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CA3 physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626848/hippocampal-and-amygdalar-cell-specific-translation-is-similar-soon-after-stress-but-diverge-over-time
#1
Jesvin S Madan, Kanika Gupta, Sumantra Chattarji, Aditi Bhattacharya
Stress is known to cause contrasting patterns of morphological and physiological plasticity in the hippocampus and amygdala. An obligatory cellular process underlying such neural changes is de novo translation and alterations in protein expression. Yet the nature of the translational response to stress in neurons remains largely unexplored. Even less is known about how glia are affected. Using a click-chemistry-based method to label the de novo proteome in live brain slices, we monitored translation in neurons and astrocytes of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsal hippocampal area CA3 (dCA3) in rats at different time-points after a single 2-hour exposure to immobilization stress...
April 7, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593127/sulfamethoxazole-induces-zinc-changes-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-from-pregnant-rats
#2
Vanessa N Corceiro, Fatima C Bastos, Carlos M Matias, Jose C Dionísio, Rosa M Santos, Luis M Rosario, Rosa M Quinta-Ferreira, M Emilia C Quinta-Ferreira
The accumulation of intracellular ionic zinc and pharmaceutical compounds, like the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole, may contribute to various neuropathologies. Sulfamethoxazole and the drug trimethoprim, are inhibitors of enzymes involved in the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate and also of carbonic anhydrases. The inhibition of the latter enzymes, which are localized both intra- and extracellularly and have a key role in pH regulation, causes alkalinization that is associated with higher spontaneous transmitter release...
March 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574717/dynamic-sap102-expression-in-the-hippocampal-subregions-of-rats-and-app-ps1-mice-of-various-ages
#3
Dongning Su, Hui Liu, Tianrong Liu, Xin Zhang, Wei Yang, Yizhi Song, Jinping Liu, Yan Wu, Lirong Chang
The hippocampus is a structurally and functionally complex brain area that plays important and diverse roles in higher brain functions, such as learning and memory, and mounting evidence indicates that different hippocampal subregions play distinctive roles. The hippocampus is also one of the first regions in the brain to suffer damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Synaptic dysfunction in the hippocampus, rather than neuronal loss per se, is paralleled by behavioural and functional deficits in AD. The membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins, including SAP102, PSD-95, PSD-93 and SAP97, have long been recognized as essential components of the postsynaptic density (PSD) at excitatory synapses...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507146/%C3%AE-secretase-bace1-promotes-surface-expression-and-function-of-kv3-4-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses
#4
Stephanie Hartmann, Fang Zheng, Michele Constanze Kyncl, Sandra Karch, Kerstin Voelkl, Benedikt Zott, Carla D'Avanzo, Selene Lomoio, Giuseppina Tesco, Doo Yeon Kim, Christian Alzheimer, Tobias Huth
β-Secretase BACE1 is deemed a major culprit in Alzheimer's disease, but accumulating evidence indicates that there is more to the enzyme than driving the amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein. For example, BACE1 has emerged as an important regulator of neuronal activity through proteolytic and, most unexpectedly, also through non-proteolytic interactions with several ion channels. Here, we identify and characterize the voltage-gated K+ channel 3.4 as a new and functionally relevant interaction partner of BACE1...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471781/solid-lipid-curcumin-particles-provide-greater-anti-amyloid-anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-than-curcumin-in-the-5xfad-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Panchanan Maiti, Leela Paladugu, Gary L Dunbar
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation and the presence of amyloid beta protein (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles are key pathologies in Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a potent anti-amyloid and anti-inflammatory natural polyphenol, curcumin (Cur) could be potential therapies for AD. Unfortunately, poor solubility, instability in physiological fluids, and low bioavailability limit its clinical utility. Recently, different lipid modifications in the formulae of Cur have been developed that would enhance its therapeutic potential...
February 23, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453207/hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-and-inhibition-first-network-models-frequency-dynamics-and-response-to-gaba-modulators
#6
José R Donoso, Dietmar Schmitz, Nikolaus Maier, Richard Kempter
Hippocampal ripples are involved in memory consolidation, but the mechanisms underlying their generation remain unclear. Models relying on interneuron networks in the CA1 region disagree on the predominant source of excitation to interneurons: either 'direct', via the Schaffer collaterals that provide feedforward input from CA3 to CA1, or 'indirect', via the local pyramidal cells in CA1, which are embedded in a recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network. Here, we used physiologically constrained computational models of basket-cell networks to investigate how they respond to different conditions of transient, noisy excitation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387909/hippocampal-area-ca2-an-emerging-modulatory-gateway-in-the-hippocampal-circuit
#7
REVIEW
Amrita Benoy, Ananya Dasgupta, Sreedharan Sajikumar
The hippocampus is a critical brain region for the formation of declarative memories. While social memory had long been attributed to be a function of the hippocampus, it is only of late that the area CA2 of the hippocampus was demarcated as essential for social memory formation. In addition to this distinct role, CA2 possesses unique molecular, structural and physiological characteristics compared to the other CA regions-CA1 and CA3, and the dentate gyrus (DG). CA2 pyramidal neurons are positioned at a location between CA1 and CA3, receiving inputs from CA3 and DG, in addition to forming a powerful disynaptic circuit with direct input from the entorhinal cortical layer II neurons...
January 31, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387780/opposing-and-complementary-topographic-connectivity-gradients-revealed-by-quantitative-analysis-of-canonical-and-noncanonical-hippocampal-ca1-inputs
#8
Yanjun Sun, Douglas A Nitz, Todd C Holmes, Xiangmin Xu
Physiological studies suggest spatial representation gradients along the CA1 proximodistal axis. To determine the underlying anatomical basis, we quantitatively mapped canonical and noncanonical inputs to excitatory neurons in dorsal hippocampal CA1 along the proximal-distal axis in mice of both sexes using monosynaptic rabies tracing. Our quantitative analyses show comparable strength of subiculum complex and entorhinal cortex (EC) inputs to CA1, significant inputs from presubiculum and parasubiculum to CA1, and a threefold stronger input to proximal versus distal CA1 from CA3...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338620/diminished-dentate-gyrus-filtering-of-cortical-input-leads-to-enhanced-area-ca3-excitability-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Kaitlin A Folweiler, Sandy Samuel, Hannah E Metheny, Akiva S Cohen
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) disrupts hippocampal function and can lead to long-lasting episodic memory impairments. The encoding of episodic memories relies on spatial information processing within the hippocampus. As the primary entry point for spatial information into the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus is thought to function as a physiological gate, or filter, of afferent excitation before reaching downstream area Cornu Ammonis (CA3). Although injury has previously been shown to alter dentate gyrus network excitability, it is unknown whether mTBI affects dentate gyrus output to area CA3...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279308/conditional-deletion-of-hippocampal-ca2-ca3a-oxytocin-receptors-impairs-the-persistence-of-long-term-social-recognition-memory-in-mice
#10
Yu-Ting Lin, Tsan-Yu Hsieh, Tsung-Chih Tsai, Chien-Chung Chen, Chiung-Chun Huang, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Oxytocin (OXT) receptors (OXTRs) are prominently expressed in hippocampal CA2 and CA3 pyramidal neurons, but little is known about its physiological function. As the functional necessity of hippocampal CA2 for social memory processing, we tested whether CA2 OXTRs may contribute to long-term social recognition memory (SRM) formation. Here, we found that conditional deletion of Oxtr from forebrain ( Oxtr -/- ) or CA2/CA3a-restricted excitatory neurons in adult male mice impaired the persistence of long-term SRM but had no effect on sociability and preference for social novelty...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273965/effects-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-activation-on-cell-survival-in-rat-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-cultures
#11
Denise F Happ, R Andrew Tasker
Glutamatergic signaling via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) is important for physiological functioning, but can also induce cell death via excitotoxic mechanisms in many neuropathological diseases, such as stroke. Altering the cellular response to excitotoxic insults by modulating the downstream effects of NMDAR activation represents a promising therapeutic approach. For example, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs) signaling has been shown to be able to change NMDA-induced neurotoxicity in some models...
December 22, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222469/hippocampal-oxytocin-receptors-are-necessary-for-discrimination-of-social-stimuli
#12
Tara Raam, Kathleen M McAvoy, Antoine Besnard, Alexa H Veenema, Amar Sahay
Oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) signaling in neural circuits mediating discrimination of social stimuli and affiliation or avoidance behavior is thought to guide social recognition. Remarkably, the physiological functions of Oxtrs in the hippocampus are not known. Here we demonstrate using genetic and pharmacological approaches that Oxtrs in the anterior dentate gyrus (aDG) and anterior CA2/CA3 (aCA2/CA3) of mice are necessary for discrimination of social, but not non-social, stimuli. Further, Oxtrs in aCA2/CA3 neurons recruit a population-based coding mechanism to mediate social stimuli discrimination...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218000/synapse-specific-regulation-revealed-at-single-synapses-is-concealed-when-recording-multiple-synapses
#13
Justin Lines, Ana Covelo, Ricardo Gómez, Lan Liu, Alfonso Araque
Synaptic transmission and its activity-dependent modulation, known as synaptic plasticity, are fundamental processes in nervous system function. Neurons may receive thousands of synaptic contacts, but synaptic regulation may occur only at individual or discrete subsets of synapses, which may have important consequences on the spatial extension of the modulation of synaptic information. Moreover, while several electrophysiological methods are used to assess synaptic transmission at different levels of observation, i...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201002/a-comparison-of-different-slicing-planes-in-preservation-of-major-hippocampal-pathway-fibers-in-the-mouse
#14
Guoxiang Xiong, Hannah Metheny, Brian N Johnson, Akiva S Cohen
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory and higher cognitive functions, and its dysfunction has been implicated in various neuropathological disorders. Electrophysiological recording undertaken in live brain slices is one of the most powerful tools for investigating hippocampal cellular and network activities. The plane for cutting the slices determines which afferent and/or efferent connections are best preserved, and there are three commonly used slices: hippocampal-entorhinal cortex (HEC), coronal and transverse...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183826/developmental-ethanol-induced-sleep-fragmentation-behavioral-hyperactivity-cognitive-impairment-and-parvalbumin-cell-loss-are-prevented-by-lithium-co-treatment
#15
M Lewin, M Ilina, J Betz, K Masiello, M Hui, D A Wilson, M Saito
Developmental ethanol exposure is a well-known cause of lifelong cognitive deficits, behavioral hyperactivity, emotional dysregulation, and more. In healthy adults, sleep is thought to have a critical involvement in each of these processes. Our previous work has demonstrated that some aspects of cognitive impairment in adult mice exposed at postnatal day 7 (P7) to ethanol (EtOH) correlate with slow-wave sleep (SWS) fragmentation (Wilson et al., 2016). We and others have also previously demonstrated that co-treatment with LiCl on the day of EtOH exposure prevents many of the anatomical and physiological impairments observed in adults...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180954/disrupted-co-activation-of-interneurons-and-hippocampal-network-after-focal-kainate-lesion
#16
Lim-Anna Sieu, Emmanuel Eugène, Agnès Bonnot, Ivan Cohen
GABAergic interneurons are known to control activity balance in physiological conditions and to coordinate hippocampal networks during cognitive tasks. In temporal lobe epilepsy interneuron loss and consecutive network imbalance could favor pathological hypersynchronous epileptic discharges. We tested this hypothesis in mice by in vivo unilateral epileptogenic hippocampal kainate lesion followed by in vitro recording of extracellular potentials and patch-clamp from GFP-expressing interneurons in CA3, in an optimized recording chamber...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149630/age-related-vulnerability-of-pattern-separation-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#17
Aurélia Cès, Thibaut Burg, Karine Herbeaux, Céline Héraud, Jean-Bastien Bott, Ayikoe Guy Mensah-Nyagan, Chantal Mathis
Aging is associated with impaired performance in behavioral pattern separation (PS) tasks based on similarities in object features and in object location. These deficits have been attributed to functional alterations in the dentate gyrus (DG)-CA3 region. Animal studies suggested a role of adult-born DG neurons in PS performance. The present study investigated the effect of aging in C57BL/6J mice performing PS tasks based on either object features or object location. At the age of 18 months or more, performance was severely impaired in both tasks...
February 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099662/local-oxygen-homeostasis-during-various-neuronal-network-activity-states-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#18
Justus Schneider, Nikolaus Berndt, Ismini E Papageorgiou, Jana Maurer, Sascha Bulik, Martin Both, Andreas Draguhn, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Oliver Kann
Cortical information processing comprises various activity states emerging from timed synaptic excitation and inhibition. However, the underlying energy metabolism is widely unknown. We determined the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) along a tissue depth of <0.3 mm in the hippocampal CA3 region during various network activities, including gamma oscillations and sharp wave-ripples that occur during wakefulness and sleep. These physiological states associate with sensory perception and memory formation, and critically depend on perisomatic GABA inhibition...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080022/learning-as-a-functional-state-of-the-brain-studies-in-wild-type-and-transgenic-animals
#19
José M Delgado-García, Agnès Gruart
Contemporary neuroscientists are paying increasing attention to subcellular, molecular, and electrophysiological mechanisms underlying learning and memory processes. Recent studies have examined the development of transgenic mice affected at different stages of the learning process, or have emulated in animals various human pathological conditions involving cognition and motor learning. However, a parallel effort is needed to develop stimulating and recording techniques suitable for use in behaving mice in order to understand activity-dependent synaptic changes taking place during the very moment of the learning process...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031603/xanthurenic-acid-formation-from-3-hydroxykynurenine-in-the-mammalian-brain-neurochemical-characterization-and-physiological-effects
#20
K V Sathyasaikumar, M Tararina, H-Q Wu, S A Neale, F Weisz, T E Salt, R Schwarcz
Xanthurenic acid (XA), formed from 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, may modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission by inhibiting the vesicular glutamate transporter and/or activating Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors. Here we examined the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which 3-HK controls the neosynthesis of XA in rat, mouse and human brain, and compared the physiological actions of 3-HK and XA in the rat brain. In tissue homogenates, XA formation from 3-HK was observed in all three species and traced to a major role of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II)...
December 26, 2017: Neuroscience
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