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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943879/plasma-cxcl13-but-not-b-cell-frequencies-in-acute-hiv-infection-predicts-emergence-of-cross-neutralizing-antibodies
#1
Jenniffer M Mabuka, Anne-Sophie Dugast, Daniel M Muema, Tarylee Reddy, Yathisha Ramlakhan, Zelda Euler, Nasreen Ismail, Amber Moodley, Krista L Dong, Lynn Morris, Bruce D Walker, Galit Alter, Thumbi Ndung'u
Immunological events in acute HIV-1 infection before peak viremia (hyperacute phase) may contribute to the development of broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies. Here, we used pre-infection and acute-infection peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma samples from 22 women, including 10 who initiated antiretroviral treatment in Fiebig stages I-V of acute infection to study B cell subsets and B-cell associated cytokines (BAFF and CXCL13) kinetics for up to ~90 days post detection of plasma viremia. Frequencies of B cell subsets were defined by flow cytometry while plasma cytokine levels were measured by ELISA...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943878/triplebody-mediates-increased-anti-leukemic-reactivity-of-il-2-activated-donor-natural-killer-nk-cells-and-impairs-viability-of-their-cd33-expressing-nk-subset
#2
Stephan Kloess, Alessa Ede Valverde da Silva, Olaf Oberschmidt, Tanja Gardlowski, Nadine Matthies, Maulik Vyas, Lubomir Arseniev, Michael Heuser, Elke Pogge von Strandmann, Ulrike Köhl
Natural killer cells (NK) are essential for the elimination of resistant acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AML and ALL) cells. NK cell-based immunotherapies have already successfully entered for clinical trials, but limitations due to immune escape mechanisms were identified. Therefore, we extended our established NK cell protocol by integration of the previously investigated powerful trispecific immunoligand ULBP2-aCD19-aCD33 [the so-called triplebodies (TBs)] to improve the anti-leukemic specificity of activated NK cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940863/a-phase-ii-study-of-radioimmunotherapy-with-intraventricular-131-i-3f8-for-medulloblastoma
#3
Kim Kramer, Neeta Pandit-Taskar, John L Humm, Pat B Zanzonico, Sofia Haque, Ira J Dunkel, Suzanne L Wolden, Maria Donzelli, Debra A Goldman, Jason S Lewis, Serge K Lyashchenko, Yasmin Khakoo, Jorge A Carrasquillo, Mark M Souweidane, Jeffrey P Greenfield, David Lyden, Kevin D De Braganca, Stephen W Gilheeney, Steven M Larson, Nai-Kong V Cheung
BACKGROUND: High-risk and recurrent medulloblastoma (MB) is associated with significant mortality. The murine monoclonal antibody 3F8 targets the cell-surface disialoganglioside GD2 on MB. We tested the efficacy, toxicity, and dosimetry of compartmental radioimmunotherapy (cRIT) with intraventricular (131) I-labeled 3F8 in patients with MB on a phase II clinical trial. METHODS: Patients with histopathologically confirmed high-risk or recurrent MB were eligible for cRIT...
September 22, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940162/infections-in-patients-receiving-multiple-sclerosis-disease-modifying-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Elena Grebenciucova, Amy Pruitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper will systemically review the risk of infections associated with current disease-modifying treatments and will discuss pre-treatment testing recommendations, infection monitoring strategies, and patient education. RECENT FINDINGS: Aside from glatiramer acetate and interferon-beta therapies, all other multiple sclerosis treatments to various degrees impair immune surveillance and may predispose patients to the development of both community-acquired and opportunistic infections...
September 22, 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939899/gpnmb-induces-bip-expression-by-enhancing-splicing-of-bip-pre-mrna-during-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-response
#5
Yasuhiro Noda, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masafumi Takata, Mitsue Ishisaka, Hirotaka Tanaka, Yusuke Nakano, Yuki Nagahara, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) has a neuroprotective effect against neuronal cell death caused by the accumulation of abnormal mutated proteins. It is known that the accumulation of pathological proteins induces endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress leading to cell damage. The aim of this study was to determine the role of GPNMB in the ER stress response. GPNMB was greatly up-regulated by thapsigargin-induced ER stress. Under the ER stress conditions, GPNMB relocated to the nucleus and specifically up-regulated expression of BiP at the mRNA level by promoting the BiP pre-mRNA splicing, not through the pathways initiated by the three major transducers of the unfolded protein response: IRE1, PERK, and ATF6...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939451/hla-haploidentical-stem-cell-transplant-with-pre-transplant-immunosuppression-for-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#6
Anna B Pawlowska, Jerry C Cheng, Nicole A Karras, Weili Sun, Leo D Wang, Alison D Bell, Lisa Gutierrez, Joseph Rosenthal
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HCT) is curative in patients with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) but a significant number of patients lack a HLA-identical sibling or matched unrelated donor. Mismatched related (haploidentical) HCT with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) allows expansion of the donor pool but is complicated by high rates of graft failure. In this report, we describe a favorable haploidentical HCT approach in a limited cohort of sickle cell patients with significant co-morbidities...
September 19, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937176/mesenchymal-stem-cell-mediated-endochondral-ossification-utilising-micropellets-and-brief-chondrogenic-priming
#7
C A Knuth, J Witte-Bouma, Y Ridwan, E B Wolvius, E Farrell
With limited autologous and donor bone graft availability, there is an increasing need for alternative graft substitutes. We have previously shown that chondrogenically priming mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) pellets for 28 d in vitro will reproducibly result in endochondral bone formation after in vivo implantation. However, pellet priming time for clinical applications is quite extensive. A micropellet (μpellet)-fibrin construct was developed and coupled, with a shorter priming period, determined by an in vitro time course experiment...
September 22, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936339/utility-of-vs38c-in-the-diagnostic-and-prognostic-assessment-of-osteosarcoma-and-other-bone-tumours-tumour-like-lesions
#8
E S Hookway, Z Orosz, Y Uchihara, A Grigoriadis, A B Hassan, U Oppermann, N A Athanasou
BACKGROUND: VS38c is a monoclonal antibody that recognises a rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) intracellular antigen termed cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein 63. rER is typically found in viable tumour cells and is abundant in osteosarcoma cells. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic and prognostic utility of VS38c in the histological assessment of osteosarcoma and other bone tumours/tumour-like leisons. METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining with VS38c was carried out on formalin-fixed specimens of osteosarcoma (pre/post-chemotherapy) and a wide range of benign and malignant bone lesions...
2017: Clinical Sarcoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935757/resveratrol-inhibits-growth-of-experimental-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-associated-with-upregulation-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2
#9
Corey S Moran, Erik Biros, Smriti M Krishna, Yutang Wang, Chris Tikellis, Joseph V Moxon, Mark E Cooper, Paul E Norman, Louise M Burrell, Merlin C Thomas, Jonathan Golledge
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests an important role for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in limiting abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). This study examined the effect of ACE2 deficiency on AAA development and the efficacy of resveratrol to upregulate ACE2 in experimental AAA. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Ace2 deletion in apolipoprotein-deficient mice (ApoE(-/)(-)Ace2(-/y) ) resulted in increased aortic diameter and spontaneous aneurysm of the suprarenal aorta associated with increased expression of inflammation and proteolytic enzyme markers...
September 21, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934982/mir-320-inhibits-the-growth-of-glioma-cells-through-downregulating-pbx3
#10
Cuicui Pan, Hua Gao, Ni Zheng, Qi Gao, Yuanquan Si, Yueran Zhao
BACKGROUND: MiR-320 is downregulated in multiple cancers, including glioma and acts as tumor suppressor through inhibiting tumor cells proliferation and inducing apoptosis. PBX3 (Pre-B cell leukemia homeobox 3), a putative target gene of miR-320, has been reported to be upregulated in various tumors and promote tumor cell growth through regulating MAKP/ERK pathway. This study aimed to verify whether miR-320 influences glioma cells growth through regulating PBX3. METHODS: Twenty-four human glioma and paired adjacent nontumorous tissues were collected for determination of miR-320 and PBX3 expression using RT-qPCR and western blot assays...
September 21, 2017: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934891/quality-of-life-among-boys-with-adrenoleukodystrophy-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#11
Nicole B Beckmann, Weston P Miller, Mary S Dietrich, Paul J Orchard
Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is the only accepted treatment capable of halting the progression of X-linked cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (CALD). While survival and neurological outcomes have been described, there is little information regarding the quality of life (QoL) of transplanted patients with CALD. This analysis is a cross-sectional study of QoL in 16 males diagnosed with CALD who underwent HSCT at a single institution. Each child or parent proxy completed subscales from the Neuro-QoL and the PROMIS Pediatric Profile Instrument representing physical, mental, and social health domains...
September 21, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933636/nicotinic-acid-inhibits-angiogenesis-likely-through-cytoskeleton-remodeling
#12
Lemen Pan, Guanfeng Yu, Xiangjian Chen, Xiaoqiang Li
Angiogenesis is a physiological procedure during which the new blood vessels develop from the pre-existing vessels. Uncontrolled angiogenesis is related to various diseases including cancers. Clinical inhibition of undesired angiogenesis is still under investigation. We utilized nicotinic acid, a family member of the B-vitamin niacin (vitamin B3) that has been used in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis or other lipid-metabolic disorders, to treat human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), and investigated its influence on angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo...
September 21, 2017: Organogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932156/possible-interaction-between-visfatin-periodontal-infection-and-other-systemic-diseases-a-brief-review-of-literature
#13
REVIEW
Mojtaba Bayani, Mohammad Pourali, Mohammad Keivan
Gingivitis and periodontitis are common bacterial infections caused by a variety of microorganisms. Despite the microorganisms' roles as etiologic agents, inflammation-induced substances also have crucial parts in the loss of connective tissue and the supporting alveolar bone. Visfatin is a pleiotropic mediator, which acts as growth factor, cytokine, and pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor. A positive correlation was detected between the serum/plasma levels of visfatin and inflammatory disorders such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease...
July 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931265/diagnostic-and-interventional-optical-angioscopy-in-ex-vivo-carotid-arteries
#14
Luis E Savastano, Neeraj Chaudhary, Carlos Murga-Zamalloa, Michael Wang, Thomas Wang, B Gregory Thompson
BACKGROUND: Angioscopy - or endovascular endoscopy - is a catheter-based technique employing a flexible fiberoptic angioscope to directly visualize arterial lumen. Poor resolution and excessive stiffness of pre-existent angioscopes limited their use clinically. Recent advances resulted in novel fused optical fiber bundle angioscopes with improved flexibility and imaging resolution. Use of these devices in endovascular neurosurgery is still largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate image quality and feasibility of optical angioscopes for diagnostic and interventional neuro-angioscopy in carotid arteries of human cadavers...
February 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931046/clinical-relevance-of-histologic-subtypes-in-locally-advanced-esophageal-carcinoma-treated-with-pre-operative-chemoradiotherapy-experience-of-a-monographic-oncologic-centre
#15
Maria Saigí, Marc Oliva, Luisa Aliste, Mariona Calvo, Gloria Hormigo, Òlbia Serra, Anna Boladeras, Leandre Farran, Javier Robles, Gloria Creus, Ma José Paúles, Joan B Gornals, Eugenia de Lama, Josep Ma Borràs, Núria Sala, Maica Galán
BACKGROUND: Locally advanced esophageal carcinoma (LAEC) represents less than 30% of all diagnosed esophageal carcinoma worldwide. The standard of care for resectable tumours consists of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery. Despite the curative intent, the prognosis is still poor mainly due to relapse. A multidisciplinary approach is required in order to optimize the therapeutic strategy and follow-up. Differences in outcomes between the two main histological subtypes, adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), have been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930577/exosome-enrichment-by-ultracentrifugation-and-size-exclusion-chromatography
#16
Yong Qin Koh, Fatema B Almughlliq, Kanchan Vaswani, Hassendrini N Peiris, Murray D Mitchell
Exosomes are a subset of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that have important roles in intercellular communication. They contain and carry bioactive molecules within their membranes which are delivered to target cells. Reproducible isolation and enrichment of these exosomes will aid in evaluation of cellular communication. We present an approach that involved the pre-processing of plasma, combined with ultracentrifugation (UC) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to isolate EVs and subsequently enrich exosomes...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930164/liver-cancer-molecular-characterization-clonal-evolution-and-cancer-stem-cells
#17
REVIEW
Germana Castelli, Elvira Pelosi, Ugo Testa
Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The major forms of primary liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Both these tumors develop against a background of cirrhotic liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver damage and fibrosis. HCC is a heterogeneous disease which usually develops within liver cirrhosis related to various etiologies: hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (frequent in Asia and Africa), hepatitis C virus (HCV), chronic alcohol abuse, or metabolic syndrome (frequent in Western countries)...
September 20, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929986/the-effect-of-temperature-on-the-initial-development-of-brycon-amazonicus-spix-agassiz-1829-as-tool-for-micromanipulation-of-embryos
#18
Regiane Cristina da Silva, Matheus Pereira Dos Santos, José Augusto Senhorini, Maria do Carmo Faria Paes, Fernanda Nogueira Valentin, Takafumi Fujimoto, Nivaldo Ferreira do Nascimento, George Shigueki Yasui, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi
Primordial germ cell (PGC) transplant is a promising tool in aquaculture; however, successful use of this technique requires in depth knowledge of the early stages of embryo and larval development. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of different temperatures (22, 26, and 30°C) on the early development of B. amazonicus. The newly fertilized eggs were distributed into tanks with controlled temperature and oxygenation. Samples were collected at pre-established times and analysed under light and fluorescence microscopy...
September 20, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923647/is-cytomegalovirus-surveillance-necessary-for-patients-with-low-reactivation-risk-in-an-autologous-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-setting
#19
A H Kaya, E Tekgunduz, S Akpinar, H Batgi, F Bekdemir, O Kayikci, S Namdaroglu, B U Ulu, M S Dal, M K Cakar, S Korkmaz, F Altuntas
BACKGROUND: In an autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) setting, routine cytomegalovirus (CMV) surveillance is not indicated except in high-risk situations. On the other hand, some studies reported increased CMV reactivation in AHCT setting as a result of incorporation of novel agents into treatment algorithms, such as bortezomib and rituximab. We retrospectively analyzed CMV reactivation and infection rates in patients with no high-risk features, who were treated with AHCT...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922555/laser-micro-ablation-of-fibrocartilage-tissue-effects-of-tissue-processing-on-porosity-modification-and-mechanics
#20
A M Matuska, P S McFetridge
The temporomandibular joint disk (TMJd) is an extremely dense and avascular fibrocartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) resulting in a limited regenerative capacity. The use of decellularized TMJd as a biocompatible scaffold to guide tissue regeneration is restricted by innate subcellular porosity of the ECM that hinders cellular infiltration and regenerative events. Incorporation of an artificial microporosity through laser micro-ablation (LMA) can alleviate these cell and diffusion based limitations. In this study, LMA was performed either before or after decellularization to assess to effect of surfactant treatment on porosity modification as well as the resultant mechanical and physical scaffold properties...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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