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CA3 physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222469/hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-are-necessary-for-discrimination-of-social-stimuli
#1
Tara Raam, Kathleen M McAvoy, Antoine Besnard, Alexa Veenema, Amar Sahay
Oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) signaling in neural circuits mediating discrimination of social stimuli and affiliation or avoidance behavior is thought to guide social recognition. Remarkably, the physiological functions of Oxtrs in the hippocampus are not known. Here we demonstrate using genetic and pharmacological approaches that Oxtrs in the anterior dentate gyrus (aDG) and anterior CA2/CA3 (aCA2/CA3) of mice are necessary for discrimination of social, but not non-social, stimuli. Further, Oxtrs in aCA2/CA3 neurons recruit a population-based coding mechanism to mediate social stimuli discrimination...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218000/synapse-specific-regulation-revealed-at-single-synapses-is-concealed-when-recording-multiple-synapses
#2
Justin Lines, Ana Covelo, Ricardo Gómez, Lan Liu, Alfonso Araque
Synaptic transmission and its activity-dependent modulation, known as synaptic plasticity, are fundamental processes in nervous system function. Neurons may receive thousands of synaptic contacts, but synaptic regulation may occur only at individual or discrete subsets of synapses, which may have important consequences on the spatial extension of the modulation of synaptic information. Moreover, while several electrophysiological methods are used to assess synaptic transmission at different levels of observation, i...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201002/a-comparison-of-different-slicing-planes-in-preservation-of-major-hippocampal-pathway-fibers-in-the-mouse
#3
Guoxiang Xiong, Hannah Metheny, Brian N Johnson, Akiva S Cohen
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory and higher cognitive functions, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various neuropathological disorders. Electrophysiological recording undertaken in live brain slices is one of the most powerful tools for investigating hippocampal cellular and network activities. The plane for cutting the slices determines which afferent and/or efferent connections are best preserved, and there are three commonly used slices: hippocampal-entorhinal cortex (HEC), coronal and transverse...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183826/developmental-ethanol-induced-sleep-fragmentation-behavioral-hyperactivity-cognitive-impairment-and-parvalbumin-cell-loss-are-prevented-by-lithium-co-treatment
#4
M Lewin, M Ilina, J Betz, K Masiello, M Hui, D A Wilson, M Saito
Developmental ethanol exposure is a well-known cause of lifelong cognitive deficits, behavioral hyperactivity, emotional dysregulation, and more. In healthy adults, sleep is thought to have a critical involvement in each of these processes. Our previous work has demonstrated that some aspects of cognitive impairment in adult mice exposed at postnatal day 7 (P7) to ethanol (EtOH) correlate with slow-wave sleep (SWS) fragmentation (Wilson et al., 2016). We and others have also previously demonstrated that co-treatment with LiCl on the day of EtOH exposure prevents many of the anatomical and physiological impairments observed in adults...
November 26, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180954/disrupted-co-activation-of-interneurons-and-hippocampal-network-after-focal-kainate-lesion
#5
Lim-Anna Sieu, Emmanuel Eugène, Agnès Bonnot, Ivan Cohen
GABAergic interneurons are known to control activity balance in physiological conditions and to coordinate hippocampal networks during cognitive tasks. In temporal lobe epilepsy interneuron loss and consecutive network imbalance could favor pathological hypersynchronous epileptic discharges. We tested this hypothesis in mice by in vivo unilateral epileptogenic hippocampal kainate lesion followed by in vitro recording of extracellular potentials and patch-clamp from GFP-expressing interneurons in CA3, in an optimized recording chamber...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149630/age-related-vulnerability-of-pattern-separation-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#6
Aurélia Cès, Thibaut Burg, Karine Herbeaux, Céline Héraud, Jean-Bastien Bott, Ayikoe Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Chantal Mathis
Aging is associated with impaired performance in behavioral pattern separation (PS) tasks based on similarities in object features and in object location. These deficits have been attributed to functional alterations in the dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 region. Animal studies suggested a role of adult-born DG neurons in PS performance. The present study investigated the effect of aging in C57BL/6J mice performing PS tasks based on either object features or object location. At the age of 18 months or more, performance was severely impaired in both tasks...
October 25, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099662/local-oxygen-homeostasis-during-various-neuronal-network-activity-states-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#7
Justus Schneider, Nikolaus Berndt, Ismini E Papageorgiou, Jana Maurer, Sascha Bulik, Martin Both, Andreas Draguhn, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Oliver Kann
Cortical information processing comprises various activity states emerging from timed synaptic excitation and inhibition. However, the underlying energy metabolism is widely unknown. We determined the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) along a tissue depth of <0.3 mm in the hippocampal CA3 region during various network activities, including gamma oscillations and sharp wave-ripples that occur during wakefulness and sleep. These physiological states associate with sensory perception and memory formation, and critically depend on perisomatic GABA inhibition...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080022/learning-as-a-functional-state-of-the-brain-studies-in-wild-type-and-transgenic-animals
#8
José M Delgado-García, Agnès Gruart
Contemporary neuroscientists are paying increasing attention to subcellular, molecular, and electrophysiological mechanisms underlying learning and memory processes. Recent studies have examined the development of transgenic mice affected at different stages of the learning process, or have emulated in animals various human pathological conditions involving cognition and motor learning. However, a parallel effort is needed to develop stimulating and recording techniques suitable for use in behaving mice in order to understand activity-dependent synaptic changes taking place during the very moment of the learning process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031603/xanthurenic-acid-formation-from-3-hydroxykynurenine-in-the-mammalian-brain-neurochemical-characterization-and-physiological-effects
#9
K V Sathyasaikumar, M Tararina, H-Q Wu, S A Neale, F Weisz, T E Salt, R Schwarcz
Xanthurenic acid (XA), formed from 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, may modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission by inhibiting the vesicular glutamate transporter and/or activating Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. Here we examined the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which 3-HK controls the neosynthesis of XA in rat, mouse and human brain, and compared the physiological actions of 3-HK and XA in the rat brain. In tissue homogenates, XA formation from 3-HK was observed in all three species and traced to a major role of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II)...
October 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856535/glua4-dependent-plasticity-mechanisms-contribute-to-developmental-synchronization-of-the-ca3-ca1-circuitry-in-the-hippocampus
#10
Tsvetomira Atanasova, Zoya Kharybina, Tiina Kaarela, Johanna Huupponen, Natalia V Luchkina, Tomi Taira, Sari E Lauri
During the course of development, molecular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synaptic plasticity change considerably. At immature CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, PKA-driven synaptic insertion of GluA4 AMPA receptors is the predominant mechanism for synaptic strengthening. However, the physiological significance of the developmentally restricted GluA4-dependent plasticity mechanisms is poorly understood. Here we have used microelectrode array (MEA) recordings in GluA4 deficient slice cultures to study the role of GluA4 in early development of the hippocampal circuit function...
August 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744923/the-role-of-t-type-calcium-channels-in-the-subiculum-to-burst-or-not-to-burst
#11
Srdjan M Joksimovic, Pierce Eggan, Yukitoshi Izumi, Sonja Lj Joksimovic, Vesna Tesic, Robert M Dietz, James E Orfila, Michael R DiGruccio, Paco S Herson, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic, Charles F Zorumski, Slobodan M Todorovic
KEY POINTS: Pharmacological, molecular and genetic data indicate a prominent role of low-voltage-activated T-type calcium channels (T-channels) in the firing activity of both pyramidal and inhibitory interneurons in the subiculum. Pharmacological inhibition of T-channels switched burst firing with lower depolarizing stimuli to regular spiking, and fully abolished hyperpolarization-induced burst firing. Our molecular studies showed that CaV 3.1 is the most abundantly expressed isoform of T-channels in the rat subiculum...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680963/neto1-guides-development-of-glutamatergic-connectivity-in-the-hippocampus-by-regulating-axonal-kainate-receptors
#12
Ester Orav, Tsvetomira Atanasova, Alexandra Shintyapina, Sebnem Kesaf, Michela Kokko, Juha Partanen, Tomi Taira, Sari E Lauri
Kainate-type glutamate receptors (KARs) are highly expressed in the developing brain, where they are tonically activated to modulate synaptic transmission, network excitability and synaptogenesis. NETO proteins are auxiliary subunits that regulate biophysical properties of KARs; however, their functions in the immature brain are not known. Here, we show that NETO1 guides the development of the rodent hippocampal CA3-CA1 circuitry via regulating axonal KARs. NETO deficiency reduced axonal targeting of most KAR subunits in hippocampal neurons in a subtype independent manner...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663197/subcellular-distribution-of-hdac1-in-neurotoxic-conditions-is-dependent-on-serine-phosphorylation
#13
Yunjiao Zhu, Oscar G Vidaurre, Kadidia P Adula, Nebojsa Kezunovic, Maureen Wentling, George W Huntley, Patrizia Casaccia
Calcium-dependent nuclear export of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) was shown previously to precede axonal damage in culture, but the in vivo relevance of these findings and the potential posttranslational modifications of HDAC1 remained elusive. Using acute hippocampal slices from mice of either sex with genetic conditional ablation of Hdac1 in CA1 hippocampal neurons (i.e., Camk2a-cre;Hdac1(fl/fl)), we show significantly diminished axonal damage in response to neurotoxic stimuli. The protective effect of Hdac1 ablation was detected also in CA3 neurons in Grik4-cre;Hdac1(fl/f) mice, which were more resistant to the excitotoxic damage induced by intraventricular injection of kainic acid...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629384/involvement-of-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-and-glutamate-transporter-glt-1-in-antidepressant-like-effects-of-xiao-yao-san-on-chronically-stressed-mice
#14
Xiu-Fang Ding, Yue-Hua Li, Jia-Xu Chen, Long-Ji Sun, Hai-Yan Jiao, Xin-Xin Wang, Yan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Xiao Yao San (XYS) is an herbal prescription which is used in the treatment of depression for thousands of years from Song dynasty in China (960-1127 A.D.), and is the bestselling and most popular herb formula for treating major depression. This study aimed to assess the chronic antidepressant effects of XYS and fluoxetine in depressed mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and its association with  alterations in glutamate/glutamine cycle and glutamate transporters...
June 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611378/identification-of-postsynaptic-phosphatidylinositol-4-5-bisphosphate-pip2-roles-for-synaptic-plasticity-using-chemically-induced-dimerization
#15
Su-Jeong Kim, Min-Jae Jeong, Hee-Jung Jo, Jung Hoon Jung, Bong-Kiun Kaang, Yun-Beom Choi, Joung-Hun Kim
Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), one of the key phospholipids, directly interacts with several membrane and cytosolic proteins at neuronal plasma membranes, leading to changes in neuronal properties including the feature and surface expression of ionotropic receptors. Although PIP2 is also concentrated at the dendritic spines, little is known about the direct physiological functions of PIP2 at postsynaptic as opposed to presynaptic sites. Most previous studies used genetic and pharmacological methods to modulate enzymes that alter PIP2 levels, making it difficult to delineate time- or region-specific roles of PIP2...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603024/functional-research-and-molecular-mechanism-of-kainic-acid-induced-denitrosylation-of-thioredoxin-1-in-rat-hippocampus
#16
Hongning Yang, Ningjun Zhao, Lanxin Lv, Xianliang Yan, Shuqun Hu, Tie Xu
Thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) has long been recognized as a redox regulator, and is implicated in the inhibition of cell apoptosis. Trx1 is essential for the maintenance of the S-nitrosylation of molecules in cells. The S-nitrosylation of Trx1 is essential for the physiological function such as preservation of the redox regulatory activity. The mechanisms underlying Trx1 denitrosylation induced by kainate acid (KA) injection still remain uncharacterized. Our results showed that the S-nitrosylation levels of Trx1 were decreased subsequent to KA injection and that the glutamate receptor 6 (GluR6) antagonist NS102 could inhibit the denitrosylation of Trx1...
June 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569837/a-robot-for-high-yield-electrophysiology-and-morphology-of-single-neurons-in-vivo
#17
Lu Li, Benjamin Ouellette, William A Stoy, Emma J Garren, Tanya L Daigle, Craig R Forest, Christof Koch, Hongkui Zeng
Single-cell characterization and perturbation of neurons provides knowledge critical to addressing fundamental neuroscience questions including the structure-function relationship and neuronal cell-type classification. Here we report a robot for efficiently performing in vivo single-cell experiments in deep brain tissues optically difficult to access. This robot automates blind (non-visually guided) single-cell electroporation (SCE) and extracellular electrophysiology, and can be used to characterize neuronal morphological and physiological properties of, and/or manipulate genetic/chemical contents via delivering extraneous materials (for example, genes) into single neurons in vivo...
June 1, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546308/dentate-gyrus-contributes-to-retrieval-as-well-as-encoding-evidence-from-context-fear-conditioning-recall-and-extinction
#18
Brian E Bernier, Anthony F Lacagnina, Adam Ayoub, Francis Shue, Boris V Zemelman, Franklin B Krasne, Michael R Drew
Dentate gyrus (DG) is widely thought to provide a teaching signal that enables hippocampal encoding of memories, but its role during retrieval is poorly understood. Some data and models suggest that DG plays no role in retrieval; others encourage the opposite conclusion. To resolve this controversy, we evaluated the effects of optogenetic inhibition of dorsal DG during context fear conditioning, recall, generalization, and extinction in male mice. We found that (1) inhibition during training impaired context fear acquisition; (2) inhibition during recall did not impair fear expression in the training context, unless mice had to distinguish between similar feared and neutral contexts; (3) inhibition increased generalization of fear to an unfamiliar context that was similar to a feared one and impaired fear expression in the conditioned context when it was similar to a neutral one; and (4) inhibition impaired fear extinction...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472661/chronic-loss-of-ca2-transmission-leads-to-hippocampal-hyperexcitability
#19
Roman Boehringer, Denis Polygalov, Arthur J Y Huang, Steven J Middleton, Vincent Robert, Marie E Wintzer, Rebecca A Piskorowski, Vivien Chevaleyre, Thomas J McHugh
Hippocampal CA2 pyramidal cells project into both the neighboring CA1 and CA3 subfields, leaving them well positioned to influence network physiology and information processing for memory and space. While recent work has suggested unique roles for CA2, including encoding position during immobility and generating ripple oscillations, an interventional examination of the integrative functions of these connections has yet to be reported. Here we demonstrate that CA2 recruits feedforward inhibition in CA3 and that chronic genetically engineered shutdown of CA2-pyramidal-cell synaptic transmission consequently results in increased excitability of the recurrent CA3 network...
May 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460009/the-endogenous-stress-hormone-crh-modulates-excitatory-transmission-and-network-physiology-in-hippocampus
#20
B G Gunn, C D Cox, Y Chen, M Frotscher, C M Gall, T Z Baram, G Lynch
Memory is strongly influenced by stress but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we used electrophysiology, neuroanatomy, and network simulations to probe the role of the endogenous, stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in modulating hippocampal function. We focused on neuronal excitability and the incidence of sharp waves (SPWs), a form of intrinsic network activity associated with memory consolidation. Specifically, we blocked endogenous CRH using 2 chemically distinct antagonists of the principal hippocampal CRH receptor, CRHR1...
August 1, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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