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CA3 physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915194/a-novel-pyramidal-cell-type-promotes-sharp-wave-synchronization-in-the-hippocampus
#1
David L Hunt, Daniele Linaro, Bailu Si, Sandro Romani, Nelson Spruston
To support cognitive function, the CA3 region of the hippocampus performs computations involving attractor dynamics. Understanding how cellular and ensemble activities of CA3 neurons enable computation is critical for elucidating the neural correlates of cognition. Here we show that CA3 comprises not only classically described pyramid cells with thorny excrescences, but also includes previously unidentified 'athorny' pyramid cells that lack mossy-fiber input. Moreover, the two neuron types have distinct morphological and physiological phenotypes and are differentially modulated by acetylcholine...
June 18, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779943/astroglial-cb-1-receptors-determine-synaptic-d-serine-availability-to-enable-recognition-memory
#2
Laurie M Robin, José F Oliveira da Cruz, Valentin C Langlais, Mario Martin-Fernandez, Mathilde Metna-Laurent, Arnau Busquets-Garcia, Luigi Bellocchio, Edgar Soria-Gomez, Thomas Papouin, Marjorie Varilh, Mark W Sherwood, Ilaria Belluomo, Georgina Balcells, Isabelle Matias, Barbara Bosier, Filippo Drago, Ann Van Eeckhaut, Ilse Smolders, Francois Georges, Alfonso Araque, Aude Panatier, Stéphane H R Oliet, Giovanni Marsicano
Bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes shapes synaptic plasticity and behavior. D-serine is a necessary co-agonist of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), but the physiological factors regulating its impact on memory processes are scantly known. We show that astroglial CB1 receptors are key determinants of object recognition memory by determining the availability of D-serine at hippocampal synapses. Mutant mice lacking CB1 receptors from astroglial cells (GFAP-CB1 -KO) displayed impaired object recognition memory and decreased in vivo and in vitro long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses...
May 15, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751055/temporal-and-spatial-changes-in-glial-cells-during-chronic-hypobaric-hypoxia-role-in-neurodegeneration
#3
A Dheer, V Jain, N Kushwah, R Kumar, D Prasad, S B Singh
Ascend to high altitude results in a drastic change in the environmental conditions an individual is exposed to. As the altitude increases there is a decrease in partial pressure of oxygen leading to a unique condition known as hypobaric hypoxia (HH). Brain is highly vulnerable to hypoxia and it has been well established that hypobaric hypoxia leads to neurodegeneration in different brain regions. However, the response of glial cells during hypobaric hypoxia needs to be explored yet. The present study was aimed to understand the role of glial cells viz...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747396/beta-estradiol-regulates-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-and-estrogen-receptors-in-telocytes-from-human-myometrium
#4
Adela Banciu, Daniel Dumitru Banciu, Cosmin Catalin Mustaciosu, Mihai Radu, Dragos Cretoiu, Junjie Xiao, Sanda Maria Cretoiu, Nicolae Suciu, Beatrice Mihaela Radu
Voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors are essential players in uterine physiology, and their association with different calcium signaling pathways contributes to healthy and pathological conditions of the uterine myometrium. Among the properties of the various cell subtypes present in human uterine myometrium, there is increasing evidence that calcium oscillations in telocytes (TCs) contribute to contractile activity and pregnancy. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of beta-estradiol on voltage-gated calcium channels and estrogen receptors in TCs from human uterine myometrium and to understand their role in pregnancy...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739983/acute-physiology-and-neurologic-outcomes-after-brain-injury-in-scop-phlpp1-ko-mice
#5
Travis C Jackson, C Edward Dixon, Keri Janesko-Feldman, Vincent Vagni, Shawn E Kotermanski, Edwin K Jackson, Patrick M Kochanek
Suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian oscillatory protein (SCOP) (a.k.a. PHLPP1) regulates long-term memory consolidation in the brain. Using a mouse model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) we tested if (1) brain tissue levels of SCOP/PHLPP1 increase after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), and (2) if SCOP/PHLPP1 gene knockout (KO) mice have improved (or worse) neurologic outcomes. Blood chemistry (pH, pCO2 , pO2 , pSO2 , base excess, sodium bicarbonate, and osmolarity) and arterial pressure (MAP) differed in isoflurane anesthetized WT vs...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722538/phosphorus-stress-induced-changes-in-plant-root-exudation-could-potentially-facilitate-uranium-mobilization-from-stable-mineral-forms
#6
Nimisha Edayilam, Dawn A Montgomery, Brennan O Ferguson, Amith Sadananda Maroli, Nicole Martinez, Brian A Powell, Nishanth Tharayil
Apparent deficiency of soil mineral nutrients often triggers specific physio-morphological changes in plants, and some of these changes could also inadvertently increase the ability of plants to mobilize radionuclides from stable mineral forms. This work, through a series of sand-culture, hydroponics and batch-equilibration experiments, investigated the differential ability of root exudates of Andropogon virginicus grown under conditions with variable phosphorus (P) availability (KH2 PO4 , FePO4 , Ca3 (PO4 )2 , and no P) to solubilize uranium (U) from the uranyl phosphate mineral Chernikovite...
May 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626848/hippocampal-and-amygdalar-cell-specific-translation-is-similar-soon-after-stress-but-diverge-over-time
#7
Jesvin S Madan, Kanika Gupta, Sumantra Chattarji, Aditi Bhattacharya
Stress is known to cause contrasting patterns of morphological and physiological plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala. An obligatory cellular process underlying such neural changes is de novo translation and alterations in protein expression. Yet the nature of the translational response to stress in neurons remains largely unexplored. Even less is known about how glia are affected. Using a click-chemistry-based method to label the de novo proteome in live brain slices, we monitored translation in neurons and astrocytes of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampal area CA3 (dCA3) in rats at different time-points after a single 2-hour exposure to immobilization stress...
April 7, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593127/sulfamethoxazole-induces-zinc-changes-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-from-pregnant-rats
#8
Vanessa N Corceiro, Fatima C Bastos, Carlos M Matias, Jose C Dionísio, Rosa M Santos, Luis M Rosario, Rosa M Quinta-Ferreira, M Emilia C Quinta-Ferreira
The accumulation of intracellular ionic zinc and pharmaceutical compounds, like the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole, may contribute to various neuropathologies. Sulfamethoxazole and the drug trimethoprim, are inhibitors of enzymes involved in the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate and also of carbonic anhydrases. The inhibition of the latter enzymes, which are localized both intra- and extracellularly and have a key role in pH regulation, causes alkalinization that is associated with higher spontaneous transmitter release...
March 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574717/dynamic-sap102-expression-in-the-hippocampal-subregions-of-rats-and-app-ps1-mice-of-various-ages
#9
Dongning Su, Hui Liu, Tianrong Liu, Xin Zhang, Wei Yang, Yizhi Song, Jinping Liu, Yan Wu, Lirong Chang
The hippocampus is a structurally and functionally complex brain area that plays important and diverse roles in higher brain functions, such as learning and memory, and mounting evidence indicates that different hippocampal subregions play distinctive roles. The hippocampus is also one of the first regions in the brain to suffer damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Synaptic dysfunction in the hippocampus, rather than neuronal loss per se, is paralleled by behavioural and functional deficits in AD. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins, including SAP102, PSD-95, PSD-93 and SAP97, have long been recognized as essential components of the postsynaptic density (PSD) at excitatory synapses...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507146/%C3%AE-secretase-bace1-promotes-surface-expression-and-function-of-kv3-4-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses
#10
Stephanie Hartmann, Fang Zheng, Michele C Kyncl, Sandra Karch, Kerstin Voelkl, Benedikt Zott, Carla D'Avanzo, Selene Lomoio, Giuseppina Tesco, Doo Y Kim, Christian Alzheimer, Tobias Huth
The β-secretase β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is deemed a major culprit in Alzheimer's disease, but accumulating evidence indicates that there is more to the enzyme than driving the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein. For example, BACE1 has emerged as an important regulator of neuronal activity through proteolytic and, most unexpectedly, also through nonproteolytic interactions with several ion channels. Here, we identify and characterize the voltage-gated K+ channel 3.4 (Kv3...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471781/solid-lipid-curcumin-particles-provide-greater-anti-amyloid-anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-than-curcumin-in-the-5xfad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Panchanan Maiti, Leela Paladugu, Gary L Dunbar
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation and the presence of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles are key pathologies in Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a potent anti-amyloid and anti-inflammatory natural polyphenol, curcumin (Cur) could be potential therapies for AD. Unfortunately, poor solubility, instability in physiological fluids, and low bioavailability limit its clinical utility. Recently, different lipid modifications in the formulae of Cur have been developed that would enhance its therapeutic potential...
February 23, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453207/hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-and-inhibition-first-network-models-frequency-dynamics-and-response-to-gaba-modulators
#12
José R Donoso, Dietmar Schmitz, Nikolaus Maier, Richard Kempter
Hippocampal ripples are involved in memory consolidation, but the mechanisms underlying their generation remain unclear. Models relying on interneuron networks in the CA1 region disagree on the predominant source of excitation to interneurons: either "direct," via the Schaffer collaterals that provide feedforward input from CA3 to CA1, or "indirect," via the local pyramidal cells in CA1, which are embedded in a recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network. Here, we used physiologically constrained computational models of basket-cell networks to investigate how they respond to different conditions of transient, noisy excitation...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387909/hippocampal-area-ca2-an-emerging-modulatory-gateway-in-the-hippocampal-circuit
#13
REVIEW
Amrita Benoy, Ananya Dasgupta, Sreedharan Sajikumar
The hippocampus is a critical brain region for the formation of declarative memories. While social memory had long been attributed to be a function of the hippocampus, it is only of late that the area CA2 of the hippocampus was demarcated as essential for social memory formation. In addition to this distinct role, CA2 possesses unique molecular, structural and physiological characteristics compared to the other CA regions-CA1 and CA3, and the dentate gyrus (DG). CA2 pyramidal neurons are positioned at a location between CA1 and CA3, receiving inputs from CA3 and DG, in addition to forming a powerful disynaptic circuit with direct input from the entorhinal cortical layer II neurons...
April 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387780/opposing-and-complementary-topographic-connectivity-gradients-revealed-by-quantitative-analysis-of-canonical-and-noncanonical-hippocampal-ca1-inputs
#14
Yanjun Sun, Douglas A Nitz, Todd C Holmes, Xiangmin Xu
Physiological studies suggest spatial representation gradients along the CA1 proximodistal axis. To determine the underlying anatomical basis, we quantitatively mapped canonical and noncanonical inputs to excitatory neurons in dorsal hippocampal CA1 along the proximal-distal axis in mice of both sexes using monosynaptic rabies tracing. Our quantitative analyses show comparable strength of subiculum complex and entorhinal cortex (EC) inputs to CA1, significant inputs from presubiculum and parasubiculum to CA1, and a threefold stronger input to proximal versus distal CA1 from CA3...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338620/diminished-dentate-gyrus-filtering-of-cortical-input-leads-to-enhanced-area-ca3-excitability-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Kaitlin A Folweiler, Sandy Samuel, Hannah E Metheny, Akiva S Cohen
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disrupts hippocampal function and can lead to long-lasting episodic memory impairments. The encoding of episodic memories relies on spatial information processing within the hippocampus. As the primary entry point for spatial information into the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is thought to function as a physiological gate, or filter, of afferent excitation before reaching downstream area Cornu Ammonis (CA3). Although injury has previously been shown to alter dentate gyrus network excitability, it is unknown whether mTBI affects dentate gyrus output to area CA3...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279308/conditional-deletion-of-hippocampal-ca2-ca3a-oxytocin-receptors-impairs-the-persistence-of-long-term-social-recognition-memory-in-mice
#16
Yu-Ting Lin, Tsan-Yu Hsieh, Tsung-Chih Tsai, Chien-Chung Chen, Chiung-Chun Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Oxytocin (OXT) receptors (OXTRs) are prominently expressed in hippocampal CA2 and CA3 pyramidal neurons, but little is known about its physiological function. As the functional necessity of hippocampal CA2 for social memory processing, we tested whether CA2 OXTRs may contribute to long-term social recognition memory (SRM) formation. Here, we found that conditional deletion of Oxtr from forebrain ( Oxtr -/- ) or CA2/CA3a-restricted excitatory neurons in adult male mice impaired the persistence of long-term SRM but had no effect on sociability and preference for social novelty...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273965/effects-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-activation-on-cell-survival-in-rat-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#17
Denise F Happ, R Andrew Tasker
Glutamatergic signaling via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) is important for physiological functioning, but can also induce cell death via excitotoxic mechanisms in many neuropathological diseases, such as stroke. Altering the cellular response to excitotoxic insults by modulating the downstream effects of NMDAR activation represents a promising therapeutic approach. For example, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) signaling has been shown to be able to change NMDA-induced neurotoxicity in some models...
May 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222469/hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-are-necessary-for-discrimination-of-social-stimuli
#18
Tara Raam, Kathleen M McAvoy, Antoine Besnard, Alexa H Veenema, Amar Sahay
Oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) signaling in neural circuits mediating discrimination of social stimuli and affiliation or avoidance behavior is thought to guide social recognition. Remarkably, the physiological functions of Oxtrs in the hippocampus are not known. Here we demonstrate using genetic and pharmacological approaches that Oxtrs in the anterior dentate gyrus (aDG) and anterior CA2/CA3 (aCA2/CA3) of mice are necessary for discrimination of social, but not non-social, stimuli. Further, Oxtrs in aCA2/CA3 neurons recruit a population-based coding mechanism to mediate social stimuli discrimination...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218000/synapse-specific-regulation-revealed-at-single-synapses-is-concealed-when-recording-multiple-synapses
#19
Justin Lines, Ana Covelo, Ricardo Gómez, Lan Liu, Alfonso Araque
Synaptic transmission and its activity-dependent modulation, known as synaptic plasticity, are fundamental processes in nervous system function. Neurons may receive thousands of synaptic contacts, but synaptic regulation may occur only at individual or discrete subsets of synapses, which may have important consequences on the spatial extension of the modulation of synaptic information. Moreover, while several electrophysiological methods are used to assess synaptic transmission at different levels of observation, i...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201002/a-comparison-of-different-slicing-planes-in-preservation-of-major-hippocampal-pathway-fibers-in-the-mouse
#20
Guoxiang Xiong, Hannah Metheny, Brian N Johnson, Akiva S Cohen
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory and higher cognitive functions, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various neuropathological disorders. Electrophysiological recording undertaken in live brain slices is one of the most powerful tools for investigating hippocampal cellular and network activities. The plane for cutting the slices determines which afferent and/or efferent connections are best preserved, and there are three commonly used slices: hippocampal-entorhinal cortex (HEC), coronal and transverse...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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