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CA3 physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453207/hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-and-inhibition-first-network-models-frequency-dynamics-and-response-to-gaba-modulators
#1
José R Donoso, Dietmar Schmitz, Nikolaus Maier, Richard Kempter
Hippocampal ripples are involved in memory consolidation, but the mechanisms underlying their generation remain unclear. Models relying on interneuron networks in the CA1 region disagree on the predominant source of excitation to interneurons: either 'direct', via the Schaffer collaterals that provide feedforward input from CA3 to CA1, or 'indirect', via the local pyramidal cells in CA1, which are embedded in a recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network. Here, we used physiologically constrained computational models of basket-cell networks to investigate how they respond to different conditions of transient, noisy excitation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387909/hippocampal-area-ca2-an-emerging-modulatory-gateway-in-the-hippocampal-circuit
#2
REVIEW
Amrita Benoy, Ananya Dasgupta, Sreedharan Sajikumar
The hippocampus is a critical brain region for the formation of declarative memories. While social memory had long been attributed to be a function of the hippocampus, it is only of late that the area CA2 of the hippocampus was demarcated as essential for social memory formation. In addition to this distinct role, CA2 possesses unique molecular, structural and physiological characteristics compared to the other CA regions-CA1 and CA3, and the dentate gyrus (DG). CA2 pyramidal neurons are positioned at a location between CA1 and CA3, receiving inputs from CA3 and DG, in addition to forming a powerful disynaptic circuit with direct input from the entorhinal cortical layer II neurons...
January 31, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387780/opposing-and-complementary-topographic-connectivity-gradients-revealed-by-quantitative-analysis-of-canonical-and-noncanonical-hippocampal-ca1-inputs
#3
Yanjun Sun, Douglas A Nitz, Todd C Holmes, Xiangmin Xu
Physiological studies suggest spatial representation gradients along the CA1 proximodistal axis. To determine the underlying anatomical basis, we quantitatively mapped canonical and noncanonical inputs to excitatory neurons in dorsal hippocampal CA1 along the proximal-distal axis in mice of both sexes using monosynaptic rabies tracing. Our quantitative analyses show comparable strength of subiculum complex and entorhinal cortex (EC) inputs to CA1, significant inputs from presubiculum and parasubiculum to CA1, and a threefold stronger input to proximal versus distal CA1 from CA3...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338620/diminished-dentate-gyrus-filtering-of-cortical-input-leads-to-enhanced-area-ca3-excitability-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Kaitlin Folweiler, Sandy Samuel, Hannah Metheny, Akiva S Cohen
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disrupts hippocampal function and can lead to long-lasting episodic memory impairments. The encoding of episodic memories relies on spatial information processing within the hippocampus. As the primary entry point for spatial information into hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is thought to function as a physiological gate, or filter, of afferent excitation before reaching downstream area CA3. While injury has previously been shown to alter dentate gyrus network excitability, it is unknown whether mTBI affects dentate gyrus output to area CA3...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279308/conditional-deletion-of-hippocampal-ca2-ca3a-oxytocin-receptors-impairs-the-persistence-of-long-term-social-recognition-memory-in-mice
#5
Yu-Ting Lin, Tsan-Yu Hsieh, Tsung-Chih Tsai, Chien-Chung Chen, Chiung-Chun Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Oxytocin (OXT) receptors (OXTRs) are prominently expressed in hippocampal CA2 and CA3 pyramidal neurons, but little is known about its physiological function. As the functional necessity of hippocampal CA2 for social memory processing, we tested whether CA2 OXTRs may contribute to long-term social recognition memory (SRM) formation. Here, we found that conditional deletion of Oxtr from forebrain (Oxtr-/-) or CA2/CA3a-restricted excitatory neurons in adult male mice impaired the persistence of long-term SRM but had no effect on sociability and preference for social novelty...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273965/effects-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-activation-on-cell-survival-in-rat-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#6
Denise F Happ, R Andrew Tasker
Glutamatergic signaling via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) is important for physiological functioning, but can also induce cell death via excitotoxic mechanisms in many neuropathological diseases, such as stroke. Altering the cellular response to excitotoxic insults by modulating the downstream effects of NMDAR activation represents a promising therapeutic approach. For example, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) signaling has been shown to be able to change NMDA-induced neurotoxicity in some models...
December 22, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222469/hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-are-necessary-for-discrimination-of-social-stimuli
#7
Tara Raam, Kathleen M McAvoy, Antoine Besnard, Alexa Veenema, Amar Sahay
Oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) signaling in neural circuits mediating discrimination of social stimuli and affiliation or avoidance behavior is thought to guide social recognition. Remarkably, the physiological functions of Oxtrs in the hippocampus are not known. Here we demonstrate using genetic and pharmacological approaches that Oxtrs in the anterior dentate gyrus (aDG) and anterior CA2/CA3 (aCA2/CA3) of mice are necessary for discrimination of social, but not non-social, stimuli. Further, Oxtrs in aCA2/CA3 neurons recruit a population-based coding mechanism to mediate social stimuli discrimination...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218000/synapse-specific-regulation-revealed-at-single-synapses-is-concealed-when-recording-multiple-synapses
#8
Justin Lines, Ana Covelo, Ricardo Gómez, Lan Liu, Alfonso Araque
Synaptic transmission and its activity-dependent modulation, known as synaptic plasticity, are fundamental processes in nervous system function. Neurons may receive thousands of synaptic contacts, but synaptic regulation may occur only at individual or discrete subsets of synapses, which may have important consequences on the spatial extension of the modulation of synaptic information. Moreover, while several electrophysiological methods are used to assess synaptic transmission at different levels of observation, i...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201002/a-comparison-of-different-slicing-planes-in-preservation-of-major-hippocampal-pathway-fibers-in-the-mouse
#9
Guoxiang Xiong, Hannah Metheny, Brian N Johnson, Akiva S Cohen
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory and higher cognitive functions, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various neuropathological disorders. Electrophysiological recording undertaken in live brain slices is one of the most powerful tools for investigating hippocampal cellular and network activities. The plane for cutting the slices determines which afferent and/or efferent connections are best preserved, and there are three commonly used slices: hippocampal-entorhinal cortex (HEC), coronal and transverse...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183826/developmental-ethanol-induced-sleep-fragmentation-behavioral-hyperactivity-cognitive-impairment-and-parvalbumin-cell-loss-are-prevented-by-lithium-co-treatment
#10
M Lewin, M Ilina, J Betz, K Masiello, M Hui, D A Wilson, M Saito
Developmental ethanol exposure is a well-known cause of lifelong cognitive deficits, behavioral hyperactivity, emotional dysregulation, and more. In healthy adults, sleep is thought to have a critical involvement in each of these processes. Our previous work has demonstrated that some aspects of cognitive impairment in adult mice exposed at postnatal day 7 (P7) to ethanol (EtOH) correlate with slow-wave sleep (SWS) fragmentation (Wilson et al., 2016). We and others have also previously demonstrated that co-treatment with LiCl on the day of EtOH exposure prevents many of the anatomical and physiological impairments observed in adults...
November 26, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180954/disrupted-co-activation-of-interneurons-and-hippocampal-network-after-focal-kainate-lesion
#11
Lim-Anna Sieu, Emmanuel Eugène, Agnès Bonnot, Ivan Cohen
GABAergic interneurons are known to control activity balance in physiological conditions and to coordinate hippocampal networks during cognitive tasks. In temporal lobe epilepsy interneuron loss and consecutive network imbalance could favor pathological hypersynchronous epileptic discharges. We tested this hypothesis in mice by in vivo unilateral epileptogenic hippocampal kainate lesion followed by in vitro recording of extracellular potentials and patch-clamp from GFP-expressing interneurons in CA3, in an optimized recording chamber...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149630/age-related-vulnerability-of-pattern-separation-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#12
Aurélia Cès, Thibaut Burg, Karine Herbeaux, Céline Héraud, Jean-Bastien Bott, Ayikoe Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Chantal Mathis
Aging is associated with impaired performance in behavioral pattern separation (PS) tasks based on similarities in object features and in object location. These deficits have been attributed to functional alterations in the dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 region. Animal studies suggested a role of adult-born DG neurons in PS performance. The present study investigated the effect of aging in C57BL/6J mice performing PS tasks based on either object features or object location. At the age of 18 months or more, performance was severely impaired in both tasks...
October 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099662/local-oxygen-homeostasis-during-various-neuronal-network-activity-states-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#13
Justus Schneider, Nikolaus Berndt, Ismini E Papageorgiou, Jana Maurer, Sascha Bulik, Martin Both, Andreas Draguhn, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Oliver Kann
Cortical information processing comprises various activity states emerging from timed synaptic excitation and inhibition. However, the underlying energy metabolism is widely unknown. We determined the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) along a tissue depth of <0.3 mm in the hippocampal CA3 region during various network activities, including gamma oscillations and sharp wave-ripples that occur during wakefulness and sleep. These physiological states associate with sensory perception and memory formation, and critically depend on perisomatic GABA inhibition...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080022/learning-as-a-functional-state-of-the-brain-studies-in-wild-type-and-transgenic-animals
#14
José M Delgado-García, Agnès Gruart
Contemporary neuroscientists are paying increasing attention to subcellular, molecular, and electrophysiological mechanisms underlying learning and memory processes. Recent studies have examined the development of transgenic mice affected at different stages of the learning process, or have emulated in animals various human pathological conditions involving cognition and motor learning. However, a parallel effort is needed to develop stimulating and recording techniques suitable for use in behaving mice in order to understand activity-dependent synaptic changes taking place during the very moment of the learning process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031603/xanthurenic-acid-formation-from-3-hydroxykynurenine-in-the-mammalian-brain-neurochemical-characterization-and-physiological-effects
#15
K V Sathyasaikumar, M Tararina, H-Q Wu, S A Neale, F Weisz, T E Salt, R Schwarcz
Xanthurenic acid (XA), formed from 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, may modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission by inhibiting the vesicular glutamate transporter and/or activating Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. Here we examined the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which 3-HK controls the neosynthesis of XA in rat, mouse and human brain, and compared the physiological actions of 3-HK and XA in the rat brain. In tissue homogenates, XA formation from 3-HK was observed in all three species and traced to a major role of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II)...
October 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856535/glua4-dependent-plasticity-mechanisms-contribute-to-developmental-synchronization-of-the-ca3-ca1-circuitry-in-the-hippocampus
#16
Tsvetomira Atanasova, Zoya Kharybina, Tiina Kaarela, Johanna Huupponen, Natalia V Luchkina, Tomi Taira, Sari E Lauri
During the course of development, molecular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synaptic plasticity change considerably. At immature CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, PKA-driven synaptic insertion of GluA4 AMPA receptors is the predominant mechanism for synaptic strengthening. However, the physiological significance of the developmentally restricted GluA4-dependent plasticity mechanisms is poorly understood. Here we have used microelectrode array (MEA) recordings in GluA4 deficient slice cultures to study the role of GluA4 in early development of the hippocampal circuit function...
August 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744923/the-role-of-t-type-calcium-channels-in-the-subiculum-to-burst-or-not-to-burst
#17
Srdjan M Joksimovic, Pierce Eggan, Yukitoshi Izumi, Sonja Lj Joksimovic, Vesna Tesic, Robert M Dietz, James E Orfila, Michael R DiGruccio, Paco S Herson, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Charles F Zorumski, Slobodan M Todorovic
KEY POINTS: Pharmacological, molecular and genetic data indicate a prominent role of low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels (T-channels) in the firing activity of both pyramidal and inhibitory interneurons in the subiculum. Pharmacological inhibition of T-channels switched burst firing with lower depolarizing stimuli to regular spiking, and fully abolished hyperpolarization-induced burst firing. Our molecular studies showed that CaV 3.1 is the most abundantly expressed isoform of T-channels in the rat subiculum...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680963/neto1-guides-development-of-glutamatergic-connectivity-in-the-hippocampus-by-regulating-axonal-kainate-receptors
#18
Ester Orav, Tsvetomira Atanasova, Alexandra Shintyapina, Sebnem Kesaf, Michela Kokko, Juha Partanen, Tomi Taira, Sari E Lauri
Kainate-type glutamate receptors (KARs) are highly expressed in the developing brain, where they are tonically activated to modulate synaptic transmission, network excitability and synaptogenesis. NETO proteins are auxiliary subunits that regulate biophysical properties of KARs; however, their functions in the immature brain are not known. Here, we show that NETO1 guides the development of the rodent hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuitry via regulating axonal KARs. NETO deficiency reduced axonal targeting of most KAR subunits in hippocampal neurons in a subtype independent manner...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663197/subcellular-distribution-of-hdac1-in-neurotoxic-conditions-is-dependent-on-serine-phosphorylation
#19
Yunjiao Zhu, Oscar G Vidaurre, Kadidia P Adula, Nebojsa Kezunovic, Maureen Wentling, George W Huntley, Patrizia Casaccia
Calcium-dependent nuclear export of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) was shown previously to precede axonal damage in culture, but the in vivo relevance of these findings and the potential posttranslational modifications of HDAC1 remained elusive. Using acute hippocampal slices from mice of either sex with genetic conditional ablation of Hdac1 in CA1 hippocampal neurons (i.e., Camk2a-cre;Hdac1(fl/fl)), we show significantly diminished axonal damage in response to neurotoxic stimuli. The protective effect of Hdac1 ablation was detected also in CA3 neurons in Grik4-cre;Hdac1(fl/f) mice, which were more resistant to the excitotoxic damage induced by intraventricular injection of kainic acid...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629384/involvement-of-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-and-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-in-antidepressant-like-effects-of-xiao-yao-san-on-chronically-stressed-mice
#20
Xiu-Fang Ding, Yue-Hua Li, Jia-Xu Chen, Long-Ji Sun, Hai-Yan Jiao, Xin-Xin Wang, Yan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Xiao Yao San (XYS) is an herbal prescription which is used in the treatment of depression for thousands of years from Song dynasty in China (960-1127 A.D.), and is the bestselling and most popular herb formula for treating major depression. This study aimed to assess the chronic antidepressant effects of XYS and fluoxetine in depressed mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and its association with  alterations in glutamate/glutamine cycle and glutamate transporters...
June 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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