keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Melanocortin activity

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131966/activation-of-the-central-melanocortin-system-in-rats-persistently-reduces-body-and-fat-mass-independently-of-caloric-reduction
#1
Isabelle Côté, Sara M Green, Drake Morgan, Christy Carter, Nihal Tümer, Philip James Scarpace
Recent evidence indicate that Melanotan II (MTII) reduces body mass independently of caloric reduction. Because MTII induces a transient hypophagia, caloric reduction is still considered a primary mechanism for MTII-mediated body mass loss. To examine the contribution of caloric reduction to long-term body mass loss in response to Melanotan II (MTII), we centrally infused MTII or vehicle in ad libitum fed (MTII and Control) animals in comparison to a group of animals that were pair-fed (PF) to the MTII group...
November 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124692/ultraviolet-radiations-skin-defense-damage-mechanism
#2
Dheeraj Mohania, Shikha Chandel, Parveen Kumar, Vivek Verma, Kumar Digvijay, Deepika Tripathi, Khushboo Choudhury, Sandeep Kumar Mitten, Dilip Shah
UV-radiations are the invisible part of light spectra having a wavelength between visible rays and X-rays. Based on wavelength, UV rays are subdivided into UV-A (320-400 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-C (200-280 nm). Ultraviolet rays can have both harmful and beneficial effects. UV-C has the property of ionization thus acting as a strong mutagen, which can cause immune-mediated disease and cancer in adverse cases. Numbers of genetic factors have been identified in human involved in inducing skin cancer from UV-radiations...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113896/neuroinflammation-produced-by-heavy-alcohol-intake-is-due-to-loops-of-interactions-between-toll-like-4-and-tnf-receptors-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-and-the-central-melanocortin-system-a-novel-hypothesis-and-new-therapeutic-avenues
#3
Osvaldo Flores-Bastías, Eduardo Karahanian
Excessive alcohol intake induces an inflammatory response in the brain, via TNFα, TLR4 and NF-κB signaling pathways. It has been proposed that neuroinflammation would play a very important role in the development of alcohol addiction. In addition to stimulating the synthesis of inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, IL-1β and TNFα, NF-κB is capable of reducing the anti-inflammatory activity of PPARα and PPARγ. Reciprocally, PPARα, PPARγ and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) can decrease the proinflammatory activity of NF-κB, establishing an interplay of inactivations between such nuclear factors and receptors...
November 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099963/activity-of-the-hypothalamic-melanocortin-system-decreases-in-middle-aged-and-increases-in-old-rats
#4
Nóra Füredi, Alexandra Mikó, Balázs Gaszner, Diána Feller, Ildikó Rostás, Judit Tenk, Margit Solymár, Márta Balaskó, Erika Pétervári
Appearance of middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia both in humans and rodents suggests a role for regulatory alterations. Hypothalamic melanocortin agonist, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) produced in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) reduces body weight via inducing hypermetabolism and anorexia mainly through melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Orexigenic ARC-derived agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an inverse agonist on MC4R in the PVN. Previously we demonstrated that characteristic age-related shifts in the catabolic effects of alpha-MSH may contribute both to middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia...
November 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097517/neuropeptides-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#5
REVIEW
Agatha A van der Klaauw
BACKGROUND: The global rise in the prevalence of obesity and associated comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer represents a major public health concern. CONTENT: Studies in rodents with the use of global and targeted gene disruption, and mapping of neurocircuitry by using optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) have greatly advanced our understanding of the neural control of body weight...
November 2, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069752/the-caudal-pedunculopontine-tegmental-nucleus-may-be-involved-in-the-regulation-of-skeletal-muscle-activity-by-melanocortin-sympathetic-pathway-a-virally-mediated-trans-synaptic-tracing-study-in-spinally-transected-transgenic-mice
#6
Zhi-Gang He, Bao-Wen Liu, Zhi-Xiao Li, Xue-Bi Tian, San-Guang Liu, Anne Manyande, Ding-Yu Zhang, Hong-Bing Xiang
Understanding neuroanatomical sympathetic circuitry and neuronal connections from the caudal pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus to skeletal muscle is important to the study of possible mechanisms of pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) and cuneiform nucleus (CnF) that are involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle activity of the sympathetic pathway. The aim of this study was to use virus PRV-614 to trace the melanocortin-sympathetic neural pathways from PPTg and CnF to a hindlimb muscle (gastrocnemius) in spinally transected MC4R-GFP transgenic mice...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058194/characterization-of-mc4r-regulation-of-the-kir7-1-channel-using-the-tl-flux-assay
#7
Michael J Litt, Roger D Cone, Masoud Ghamari-Langroudi
The family of inward rectifying potassium channels (Kir channels) plays crucial roles in the regulation of heart rhythms, renal excretion, insulin release, and neuronal activity. Their dysfunction has been attributed to numerous diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, kidney failure and electrolyte imbalance, diabetes mellitus, epilepsy, retinal degeneration, and other neuronal disorders. We have recently demonstrated that the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), a Gαs-coupled GPCR, regulates Kir7.1 activity through a mechanism independent of Gαs and cAMP...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044987/sticky-fingers-at-work-palmitoylation-dependent-mc1r-activation
#8
Jose Carlos Garcia-Borron, Celia Jimenez-Cervantes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031726/reduced-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-contributes-to-elevated-glycosuria-and-improved-glucose-tolerance-in-hypothalamus-specific-pomc-knockout-mice
#9
Kavaljit H Chhabra, Donald A Morgan, Benjamin P Tooke, Jessica M Adams, Kamal Rahmouni, Malcolm J Low
OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus-specific pro-opiomelanocortin deficient (ArcPomc(-/-)) mice exhibit improved glucose tolerance despite massive obesity and insulin resistance. We demonstrated previously that their improved glucose tolerance is due to elevated glycosuria. However, the underlying mechanisms that link glucose reabsorption in the kidney with ArcPomc remain unclear. Given the function of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in controlling sympathetic outflow, we hypothesized that reduced renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in ArcPomc(-/-) mice could explain their elevated glycosuria and consequent enhanced glucose tolerance...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031713/peripheral-cannabinoid-1-receptor-blockade-restores-hypothalamic-leptin-signaling
#10
Joseph Tam, Gergő Szanda, Adi Drori, Ziyi Liu, Resat Cinar, Yoshihiro Kashiwaya, Marc L Reitman, George Kunos
OBJECTIVE: In visceral obesity, an overactive endocannabinoid/CB1 receptor (CB1R) system promotes increased caloric intake and decreases energy expenditure, which are mitigated by global or peripheral CB1R blockade. In mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO), inhibition of food intake by the peripherally restricted CB1R antagonist JD5037 could be attributed to endogenous leptin due to the rapid reversal of hyperleptinemia that maintains leptin resistance, but the signaling pathway engaged by leptin has remained to be determined...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031712/mitochondrial-uncoupling-in-the-melanocortin-system-differentially-regulates-npy-and-pomc-neurons-to-promote-weight-loss
#11
Natalie Jane Michael, Stephanie Elise Simonds, Marco van den Top, Michael Alexander Cowley, David Spanswick
OBJECTIVE: The mitochondrial uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), historically used as a treatment for obesity, is known to cross the blood-brain-barrier, but its effects on central neural circuits controlling body weight are largely unknown. As hypothalamic melanocortin neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein (NPY/AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons represent key central regulators of food intake and energy expenditure we investigated the effects of DNP on these neurons, food intake and energy expenditure...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030576/genetic-induction-of-hypometabolism-by-ablation-of-mc4r-does-not-suppress-als-like-phenotypes-in-the-g93a-mutant-sod1-mouse-model
#12
Shachee Doshi, Preetika Gupta, Robert G Kalb
Dysfunction and death of motor neurons leads to progressive paralysis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent studies have reported organism-level metabolic dysfunction as a prominent but poorly understood feature of the disease. ALS patients are hypermetabolic with increased resting energy expenditure, but if and how hypermetabolism contributes to disease pathology is unknown. We asked if decreasing metabolism in the mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mouse model of ALS (G93A SOD1) would alter motor function and survival...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020973/the-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-pathway-down-regulates-proliferation-in-melanoma-cell-lines
#13
Enrica Flori, Eleonora Rosati, Giorgia Cardinali, Daniela Kovacs, Barbara Bellei, Mauro Picardo, Vittoria Maresca
BACKGROUND: The α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (αMSH)/Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) interaction promotes melanogenesis through the cAMP/PKA pathway. The direct induction of this pathway by Forskolin (FSK) is also known to enhance melanocyte proliferation. αMSH acts as a mitogenic agent in melanocytes and its effect on proliferation of melanoma cells is less known. We previously identified the αMSH/Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPARγ) pathway as a new pathway on the B16-F10 mouse melanoma cell line...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982315/bacterial-protein-mimetic-of-peptide-hormone-as-a-new-class-of-protein-based-drugs
#14
S O Fetissov, Romain Legrand, Nicolas Lucas
Background Specific peptide molecules classified as hormones, neuropeptides and cytokines are involved in intercellular signaling regulating various physiological processes in all organs and tissues. This justifies the peptidergic signaling as an attractive pharmacological target. Recently, a protein mimetic of a peptide hormone has been identified in Escherichia coli suggesting the potential use of specific bacterial proteins as a new type of peptide-like drugs. Objective This paper describes the scientific rational and the technological approach leading to the identification of the E...
October 5, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974783/environmental-perturbation-of-the-circadian-clock-during-pregnancy-leads-to-transgenerational-mood-disorder-like-behaviors-in-mice
#15
Peng Zhang, Guang Li, Hui Li, XiaoQiu Tan, Hai-Ying Mary Cheng
It remains unknown whether chronic circadian disturbance (CCD) during pregnancy can lead to mood disorders in the offspring. Here we show that pregnant mice in the F0 generation that were exposed to CCD stress displayed depression-like behaviors, and produced offspring in the F1 and F2 generations that also exhibited mood-associated behavioral phenotypes despite the lack of direct stressful experiences during their postnatal or adult period. Prenatal CCD stress was correlated with the elevation of plasma corticosterone levels in F1 mice...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972753/click-chemistry-mediated-synthesis-of-selective-melanocortin-receptor-4-agonists
#16
Daniel Palmer, Juliana P L Gonçalves, Louise V Hansen, Boqian Wu, Helle Hald, Sanne Schoffelen, Frederik Diness, Sebastian T Le Quement, Thomas E Nielsen, Morten Meldal
The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) subtype of the melanocortin receptor family is a target for therapeutics to ameliorate metabolic dysfunction. Endogenous MC4R agonists possess a critical pharmacophore (HFRW), and cyclization of peptide agonists often enhances potency. Thus, 17 cyclized peptides were synthesized by solid phase click chemistry to develop novel, potent, selective MC4R agonists. Using cAMP measurements and a transcriptional reporter assay, we observed that several constrained agonists generated by a cycloaddition reaction displayed high selectivity (223- to 467-fold) toward MC4R over MC3R and MC5R receptor subtypes without compromising agonist potency...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968061/comparative-in-vivo-investigation-of-intrathecal-and-intracerebroventricular-administration-with-melanocortin-ligands-mtii-and-agrp-into-mice
#17
Danielle N Adank, Mary M Lunzer, Cody J Lensing, Stacey L Wilber, Amy M Gancarz, Carrie Haskell-Luevano
Central administration of melanocortin ligands has been used as a critical technique to study energy homeostasis. While intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection is the most commonly used method during these investigations, intrathecal (IT) injection can be equally efficacious for the central delivery of ligands. Importantly, intrathecal administration can optimize exploration of melanocortin receptors in the spinal cord. Herein, we investigate comparative IT and ICV administration of two melanocortin ligands, the synthetic MTII (Ac-Nle-c[Asp-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH2) MC4R agonist and agouti-related peptide [AGRP(87-132)] MC4R inverse agonist/antagonist, on the same batch of age-matched mice in TSE metabolic cages undergoing a nocturnal satiated paradigm...
October 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961976/disentangling-puberty-novel-neuroendocrine-pathways-and-mechanisms-for-the-control-of-mammalian-puberty
#18
M S Avendaño, M J Vazquez, M Tena-Sempere
BACKGROUND: Puberty is a complex developmental event, controlled by sophisticated regulatory networks that integrate peripheral and internal cues and impinge at the brain centers driving the reproductive axis. The tempo of puberty is genetically determined but is also sensitive to numerous modifiers, from metabolic and sex steroid signals to environmental factors. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that the onset of puberty is advancing in humans, through as yet unknown mechanisms...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959025/mrap2-regulates-ghrelin-receptor-signaling-and-hunger-sensing
#19
Dollada Srisai, Terry C Yin, Abigail A Lee, Alix A J Rouault, Nicole A Pearson, Justin L Grobe, Julien A Sebag
Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone. It is primarily secreted by the stomach and acts at its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), in the hypothalamus to signal hunger and promote food intake. The melanocortin receptor accessory protein 2 (MRAP2) was previously shown to regulate energy homeostasis through the modulation of the activity of the melanocortin-4 receptor and prokineticin receptors. In this study we identify MRAP2 as a partner of ghrelin-GHSR1a signaling...
September 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939058/regions-of-mrap2-required-for-the-inhibition-of-orexin-and-prokineticin-receptor-signaling
#20
Alix A J Rouault, Abigail A Lee, Julien A Sebag
The Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Protein 2 (MRAP2) regulates the activity of several GPCRs involved in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. While MRAP2 was originally thought to exclusively interact with melanocortin receptors we have recently shown that it interacts with and inhibits the trafficking and signaling of the prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1). In this study we demonstrate a new role of MRAP2 in the regulation of the orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and identify the specific regions of MRAP2 required for the regulation of OX1R and PKR1...
December 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
keyword
keyword
32924
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"