealogy-of-the-clinical-syndrome-of-mania-signs-and-symptoms-described-in-psychiatric-texts-from-1880-to-1900
#5
K S Kendler
In 1800, mania was conceptualized as an agitated psychotic state. By 1900, it closely resembled its modern form. This paper reviews the descriptions of mania in Western psychiatry from 1880 to 1900, when Kraepelin was training and developing his concept of manic-depressive illness. Psychiatric textbooks published 1900-1960 described 22 characteristic manic symptoms/signs the presence of which were recorded in 25 psychiatric textbooks and three other key documents published 1880-1900. Descriptions of mania in these nineteenth century textbooks closely resembled those in the twentieth century, recording a mean (s...
October 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017068/allopurinol-augmentation-in-acute-mania-a-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-trials
#6
REVIEW
Alexander T Chen, Theodore Malmstrom, Henry A Nasrallah
BACKGROUND: Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor commonly used in the treatment of gout. Recent studies have also shown its promise as an adjunctive treatment for manic episodes in bipolar 1 disorder, possibly through mechanisms involving the purinergic pathway. However, its efficacy across studies has been inconsistent, so we conducted a meta-analysis of the published controlled studies with the goal of determining the efficacy profile of allopurinol as an adjunctive treatment for mania in bipolar disorder...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992586/self-compassion-is-more-effective-than-acceptance-and-reappraisal-in-decreasing-depressed-mood-in-currently-and-formerly-depressed-individuals
#7
Anna M Ehret, Jutta Joormann, Matthias Berking
BACKGROUND: Self-compassion has recently been discussed as an effective affect regulation strategy for reducing negative affective states. The primary aim of the current study was to compare the efficacy of self-compassion to the more established strategies of acceptance and reappraisal. METHODS: For this purpose, we induced depressed mood in formerly, currently and never depressed individuals (n=30 each) at four different time-points. Participants were instructed to regulate their emotions after each mood induction by either waiting, employing self-compassion, accepting their emotions or reappraising the situation...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988045/prescribing-practices-in-southeastern-europe-focus-on-benzodiazepine-prescription-at-discharge-from-nine-university-psychiatric-hospitals
#8
Nadja P Maric, Milan Latas, Sanja Andric Petrovic, Ivan Soldatovic, Slavica Arsova, Danijel Crnkovic, Dragoslava Gugleta, Aleksandar Ivezic, Vladimir Janjic, Dalibor Karlovic, Dusica Lecic Tosevski, Alma Mihaljevic-Peles, Antoni Novotni, Bojana Pejuskovic, Branimir Radmanovic, Djendji Siladji Mladenovic, Violeta M Slavkovic, Zoran Stimac, Olivera Zikic
There is much concern about the widespread long-term use of benzodiazepines. Our manuscript addressed its use in the region of Southeastern Europe, which seems extensive, but insufficiently explored. At nine university psychiatric hospitals (Croatia, Macedonia and Serbia), we retrospectively analyzed discharge summary documents to find the prevalence of discharge benzodiazepine prescriptions and the prescribed benzodiazepine doses. This study included 1047 adult subjects and showed that 81.9% of them had benzodiazepines prescribed in the discharge summary document, with high mean daily dose of around 5mg lorazepam equivalents...
September 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987077/remission-of-schizoaffective-disorder-using-homeopathic-medicine-2-case-reports
#9
Diane E Grise, Tara Peyman, Jeffrey Langland
Context • Research on the schizophrenia spectrum is primarily focused on pharmaceutical interventions, although alternative treatments have been gaining increasing popularity in recent years because patients are seeking treatments that are effective and have reduced side effects. A significant body of evidence already exists supporting the effectiveness of homeopathy to treat a wide array of illnesses. Objective • The research team intended to demonstrate the need for using both alternative and conventional treatments to improve clinical outcomes in the treatment of schizoaffective disorder...
October 2, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982303/possible-garcinia-cambogia-induced-mania-with-psychosis-a-case-report
#10
David C Nguyen, Tysen K Timmer, Blair C Davison, Ian R McGrane
Garcinia cambogia is a Southeast Asian fruit becoming increasingly popular as a weight management supplement. Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is the primary active ingredient which demonstrates serotonergic- and muscarinic-enhancing properties via inhibition of selective serotonin reuptake and acetylcholinesterase. We report a young adult female with no history of bipolar disorder who developed mania and psychosis approximately 1 week following initiation of G cambogia and the Cleanse and Detox™ dietary supplement manufactured by Apex Vitality Health...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968199/meta-analysis-of-central-and-peripheral-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-levels-in-patients-with-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#11
Bruno Romeo, Walid Choucha, Philippe Fossati, Jean-Yves Rotge
BACKGROUND: Many studies have measured central and peripheral γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in patients with depression. We performed a meta-analysis to provide an objective overview of GABA changes in those with unipolar or bipolar depression. METHODS: After a systematic database search, original data were extracted with the help of seminal authors to calculate standardized mean differences. We compared GABA levels between patients with current major depressive episodes and controls, between euthymic patients and controls, and in patients before and after treatment...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967153/italian-prescribing-patterns-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Donatella Marazziti, Umberto Albert, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Antonio Tundo, Francesco Cuniberti, Giuseppe Maina, Ilenia Moroni, Beatrice Benatti, Federico Mucci, Gabriele Massimetti, Armando Piccinni, Vlasios Brakoulias
The aim of the present study was to investigate psychopharmacological prescribing patterns in a large sample (n = 1815) of patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) recruited in 4 Italian centers specialized in OCD, in comparison to available national and international guidelines. The centers were asked to complete a specific data sheet questionnaire on patients' therapeutic status. Statistical analyses were carried out by SPSS. The results showed that almost all patients referred to the centers of Milan, Pisa and Rome received psychotropic medications, whereas only 59...
October 2, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967098/epigenetic-regulation-of-melatonin-receptors-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Sarra G Bahna, Lennard P Niles
Melatonin, the primary indoleamine hormone of the mammalian pineal gland, is known to have a plethora of neuroregulatory, neuroprotective and other properties. Melatonergic signaling is mediated by its two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2 , which are widely expressed in the mammalian CNS. Melatonin levels and receptor expression often show a decrease during normal aging, and this reduction may be accelerated in some disease states. Depleted melatonergic signaling has been associated with neuropsychiatric dysfunction and impairments in cognition, memory, neurogenesis and neurorestorative processes...
October 2, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965471/cyclodextrins-improving-the-physicochemical-and-pharmacological-properties-of-antidepressant-drugs-a-patent-review
#14
Tâmara Coimbra Diniz, Tiago Coimbra Costa Pinto, Paula Dos Passos Menezes, Juliane Cabral Silva, Roxana Braga de Andrade Teles, Rosana Christine Cavalcanti Ximenes, Adriana Gibara Guimarães, Mairim Russo Serafini, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Lucindo José Quintans Júnior, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida
Depression is a serious mood disorder and is one of the most common mental illnesses. Despite the availability of several classes of antidepressants, a substantial percentage of patients are unresponsive to these drugs, which have a slow onset of action in addition to producing undesirable side effects. Some scientific evidence suggests that cyclodextrins (CDs) can improve the physicochemical and pharmacological profile of antidepressant drugs (ADDs). The purpose of this paper is to disclose current data technology prospects involving antidepressant drugs and cyclodextrins...
October 2, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965429/clinically-relevant-treatment-considerations-regarding-lithium-use-in-bipolar-disorder
#15
Tara Richardson, Matthew Macaluso
The goal of this paper is to provide a practical, clinically oriented review of lithium, a salt widely used to treat mania since the 1870s and formally approved as a mood stabilizer in 1970. Although lithium is still considered a first-line treatment for bipolar mania in most practice guidelines, its use may be overshadowed by newer psychotropic medications. Areas Covered: This paper addresses the historical use of lithium, modern indications for its use, guidelines for prescribing and monitoring continued lithium use, drug-drug interactions, and pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetic properties...
October 2, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964996/psychotropic-use-and-risk-of-stroke-among-patients-with-bipolar-disorders-10-year-nationwide-population-based-study
#16
Chi-Shin Wu, Kuan-Yi Wu, Yu-Ru Lo, Ya-Wen Huang, Yu-Ting Tsai, Yashiun Li, Hui-Ju Tsai
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between psychotropic agents (including antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers) and risk of stroke among patients with bipolar disorders. METHODS: We conducted a disease risk score-matched nested case-control study and identified patients with bipolar disorders (ICD-9 codes: 296.0x, 296.1x, 296.4x, 296.5x, 296.6x, 296.7x, 296.80, 296.81 or 296.89) from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961663/predictors-of-length-of-stay-in-a-psychiatric-adolescent-treatment-program
#17
Radhika Reddy, Carolyn Ha, Elizabeth Newlin, Carla Sharp
Understanding predictors of adolescent inpatient length of stay (LOS) is important in informing treatment outcomes for this age group. The current literature on adolescent LOS remains limited and has been characterized by methodological limitations. In the study described here, we examined a wide range of predictors for LOS in a psychiatric unit for adolescents (N=285), including severity of disorder (previous hospitalizations, self-harm, cognitive impairment and thought disorder, severe depression, history of trauma), types of psychotropic medication, and diagnoses...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959197/choir-versus-solo-singing-effects-on-mood-and-salivary-oxytocin-and-cortisol-concentrations
#18
T Moritz Schladt, Gregory C Nordmann, Roman Emilius, Brigitte M Kudielka, Trynke R de Jong, Inga D Neumann
The quantification of salivary oxytocin (OXT) concentrations emerges as a helpful tool to assess peripheral OXT secretion at baseline and after various challenges in healthy and clinical populations. Both positive social interactions and stress are known to induce OXT secretion, but the relative influence of either of these triggers is not well delineated. Choir singing is an activity known to improve mood and to induce feelings of social closeness, and may therefore be used to investigate the effects of positive social experiences on OXT system activity...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956334/a-role-for-phosphodiesterase-11a-pde11a-in-the-formation-of-social-memories-and-the-stabilization-of-mood
#19
Michy P Kelly
The most recently discovered 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family is the Phosphodiesterase 11 (PDE11) family, which is encoded by a single gene PDE11A. PDE11A is a dual-specific PDE, breaking down both cAMP and cGMP. There are four PDE11A splice variants (PDE11A1-4) with distinct tissue expression profiles and unique N-terminal regulatory regions, suggesting that each isoform could be individually targeted with a small molecule or biologic. PDE11A4 is the PDE11A isoform expressed in brain and is found in the hippocampal formation of humans and rodents...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953852/prescription-of-sodium-valproate-as-a-mood-stabiliser-in-pregnancy
#20
Kate Womersley
This essay was submitted for the Royal College of Psychiatry's perinatal psychiatry medical student essay prize in 2017. The essay considers the choices available to women with bipolar disorder who become pregnant while taking sodium valproate to treat mania or for mood stabilisation. The implications of three options are considered: to stop all treatment, to switch to a different mood stabiliser or to continue on sodium valproate. The implications for the fetus, on the mother's wellbeing and the ethics of patient choice are discussed...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
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