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Melanocortin activity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438719/chick-subcutaneous-and-abdominal-adipose-tissue-depots-respond-differently-in-lipolytic-and-adipogenic-activity-to-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh
#1
Steven L Shipp, Guoqing Wang, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
In birds, α-MSH is anorexigenic, but effects on adipose tissue are unknown. Four day-old chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 5, 10, or 50μg of α-MSH and subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue collected at 60min for RNA isolation (n=10). Plasma was collected post-euthanasia at 60 and 180min for measuring non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and α-MSH (n=10). Relative to the vehicle, food intake was reduced in the 50μg-treated group. Plasma NEFAs were greater in 10μg than vehicle-treated chicks at 3h...
April 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434791/neuronal-cells-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-functional-tool-of-melanocortin-system
#2
Nobuko Yamada-Goto, Yukari Ochi, Goro Katsuura, Yui Yamashita, Ken Ebihara, Michio Noguchi, Junji Fujikura, Daisuke Taura, Masakatsu Sone, Kiminori Hosoda, Paul E Gottschall, Kazuwa Nakao
BACKGROUND: The preparation of human neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can serve as a potential tool for evaluating the physiological and pathophysiological properties of human neurons and for drug development. METHODS: In the present study, the functional activity in neuronal cells differentiated from human iPS cells was observed. RESULTS: The differentiated cells expressed mRNAs for classical neuronal markers (microtubule-associated protein 2, β-tubulin III, calbindin 1, synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95) and for subunits of various excitatory and inhibitory transmitters (NR1, NR2A, NR2B, GABAA α1)...
April 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426141/melanocortin-2-3-and-4-receptor-gene-expressions-are-downregulated-in-cd8-t-cytotoxic-lymphocytes-and-cd19-b-lymphocytes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-responding-to-tnf%C3%AE-inhibition
#3
Marlene Andersen, Ivan Nagaev, Michael Kruse Meyer, Olga Nagaeva, Jarl Wikberg, Lucia Mincheva-Nilsson, Grethe Neumann Andersen
Melanocortin signaling in leukocyte subsets elicits anti-inflammatory and immune tolerance inducing effects in animal experimental inflammation. In man, however, the effects of melanocortin signaling in inflammatory conditions have scarcely been examined. We explored the differential reactions of melanocortin 1-5 receptor (MC1-5R) gene expressions in pathogenetic leukocyte subsets in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to treatment with TNFα inhibitor adalimumab. Seven patients with active RA donated blood at start and at three months treatment...
April 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424580/the-role-of-microrna-in-the-modulation-of-the-melanocortinergic-system
#4
REVIEW
Adel Derghal, Mehdi Djelloul, Jérôme Trouslard, Lourdes Mounien
The central control of energy balance involves a highly regulated neuronal network within the hypothalamus and the dorsal vagal complex. In these structures, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are known to reduce meal size and to increase energy expenditure. In addition, leptin, a peripheral signal that relays information regarding body fat content, modulates the activity of melanocortin pathway neurons including POMC-, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)/Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, melanocortin receptors (MC3R and MC4R)-expressing neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409883/melanocortin-4-receptor-activation-attenuates-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-skeletal-muscle-of-diabetic-rats
#5
Hao-Hao Zhang, Jiao Liu, Gui-Jun Qin, Xia-Lian Li, Pei-Jie Du, Xiao Hao, Tian-Tian Tian, Jing- Wu, Meng- Yun, Yan-Hui Bai
Backgroud: A previous study has confirmed that the central melanocortin system was able to mediate skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in mice fed a high-fat diet, while activation of the AMPK signaling pathway significantly induced mitochondrial biogenesis. Our hypothesis was that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) was involved in the development of skeletal muscle injury in diabetic rats. METHODS: In this study, we treated diabetic rats intracerebroventricularly with MC4R agonist R027-3225 or antagonist SHU9119, respectively...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404581/maternal-and-postnatal-high-fat-diet-consumption-programs-energy-balance-and-hypothalamic-melanocortin-signaling-in-nonhuman-primate-offspring
#6
Elinor L Sullivan, Heidi M Rivera, Cadence A True, Juliana G Franco, Karalee Baquero, Tyler A Dean, Jeanette C Valleau, Diana L Takahashi, Tim Frazee, Genevieve Hanna, Melissa A Kirigiti, Leigh Ann A Bauman, Kevin L Grove, Paul Kievit
Maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption during pregnancy decreased fetal body weight and impacted development of hypothalamic melanocortin neural circuitry in nonhuman primate offspring. We investigated whether these impairments during gestation persisted in juvenile offspring and examined the interaction between maternal and early postnatal HFD consumption. Adult dams consumed either a control diet (CTR, 15% calories from fat) or a high saturated-fat diet (HFD, 37% calories from fat) during pregnancy. Offspring were weaned onto a CTR or HFD at approximately 8 months of age...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384517/biomarker-response-and-hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal-axis-functioning-in-arctic-charr-from-bj%C3%A3-rn%C3%A3-ya-74%C3%A2-30-%C3%A2-n-norway-with-high-levels-of-organohalogenated-compounds
#7
Even H Jørgensen, Alec G Maule, Anita Evenset, Guttorm Christensen, Jenny Bytningsvik, Marianne Frantzen, Vladimir Nikiforov, Erin Faught, Mathilakath M Vijayan
The populations of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) residing in Lake Ellasjøen at Bjørnøya Island in the Norwegian Arctic (74° 30'N, 19° 00'E) possess substantially higher levels of organohalogenated compounds (strongly dominated by polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs) than conspecifics residing in other, proximate lakes on the island. In the present study we sampled large (<400g), immature charr from Lake Ellasjøen (high PCB levels) and Lake Laksvatn (reference lake, low PCB levels) by hook and line for an immediate blood sampling, and blood and tissue sampling after a 1h confinement stressor...
March 20, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382155/preclinical-melanoma-imaging-with-68-ga-labeled-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-derivatives-using-pet
#8
Chengcheng Zhang, Zhengxing Zhang, Kuo-Shyan Lin, Jinhe Pan, Iulia Dude, Navjit Hundal-Jabal, Nadine Colpo, François Bénard
It is estimated that melanoma accounted for 76,380 new cases and 10,130 deaths in the United States in 2016. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is highly expressed in the vast majority of melanomas, which makes it an attractive target for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy. Lactam bridge-cyclized α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (Ac-Nle(4)-cyclo[Asp(5)-His-D-Phe(7)-Arg-Trp-Lys(10)]-NH2, or Nle-CycMSHhex) analogues have been successfully developed and studied for MC1R-targeted imaging, predominantly with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360832/a-life-without-hunger-the-ups-and-downs-to-modulating-melanocortin-3-receptor-signaling
#9
REVIEW
Andrew A Butler, Clemence Girardet, Maria Mavrikaki, James L Trevaskis, Heather Macarthur, Daniel L Marks, Susan A Farr
Melanocortin neurons conserve body mass in hyper- or hypo-caloric conditions by conveying signals from nutrient sensors into areas of the brain governing appetite and metabolism. In mice, melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) deletion alters nutrient partitioning independently of hyperphagia, promoting accumulation of fat over muscle mass. Enhanced rhythms in insulin and insulin-responsive metabolic genes during hypocaloric feeding suggest partial insulin resistance and enhanced lipogenesis. However, exactly where and how MC3Rs affect metabolic control to alter nutrient partitioning is not known...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355309/the-differential-expression-of-mc1r-regulators-in-dorsal-and-ventral-quail-plumages-during-embryogenesis-implications-for-plumage-pattern-formation
#10
Thanh-Lan Gluckman, Nicholas I Mundy
Melanin pigmentation patterns are ubiquitous in animals and function in crypsis, physical protection, thermoregulation and signalling. In vertebrates, pigmentation patterns formed over large body regions as well as within appendages (hair/feathers) may be due to the differential distribution of pigment producing cells (melanocytes) and/or regulation of the melanin synthesis pathway. We took advantage of the pigmentation patterns of Japanese quail embryos (pale ventrum and patterned feathers dorsally) to explore the role of genes and their transcripts in regulating the function of the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) via 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337140/antioxidant-and-anti-tyrosinase-activities-of-phenolic-extracts-from-rape-bee-pollen-and-inhibitory-melanogenesis-by-camp-mitf-tyr-pathway-in-b16-mouse-melanoma-cells
#11
Liping Sun, Yan Guo, Yanxin Zhang, Yongliang Zhuang
Rape bee pollen possesses many nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its abundant nutrimental and bioactive components. In this study, free (FPE) and bound (BPE) phenolic extracts of rape bee pollen were obtained, phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined, and composition of phenolic acids was analyzed. In vitro antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase (TYR) activities of FPE and BPE were compared, and inhibitory melanogenesis of FPE was further evaluated. Results showed FPE and BPE contain total phenolic contents of 11...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323920/perinatal-exposure-to-low-dose-bisphenol-a-disrupts-the-structural-and-functional-development-of-the-hypothalamic-feeding-circuitry
#12
Harry MacKay, Zachary R Patterson, Alfonso Abizaid
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate and other plastics to which humans are regularly exposed at low levels. BPA is characterized as an endocrine disruptor because of observations of its estrogenic activity in various experimental models. We have previously shown evidence of disrupted hypothalamic feeding circuitry and leptin sensitivity in adult BPA-exposed animals subjected to a high-fat diet, but because these animals were already exhibiting a diet-induced obese phenotype, we could not rule out the possibility that these observations were simply consequences of the obesity, not a preexisting phenotype produced by BPA exposure...
April 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303974/antifibrotic-effect-of-pirfenidone-in-a-mouse-model-of-human-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#13
Chikara Komiya, Miyako Tanaka, Kyoichiro Tsuchiya, Noriko Shimazu, Kentaro Mori, Shunsaku Furuke, Yasutaka Miyachi, Kumiko Shiba, Shinobu Yamaguchi, Kenji Ikeda, Kozue Ochi, Kazuhiko Nakabayashi, Ken-Ichiro Hata, Michiko Itoh, Takayoshi Suganami, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by steatosis with lobular inflammation and hepatocyte injury. Pirfenidone (PFD) is an orally bioavailable pyridone derivative that has been clinically used for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, it remains unknown whether PFD improves liver fibrosis in a mouse model with human NASH-like phenotypes. In this study, we employed melanocortin 4 receptor-deficient (MC4R-KO) mice as a mouse model with human NASH-like phenotypes to elucidate the effect and action mechanisms of PFD on the development of NASH...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299639/age-related-changes-in-central-effects-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-suggest-a-role-for-this-mediator-in-aging-anorexia-and-cachexia
#14
Judit Tenk, Ildikó Rostás, Nóra Füredi, Alexandra Mikó, Margit Solymár, Szilvia Soós, Balázs Gaszner, Diana Feller, Miklós Székely, Erika Pétervári, Márta Balaskó
Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) lays downstream to catabolic melanocortins and at least partly mediates their catabolic effects. Age-related changes in the melanocortin system (weak responsiveness in middle-aged and a strong one in old rats) have been shown to contribute to middle-aged obesity and later to aging anorexia and cachexia of old age groups. We hypothesized that catabolic (anorexigenic and hypermetabolic) CRF effects vary with aging similarly to those of melanocortins. Thus, we aimed to test whether age-related variations of CRF effects may also contribute to middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia leading to weight loss of old age groups...
February 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294152/melanocortin-3-receptors-expressed-in-nkx2-1-ve-neurons-are-sufficient-for-controlling-appetitive-responses-to-hypocaloric-conditioning
#15
Clémence Girardet, Maria M Mavrikaki, Joseph R Stevens, Courtney A Miller, Daniel L Marks, Andrew A Butler
Melanocortin-3 receptors (MC3R) have a contextual role in appetite control that is amplified with hypocaloric conditioning. C57BL/6J (B6) mice subjected to hypocaloric feeding schedules (HFS) exhibit compulsive behavioral responses involving food anticipatory activity (FAA) and caloric loading following food access. These homeostatic responses to calorie-poor environs are attenuated in B6 mice in which Mc3r transcription is suppressed by a lox-stop-lox sequence in the 5'UTR (Mc3r(TB/TB)). Here, we report that optimization of caloric loading in B6 mice subject to HFS, characterized by increased meal size and duration, is not observed in Mc3r(TB/TB) mice...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275132/impact-of-polyunsaturated-and-saturated-fat-overfeeding-on-the-dna-methylation-pattern-in-human-adipose-tissue-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Alexander Perfilyev, Ingrid Dahlman, Linn Gillberg, Fredrik Rosqvist, David Iggman, Petr Volkov, Emma Nilsson, Ulf Risérus, Charlotte Ling
Background: Dietary fat composition can affect ectopic lipid accumulation and, thereby, insulin resistance. Diets that are high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have different metabolic responses.Objective: We investigated whether the epigenome of human adipose tissue is affected differently by dietary fat composition and general overfeeding in a randomized trial.Design: We studied the effects of 7 wk of excessive SFA (n = 17) or PUFA (n = 14) intake (+750 kcal/d) on the DNA methylation of ∼450,000 sites in human subcutaneous adipose tissue...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274841/role-of-the-brain-melanocortins-in-blood-pressure-regulation
#17
Jussara M do Carmo, Alexandre A da Silva, Zhen Wang, Taolin Fang, Nicola Aberdein, Cecilia E Perez de Lara, John E Hall
Melanocortins play an important role in regulating blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity as well as energy balance, glucose and other metabolic functions in humans and experimental animals. In experimental models of hypertension with high SNS activity, blockade of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) reduces BP despite causing marked hyperphagia and obesity. Activation of the central nervous system (CNS) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-MC4R pathway appears to be an important link between obesity, SNS activation and hypertension...
March 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273060/mc4r-dependent-suppression-of-appetite-by-bone-derived-lipocalin-2
#18
Ioanna Mosialou, Steven Shikhel, Jian-Min Liu, Antonio Maurizi, Na Luo, Zhenyan He, Yiru Huang, Haihong Zong, Richard A Friedman, Jonathan Barasch, Patricia Lanzano, Liyong Deng, Rudolph L Leibel, Mishaela Rubin, Thomas Nicholas, Wendy Chung, Lori M Zeltser, Kevin W Williams, Jeffrey E Pessin, Stavroula Kousteni
Bone has recently emerged as a pleiotropic endocrine organ that secretes at least two hormones, FGF23 and osteocalcin, which regulate kidney function and glucose homeostasis, respectively. These findings have raised the question of whether other bone-derived hormones exist and what their potential functions are. Here we identify, through molecular and genetic analyses in mice, lipocalin 2 (LCN2) as an osteoblast-enriched, secreted protein. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments in mice demonstrate that osteoblast-derived LCN2 maintains glucose homeostasis by inducing insulin secretion and improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity...
March 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267582/melanocortin-4-receptor-ligands-modulate-energy-homeostasis-through-urocortin-1-neurons-of-the-centrally-projecting-edinger-westphal-nucleus
#19
Nóra Füredi, Ákos Nagy, Alexandra Mikó, Gergely Berta, Tamás Kozicz, Erika Pétervári, Márta Balaskó, Balázs Gaszner
The role of the urocortin 1 (Ucn1) expressing centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal (EWcp) nucleus in energy homeostasis and stress adaptation response has previously been investigated. Morphological and functional studies have proven that orexigenic and anorexigenic peptidergic afferents and receptors for endocrine messengers involved in the energy homeostasis are found in the EWcp. The central role of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in energy homeostasis is well known, however, no data have been published so far on possible crosstalk between melanocortins and EWcp-Ucn1...
March 3, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259754/mc1r-signaling-intracellular-partners-and-pathophysiological-implications
#20
REVIEW
Cecilia Herraiz, Jose C Garcia-Borron, Celia Jiménez-Cervantes, Conchi Olivares
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) preferentially expressed in melanocytes is best known as a key regulator of the synthesis of epidermal melanin pigments. Its paracrine stimulation by keratinocyte-derived melanocortins also activates DNA repair pathways and antioxidant defenses to build a complex, multifaceted photoprotective response. Many MC1R actions rely on cAMP-dependent activation of two transcription factors, MITF and PGC1α, but pleiotropic MC1R signaling also involves activation of mitogen-activated kinases and AKT...
March 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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