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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782304/role-of-in-vivo-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-in-the-analysis-of-melanocytic-lesions
#1
Elena-Daniela Serban, Francesca Farnetani, Giovanni Pellacani, Maria Magdalena Constantin
Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection combined with complete surgical excision (2). Since the diagnostic protocol of suspicious lesions includes a complete excision with safety margins (2), the problem of unnecessary scarring is significant. The real challenge in this case is to have a properly formulated diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. Currently available non-invasive techniques are coherence tomography, digital dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763860/ants-and-their-nests-as-indicators-for-industrial-heavy-metal-contamination
#2
Oksana Skaldina, Sirpa Peräniemi, Jouni Sorvari
Ants accumulate heavy metals and respond to pollution with modification in species composition, community structure, altered behaviour and immunity. However, the levels of heavy metals in ants' nests and explicit individual-level responses towards heavy metals have not been revealed. We found that red wood ants Formica lugubris accumulate high and correlated values of such heavy metals as Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn both in ants and nest material near cobalt smelter in Finland. Relative differences in metal concentrations were higher in nests than in ants...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702258/photodynamic-therapy-does-not-induce-cyclobutane-pyrimidine-dimers-in-the-presence-of-melanin
#3
Shaila Mudambi, Paula Pera, Deschana Washington, Eva Remenyik, Eszter Fidrus, Gal Shafirstein, David Bellnier, Gyorgy Paragh
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an office-based treatment for precancerous and early cancerous skin changes. PDT induces cell death through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) are the most important DNA changes responsible for ultraviolet (UV) carcinogenesis. Recently ROS induced by UVA were shown to generate CPDs via activating melanin. This raised the possibility that PDT induced ROS may also induce CPDs and mutagenesis in melanin containing cells. Previously the effect of PDT on CPDs in melanin containing cells has not been assessed...
April 24, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662168/genome-wide-association-meta-analysis-of-individuals-of-european-ancestry-identifies-new-loci-explaining-a-substantial-fraction-of-hair-color-variation-and-heritability
#4
Pirro G Hysi, Ana M Valdes, Fan Liu, Nicholas A Furlotte, David M Evans, Veronique Bataille, Alessia Visconti, Gibran Hemani, George McMahon, Susan M Ring, George Davey Smith, David L Duffy, Gu Zhu, Scott D Gordon, Sarah E Medland, Bochao D Lin, Gonneke Willemsen, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Dragana Vuckovic, Giorgia Girotto, Ilaria Gandin, Cinzia Sala, Maria Pina Concas, Marco Brumat, Paolo Gasparini, Daniela Toniolo, Massimiliano Cocca, Antonietta Robino, Seyhan Yazar, Alex W Hewitt, Yan Chen, Changqing Zeng, Andre G Uitterlinden, M Arfan Ikram, Merel A Hamer, Cornelia M van Duijn, Tamar Nijsten, David A Mackey, Mario Falchi, Dorret I Boomsma, Nicholas G Martin, David A Hinds, Manfred Kayser, Timothy D Spector
Hair color is one of the most recognizable visual traits in European populations and is under strong genetic control. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of almost 300,000 participants of European descent. We identified 123 autosomal and one X-chromosome loci significantly associated with hair color; all but 13 are novel. Collectively, single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with hair color within these loci explain 34.6% of red hair, 24.8% of blond hair, and 26.1% of black hair heritability in the study populations...
April 16, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392869/comparison-of-the-effectiveness-of-pulsed-dye-laser-vs-pulsed-dye-laser-combined-with-ultrapulse-fractional-co-2-laser-in-the-treatment-of-immature-red-hypertrophic-scars
#5
Hua-Wei Ouyang, Gao-Feng Li, Ying Lei, Michael H Gold, Jun Tan
INTRODUCTION: The objective was to investigate the clinical effect of an adjustable pulse width Pulsed Dye Laser (PDL) vs an adjustable pulse width PDL combined with fractional CO2 laser in treating immature red hypertrophic scars. METHODS: Fifty-six patients (56 sites)were randomly divided into a treatment group and control group. The control group was treated with the 595 nm PDL at a fluence of 7-15J/cm2 and pulse widths of 1.5-3 ms, 7 mm spot size. The treatment group was treated with a fractional CO2 laser (UltraPulse CO2 : Deep FX, Energy: 30~50 mJ, Frequency: 300 Hz, Density 5%, Scan Shape, and Spot Size were decided by shape and area of scar) after utilizing the 595 nm adjustable pulse width PDL (Fluence: 7-15J/cm2 , Pulse widths: 1...
February 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364665/kinetics-of-melanin-polymerization-during-enzymatic-and-nonenzymatic-oxidation
#6
Sayan Mondal, Arya Thampi, Mrinalini Puranik
Melanin is an abundant biopigment in the animal kingdom, but its structure remains poorly understood. This is a substantial impediment to understanding the mechanistic origin of its observed functions. Proposed models of melanin structure include aggregates of both linear and macrocyclic units and noncovalently held monomers. Both models are broadly in agreement with current experimental data. To constrain the structural and kinetic models of melanin, experimental data of high resolution with chemical specificity accompanied by atomistic modeling are required...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337622/isolation-of-avipoxvirus-from-tongue-of-canaries-serinus-canaria-show-severe-localized-proliferative-glossitis
#7
Salvatore Catania, Silvia Carnaccini, Marta Mainenti, Maria Luisa Moronato, Federica Gobbo, Terregino Calogero
Poxvirus was the causative agent of two unusual outbreaks of proliferative glossitis in canary ( Serinus canaria forma domestica) breeders in the Northern Italy. A total of 45, 7-9-mo-old canaries were submitted in fair postmortem conditions to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie at the beginning of November 2005 for diagnostic investigation. Birds belonged to two unrelated and geographically distant aviaries in northern Italy, herein identified as Aviary A and Aviary B. The two breeder flocks had both attended the same bird exposition held at the beginning of October and started experiencing an onset of high mortality 3 wk after the show...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329871/isolation-of-proanthocyanidins-from-red-wine-and-their-inhibitory-effects-on-melanin-synthesis-in-vitro
#8
Takahiro Fujimaki, Shoko Mori, Manabu Horikawa, Yuko Fukui
The red wines made from Vitis vinifera were identified as skin-whitening effectors by using in vitro assays. OPCs in the wine were evaluated for tyrosinase activity and melanogenesis. Strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity was observed in fractions with high oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC) content. Among OPC dimers, a strong inhibitory effect on tyrosinase was observed with OPCs which contain (+)-catechin as an upper unit. Melanogenesis inhibitory effect was observed with OPCs which have (-)-epicatechin as upper units...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183309/assessment-of-the-effects-of-skin-microneedling-as-adjuvant-therapy-for-facial-melasma-a-pilot-study
#9
Emerson V A Lima, Mariana Modesto D A Lima, Mauricio Pedreira Paixão, Hélio Amante Miot
BACKGROUND: Melasma is a common chronic and relapsing acquired dyschromia. Skin microneedling was reported resulting sustained long-term improvement of recalcitrant melasma, however, the exact mechanism that promotes this skin lightening is not known. This study aimed to investigate clinical and histologic alterations promoted by skin microneedling in facial melasma. METHODS: Open pilot trial including six women with facial refractory melasma submitted to two sessions of microneedling (1...
November 28, 2017: BMC Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177429/identification-of-a-basidiomycete-specific-vilse-like-gtpase-activating-proteins-gaps-and-its-roles-in-the-production-of-virulence-factors-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#10
Kashif Rahim, Liang Huo, Chenxi Li, Ping Zhang, Abdul Basit, Biyun Xiang, Bie Ting, Xiaoran Hao, Xudong Zhu
Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous pathogenic yeast that causes fatal infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Regulation on the production of its virulence factors is not fully understood. Here we reported the characterization of a gene, named CVH1(CNA06260), encoding a Drosophila Vilse-like RhoGAP homolog, which is hallmarked by three conserved functional domains: WW, MyTH4 and RhoGAP. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that CVH1 is highly conserved from protists to mammals and interestingly in basidiomycetes, but absent in plants or Ascomycota and other lower fungi...
December 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116474/comparative-transcriptomes-and-reciprocal-best-hit-analysis-revealed-potential-pigment-genes-in-two-color-forms-of-tetranychus-urticae
#11
Yi-Dan Mo, Si-Xia Yang, Jing-Yu Zhao, Peng-Yu Jin, Xiao-Yue Hong
Tetranychus urticae Koch is a worldwide agricultural pest. There are two color forms: red and green. The molecular mechanism underlying this color variation is unknown. To elucidate the mechanism, we characterized differentially expressed pigment pathway genes shared in the transcriptomes of these two forms using RNA sequencing and reciprocal best hit analysis. Differentially expressed pigment pathway genes were determined by qRT-PCR to confirm the accuracy of RNA-Seq. The transcriptomes revealed 963 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 687 DEGs were higher in the green form...
October 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877054/melanotic-translocation-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-a-novel-arid1b-tfe3-gene-fusion
#12
Tatjana Antic, Jerome B Taxy, Mir Alikhan, Jeremy Segal
A 36-year-old male was found to have a 7.0 cm left upper pole renal mass on renal ultrasound. Following nephrectomy, the mass was grossly ill-demarcated, friable and red-brown, invading renal parenchyma, hilar fat and the renal vein. Microscopically, the tumor had a nested and papillary architecture. The cells demonstrated abundant clear and eosinophilic cytoplasm and focal intracytoplasmic melanin pigment. Nucleoli were prominent. By immunohistochemistry, the tumor was positive for TFE3; HMB-45 stained approximately 5% of tumor cells corresponding to the histologic melanin pigment, which was confirmed with Fontana-Masson stain with bleach...
November 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869973/palmitoylation-dependent-activation-of-mc1r-prevents-melanomagenesis
#13
Shuyang Chen, Bo Zhu, Chengqian Yin, Wei Liu, Changpeng Han, Baoen Chen, Tongzheng Liu, Xin Li, Xiang Chen, Chunying Li, Limin Hu, Jun Zhou, Zhi-Xiang Xu, Xiumei Gao, Xu Wu, Colin R Goding, Rutao Cui
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), a G-protein-coupled receptor, has a crucial role in human and mouse pigmentation. Activation of MC1R in melanocytes by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) stimulates cAMP signalling and melanin production and enhances DNA repair after ultraviolet irradiation. Individuals carrying MC1R variants, especially those associated with red hair colour, fair skin and poor tanning ability (denoted as RHC variants), are associated with higher risk of melanoma. However, how MC1R activity is modulated by ultraviolet irradiation, why individuals with red hair are more prone to developing melanoma, and whether the activity of RHC variants might be restored for therapeutic benefit are unknown...
September 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756194/red-blood-cell-membrane-camouflaged-melanin-nanoparticles-for-enhanced-photothermal-therapy
#14
Qin Jiang, Zimiao Luo, Yongzhi Men, Peng Yang, Haibao Peng, Ranran Guo, Ye Tian, Zhiqing Pang, Wuli Yang
Photothermal therapy (PTT) has represented a promising noninvasive approach for cancer treatment in recent years. However, there still remain challenges in developing non-toxic and biodegradable biomaterials with high photothermal efficiency in vivo. Herein, we explored natural melanin nanoparticles extracted from living cuttlefish as effective photothermal agents and developed red blood cell (RBC) membrane-camouflaged melanin (Melanin@RBC) nanoparticles as a platform for in vivo antitumor PTT. The as-obtained natural melanin nanoparticles demonstrated strong absorption at NIR region, higher photothermal conversion efficiency (∼40%) than synthesized melanin-like polydopamine nanoparticles (∼29%), as well as favorable biocompatibility and biodegradability...
October 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753659/melanic-variation-underlies-aposematic-color-variation-in-two-hymenopteran-mimicry-systems
#15
Heather M Hines, Paige Witkowski, Joseph S Wilson, Kazumasa Wakamatsu
The stinging hymenopteran velvet ants (Mutillidae) and bumble bees (Apidae: Bombus spp.) have both undergone extensive diversification in aposematic color patterns, including yellow-red hues and contrasting dark-light body coloration, as a result of Müllerian mimicry. Understanding the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying shifts in these mimetic colors requires characterization of their pigmentation. In this study, a combination of solubility, spectrophotometry, and melanin degradation analysis are applied to several color forms and species of these lineages to determine that orange-red colors in both lineages are comprised of primarily dopamine-derived pheomelanins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678835/myotis-rufoniger-genome-sequence-and-analyses-m-rufoniger-s-genomic-feature-and-the-decreasing-effective-population-size-of-myotis-bats
#16
Youngjune Bhak, Yeonsu Jeon, Sungwon Jeon, Oksung Chung, Sungwoong Jho, JeHoon Jun, Hak-Min Kim, Yongsoo Cho, Changhan Yoon, Seungwoo Lee, Jung-Hoon Kang, Jong-Deock Lim, Junghwa An, Yun Sung Cho, Doug-Young Ryu, Jong Bhak
Myotis rufoniger is a vesper bat in the genus Myotis. Here we report the whole genome sequence and analyses of the M. rufoniger. We generated 124 Gb of short-read DNA sequences with an estimated genome size of 1.88 Gb at a sequencing depth of 66× fold. The sequences were aligned to M. brandtii bat reference genome at a mapping rate of 96.50% covering 95.71% coding sequence region at 10× coverage. The divergence time of Myotis bat family is estimated to be 11.5 million years, and the divergence time between M...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676950/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-molecular-mechanism-underlying-gray-to-red-body-color-formation-in-red-crucian-carp-carassius-auratus-red-var
#17
Yongqin Zhang, Jinhui Liu, Liangyue Peng, Li Ren, Huiqin Zhang, Lijun Zou, Wenbin Liu, Yamei Xiao
Red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var.) is an ornamental fish with vivid red/orange color. It has been found that the adult body color of this strain forms a gray-to-red change. In this study, skin transcriptomes of red crucian carp are first obtained for three different stages of body color development, named by gray-color (GC), color-variation (CV), and red-color (RC) stages, respectively. From the skins of GC, CV, and RC, 103,229; 108,208; and 120,184 transcripts have been identified, respectively...
October 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608842/talaromyces-marneffei-genomic-transcriptomic-proteomic-and-metabolomic-studies-reveal-mechanisms-for-environmental-adaptations-and-virulence
#18
REVIEW
Susanna K P Lau, Chi-Ching Tsang, Patrick C Y Woo
Talaromycesmarneffei is a thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic infections in patients positive for HIV or other immunocompromised statuses. Analysis of its ~28.9 Mb draft genome and additional transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies revealed mechanisms for environmental adaptations and virulence. Meiotic genes and genes for pheromone receptors, enzymes which process pheromones, and proteins involved in pheromone response pathway are present, indicating its possibility as a heterothallic fungus...
June 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585335/comparison-of-two-skin-imaging-analysis-instruments-the-visia-%C3%A2-from-canfield-vs-the-antera-3d-%C3%A2-cs-from-miravex
#19
F Linming, H Wei, L Anqi, C Yuanyu, X Heng, P Sushmita, L Yiming, L Li
BACKGROUND: The skin imaging analysis instruments are widely used to record and measure the surface and subsurface skin conditions. The main aim of this study is to reveal the differences and correlations in measuring wrinkle, skin texture, coloration/evenness, vascular features, and pore between two commercially available instruments. METHODS: Twenty-eight subjects were enrolled in the study. A 2*2 cm cardboard was used to make sure the two instruments analyze the same area...
February 2018: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560094/eumelanin-and-pheomelanin-are-predominant-pigments-in-bumblebee-apidae-bombus-pubescence
#20
Carlo Polidori, Alberto Jorge, Concepción Ornosa
BACKGROUND: Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus) are well known for their important inter- and intra-specific variation in hair (or pubescence) color patterns, but the chemical nature of the pigments associated with these patterns is not fully understood. For example, though melanization is believed to provide darker colors, it still unknown which types of melanin are responsible for each color, and no conclusive data are available for the lighter colors, including white. METHODS: By using dispersive Raman spectroscopy analysis on 12 species/subspecies of bumblebees from seven subgenera, we tested the hypothesis that eumelanin and pheomelanin, the two main melanin types occurring in animals, are largely responsible for bumblebee pubescence coloration...
2017: PeerJ
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