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Peter P Fong, Taylor B S Bury, Elizabeth E Donovan, Olivia J Lambert, Julia R Palmucci, Stephnie K Adamczak
Exposure to human antidepressants has been shown to disrupt locomotion and other foot-mediated mechanisms in aquatic snails. We tested the effect of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)- and one selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)-type antidepressants on the righting response in the marine snail, Ilyanassa obsoleta. All four antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, venlafaxine) significantly increased righting time compared with controls with an exposure time as short as 1 h...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
D Lelic, I W D Fischer, A E Olesen, C D Mørch, F G Arguissain, J A B Manresa, A Dahan, A M Drewes
Severe pain is often treated with opioids. Antidepressants that inhibit serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake (SNRI) have also shown a pain relieving effect, but for both SNRI and opioids the specific mode of action in humans remains vague. This study investigated how oxycodone and venlafaxine affect spinal and supraspinal pain processing. Twenty volunteers were included in this randomized cross-over study comparing five-day treatment with venlafaxine, oxycodone and placebo. As a proxy of the spinal pain transmission, the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) to electrical stimulation on the sole of the foot was recorded at the tibialis anterior muscle before and after five days of treatment...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Hsiu-Chiung Lee, Wei-Che Chiu, Tsu-Nai Wang, Yin-To Liao, I-Chia Chien, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre, Pau-Chung Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen
BACKGROUND: Experimental evidence indicates that serotonin is associated with both proliferative and pro-carcinogenic effects on colorectal tumors. The present study aims to investigate the associations between antidepressant use and colorectal cancer in an epidemiological sample. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study utilizing Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We identified 49,342 cases with colorectal cancer and 240,985 controls between 1997 and 2008...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Kathryn Bennett, Katharina Manassis, Stephanie Duda, Alexa Bagnell, Gail A Bernstein, E Jane Garland, Lynn D Miller, Amanda Newton, Lehana Thabane, Pamela Wilansky
We conducted an overview of systematic reviews about child and adolescent anxiety treatment options (psychosocial; medication; combination; web/computer-based treatment) to support evidence informed decision-making. Three questions were addressed: (i) Is the treatment more effective than passive controls? (ii) Is there evidence that the treatment is superior to or non-inferior to (i.e., as good as) active controls? (iii) What is the quality of evidence for the treatment? Pre-specified inclusion criteria identified high quality systematic reviews (2000-2015) reporting treatment effects on anxiety diagnosis and symptom severity...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Psychology Review
Sabrina Castellano, Andrea Ventimiglia, Salvatore Salomone, Andrea J Ventimiglia, Simona De Vivo, Maria Salvina Signorelli, Elisa Bellelli, Mario Santagati, Rita Anna Cantarella, Enrica Fazio, Eugenio Aguglia, Filippo Drago, Santo Di Nuovo, Filippo Caraci
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive disorder (MDD) is often accompanied by cognitive deficits, involving attention, learning, memory and executive functioning. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs) show efficacy on affective symptoms, but it is unclear whether or not they improve cognitive symptoms. METHODS: We carried out a 12 week-prospective observational study in two cohorts of recurrent moderate-severe partial responder MDD patients, to test the hypothesis that SSRIs and/or SNRIs may affect cognitive symptoms and assess whether or not such an effect was correlated to their effect on affective symptoms...
October 3, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Jeanne Lackamp, Rebecca Schlachet, Martha Sajatovic
BACKGROUND: Major depression disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental disorders world-wide and is prevalent throughout the lifespan, with prevalence estimates of 1-5% in those 65 years of age and older. METHODS: The aim of this mini-review is to briefly summarize clinically relevant topics within the domain of later-life MDD. RESULTS: The mini-review presents an overview of epidemiology, complications of late life MDD, risk factors and clinical presentation, clinical assessment, general issues relevant to the treatment of the older adult with MDD, drug treatments, discussion of how medical complexity affects drug treatment and other treatment modalities...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Takahiko Mitsui, Yukiko Kanno, Takeya Kitta, Kimihiko Moriya, Katsuya Nonomura
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of descending serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways on nociception in the lower urinary tract (LUT). METHODS: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Following intraperitoneal administration of Vehicle or Milnacipran (30 mg/kg), which is one of serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), 0.1% AA was infused into the bladder in normal (n = 4, each) and spinal cord injury (SCI) (n = 4, each) rats for 2 h on consciousness, and c-Fos, 5-HT and DβH were stained using immunohistochemistry at the L6 spinal cord as spinal areas associated with LUT...
September 2016: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
Rahul Vasudev, Upamanyu Rampal, Hiten Patel, Kunal Patel, Mahesh Bikkina, Fayez Shamoon
CONTEXT: Takotsubo translates to "octopus pot" in Japanese. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by a transient regional systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle. Catecholamine excess is the one most studied and favored theories explaining the pathophysiology of TTC. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 52-year-old Hispanic female admitted for venlafaxine-induced TTC with a review literature on all the cases of Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI)-associated TTC published so far...
July 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Maria P G De Ocampo, Maria Rosario G Araneta, Caroline A Macera, John E Alcaraz, Thomas R Moore, Christina D Chambers
PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the association between discontinued and continued use of antidepressants and risk for gestational hypertension (GH) and preeclampsia (PE). METHODS: Data from the MotherToBaby pregnancy studies from 2004 to 2014 were analyzed to compare women who discontinued antidepressant use ˂20 weeks of gestation (discontinuers) and women who continued antidepressant use ≥20 weeks of gestation (continuers) to non-users for risk of GH (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg on two or more occasions at ≥20 weeks of gestation) and PE (GH with proteinuria)...
August 24, 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Julia Drosselmeyer, Michael A Rapp, Karel Kostev
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and type of antidepressant medication prescribed by German primary care physicians for patients with depression and osteoporosis. METHODS: This study was a retrospective database analysis conducted in Germany utilizing the Disease Analyzer® Database (IMS Health, Germany). The study population included 3,488 female osteoporosis patients aged between 40 and 90 years recruited from 1,179 general practitioner practices and who were initially diagnosed with depression during the index period (January 2004 to December 2013)...
October 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Anne L Bailey, Eugene H Makela, Kia Asberg
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Because restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a problematic syndrome, demonstrating an association between use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)/serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and RLS may help direct patient care. The goals of this study were (1) to establish the incidence of RLS in mental health patients being treated with SSRIs or SNRIs in a local Veterans Affairs medical center and (2) to evaluate the frequency with which certain SSRIs or SNRIs are associated with RLS and the trend in frequency of the diagnosis since the revision of the criteria for RLS offered by the International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG), the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Revised (ICSD-3)...
July 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Ting-Ting Zhang, Rui Xue, Lei Zhu, Juan Li, Qiong-Yin Fan, Bo-Hua Zhong, Yun-Feng Li, Cai-Ying Ye, You-Zhi Zhang
AIM: The selective serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are commonly used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. Ammoxetine ((±)-3-(benzo[d] [1,3]dioxol-4-yloxy)-N-methyl-3-(thiophen-2-yl)propan-1-amine) has been identified as a novel potent SNRI. In this study, we evaluated the acute analgesic properties of ammoxetine in different animal models of pain, and examined the involvement of monoamines in its analgesic actions. METHODS: The analgesic effects of ammoxetine were assayed using models of acetic acid- and formalin-induced pain in mice, neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve injury (SNI), chronic constriction injury (CCI) and reserpine-induced fibromyalgia pain in rats...
September 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
D J David, D Gourion
Antidepressant therapy aims to reach remission of depressive symptoms while reducing the complications and risks of relapse. Even though they have proven their efficacy, it takes several weeks for antidepressants to demonstrate full effectiveness, and adverse effects occur more quickly or (quicker) which can be a source of poor compliance. This latest aspect often leads to dose reduction and/or change of molecule that have the effect of delaying remission. This review attempts to present, from the pharmacological properties of the major classes of antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitor [MAOI], tricyclic antidepressants [TCA], selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor [SNRI]), to the pharmacological mechanisms involved in adverse effects by focusing on sexual dysfunction, nausea/vomiting, and weight changes...
July 13, 2016: L'Encéphale
Harmony Raylen Abejuela, David N Osser
This revision of previous algorithms for the pharmacotherapy of generalized anxiety disorder was developed by the Psychopharmacology Algorithm Project at the Harvard South Shore Program. Algorithms from 1999 and 2010 and associated references were reevaluated. Newer studies and reviews published from 2008-14 were obtained from PubMed and analyzed with a focus on their potential to justify changes in the recommendations. Exceptions to the main algorithm for special patient populations, such as women of childbearing potential, pregnant women, the elderly, and those with common medical and psychiatric comorbidities, were considered...
July 2016: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Laetitia Laurent, Chunwei Huang, Sheila R Ernest, Anick Berard, Cathy Vaillancourt, Barbara F Hales
BACKGROUND: Human studies are inconsistent with respect to an association between treatment with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/SNRIs) and an increase in the incidence of congenital heart defects. Here we tested the hypothesis that in utero exposure to venlafaxine, a highly prescribed SNRI, increases the incidence of fetal heart defects and alters placental and fetal heart serotonin signaling in the rat. METHODS: Timed-pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were gavaged daily with venlafaxine hydrochloride (0, 3, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg/day) from gestation day 8 to 20...
July 7, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Colette DeJong, Thomas Aguilar, Chien-Wen Tseng, Grace A Lin, W John Boscardin, R Adams Dudley
IMPORTANCE: The association between industry payments to physicians and prescribing rates of the brand-name medications that are being promoted is controversial. In the United States, industry payment data and Medicare prescribing records recently became publicly available. OBJECTIVE: To study the association between physicians' receipt of industry-sponsored meals, which account for roughly 80% of the total number of industry payments, and rates of prescribing the promoted drug to Medicare beneficiaries...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Flavie Bidel, Carole Di Poi, Hélène Budzinski, Patrick Pardon, William Callewaert, Adeline Arini, Niladri Basu, Ludovic Dickel, Cécile Bellanger, Christelle Jozet-Alves
The Serotonin/Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI) antidepressant venlafaxine (VEN, Effexor(®)) has become one of the most common antidepressants detected in North American and European streams. Mammalian research has established that VEN exposure is associated with a range of structural, neurochemical, and functional alterations of the brain in adults and newborns. However, the neurodevelopmental effects of VEN on non-target organisms have never been investigated. The aim of our research was to decrease this gap in knowledge by characterizing the effects of VEN exposure on a cephalopod mollusk, the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis...
July 2016: Neurotoxicology
Gary Kelsberg, Leticia Maragh, Sarah Safranek
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs [fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine]) and the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine, as well as clonidine and gabapentin, reduce hot flashes by about 25% (approximately one per day) in women with and without a history of breast cancer. No studies compare medications against each other to determine a single best option.
May 2016: Journal of Family Practice
Y Xu, S J Bai, X H Lan, B Qin, T Huang, P Xie
New generation antidepressant therapies, including serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRIs), were introduced in the late 1980s; however, few comprehensive studies have compared the benefits and risks of various contemporary treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) in young patients. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO databases was conducted from 1970 to January 2015. Only clinical trials that randomly assigned one SNRI or placebo to patients aged 7 to 18 years who met the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder were included...
May 24, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Andres M Kanner
For a long time, there has been a misconception that all antidepressant drugs have proconvulsant effects. Yet, antidepressants of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) families have been not only shown to be safe when used in patients with epilepsy (PWE) but have been found to display antiepileptic properties in animal models of epilepsy. In humans randomized to SSRIs vs. a placebo for the treatment of primary major depressive episodes, the incidence of epileptic seizures was significantly lower among those treated with the antidepressants...
August 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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