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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098257/a-comprehensive-platform-for-the-analysis-of-ubiquitin-like-protein-modifications-using-in-vivo-biotinylation
#1
Lucia Pirone, Wendy Xolalpa, Jón Otti Sigurðsson, Juanma Ramirez, Coralia Pérez, Monika González, Ainara Ruiz de Sabando, Félix Elortza, Manuel S Rodriguez, Ugo Mayor, Jesper V Olsen, Rosa Barrio, James D Sutherland
Post-translational modification by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UbLs) is fundamental for maintaining protein homeostasis. Efficient isolation of UbL conjugates is hampered by multiple factors, including cost and specificity of reagents, removal of UbLs by proteases, distinguishing UbL conjugates from interactors, and low quantities of modified substrates. Here we describe bioUbLs, a comprehensive set of tools for studying modifications in Drosophila and mammals, based on multicistronic expression and in vivo biotinylation using the E...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098183/seasonal-and-regional-presence-of-hymenopteran-parasitoids-of-drosophila-in-switzerland-and-their-ability-to-parasitize-the-invasive-drosophila-suzukii
#2
Valery Knoll, Thomas Ellenbroek, Jörg Romeis, Jana Collatz
Since its introduction into Europe the invasive Drosophila suzukii has established and spread widely, thereby entering habitats populated by native Drosophila species and their natural enemies. The highly prolific D. suzukii will likely interact with these species as a competitor, host or prey. To investigate potential interactions of D. suzukii with parasitoids, a field survey was conducted across several fruit-growing regions in Switzerland in two consecutive years. Eight species of hymenopteran parasitoids were collected using D...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096360/measurement-of-cortical-elasticity-in-drosophila-melanogaster-embryos-using-ferrofluids
#3
Konstantin Doubrovinski, Michael Swan, Oleg Polyakov, Eric F Wieschaus
Many models of morphogenesis are forced to assume specific mechanical properties of cells, because the actual mechanical properties of living tissues are largely unknown. Here, we measure the rheology of epithelial cells in the cellularizing Drosophila embryo by injecting magnetic particles and studying their response to external actuation. We establish that, on timescales relevant to epithelial morphogenesis, the cytoplasm is predominantly viscous, whereas the cellular cortex is elastic. The timescale of elastic stress relaxation has a lower bound of 4 min, which is comparable to the time required for internalization of the ventral furrow during gastrulation...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096264/adherens-junctions-on-the-move-membrane-trafficking-of-e-cadherin
#4
Lena Brüser, Sven Bogdan
Cadherin-based adherens junctions are conserved structures that mediate epithelial cell-cell adhesion in invertebrates and vertebrates. Despite their pivotal function in epithelial integrity, adherens junctions show a remarkable plasticity that is a prerequisite for tissue architecture and morphogenesis. Epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) is continuously turned over and undergoes cycles of endocytosis, sorting and recycling back to the plasma membrane. Mammalian cell culture and genetically tractable model systems such as Drosophila have revealed conserved, but also distinct, mechanisms in the regulation of E-cadherin membrane trafficking...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095502/drosophila-genotype-influences-commensal-bacterial-levels
#5
Angela M Early, Niroshan Shanmugarajah, Nicolas Buchon, Andrew G Clark
Host genotype can influence the composition of the commensal bacterial community in some organisms. Composition, however, is only one parameter describing a microbial community. Here, we test whether a second parameter-abundance of bacteria-is a heritable trait by quantifying the presence of four commensal bacterial strains within 36 gnotobiotic inbred lines of Drosophila melanogaster. We find that D. melanogaster genotype exerts a significant effect on microbial levels within the fly. When introduced as monocultures into axenic flies, three of the four bacterial strains were reliably detected within the fly...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095410/cardiomyocyte-regulation-of-systemic-lipid-metabolism-by-the-apolipoprotein-b-containing-lipoproteins-in-drosophila
#6
Sunji Lee, Hong Bao, Zachary Ishikawa, Weidong Wang, Hui-Ying Lim
The heart has emerged as an important organ in the regulation of systemic lipid homeostasis; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Drosophila cardiomyocytes regulate systemic lipid metabolism by producing apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins (apoB-lipoproteins), essential lipid carriers that are so far known to be generated only in the fat body. In a Drosophila genetic screen, we discovered that when haplo-insufficient, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (mtp), required for the biosynthesis of apoB-lipoproteins, suppressed the development of diet-induced obesity...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095293/mapk-signaling-promotes-axonal-degeneration-by-speeding-the-turnover-of-the-axonal-maintenance-factor-nmnat2
#7
Lauren J Walker, Daniel W Summers, Yo Sasaki, E J Brace, Jeffrey Milbrandt, Aaron DiAntonio
Injury-induced (Wallerian) axonal degeneration is regulated via the opposing actions of pro-degenerative factors such as SARM1 and a MAPK signal and pro-survival factors, the most important of which is the NAD(+) biosynthetic enzyme NMNAT2 that inhibits activation of the SARM1 pathway. Here we investigate the mechanism by which MAPK signaling facilitates axonal degeneration. We show that MAPK signaling promotes the turnover of the axonal survival factor NMNAT2 in cultured mammalian neurons as well as the Drosophila ortholog dNMNAT in motoneurons...
January 17, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094789/mate-choice-in-fruit-flies-is-rational-and-adaptive
#8
Devin Arbuthnott, Tatyana Y Fedina, Scott D Pletcher, Daniel E L Promislow
According to rational choice theory, beneficial preferences should lead individuals to sort available options into linear, transitive hierarchies, although the extent to which non-human animals behave rationally is unclear. Here we demonstrate that mate choice in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster results in the linear sorting of a set of diverse isogenic female lines, unambiguously demonstrating the hallmark of rational behaviour, transitivity. These rational choices are associated with direct benefits, enabling males to maximize offspring production...
January 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094344/estrogen-related-receptor-is-required-for-the-testicular-development-and-for-the-normal-sperm-axoneme-mitochondrial-derivatives-in-drosophila-males
#9
Snigdha Misra, Anuj Kumar Pandey, Snigdha Gupta, Ajay Kumar, Priyanka Khanna, Jai Shankar, Kristipati Ravi Ram
Estrogen related receptors (ERRs), categorized as orphan nuclear receptors, are critical for energy homeostasis and somatic development. However, significance of ERRs in the development of reproductive organs/organelles/cells remain poorly understood, albeit their homology to estrogen receptors. In this context, here, we show that knockdown of ERR in the testes leads to improperly developed testes with mis-regulation of genes (aly, mia, bruce, bam, bgcn, fzo and eya) involved in spermatogenesis, resulting in reduced male fertility...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094282/evidence-of-neofunctionalization-after-the-duplication-of-the-highly-conserved-polycomb-group-gene-caf1-55-in-the-obscura-group-of-drosophila
#10
Juan M Calvo-Martín, Montserrat Papaceit, Carmen Segarra
Drosophila CAF1-55 protein is a subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex PRC2 and other protein complexes. It is a multifunctional and evolutionarily conserved protein that participates in nucleosome assembly and remodelling, as well as in the epigenetic regulation of a large set of target genes. Here, we describe and analyze the duplication of Caf1-55 in the obscura group of Drosophila. Paralogs exhibited a strong asymmetry in evolutionary rates, which suggests that they have evolved according to a neofunctionalization process...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094036/centriole-remodeling-during-spermiogenesis-in-drosophila
#11
Atul Khire, Kyoung H Jo, Dong Kong, Tara Akhshi, Stephanie Blachon, Anthony R Cekic, Sarah Hynek, Andrew Ha, Jadranka Loncarek, Vito Mennella, Tomer Avidor-Reiss
The first cell of an animal (zygote) requires centrosomes that are assembled from paternally inherited centrioles and maternally inherited pericentriolar material (PCM) [1]. In some animals, sperm centrioles with typical ultrastructure are the origin of the first centrosomes in the zygote [2-4]. In other animals, however, sperm centrioles lose their proteins and are thought to be degenerated and non-functional during spermiogenesis [5, 6]. Here, we show that the two sperm centrioles (the giant centriole [GC] and the proximal centriole-like structure [PCL]) in Drosophila melanogaster are remodeled during spermiogenesis through protein enrichment and ultrastructure modification in parallel to previously described centrosomal reduction [7]...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093727/gene-expression-boundary-scaling-and-organ-size-regulation-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#12
REVIEW
Christopher Amourda, Timothy E Saunders
How the shape and size of tissues and organs is regulated during development is a major question in developmental biology. Such regulation relies upon both intrinsic cues (such as signaling networks) and extrinsic inputs (such as from neighboring tissues). Here, we focus on pattern formation and organ development during Drosophila embryogenesis. In particular, we outline the importance of both biochemical and mechanical tissue-tissue interactions in size regulation. We describe how the Drosophila embryo can potentially provide novel insights into how shape and size are regulated during development...
January 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093725/shape-and-geometry-control-of-the-drosophila-tracheal-tubule
#13
REVIEW
Shigeo Hayashi, Bo Dong
For efficient respiration, tubular airways must be constructed with an optimal diameter and length for the dimensions of the body. In Drosophila, the growth of embryonic tracheal tubules proceeds in two dimensions, by axial elongation and diameter expansion. The growth forces in each dimension are controlled by distinct genetic programs and cellular mechanisms. Recent studies reveal that the apical cortex and the apical extracellular matrix filling the luminal space are essential for the generation, balancing, and equilibrium of these growth forces...
January 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093350/a-visual-screen-for-diet-regulated-proteins-in-the-drosophila-ovary-using-gfp-protein-trap-lines
#14
Hwei-Jan Hsu, Daniela Drummond-Barbosa
The effect of diet on reproduction is well documented in a large number of organisms; however, much remains to be learned about the molecular mechanisms underlying this connection. The Drosophila ovary has a well described, fast and largely reversible response to diet. Ovarian stem cells and their progeny proliferate and grow faster on a yeast-rich diet than on a yeast-free (poor) diet, and death of early germline cysts, degeneration of early vitellogenic follicles and partial block in ovulation further contribute to the ∼60-fold decrease in egg laying observed on a poor diet...
January 13, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092921/the-ligand-sas-and-its-receptor-ptp10d-drive-tumour-suppressive-cell-competition
#15
Masatoshi Yamamoto, Shizue Ohsawa, Kei Kunimasa, Tatsushi Igaki
Normal epithelial cells often exert anti-tumour effects against nearby oncogenic cells. In the Drosophila imaginal epithelium, clones of oncogenic cells with loss-of-function mutations in the apico-basal polarity genes scribble or discs large are actively eliminated by cell competition when surrounded by wild-type cells. Although c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling plays a crucial role in this cell elimination, the initial event, which occurs at the interface between normal cells and polarity-deficient cells, has not previously been identified...
January 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092765/cytotoxic-genotoxic-and-mutagenic-evaluation-of-surface-waters-from-a-coal-exploration-region
#16
Cynthia Silva Porta, Débora Lemes Dos Santos, Hélio Vieira Bernardes, Bruno Corrêa Bellagamba, Anaí Duarte, Johnny Ferraz Dias, Fernanda Rabaioli da Silva, Mauricio Lehmann, Juliana da Silva, Rafael Rodrigues Dihl
Coal mining generates a considerable amount of waste, which is disposed of in piles or dams near mining sites. As a result, leachates may reach rivers and streams, promoting the wide dispersion of contaminants in solution and as particulate matter. The present study evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic action of surface waters collected around a thermoelectric power plant and the largest mining area in Brazil (Candiota). Four sites in Candiota stream were selected, and samples were collected in winter and summer...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092692/smile-seq-identifies-binding-motifs-of-single-and-dimeric-transcription-factors
#17
Alina Isakova, Romain Groux, Michael Imbeault, Pernille Rainer, Daniel Alpern, Riccardo Dainese, Giovanna Ambrosini, Didier Trono, Philipp Bucher, Bart Deplancke
Resolving the DNA-binding specificities of transcription factors (TFs) is of critical value for understanding gene regulation. Here, we present a novel, semiautomated protein-DNA interaction characterization technology, selective microfluidics-based ligand enrichment followed by sequencing (SMiLE-seq). SMiLE-seq is neither limited by DNA bait length nor biased toward strong affinity binders; it probes the DNA-binding properties of TFs over a wide affinity range in a fast and cost-effective fashion. We validated SMiLE-seq by analyzing 58 full-length human, mouse, and Drosophila TFs from distinct structural classes...
January 16, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092459/toward-high-throughput-and-multiplexed-imaging-of-genome-organization
#18
Eric F Joyce
Dr. Eric Joyce from the Department of Genetics at the University of Pennsylvania was awarded The President's Innovation award at the annual Society of Biomolecular Imaging and Informatics meeting held in Boston, September 2016. Chromosome interactions are a fundamental aspect of nuclear organization that can activate and silence genes or even direct chromosome rearrangements. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying how chromosomal segments find each other and form stable interactions within cells remain unknown...
January 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091568/identification-of-misexpressed-genetic-elements-in-hybrids-between-drosophila-related-species
#19
Hélène Lopez-Maestre, Elias A G Carnelossi, Vincent Lacroix, Nelly Burlet, Bruno Mugat, Séverine Chambeyron, Claudia M A Carareto, Cristina Vieira
Crosses between close species can lead to genomic disorders, often considered to be the cause of hybrid incompatibility, one of the initial steps in the speciation process. How these incompatibilities are established and what are their causes remain unclear. To understand the initiation of hybrid incompatibility, we performed reciprocal crosses between two species of Drosophila (D. mojavensis and D. arizonae) that diverged less than 1 Mya. We performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis on ovaries from parental lines and on hybrids from reciprocal crosses...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090761/modest-overexpression-of-foxo-maintains-cardiac-proteostasis-and-ameliorates-age-associated-functional-decline
#20
Anna C Blice-Baum, Alexander C Zambon, Gaurav Kaushik, Meera C Viswanathan, Adam J Engler, Rolf Bodmer, Anthony Cammarato
Heart performance declines with age. Impaired protein quality control (PQC), due to reduced ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) activity, autophagic function, and/or chaperone-mediated protein refolding, contributes to cardiac deterioration. The transcription factor FOXO participates in regulating genes involved in PQC, senescence, and numerous other processes. Here, a comprehensive approach, involving molecular genetics, novel assays to probe insect cardiac physiology, and bioinformatics, was utilized to investigate the influence of heart-restricted manipulation of dFOXO expression in the rapidly aging Drosophila melanogaster model...
February 2017: Aging Cell
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