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CA3 physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433648/repeated-threat-without-direct-harm-alters-metabolic-capacity-in-select-regions-that-drive-defensive-behavior
#1
D J Kim, A S Lee, A A Yttredahl, R Gómez-Rodríguez, B J Anderson
To understand the behavioral consequences of intermittent anticipatory stress resulting from threats without accompanying physiological challenges, we developed a semi-naturalistic rodent housing and foraging environment that can include threats that are unpredictable in timing. Behavior is automatically recorded while rats forage for food or water. Over three weeks, the threats have been shown to elicit risk assessment behaviors, increase defensive burying and increase adrenal gland weight. To identify brain regions activated by this manipulation, we measured cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is tightly coupled to neural activity...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406977/separation-increases-passive-stress-coping-behaviors-during-forced-swim-and-alters-hippocampal-dendritic-morphology-in-california-mice
#2
Molly M Hyer, Erica R Glasper
Individuals within monogamous species form bonds that may buffer against the negative effects of stress on physiology and behavior. In some species, involuntary termination of the mother-offspring bond results in increased symptoms of negative affect in the mother, suggesting that the parent-offspring bond may be equally as important as the pair bond. To our knowledge, the extent to which affect in paternal rodents is altered by involuntary termination of the father-offspring bond is currently unknown. Here, we investigated to what extent separation and paternal experience alters passive stress-coping behaviors and dendritic morphology in hippocampal subfields of California mice (Peromyscus californicus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381988/increased-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-of-dentate-granule-neurons-in-mice-lacking-psd-95-interacting-adhesion-molecule-neph2-kirrel3-during-the-early-postnatal-period
#3
Junyeop D Roh, Su-Yeon Choi, Yi Sul Cho, Tae-Yong Choi, Jong-Sil Park, Tyler Cutforth, Woosuk Chung, Hanwool Park, Dongsoo Lee, Myeong-Heui Kim, Yeunkum Lee, Seojung Mo, Jeong-Seop Rhee, Hyun Kim, Jaewon Ko, Se-Young Choi, Yong Chul Bae, Kang Shen, Eunjoon Kim, Kihoon Han
Copy number variants and point mutations of NEPH2 (also called KIRREL3) gene encoding an immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily adhesion molecule have been linked to autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability and neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, but the physiological roles of Neph2 in the mammalian brain remain largely unknown. Neph2 is highly expressed in the dentate granule (DG) neurons of the hippocampus and is localized in both dendrites and axons. It was recently shown that Neph2 is required for the formation of mossy fiber filopodia, the axon terminal structure of DG neurons forming synapses with GABAergic neurons of CA3...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274820/histamine-induces-kcnq-channel-dependent-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-hippocampus-via-activation-of-the-h1-receptor
#4
Richard Andersson, Dagmar Galter, Daniela Papadia, André Fisahn
Histamine is an aminergic neurotransmitter, which regulates wakefulness, arousal and attention in the central nervous system. Histamine receptors have been the target of efforts to develop pro-cognitive drugs to treat disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Cognitive functions including attention are closely associated with gamma oscillations, a rhythmical electrical activity pattern in the 30-80 Hz range, which depends on the synchronized activity of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory fast-spiking interneurons...
March 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253930/rapid-and-stable-changes-in-maturation-related-phenotypes-of-the-adult-hippocampal-neurons-by-electroconvulsive-treatment
#5
Yuki Imoto, Eri Segi-Nishida, Hidenori Suzuki, Katsunori Kobayashi
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and fast-acting treatment for depression. Despite a long history of clinical use, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Recently, a novel cellular mechanism of antidepressant action has been proposed: the phenotype of mature brain neurons is transformed to immature-like one by antidepressant drug treatments. We show here that electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS), an animal model of ECT, causes profound changes in maturation-related phenotypes of neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mice...
March 2, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235404/progesterone-signalling-in-broiler-skeletal-muscle-is-associated-with-divergent-feed-efficiency
#6
Walter Bottje, Byung-Whi Kong, Antonio Reverter, Ashley J Waardenberg, Kentu Lassiter, Nicholas J Hudson
BACKGROUND: We contrast the pectoralis muscle transcriptomes of broilers selected from within a single genetic line expressing divergent feed efficiency (FE) in an effort to improve our understanding of the mechanistic basis of FE. RESULTS: Application of a virtual muscle model to gene expression data pointed to a coordinated reduction in slow twitch muscle isoforms of the contractile apparatus (MYH15, TPM3, MYOZ2, TNNI1, MYL2, MYOM3, CSRP3, TNNT2), consistent with diminishment in associated slow machinery (myoglobin and phospholamban) in the high FE animals...
February 24, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223923/embryonic-and-postnatal-expression-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-mrna-in-mouse-brain
#7
Eiki Kimura, Chiharu Tohyama
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor family, plays a critical role in the developing nervous system of invertebrates and vertebrates. Dioxin, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, avidly binds to this receptor, and maternal exposure to dioxin has been shown to impair higher brain functions and dendritic morphogenesis, possibly via an AhR-dependent mechanism. However, there is little information on AhR expression in the developing mammalian brain...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115973/dietary-supplementation-of-hericium-erinaceus-increases-mossy-fiber-ca3-hippocampal-neurotransmission-and-recognition-memory-in-wild-type-mice
#8
Federico Brandalise, Valentina Cesaroni, Andrej Gregori, Margherita Repetti, Chiara Romano, Germano Orrù, Laura Botta, Carolina Girometta, Maria Lidia Guglielminetti, Elena Savino, Paola Rossi
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Pers. is a medicinal mushroom capable of inducing a large number of modulatory effects on human physiology ranging from the strengthening of the immune system to the improvement of cognitive functions. In mice, dietary supplementation with H. erinaceus prevents the impairment of spatial short-term and visual recognition memory in an Alzheimer model. Intriguingly other neurobiological effects have recently been reported like the effect on neurite outgrowth and differentiation in PC12 cells...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886171/transduction-of-group-i-mglur-mediated-synaptic-plasticity-by-%C3%AE-arrestin2-signalling
#9
Andrew G Eng, Daniel A Kelver, Tristan P Hedrick, Geoffrey T Swanson
Conventional signalling by the group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR1 and mGluR5, occurs through G-protein coupling, but evidence suggests they might also utilize other, non-canonical effector pathways. Here we test whether group I mGluRs require β-arrestin signalling during specific forms of plasticity at hippocampal excitatory synapses. We find that genetic ablation of β-arrestin2, but not β-arrestin1, results in deficits in plasticity mediated by mGlu1 receptors in CA3 pyramidal neurons and by mGlu5 receptors in CA1 pyramidal neurons...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861538/development-and-validation-of-a-new-mouse-model-to-investigate-the-role-of-sv2a-in-epilepsy
#10
Catherine Menten-Dedoyart, Maria Elisa Serrano Navacerrada, Odile Bartholome, Judit Sánchez Gil, Virginie Neirinckx, Sabine Wislet, Guillaume Becker, Alain Plenevaux, Priscilla Van den Ackerveken, Bernard Rogister
SV2A is a glycoprotein present in the membranes of most synaptic vesicles. Although it has been highly conserved throughout evolution, its physiological role remains largely unknown. Nevertheless, Levetiracetam, a very effective anti-epileptic drug, has been recently demonstrated to bind to SV2A. At present, our understanding of the normal function of SV2A and its possible involvement in diseases like epilepsy is limited. With this study, we sought to develop a relevant model enabling analysis of SV2A's role in the occurrence or progression of epilepsy...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830583/dynamin-related-protein-1-drp1-mediating-mitophagy-contributes-to-the-pathophysiology-of-nervous-system-diseases-and-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
Qiong Wu, Cheng-Liang Luo, Lu-Yang Tao
As the main source of energy (celluar ATP) in eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are involved in cellular physiology and pathology. The balance of mitochondrial dynamic, fission and fusion regulated by quality control mechanisms, provides a guarantee for maintaining mitochondrial function, even celluar function. Worn out mitochondria would be removed through mitophagy which is regulated by autophagy related proteins and mitochondrial membrane proteins. Drp1, dynamic-related protein 1, is regarded as one of the most important proteins to evaluate mitochondrial fission mediating mitophagy in neurodegenerative diseases (eg...
November 10, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790056/two-pore-domain-potassium-channels-in-astrocytes
#12
REVIEW
Kanghyun Ryoo, Jae-Yong Park
Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels have a distinct structure and channel properties, and are involved in a background K(+) current. The 15 members of the K2P channels are identified and classified into six subfamilies on the basis of their sequence similarities. The activity of the channels is dynamically regulated by various physical, chemical, and biological effectors. The channels are expressed in a wide variety of tissues in mammals in an isoform specific manner, and play various roles in many physiological and pathophysiological conditions...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700065/imaging-taurine-in-the-central-nervous-system-using-chemically-specific-x-ray-fluorescence-imaging-at-the-sulfur-k-edge
#13
Mark J Hackett, Phyllis G Paterson, Ingrid J Pickering, Graham N George
A method to image taurine distributions within the central nervous system and other organs has long been sought. Since taurine is small and mobile, it cannot be chemically "tagged" and imaged using conventional immuno-histochemistry methods. Combining numerous indirect measurements, taurine is known to play critical roles in brain function during health and disease and is proposed to act as a neuro-osmolyte, neuro-modulator, and possibly a neuro-transmitter. Elucidation of taurine's neurochemical roles and importance would be substantially enhanced by a direct method to visualize alterations, due to physiological and pathological events in the brain, in the local concentration of taurine at or near cellular spatial resolution in vivo or in situ in tissue sections...
November 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663971/functional-modulation-of-strychnine-sensitive-glycine-receptors-in-rat-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-1-42
#14
J V Bukanova, I N Sharonova, V G Skrebitsky
Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is considered a key protein in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease because of its neurotoxicity, resulting in impaired synaptic function and memory. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that low (picomolar) concentrations of Aβ enhance synaptic plasticity and memory, suggesting that in the healthy brain, physiological Aβ concentrations are necessary for normal cognitive functions. In the present study, we found that Aβ (1-42) in concentrations of 10 pМ - 100 nМ enhanced desensitization of the glycine-activated current in isolated CA3 pyramidal neurons and also reversibly suppressed its peak amplitude during short (600 ms) co-application with agonist...
September 20, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650887/spatial-coding-and-physiological-properties-of-hippocampal-neurons-in-the-cornu-ammonis-subregions
#15
Azahara Oliva, Antonio Fernández-Ruiz, György Buzsáki, Antal Berényi
It is well-established that the feed-forward connected main hippocampal areas, CA3, CA2, and CA1 work cooperatively during spatial navigation and memory. These areas are similar in terms of the prevalent types of neurons; however, they display different spatial coding and oscillatory dynamics. Understanding the temporal dynamics of these operations requires simultaneous recordings from these regions. However, simultaneous recordings from multiple regions and subregions in behaving animals have become possible only recently...
December 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620136/melatonin-protects-against-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-by-decreasing-extracellular-glutamate-and-nox-derived-ros-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#16
Paloma Patiño, Esther Parada, Victor Farré-Alins, Simone Molz, Ramón Cacabelos, José Marco-Contelles, Manuela G López, Carla I Tasca, Eva Ramos, Alejandro Romero, Javier Egea
Therapeutic interventions on pathological processes involved in the ischemic cascade, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, excitotoxicity and/or apoptosis, are of urgent need for stroke treatment. Melatonin regulates a large number of physiological actions and its beneficial properties have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether melatonin mediates neuroprotection in rat hippocampal slices subjected to oxygen-glucose-deprivation (OGD) and glutamate excitotoxicity. Thus, we describe here that melatonin significantly reduced the amount of lactate dehydrogenase released in the OGD-treated slices, reverted neuronal injury caused by OGD-reoxygenation in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal regions, restored the reduction of GSH content of the hippocampal slices induced by OGD, and diminished the oxidative stress produced in the reoxygenation period...
September 9, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559140/a-neuronal-lactate-uptake-inhibitor-slows-recovery-of-extracellular-ion-concentration-changes-in-the-hippocampal-ca3-region-by-affecting-energy-metabolism
#17
Eskedar Ayele Angamo, Joerg Rösner, Agustin Liotta, Richard Kovács, Uwe Heinemann
Astrocyte-derived lactate supports pathologically enhanced neuronal metabolism, but its role under physiological conditions is still a matter of debate. Here, we determined the contribution of astrocytic neuronal lactate shuttle for maintenance of ion homeostasis and energy metabolism. We tested for the effects of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4-CIN), which could interfere with energy metabolism by blocking monocarboxylate-transporter 2 (MCT2)-mediated neuronal lactate uptake, on evoked potentials, stimulus-induced changes in K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), and oxygen concentrations as well as on changes in flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) autofluorescence in the hippocampal area CA3...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537546/modestobacter-lacusdianchii-sp-nov-a-phosphate-solubilizing-actinobacterium-with-ability-to-promote-microcystis-growth
#18
Bing-Huo Zhang, Nimaichand Salam, Juan Cheng, Han-Quan Li, Jian-Yuan Yang, Dai-Ming Zha, Yu-Qin Zhang, Meng-Jie Ai, Wael N Hozzein, Wen-Jun Li
A novel actinobacterium, designated strain JXJ CY 19T, was isolated from a culture mat of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 collected from Dianchi Lake, South-west China. 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison of strain JXJ CY 19T and the available sequences in the GenBank database showed that the strain was closely related to Modestobacter marinus 42H12-1T (99.1% similarity) and Modestobacter roseus KLBMP 1279T (99.0%). The isolate had meso-diaminopimelic in the cell wall with whole-cell sugars of mannose, rhamnose, ribose, glucose, galactose, and arabinose...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27492675/hallucinatory-experience-as-aberrant-event-memory-formation-implications-for-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia
#19
REVIEW
Ralf-Peter Behrendt
If hallucinations are not fundamentally different from normal wakeful experiences, then the neural basis of hallucinations has to be essentially that of consciousness in general. The additional insight that consciousness reflects the formation (as opposed to consolidation) of event (episodic) memories links the pathophysiology of hallucinations to the hippocampus. Perceptions and misperceptions, insofar as they are consciously experienced, constitute contextualized and unitary phenomena (which are embedded as discrete events in the stream of consciousness); they are experiential manifestations of activity patters that recurrently emerge in the CA3 network of the hippocampus (and that are secondarily consolidated into retrievable and declarable memories)...
November 3, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27317637/behavioral-and-physiological-characterization-of-pkc-dependent-phosphorylation-in-the-grin2a%C3%A2-pkc-mouse
#20
Deebika Balu, John R Larson, Jennifer V Schmidt, David Wirtshafter, Aleksey Yevtodiyenko, John P Leonard
Activity-dependent plasticity in NMDA receptor-containing synapses can be regulated by phosphorylation of serines and tyrosines in the C-terminal domain of the receptor subunits by various kinases. We have previously identified S1291/S1312 as important sites for PKC phosphorylation; while Y1292/Y1312 are the sites indirectly phosphorylated by PKC via Src kinase. In the oocyte expression system, mutation of those Serine sites to Alanine (that cannot be phosphorylated) in the GluN2A subunit, resulted in a decreased PKC stimulated current enhancement through the receptors compared to wild-type NMDA receptors...
September 1, 2016: Brain Research
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