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CA3 physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886171/transduction-of-group-i-mglur-mediated-synaptic-plasticity-by-%C3%AE-arrestin2-signalling
#1
Andrew G Eng, Daniel A Kelver, Tristan P Hedrick, Geoffrey T Swanson
Conventional signalling by the group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR1 and mGluR5, occurs through G-protein coupling, but evidence suggests they might also utilize other, non-canonical effector pathways. Here we test whether group I mGluRs require β-arrestin signalling during specific forms of plasticity at hippocampal excitatory synapses. We find that genetic ablation of β-arrestin2, but not β-arrestin1, results in deficits in plasticity mediated by mGlu1 receptors in CA3 pyramidal neurons and by mGlu5 receptors in CA1 pyramidal neurons...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861538/development-and-validation-of-a-new-mouse-model-to-investigate-the-role-of-sv2a-in-epilepsy
#2
Catherine Menten-Dedoyart, Maria Elisa Serrano Navacerrada, Odile Bartholome, Judit Sánchez Gil, Virginie Neirinckx, Sabine Wislet, Guillaume Becker, Alain Plenevaux, Priscilla Van den Ackerveken, Bernard Rogister
SV2A is a glycoprotein present in the membranes of most synaptic vesicles. Although it has been highly conserved throughout evolution, its physiological role remains largely unknown. Nevertheless, Levetiracetam, a very effective anti-epileptic drug, has been recently demonstrated to bind to SV2A. At present, our understanding of the normal function of SV2A and its possible involvement in diseases like epilepsy is limited. With this study, we sought to develop a relevant model enabling analysis of SV2A's role in the occurrence or progression of epilepsy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830583/dynamin-related-protein-1-drp1-mediating-mitophagy-contributes-to-the-pathophysiology-of-nervous-system-diseases-and-brain-injury
#3
REVIEW
Qiong Wu, Cheng-Liang Luo, Lu-Yang Tao
As the main source of energy (celluar ATP) in eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are involved in cellular physiology and pathology. The balance of mitochondrial dynamic, fission and fusion regulated by quality control mechanisms, provides a guarantee for maintaining mitochondrial function, even celluar function. Worn out mitochondria would be removed through mitophagy which is regulated by autophagy related proteins and mitochondrial membrane proteins. Drp1, dynamic-related protein 1, is regarded as one of the most important proteins to evaluate mitochondrial fission mediating mitophagy in neurodegenerative diseases (eg...
November 10, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790056/two-pore-domain-potassium-channels-in-astrocytes
#4
REVIEW
Kanghyun Ryoo, Jae-Yong Park
Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels have a distinct structure and channel properties, and are involved in a background K(+) current. The 15 members of the K2P channels are identified and classified into six subfamilies on the basis of their sequence similarities. The activity of the channels is dynamically regulated by various physical, chemical, and biological effectors. The channels are expressed in a wide variety of tissues in mammals in an isoform specific manner, and play various roles in many physiological and pathophysiological conditions...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700065/imaging-taurine-in-the-central-nervous-system-using-chemically-specific-x-ray-fluorescence-imaging-at-the-sulfur-k-edge
#5
Mark John Hackett, Phyllis G Paterson, Ingrid J Pickering, Graham N George
A method to image taurine distributions within the central nervous system and other organs has long been sought. Since taurine is small and mobile, it cannot be chemically "tagged" and imaged using conventional immuno-histochemistry methods. Combining numerous indirect measurements, taurine is known to play critical roles in brain function during health and disease, and is proposed to act as a neuro-osmolyte, neuro-modulator and possibly a neuro-transmitter. Elucidation of taurine's neurochemical roles and importance would be substantially enhanced by a direct method to visualize alterations, due to physiological and pathological events in the brain, in the local concentration of taurine at or near cellular spatial resolution in vivo, or in situ in tissue sections...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663971/functional-modulation-of-strychnine-sensitive-glycine-receptors-in-rat-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-1-42
#6
J V Bukanova, I N Sharonova, V G Skrebitsky
Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is considered a key protein in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease because of its neurotoxicity, resulting in impaired synaptic function and memory. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that low (picomolar) concentrations of Aβ enhance synaptic plasticity and memory, suggesting that in the healthy brain, physiological Aβ concentrations are necessary for normal cognitive functions. In the present study, we found that Aβ (1-42) in concentrations of 10 pМ - 100 nМ enhanced desensitization of the glycine-activated current in isolated CA3 pyramidal neurons and also reversibly suppressed its peak amplitude during short (600 ms) co-application with agonist...
September 20, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650887/spatial-coding-and-physiological-properties-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-the-cornu-ammonis-subregions
#7
Azahara Oliva, Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, György Buzsáki, Antal Berényi
It is well-established that the feed-forward connected main hippocampal areas, CA3, CA2, and CA1 work cooperatively during spatial navigation and memory. These areas are similar in terms of the prevalent types of neurons; however, they display different spatial coding and oscillatory dynamics. Understanding the temporal dynamics of these operations requires simultaneous recordings from these regions. However, simultaneous recordings from multiple regions and subregions in behaving animals have become possible only recently...
December 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620136/melatonin-protects-against-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-by-decreasing-extracellular-glutamate-and-nox-derived-ros-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#8
Paloma Patiño, Esther Parada, Victor Farré-Alins, Simone Molz, Ramón Cacabelos, José Marco-Contelles, Manuela G López, Carla I Tasca, Eva Ramos, Alejandro Romero, Javier Egea
Therapeutic interventions on pathological processes involved in the ischemic cascade, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity and/or apoptosis, are of urgent need for stroke treatment. Melatonin regulates a large number of physiological actions and its beneficial properties have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether melatonin mediates neuroprotection in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD) and glutamate excitotoxicity. Thus, we describe here that melatonin significantly reduced the amount of lactate dehydrogenase released in the OGD-treated slices, reverted neuronal injury caused by OGD-reoxygenation in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal regions, restored the reduction of GSH content of the hippocampal slices induced by OGD, and diminished the oxidative stress produced in the reoxygenation period...
September 9, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559140/a-neuronal-lactate-uptake-inhibitor-slows-recovery-of-extracellular-ion-concentration-changes-in-the-hippocampal-ca3-region-by-affecting-energy-metabolism
#9
Eskedar Ayele Angamo, Joerg Rösner, Agustin Liotta, Richard Kovács, Uwe Heinemann
Astrocyte-derived lactate supports pathologically enhanced neuronal metabolism, but its role under physiological conditions is still a matter of debate. Here, we determined the contribution of astrocytic neuronal lactate shuttle for maintenance of ion homeostasis and energy metabolism. We tested for the effects of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4-CIN), which could interfere with energy metabolism by blocking monocarboxylate-transporter 2 (MCT2)-mediated neuronal lactate uptake, on evoked potentials, stimulus-induced changes in K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), and oxygen concentrations as well as on changes in flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) autofluorescence in the hippocampal area CA3...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537546/modestobacter-lacusdianchii-sp-nov-a-phosphate-solubilizing-actinobacterium-with-ability-to-promote-microcystis-growth
#10
Bing-Huo Zhang, Nimaichand Salam, Juan Cheng, Han-Quan Li, Jian-Yuan Yang, Dai-Ming Zha, Yu-Qin Zhang, Meng-Jie Ai, Wael N Hozzein, Wen-Jun Li
A novel actinobacterium, designated strain JXJ CY 19T, was isolated from a culture mat of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 collected from Dianchi Lake, South-west China. 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison of strain JXJ CY 19T and the available sequences in the GenBank database showed that the strain was closely related to Modestobacter marinus 42H12-1T (99.1% similarity) and Modestobacter roseus KLBMP 1279T (99.0%). The isolate had meso-diaminopimelic in the cell wall with whole-cell sugars of mannose, rhamnose, ribose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492675/hallucinatory-experience-as-aberrant-event-memory-formation-implications-for-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia
#11
REVIEW
Ralf-Peter Behrendt
If hallucinations are not fundamentally different from normal wakeful experiences, then the neural basis of hallucinations has to be essentially that of consciousness in general. The additional insight that consciousness reflects the formation (as opposed to consolidation) of event (episodic) memories links the pathophysiology of hallucinations to the hippocampus. Perceptions and misperceptions, insofar as they are consciously experienced, constitute contextualized and unitary phenomena (which are embedded as discrete events in the stream of consciousness); they are experiential manifestations of activity patters that recurrently emerge in the CA3 network of the hippocampus (and that are secondarily consolidated into retrievable and declarable memories)...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317637/behavioral-and-physiological-characterization-of-pkc-dependent-phosphorylation-in-the-grin2a%C3%A2-pkc-mouse
#12
Deebika Balu, John R Larson, Jennifer V Schmidt, David Wirtshafter, Aleksey Yevtodiyenko, John P Leonard
Activity-dependent plasticity in NMDA receptor-containing synapses can be regulated by phosphorylation of serines and tyrosines in the C-terminal domain of the receptor subunits by various kinases. We have previously identified S1291/S1312 as important sites for PKC phosphorylation; while Y1292/Y1312 are the sites indirectly phosphorylated by PKC via Src kinase. In the oocyte expression system, mutation of those Serine sites to Alanine (that cannot be phosphorylated) in the GluN2A subunit, resulted in a decreased PKC stimulated current enhancement through the receptors compared to wild-type NMDA receptors...
September 1, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199162/microglia-derived-purines-modulate-mossy-fibre-synaptic-transmission-and-plasticity-through-p2x4-and-a1-receptors
#13
Jimmy George, Rodrigo A Cunha, Christophe Mulle, Thierry Amédée
Recent data have provided evidence that microglia, the brain-resident macrophage-like cells, modulate neuronal activity in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, and microglia are therefore now recognized as synaptic partners. Among different neuromodulators, purines, which are produced and released by microglia, have emerged as promising candidates to mediate interactions between microglia and synapses. The cellular effects of purines are mediated through a large family of receptors for adenosine and for ATP (P2 receptors)...
May 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27163813/soluble-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-stimulates-glutamate-release-through-activation-of-the-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#14
Kevin N Hascup, Erin R Hascup
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss and hippocampal atrophy. Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ)42 and plaque accumulation is implicated as the neurotoxic species in this disorder; however, at physiological concentrations (pM-nM), Aβ42 contributes to neurogenesis, long-term potentiation, and neuromodulation. Because Aβ42 binds the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) located presynaptically on glutamatergic terminals, involved with hippocampal dependent learning and memory, we examined the effects of the human, monomeric isoform of Aβ42 on glutamate release in the dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1, of isoflurane anesthetized, 6-9 month old male C57BL/6J mice...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27146266/mnemonic-functions-for-nonlinear-dendritic-integration-in-hippocampal-pyramidal-circuits
#15
Patrick Kaifosh, Attila Losonczy
We present a model for neural circuit mechanisms underlying hippocampal memory. Central to this model are nonlinear interactions between anatomically and functionally segregated inputs onto dendrites of pyramidal cells in hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1. We study the consequences of such interactions using model neurons in which somatic burst-firing and synaptic plasticity are controlled by conjunctive processing of these separately integrated input pathways. We find that nonlinear dendritic input processing enhances the model's capacity to store and retrieve large numbers of similar memories...
May 4, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27059697/redox-indicator-mice-stably-expressing-genetically-encoded-neuronal-rogfp-versatile-tools-to-decipher-subcellular-redox-dynamics-in-neuropathophysiology
#16
Kerstin C Wagener, Benedikt Kolbrink, Katharina Dietrich, Kathrin M Kizina, Lukas S Terwitte, Belinda Kempkes, Guobin Bao, Michael Müller
AIMS: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and downstream redox alterations not only mediate physiological signaling but also neuropathology. For long, ROS/redox imaging was hampered by a lack of reliable probes. Genetically encoded redox sensors overcame this gap and revolutionized (sub)cellular redox imaging. Yet, the successful delivery of sensor-coding DNA, which demands transfection/transduction of cultured preparations or stereotaxic microinjections of each subject, remains challenging...
July 1, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038232/properties-and-dynamics-of-inhibitory-synaptic-communication-within-the-ca3-microcircuits-of-pyramidal-cells-and-interneurons-expressing-parvalbumin-or-cholecystokinin
#17
Z Kohus, S Káli, L Rovira-Esteban, D Schlingloff, O Papp, T F Freund, N Hájos, A I Gulyás
KEY POINTS: To understand how a network operates, its elements must be identified and characterized, and the interactions of the elements need to be studied in detail. In the present study, we describe quantitatively the connectivity of two classes of inhibitory neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area (parvalbumin-positive and cholecystokinin-positive interneurons), a key region for the generation of behaviourally relevant synchronous activity patterns. We describe how interactions among these inhibitory cells and their local excitatory target neurons evolve over the course of physiological and pathological activity patterns...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27002731/developmental-age-differentially-mediates-the-calcium-binding-protein-parvalbumin-in-the-rat-evidence-for-a-selective-decrease-in-hippocampal-parvalbumin-cell-counts
#18
Jennifer A Honeycutt, Kevin M Keary Iii, Vanessa M Kania, James J Chrobak
Local circuit GABAergic neurons, including parvalbumin (PV)-containing basket cells, likely play a key role in the development, physiology, and pathology of neocortical circuits. Regionally selective and well-defined decreases in PV have been described in human postmortem schizophrenic brain tissue in both the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Animal models of schizophreniform dysfunction following acute and/or chronic ketamine treatment have also demonstrated decreases in PV expression. Conflicting reports with respect to PV immunoreactivity following acute and chronic ketamine treatments in rodents question the utility of using PV as a biological marker of pathology-related dysfunction...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973458/enrichment-of-gabaa-receptor-%C3%AE-subunits-on-the-axonal-initial-segment-shows-regional-differences
#19
Yudong Gao, Scott A Heldt
Although it is generally recognized that certain α-subunits of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) form enriched clusters on the axonal initial segment (AIS), the degree to which these clusters vary in different brain areas is not well known. In the current study, we quantified the density, size, and enrichment ratio of fluorescently labeled α1-, α2-, or α3-subunits aggregates co-localized with the AIS-marker ankyrin G and compared them to aggregates in non-AIS locations among different brain areas including hippocampal subfields, basal lateral amygdala (BLA), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and sensory cortex (CTX)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26915108/trimethyltin-modulates-reelin-expression-and-endogenous-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampus-of-developing-rats
#20
Amelia Toesca, Maria Concetta Geloso, Adriana Maria Mongiovì, Alfredo Furno, Arcangelo Schiattarella, Fabrizio Michetti, Valentina Corvino
Reelin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein involved in the modulation of synaptic plasticity and essential for the proper radial migration of cortical neurons during development and for the integration and positioning of dentate granular cell progenitors; its expression is down-regulated as brain maturation is completed. Trimethyltin (TMT) is a potent neurotoxicant which causes selective neuronal death mainly localised in the CA1-CA3/hilus hippocampal regions. In the present study we analysed the expression of reelin and the modulation of endogenous neurogenesis in the postnatal rat hippocampus during TMT-induced neurodegeneration (TMT 6 mg/kg)...
July 2016: Neurochemical Research
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