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Pre-B cells

Liliana L Cubas-Gaona, Elisabet Diaz-Beneitez, Marina Ciscar, José F Rodríguez, Dolores Rodríguez
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the Birnaviridae family and is the etiological agent of a highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease (IBD) that affects domestic chickens ( Gallus gallus ). IBD or Gumboro disease leads to high morbidity and mortality of infected animals, and is responsible for major economic losses to the poultry industry world-wide. IBD is characterized by a massive loss of IgM-bearing B lymphocytes and the destruction of the bursa of Fabricius. The molecular bases of the IBDV pathogenicity are still poorly understood, nonetheless, an exacerbated cytokine immune response and B cell depletion due to apoptosis are considered main factors contributing to the severity of the disease...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Zhen-Guo Ma, Xin Zhang, Yu-Pei Yuan, Ya-Ge Jin, Ning Li, Chun-Yan Kong, Peng Song, Qi-Zhu Tang
T cell infiltration and the subsequently increased intracardial chronic inflammation play crucial roles in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. A77 1726, the active metabolite of leflunomide, has been reported to have powerful anti-inflammatory and T cells-inhibiting properties. However, the effect of A77 1726 on cardiac hypertrophy remains completely unknown. Herein, we found that A77 1726 treatment attenuated pressure overload or angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo, as well as agonist-induced hypertrophic response of cardiomyocytes in vitro...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Peng Jin, Seung-Hyun Shin, Yang-Sook Chun, Hyun-Woo Shin, Yong Jae Shin, Yeri Lee, Donggeon Kim, Do-Hyun Nam, Jong-Wan Park
During tumor development, stromal cells are co-opted to the tumor milieu and provide favorable conditions for the tumor. Hypoxia stimulates cancer cells to acquire a more malignant phenotype via activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Given that cancer cells and astrocytes in glioblastomas coexist in a hypoxic microenvironment, we examined whether astrocytes affect the adaptation of glioblastoma cells to hypoxia. Immunoblotting, reporter assays, quantitative RT-PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were performed to evaluate HIF-1 signaling in glioblastoma cells...
March 14, 2018: Oncogene
Barbara J McClure, Susan L Heatley, Chung H Kok, Teresa Sadras, Jiyuan An, Timothy P Hughes, Richard B Lock, David Yeung, Rosemary Sutton, Deborah L White
BACKGROUND: Zinc-finger protein 384 (ZNF384) fusions are an emerging subtype of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (pre-B-ALL) and here we further characterised their prevalence, survival outcomes and transcriptome. METHODS: Bone marrow mononuclear cells from 274 BCR-ABL1-negative pre-B-ALL patients were immunophenotyped and transcriptome molecularly characterised. Transcriptomic data was analysed by principal component analysis and gene-set enrichment analysis to identify gene and pathway expression changes...
March 13, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Łukasz Sędek, Prisca Theunissen, Elaine Sobral da Costa, Alita van der Sluijs-Gelling, Ester Mejstrikova, Giuseppe Gaipa, Alicja Sonsala, Magdalena Twardoch, Elen Oliveira, Michaela Novakova, Chiara Buracchi, Jacques J M van Dongen, Alberto Orfao, Vincent H J van der Velden, Tomasz Szczepański
BACKGROUND: Optimal discrimination between leukemic blasts and normal B-cell precursors (BCP) is critical for treatment monitoring in BCP acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); thus identification of markers differentially expressed on normal BCP and leukemic blasts is required. METHODS: Multicenter analysis of CD73, CD86 and CD304 expression levels was performed in 282 pediatric BCP-ALL patients vs. normal bone marrow BCP, using normalized median fluorescence intensity (nMFI) values...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Sanchari Basu Mallik, B S Jayashree, Rekha R Shenoy
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that poses a global burden to healthcare. Increasing incidence of diabetes-related complications in the affected population includes a delay in wound healing that often results in non-traumatic limb amputations. Owing to the intricacies of the healing process and crosstalk between the multitude of participating cells, the identification of hyperglycaemia-induced changes at both cellular and molecular levels poses a challenge. Macrophages are one of the key participants in wound healing and continue to exert functional changes at the wound site since the time of injury...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Marianne Kaiser, Magdalena Jacobson, Pia Haubro Andersen, Poul Bækbo, José Joaquin Cerón, Jan Dahl, Damián Escribano, Stine Jacobsen
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) in sows is not fully elucidated and affected sows often present vague clinical signs. Accurate and timely diagnosis is difficult, and PDS is often recognized with a delay once piglets begin to starve. Increased rectal temperature of the sow is an important diagnostic parameter, but it may also be influenced by a number of other parameters and is thus difficult to interpret. Inflammatory markers may be important adjuncts to the clinical assessment of sows with PDS, but such markers have only been studied to a limited extent...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Kai-Henrik Peiffer, Lisa Kuhnhenn, Bingfu Jiang, Antonia Mondorf, Johannes Vermehren, Viola Knop, Simone Susser, Dirk Walter, Julia Dietz, Gert Carra, Fabian Finkelmeier, Stefan Zeuzem, Christoph Sarrazin, Eberhard Hildt
Background: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface proteins (HBsAg) coat the viral particle and form subviral particles (SVPs). Loss of HBsAg represents a functional cure and is an important treatment goal. Methods: We analyzed the impact of the HBV genotypes A-E and pre-S mutations on SVP expression in HBeAg negative chronic HBV infected patients. A HBV genome harboring a preS1-deletion was analyzed in hepatoma cells. Results: We observed a genotype-specific ratio of the three surface proteins (SHBs/MHBs/LHBs), which reflects differences in the morphology and composition of SVPs...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Christopher C Dvorak, Prakash Satwani, Elliot Stieglitz, Mitchell S Cairo, Ha Dang, Qinglin Pei, Yun Gao, Donna Wall, Tali Mazor, Adam B Olshen, Joel S Parker, Samir Kahwash, Betsy Hirsch, Susana Raimondi, Neil Patel, Micah Skeens, Todd Cooper, Parinda A Mehta, Stephan A Grupp, Mignon L Loh
BACKGROUND: Most patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) are curable only with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, the current standard conditioning regimen, busulfan-cyclophosphamide-melphalan (Bu-Cy-Mel), may be associated with higher risks of morbidity and mortality. ASCT1221 was designed to test whether the potentially less-toxic myeloablative conditioning regimen containing busulfan-fludarabine (Bu-Flu) would be associated with equivalent outcomes...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Silvia Albert, Alejandro Garanto, Riccardo Sangermano, Mubeen Khan, Nathalie M Bax, Carel B Hoyng, Jana Zernant, Winston Lee, Rando Allikmets, Rob W J Collin, Frans P M Cremers
Sequence analysis of the coding regions and splice site sequences in inherited retinal diseases is not able to uncover ∼40% of the causal variants. Whole-genome sequencing can identify most of the non-coding variants, but their interpretation is still very challenging, in particular when the relevant gene is expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Deep-intronic variants in ABCA4 have been associated with autosomal-recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1), but the exact pathogenic mechanism is unknown. By generating photoreceptor precursor cells (PPCs) from fibroblasts obtained from individuals with STGD1, we demonstrated that two neighboring deep-intronic ABCA4 variants (c...
February 27, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Fang Zhu, Ismat Khatri, David Spaner, Reginald M Gorczynski
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B cells (CLL) are malignant cells which retain at least some functions of normal B cells. Paramount amongst the latter is that when such cells are appropriately stimulated, they are able to present antigens, including any potential tumor antigens, making them excellent choices as a candidate tumor vaccine. We show that following stimulation of CLL cells with Phorbol myristic acetate, IL-2, the TLR7 agonist imiquimod (P2I) and ionomycin (P2Iio), markedly increased expression of CD54 and CD83 was seen, indicative of B cell activation and a transition to antigen-presenting cells...
March 2, 2018: Leukemia Research
Jacki L Coburn, Toby B Cole, Khoi T Dao, Lucio G Costa
Adult neurogenesis is the process by which neural stem cells give rise to new functional neurons in specific regions of the adult brain, a process that occurs throughout life. Significantly, neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders present suppressed neurogenesis, activated microglia, and neuroinflammation. Traffic-related air pollution has been shown to adversely affect the central nervous system. As the cardinal effects of air pollution exposure are microglial activation, and ensuing oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, we investigated whether acute exposures to diesel exhaust (DE) would inhibit adult neurogenesis in mice...
March 10, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Bradley Pawlikowski, Nicole Dalla Betta, Tiffany Elston, Darian A Williams, Bradley B Olwin
Down syndrome, caused by trisomy 21, is characterized by a variety of medical conditions including intellectual impairments, cardiovascular defects, blood cell disorders and pre-mature aging phenotypes. Several somatic stem cell populations are dysfunctional in Down syndrome and their deficiencies may contribute to multiple Down syndrome phenotypes. Down syndrome is associated with muscle weakness but skeletal muscle stem cells or satellite cells in Down syndrome have not been investigated. We find that a failure in satellite cell expansion impairs muscle regeneration in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Madeliene Parrott, Simon Rule
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare but often aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Initial therapy can achieve high response rates but invariably patients relapse and die from their disease. Incorporating a maintenance phase into the treatment strategy may prolong remission duration and ultimately prolong survival. Areas covered: The current literature incorporating a maintenance phase into treatment strategies for newly diagnosed and pre-treated MCL patients has been summarized. A literature search was performed using search terms "mantle cell lymphoma", "indolent NHL", "maintenance", "interferon", "rituximab", "lenalidomide", "bortezomib" and "ibrutinib"...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Hematology
Mohamed B Ezzelarab, Lien Lu, William F Shufesky, Adrian E Morelli, Angus W Thomson
Donor-derived regulatory dendritic cell (DCreg) infusion before transplantation, significantly prolongs renal allograft survival in non-human primates. This is associated with enhanced expression of the immunoregulatory molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (Ag) 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) by host donor-reactive T cells. In rodents and humans, CD28 co-stimulatory pathway blockade with the fusion protein CTLA4:Ig (CTLA4Ig) is associated with reduced differentiation and development of regulatory T cells (Treg)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
L Coughlan, S Sridhar, R Payne, M Edmans, A Milicic, N Venkatraman, B Lugonja, L Clifton, C Qi, P M Folegatti, A M Lawrie, R Roberts, H de Graaf, P Sukhtankar, S N Faust, D J M Lewis, T Lambe, Avs Hill, S C Gilbert
BACKGROUND: T-cell responses against highly conserved influenza antigens have been previously associated with protection. However, these immune responses are poorly maintained following recovery from influenza infection and are not boosted by inactivated influenza vaccines. We have previously demonstrated the safety and immunogenicity of two viral vectored vaccines, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and the chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdOx1 expressing conserved influenza virus antigens, nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix protein-1 (M1)...
February 15, 2018: EBioMedicine
D L Bowden, P A Sutton, M A Wall, P V Jithesh, R E Jenkins, D H Palmer, C E Goldring, J L Parsons, B K Park, N R Kitteringham, D Vimalachandran
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is used in locally advanced rectal cancer when tumours threaten the circumferential resection margin, with varying response to treatment. This experimental study aimed to identify significantly differentially expressed proteins between patients responding and not responding to CRT, and to validate any proteins of interest. METHODS: Mass spectrometry (with isobaric tagging for relative quantification) analysis of rectal cancers pre- and post-CRT, and at resection...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Wasila Mansouri, Samuel B Fordyce, Matthew Wu, David Jones, Douglas Cohn, Qishan Lin, Paul Feustel, Tanuj Sharma, James A Bennett, Thomas T Andersen
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety profile of AFPep, a 9-amino acid cyclic peptide prior to its entry into pre-clinical toxicology analyses en route to clinical trials. METHODS: AFPep was assessed for anti-estrogenic activity in a mouse uterine growth assay and for breast cancer therapeutic efficacy in a human tumor xenograft model in mice. AFPep was assessed for tolerability in a variety of in vivo models, notably including assessment for effects on rat liver and human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and xenografts...
March 5, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Marilize Le Roes-Hill, Kim Durrell, Alaric Prins, Paul R Meyers
The actinobacterium, strain M26T , was isolated from garden soil that was pre-treated with microwave radiation. The soil sample was collected in Roodepoort, Gauteng Province, South Africa as part of an antibiotic-screening programme. The isolate produced branched vegetative mycelium with sporangiophores bearing small sporangia ranging from 3 to 6 μm in diameter. Rapid genus identification revealed that the isolate belongs to the genus Streptosporangium. To confirm this result, the strain was subjected to polyphasic taxonomic characterisation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Antibiotics
Guilherme F Silveira, Pryscilla F Wowk, Allan H D Cataneo, Paula F Dos Santos, Murilo Delgobo, Marco A Stimamiglio, Maria Lo Sarzi, Ana Paula F S Thomazelli, Ivete Conchon-Costa, Wander R Pavanelli, Lis R V Antonelli, André Báfica, Daniel S Mansur, Claudia N Duarte Dos Santos, Juliano Bordignon
Dengue virus (DV) infection can cause either a self-limiting flu-like disease or a threatening hemorrhage that may evolve to shock and death. A variety of cell types, such as dendritic cells, monocytes and B cells, can be infected by DV. However, despite the role of T lymphocytes in the control of DV replication, there remains a paucity of information on possible DV-T cell interactions during the disease course. In the present study, we have demonstrated that primary human naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are permissive for DV infection...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
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