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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331035/noninvasive-optical-spectroscopy-for-identification-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-pilot-study
#1
David J Carpenter, Mirabelle B Sajisevi, Nikita Chapurin, Clifford Scott Brown, Tracy Cheng, Gregory M Palmer, Daniel S Stevenson, Caroline L Rao, Russell P Hall, Charles R Woodard
OBJECTIVE: Optical spectroscopy offers a noninvasive alternative to biopsy as a first-line screening tool for suspicious skin lesions. This study sought to define several optical parameters across malignant and benign tissue types. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective pilot trial utilizing the Zenalux IM1 optical spectroscopy device from April 2016 to February 2017. For each skin lesion, provider pre-biopsy probability of malignancy was compared to histolopathologic diagnosis...
January 13, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330417/high-stap1-expression-in-dux4-rearranged-cases-is-not-suitable-as-therapeutic-target-in-pediatric-b-cell-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#2
Elisabeth M P Steeghs, Marjolein Bakker, Alex Q Hoogkamer, Judith M Boer, Quirine J Hartman, Femke Stalpers, Gabriele Escherich, Valerie de Haas, Hester A de Groot-Kruseman, Rob Pieters, Monique L den Boer
Approximately 25% of the pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cases are genetically unclassified. More thorough elucidation of the pathobiology of these genetically unclassified ('B-other') cases may identify novel treatment options. We analyzed gene expression profiles of 572 pediatric BCP-ALL cases, representing all major ALL subtypes. High expression of STAP1, an adaptor protein downstream of the B-cell receptor (BCR), was identified in BCR-ABL1-like and non-BCR-ABL1-like B-other cases...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330293/differential-regulation-of-let-7-by-lin28b-isoform-specific-functions
#3
Rei Mizuno, Priya Chatterji, Sarah F Andres, Kathryn E Hamilton, Lauren Simon, Shawn W Foley, Arjun N Jeganathan, Brian D Gregory, Blair B Madison, Anil K Rustgi
The RNA binding protein LIN28B plays an important role in development, stem cell biology and tumorigenesis. LIN28B has two isoforms: the LIN28B-long and -short isoforms. Although studies have revealed the functions of the LIN28B-long isoform in tumorigenesis, the role of the LIN28B-short isoform remains unclear and represents a major gap in the field. The LIN28B-long and -short isoforms are expressed in a subset of human colorectal cancers (CRCs) and adjacent normal colonic mucosa, respectively. To elucidate the functional and mechanistic aspects of these isoforms, CRC cells (Caco-2 and LoVo) were generated to either express no LIN28B or the -short or -long isoform...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330025/the-role-of-extracellular-and-intracellular-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyl-transferase-in-cancer-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-perspectives-and-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Maria Dalamaga, Gerasimos Socrates Christodoulatos, Christos S Mantzoros
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (Nampt) or pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor or visfatin represents a pleiotropic molecule acting as an enzyme, a cytokine and a growth factor. Intracellular Nampt plays an important role in cellular bioenergetics and metabolism, particularly NAD biosynthesis. NAD biosynthesis is critical in DNA repair, oncogenic signal transduction, transcription, genomic integrity and apoptosis. Although its insulin-mimetic function remains a controversial issue, extracellular Nampt presents proliferative, anti-apoptotic, pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic and metastatic properties...
January 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329585/involvement-of-hedgehog-pathway-in-early-onset-aggressive-molecular-subtypes-and-metastatic-potential-of-breast-cancer
#5
Syeda Kiran Riaz, Jahangir Sarwar Khan, Syed Tahir Abbas Shah, Fen Wang, Lin Ye, Wen G Jiang, Muhammad Faraz Arshad Malik
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of hedgehog pathway is observed in numerous cancers. Relevance of hedgehog pathway genes in cancer cohort and inhibition of its downstream effector (GLI1) towards metastasis in cell lines are explored in the study. METHOD: One hundred fifty fresh tumours of breast cancer patients were collected for the study. Based on differential expression, panel of 6 key regulators of the pathway (SHH, DHH, IHH, PTCH1, SMO and GLI1) in microarray datasets were identified...
January 8, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328397/aberrant-expression-of-il-23-il-23r-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-and-its-clinical-significance
#6
Shuhai Sheng, Jinji Zhang, Jianzhong Ai, Xueli Hao, Ruishen Luan
Breast cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were collected from 32 patients who were treated in The Third Hospital of Chengde City. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that, compared with the adjacent tissues, interleukin (IL)‑23/IL‑23 receptor (R) gene expression levels were notably higher in breast cancer tissues. Furthermore, IL‑23 and IL‑23R expression levels were positively correlated with patients' tumor size, TNM stage and metastasis. Recombinant human (rh) IL‑23 (10 ng/ml) was used for the stimulation of the MCF‑7 cell line...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328391/effects-of-thymosin-%C3%AE-4-on-oxygen%C3%A2-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation%C3%A2-induced-injury
#7
Hua Ji, Linhao Xu, Zheng Wang, Xinli Fan, Lihui Wu
Cerebral ischemia causes severe brain injury and results in selective neuronal death through programmed cell death mechanisms, including apoptosis and autophagy. Minimizing neuronal injury has been considered a hot topic among clinicians. The present study elucidated the effect of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) on neuronal death induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in PC12 cells that were subjected to oxygen‑glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). The survival, apoptotic and autophagy rates of PC12 cells were investigated...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326088/age-effects-of-distinct-immune-checkpoint-blockade-treatments-in-a-mouse-melanoma-model
#8
Álvaro Padrón, Vincent Hurez, Harshita B Gupta, Curtis A Clark, Sri Lakshmi Pandeswara, Bin Yuan, Robert S Svatek, Mary Jo Turk, Justin M Drerup, Rong Li, Tyler J Curiel
Cancer immunotherapy has shown remarkable recent progress. Immune checkpoint blocking antibodies have become the most successful anti-cancer agent class ever developed, with six distinct agents approved since 2011 for a wide variety of cancers. Although age is the biggest risk factor for cancer (aside from selected early-onset pediatric cancers), these agents were tested pre-clinically in young hosts, and there is remarkably little published on the effects of host age on treatment outcomes in pre-clinical studies or human clinical trials...
January 8, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325070/vaccine-induced-antibody-responses-modify-the-association-between-t-cell-immune-responses-and-hiv-1-infection-risk-in-hvtn-505
#9
Youyi Fong, Xiaoying Shen, Vicki C Ashley, Aaron Deal, Kelly E Seaton, Chenchen Yu, Shannon P Grant, Guido Ferrari, Allan C deCamp, Robert T Bailer, Richard A Koup, David Montefiori, Barton F Haynes, Marcella Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Barney S Graham, Lindsay N Carpp, Scott M Hammer, Magda Sobieszczyk, Shelly Karuna, Edith Swann, Edwin DeJesus, Mark Mulligan, Ian Frank, Susan Buchbinder, Richard M Novak, M Juliana McElrath, Spyros Kalams, Michael Keefer, Nicole A Frahm, Holly E Janes, Peter B Gilbert, Georgia D Tomaras
Background: HVTN 505 was an HIV-1 preventive vaccine efficacy trial of a DNA/recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vaccine regimen. We assessed antibody responses measured one month post-final vaccination (Month 7) as correlates of HIV-1 acquisition risk. Methods: Binding antibody responses were quantified in serum samples from 25 primary endpoint vaccine cases (diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between Month 7 and 24) and 125 randomly sampled frequency-matched vaccine controls (HIV-1 negative at Month 24)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320474/high-response-rate-to-pd-1-blockade-in-desmoplastic-melanomas
#10
Zeynep Eroglu, Jesse M Zaretsky, Siwen Hu-Lieskovan, Dae Won Kim, Alain Algazi, Douglas B Johnson, Elizabeth Liniker, Ben Kong, Rodrigo Munhoz, Suthee Rapisuwon, Pier Federico Gherardini, Bartosz Chmielowski, Xiaoyan Wang, I Peter Shintaku, Cody Wei, Jeffrey A Sosman, Richard W Joseph, Michael A Postow, Matteo S Carlino, Wen-Jen Hwu, Richard A Scolyer, Jane Messina, Alistair J Cochran, Georgina V Long, Antoni Ribas
Desmoplastic melanoma is a rare subtype of melanoma characterized by dense fibrous stroma, resistance to chemotherapy and a lack of actionable driver mutations, and is highly associated with ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage. We analysed sixty patients with advanced desmoplastic melanoma who had been treated with antibodies to block programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) or PD-1 ligand (PD-L1). Objective tumour responses were observed in forty-two of the sixty patients (70%; 95% confidence interval 57-81%), including nineteen patients (32%) with a complete response...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316911/the-standardized-withania-somnifera-dunal-root-extract-alters-basal-and-morphine-induced-opioid-receptor-gene-expression-changes-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#11
Francesca Felicia Caputi, Elio Acquas, Sanjay Kasture, Stefania Ruiu, Sanzio Candeletti, Patrizia Romualdi
BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies demonstrated that the administration of Withania somnifera Dunal roots extract (WSE), prolongs morphine-elicited analgesia and reduces the development of tolerance to the morphine's analgesic effect; however, little is known about the underpinning molecular mechanism(s). In order to shed light on this issue in the present paper we explored whether WSE promotes alterations of μ (MOP) and nociceptin (NOP) opioid receptors gene expression in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
January 10, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316067/deep-sequencing-shows-low-level-oncogenic-hepatitis-b-virus-variants-persisting-post-liver-transplant-despite-potent-anti-hbv-prophylaxis
#12
Keith Ck Lau, Carla Osiowy, Elizabeth Giles, Beth Lusina, Guido van Marle, Kelly W Burak, Carla S Coffin
Recent studies suggest that withdrawal of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) prophylaxis may be considered in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) negative liver transplant (LT) recipients with a low risk of disease recurrence. However, the frequency of occult HBV infection (OBI) and HBV variants after LT in the current era of potent NA therapy is unknown. 12 LT recipients on prophylaxis were tested in matched plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for HBV quasispecies by in-house nested PCR and next generation sequencing of amplicons...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313473/1-5-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-investigate-potential-etiologies-of-brain-swelling-in-pediatric-cerebral-malaria
#13
Michael J Potchen, Samuel D Kampondeni, Karl B Seydel, E Mark Haacke, Sylvester S Sinyangwe, Musaku Mwenechanya, Simon J Glover, Danny A Milner, Eric Zeli, Colleen A Hammond, David Utriainen, Kennedy Lishimpi, Terrie E Taylor, Gretchen L Birbeck
The hallmark of pediatric cerebral malaria (CM) is sequestration of parasitized red blood cells in the cerebral microvasculature. Malawi-based research using 0.35 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) established that severe brain swelling is associated with fatal CM, but swelling etiology remains unclear. Autopsy and clinical studies suggest several potential etiologies, but limitations of 0.35 T MRI precluded optimal investigations into swelling pathophysiology. A 1.5 T MRI in Zambia allowed for further investigations including susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI)...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310812/pgbr-extract-ameliorates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-insulin-resistance-in-hepatocytes
#14
Fu-Chih Chen, Kuo-Ping Shen, Jin-Bor Chen, Hui-Li Lin, Chi-Long Hao, Hsueh-Wei Yen, Shyh-Yu Shaw
Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) could ameliorate metabolic syndrome, however, not much research estimates the effect of PGBR extract on insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of PGBR extract in TNF-α induced insulin resistance. HepG2 cells, hepatocytes, were cultured in DMEM medium and added with 5 μM insulin or with insulin and 30 ng/ml TNF-α or with insulin, TNF-α and PGBR extract (50, 100, 300 μg/ml). The glucose levels of the medium were decreased by insulin, demonstrating insulin promoted glucose uptake into cell...
January 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309618/single-cell-tracking-reveals-a-role-for-pre-existing-ccr5-memory-th1-cells-in-the-control-of-rhinovirus-a39-after-experimental-challenge-in-humans
#15
Lyndsey M Muehling, Ronald B Turner, Kenneth B Brown, Paul W Wright, James T Patrie, Sampo J Lahtinen, Markus J Lehtinen, William W Kwok, Judith A Woodfolk
Background: Little is known about T cells that respond to human rhinovirus in vivo, due to timing of infection, viral diversity, and complex T-cell specificities. We tracked circulating CD4+ T cells with identical epitope specificities that responded to intranasal challenge with rhinovirus (RV)-A39, and we assessed T-cell signatures in the nose. Methods: Cells were monitored using a mixture of 2 capsid-specific major histocompatibility complex II tetramers over a 7-week period, before and after RV-A39 challenge, in 16 human leukocyte antigen-DR4+ subjects who participated in a trial of Bifidobacterium lactis (Bl-04) supplementation...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309426/gadolinium-enhanced-cardiac-mr-exams-of-human-subjects-are-associated-with-significant-increases-in-the-dna-repair-marker-53bp1-but-not-the-damage-marker-%C3%AE-h2ax
#16
Jennifer S McDonald, Robert J McDonald, Jacob B Ekins, Anthony S Tin, Sylvain Costes, Tamara M Hudson, Dana J Schroeder, Kevin Kallmes, Scott H Kaufmann, Philip M Young, Aiming Lu, Ramanathan Kadirvel, David F Kallmes
Magnetic resonance imaging is considered low risk, yet recent studies have raised a concern of potential damage to DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes. This prospective Institutional Review Board-approved study examined potential double-strand DNA damage by analyzing changes in the DNA damage and repair markers γH2AX and 53BP1 in patients who underwent a 1.5 T gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) exam. Sixty patients were enrolled (median age 55 years, 39 males). Patients with history of malignancy or who were receiving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or steroids were excluded...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308628/induction-of-apoptosis-in-cancer-cells-of-pre-b-all-patients-after-exposure-to-platelets-platelet-derived-microparticles-and-soluble-cd40-ligand
#17
Morteza Yaftian, Fatemeh Yari, Mehran Ghasemzadeh, Vahid Fallah Azad, Mansoureh Haghighi
OBJECTIVES: The in vitro treatment of tumor cells with platelet (Plt) causes inhibition of tumor cell growth, although mechanism of this effect is not clear yet. Induction of apoptosis has been proposed as a mechanism of Plt effects on tumor cells. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of Plts and Plt-derived components in the induction of apoptosis in the blood mononuclear cells of patients with leukemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood of five patients with childhood B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) and encountered with Plts, Plt-derived microparticles (Plt-MPs) as well as purified soluble CD40L (sCD40L)...
April 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308328/b-cell-lymphoma-progression-promotes-the-accumulation-of-circulating-ly6clo-monocytes-with-immunosuppressive-activity
#18
Sara J McKee, Zewen K Tuong, Takumi Kobayashi, Brianna L Doff, Megan Sf Soon, Michael Nissen, Pui Yeng Lam, Colm Keane, Frank Vari, Davide Moi, Roberta Mazzieri, Graham Leggatt, Maher K Gandhi, Stephen R Mattarollo
Monocytosis is considered a poor prognostic factor for many cancers, including B cell lymphomas. The mechanisms by which different monocyte subsets support the growth of lymphoma is poorly understood. Using a pre-clinical mouse model of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL), we investigated the impact of tumor progression on circulating monocyte levels, subset distribution and their activity, with a focus on immune suppression. B-NHL development corresponded with significant expansion initially of classical (Ly6Chi) and non-classical (Ly6Clo) monocytes, with accumulation and eventual predominance of Ly6Clo cells...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305909/targeting-oncogenic-transcription-factors-by-polyphenols-a-novel-approach-for-cancer-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Chitra Rajagopal, Manendra Babu Lankadasari, Jesil Mathew Aranjani, K B Harikumar
Inflammation is one of the major causative factor of cancer and chronic inflammation is involved in all the major steps of cancer initiation, progression metastasis and drug resistance. The molecular mechanism of inflammation driven cancer is the complex interplay between oncogenic and tumor suppressive transcription factors which include FOXM1, NF-kB, STAT3,Wnt/β- Catenin, HIF-1α,NRF2, androgen and estrogen receptors. Several products derived from natural sources modulate the expression and activity of multiple transcription factors in various tumor models as evident from studies conducted in cell lines, pre-clinical models and clinical samples...
January 3, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304491/influences-of-different-dietary-energy-level-on-sheep-testicular-development-associated-with-ampk-ulk1-autophagy-pathway
#20
Jing Pang, Fengzhe Li, Xu Feng, Hua Yang, Le Han, Yixuan Fan, Haitao Nie, Zhen Wang, Feng Wang, Yanli Zhang
Energy balance is an important feature for spermatozoa production in the testis. The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cell energy, has been implicated as a mediator between gonadal function and energy balance. Herein, we intended to determine the physiological effects of AMPK on testicular development in feed energy restricted and compensated pre-pubertal rams. Lambs had restricted feeding for 2 months and then provided compensatory feeding for another 3 months. Feed levels were 100%(control), 15% and 30% of energy restriction (ER) diets, respectively...
December 14, 2017: Theriogenology
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