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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641402/ec-tagging-allows-cell-type-specific-rna-analysis
#1
Naoki Hida, Mohamed Y Aboukilila, Dana A Burow, Rakesh Paul, Marc M Greenberg, Michael Fazio, Samantha Beasley, Robert C Spitale, Michael D Cleary
Purification of cell type-specific RNAs remains a significant challenge. One solution involves biosynthetic tagging of target RNAs. RNA tagging via incorporation of 4-thiouracil (TU) in cells expressing transgenic uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), a method known as TU-tagging, has been used in multiple systems but can have limited specificity due to endogenous pathways of TU incorporation. Here, we describe an alternative method that requires the activity of two enzymes: cytosine deaminase (CD) and UPRT...
June 21, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641115/feature-integration-drives-probabilistic-behavior-in-the-drosophila-escape-response
#2
Catherine R von Reyn, Aljoscha Nern, W Ryan Williamson, Patrick Breads, Ming Wu, Shigehiro Namiki, Gwyneth M Card
Animals rely on dedicated sensory circuits to extract and encode environmental features. How individual neurons integrate and translate these features into behavioral responses remains a major question. Here, we identify a visual projection neuron type that conveys predator approach information to the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) escape circuit. Genetic removal of this input during looming stimuli reveals that it encodes angular expansion velocity, whereas other input cell type(s) encode angular size. Motor program selection and timing emerge from linear integration of these two features within the GF...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641103/staring-at-the-clock-face-in-drosophila
#3
Ezio Rosato, Charalambos P Kyriacou
Liang et al. (2017) demonstrate how neuropeptides from two groups of clock cells appear to be responsible for the fly's circadian neurons becoming active at different times of day. By delaying the activity of their clock cell targets, they give rise to morning and evening behavior.
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640815/an-autonomous-metabolic-role-for-spen
#4
Kelsey E Hazegh, Travis Nemkov, Angelo D'Alessandro, John D Diller, Jenifer Monks, James L McManaman, Kenneth L Jones, Kirk C Hansen, Tânia Reis
Preventing obesity requires a precise balance between deposition into and mobilization from fat stores, but regulatory mechanisms are incompletely understood. Drosophila Split ends (Spen) is the founding member of a conserved family of RNA-binding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation and frequently mutated in human cancers. We find that manipulating Spen expression alters larval fat levels in a cell-autonomous manner. Spen-depleted larvae had defects in energy liberation from stores, including starvation sensitivity and major changes in the levels of metabolic enzymes and metabolites, particularly those involved in β-oxidation...
June 22, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640802/peroxisomal-biogenesis-is-genetically-and-biochemically-linked-to-carbohydrate-metabolism-in-drosophila-and-mouse
#5
Michael F Wangler, Yu-Hsin Chao, Vafa Bayat, Nikolaos Giagtzoglou, Abhijit Babaji Shinde, Nagireddy Putluri, Cristian Coarfa, Taraka Donti, Brett H Graham, Joseph E Faust, James A McNew, Ann Moser, Marco Sardiello, Myriam Baes, Hugo J Bellen
Peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a group of multi-system human diseases due to mutations in the PEX genes that are responsible for peroxisome assembly and function. These disorders lead to global defects in peroxisomal function and result in severe brain, liver, bone and kidney disease. In order to study their pathogenesis we undertook a systematic genetic and biochemical study of Drosophila pex16 and pex2 mutants. These mutants are short-lived with defects in locomotion and activity. Moreover these mutants exhibit severe morphologic and functional peroxisomal defects...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640668/absence-of-the-fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-results-in-defects-of-rna-editing-of-neuronal-mrnas-in-mouse
#6
Alice Filippini, Daniela Bonini, Caroline Lacoux, Laura Pacini, Maria Zingariello, Laura Sancillo, Daniela Bosisio, Valentina Salvi, Jessica Mingardi, Luca La Via, Francesca Zalfa, Claudia Bagni, Alessandro Barbon
The fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited intellectual disability, is due to the absence of FMRP, a protein regulating RNA metabolism. Recently, an unexpected function of FMRP in modulating the activity of Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes has been reported both in Drosophila and Zebrafish. ADARs are RNA-binding proteins that increase transcriptional complexity through a post-transcriptional mechanism called RNA editing. In order to evaluate the ADAR2-FMRP interaction in mammals we analysed several RNA editing re-coding sites in the fmr1 knockout (KO) mice...
June 22, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637217/experimental-support-that-natural-selection-has-shaped-the-latitudinal-distribution-of-mitochondrial-haplotypes-in-australian-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
M Florencia Camus, Jonci N Wolff, Carla M Sgrò, Damian K Dowling
Cellular metabolism is regulated by enzyme complexes within the mitochondrion, the function of which are sensitive to the prevailing temperature. Such thermal sensitivity, coupled with the observation that population frequencies of mitochondrial haplotypes tend to associate with latitude, altitude or climatic regions across species distributions, led to the hypothesis that thermal selection has played a role in shaping standing variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence. This hypothesis, however, remains controversial, and requires evidence that the distribution of haplotypes observed in nature corresponds with the capacity of these haplotypes to confer differences in thermal tolerance...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636933/drosophila-neuropeptide-f-signaling-independently-regulates-feeding-and-sleep-wake-behavior
#8
Brian Y Chung, Jennifer Ro, Sabine A Hutter, Kylie M Miller, Lakshmi S Guduguntla, Shu Kondo, Scott D Pletcher
Proper regulation of sleep-wake behavior and feeding is essential for organismal health and survival. While previous studies have isolated discrete neural loci and substrates important for either sleep or feeding, how the brain is organized to coordinate both processes with respect to one another remains poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that the Drosophila Neuropeptide F (NPF) network forms a critical component of both adult sleep and feeding regulation. Activation of NPF signaling in the brain promotes wakefulness and adult feeding, likely through its cognate receptor NPFR...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636800/molecular-dissection-of-smooth-septate-junctions-understanding-their-roles-in-arthropod-physiology
#9
REVIEW
Mikio Furuse, Yasushi Izumi
Smooth septate junctions (sSJs) are cell-cell junctions that are thought to regulate the paracellular pathway of the intestine and renal system in arthropods. The detailed mechanism of action of sSJs is not well understood, because their molecular organization has remained elusive for a long time. Recently, two sSJ-specific membrane proteins, Ssk and Mesh, were identified by screening monoclonal antibodies raised against sSJ-containing membrane fractions isolated from the silkworm midgut. Furthermore, a genetic screen in Drosophila based on microscopic observation of sSJ formation identified Tsp2A as a novel sSJ-specific membrane protein...
June 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636597/phase-separation-drives-heterochromatin-domain-formation
#10
Amy R Strom, Alexander V Emelyanov, Mustafa Mir, Dmitry V Fyodorov, Xavier Darzacq, Gary H Karpen
Constitutive heterochromatin is an important component of eukaryotic genomes that has essential roles in nuclear architecture, DNA repair and genome stability, and silencing of transposon and gene expression. Heterochromatin is highly enriched for repetitive sequences, and is defined epigenetically by methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 and recruitment of its binding partner heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). A prevalent view of heterochromatic silencing is that these and associated factors lead to chromatin compaction, resulting in steric exclusion of regulatory proteins such as RNA polymerase from the underlying DNA...
June 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636268/high-throughput-sequencing-reveals-drosophila-suzukii-responses-to-insecticides
#11
Ruchir Mishra, Joanna C Chiu, Gang Hua, Nilesh R Tawari, Michael J Adang, Ashfaq A Sial
Global climate change and acquired resistance to insecticides are threats to world food security. Drosophila suzukii, a devastating invasive pest in many parts of the world, causes substantial economic losses to fruit production industries, forcing farmers to apply broad-spectrum insecticides frequently. This could lead to the development of insecticide resistance. We determined the Lethal Concentration50 (median lethal concentration) values of zeta-cypermethrin, spinosad, and malathion insecticides against D...
June 21, 2017: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636161/infinity-sperm-storage-the-gift-that-keeps-on-giving
#12
Gauthier Schang, Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Samantha C Lean, Alexandra L Nguyen, Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini
Female Drosophila retain sperm for up to two weeks post-copulation in a network of storage organs includng the bursa, the seminal receptacle, and the spermathecae. This image shows the seminal receptacle of a Drosophila melanogaster female, 2-hrs post-copulation between a LHM (wild-type) female with a Protamine B (green), β-Tubulin (blue) fluorescently tagged male, whose sperm can be visualized within the female. This 'infinity' structure of the seminal receptacle resembles the tubular coil that allows for the storage of very long sperm relative to female body size -up to 20 times the length of the female in some Drosophila species...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634860/molecular-chaperone-hsp70-and-its-constitutively-active-form-hsc70-play-an-indispensable-role-during-eye-development-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#13
Ajay Kumar, Anand K Tiwari
In the present study, we demonstrate that molecular chaperone Hsp70 and Hsc70 is essential for normal organization and development of ommatidial cells in Drosophila melanogaster eye. An exogenously expressed dominant negative mutant of Hsp70 (K71E) and Hsc70.4 (K71S and D206S) in an eye-specific manner resulted in eye degeneration that includes loss of eye pigment, disorganized ommatidia, abnormality in bristle cell arrangement and reduction in the eye size. The developmental organization of ommatidial cells (cone, photoreceptor, pigment, and bristle cell complex) was disturbed in Hsp70 and Hsc70 mutants...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634443/the-narrow-abdomen-ion-channel-complex-is-highly-stable-and-persists-from-development-into-adult-stages-to-promote-behavioral-rhythmicity
#14
Devon L Moose, Stephanie J Haase, Benjamin T Aldrich, Bridget C Lear
The sodium leak channel NARROW ABDOMEN (NA)/ NALCN is an important component of circadian pacemaker neuronal output. In Drosophila, rhythmic expression of the NA channel regulator Nlf-1 in a subset of adult pacemaker neurons has been proposed to contribute to circadian regulation of channel localization or activity. Here we have restricted expression of Drosophila NA channel subunits or the Nlf-1 regulator to either development or adulthood using the temperature-inducible tubulin-GAL80(ts) system. Surprisingly, we find that developmental expression of endogenous channel subunits and Nlf-1 is sufficient to promote robust rhythmic behavior in adults...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634323/intestinal-microbial-dysbiosis-aggravates-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-drosophila
#15
Shih-Cheng Wu, Zih-Syuan Cao, Kuo-Ming Chang, Jyh-Lyh Juang
Neuroinflammation caused by local deposits of Aβ42 in the brain is key for the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, inflammation in the brain is not always a response to local primary insults. Gut microbiota dysbiosis, which is recently emerging as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, can also initiate a brain inflammatory response. It still remains unclear however, whether enteric dysbiosis also contributes to Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that in a Drosophila Alzheimer's disease model, enterobacteria infection exacerbated progression of Alzheimer's disease by promoting immune hemocyte recruitment to the brain, thereby provoking TNF-JNK mediated neurodegeneration...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634244/simple-expression-domains-are-regulated-by-discrete-crms-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#16
Nicole T Revaitis, Robert A Marmion, Maira Farhat, Vesile Ekiz, Wei Wang, Nir Yakoby
Eggshell patterning has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster However, the cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), which control spatiotemporal expression of these patterns, are vastly unexplored. The FlyLight collection contains over 7,000 intergenic and intronic DNA fragments that, if containing CRMs, can drive the transcription factor GAL4. We cross-listed the 84 genes known to be expressed during D. melanogaster oogenesis with the ~1200 listed genes of the FlyLight collection, and found 22 common genes that are represented by 281 FlyLight fly lines...
June 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634210/the-glycosylation-pathway-is-required-for-the-secretion-of-slit-and-for-the-maintenance-of-the-slit-receptor-robo-on-axons
#17
Mary Ann Manavalan, Vatsala Ruvini Jayasinghe, Rickinder Grewal, Krishna Moorthi Bhat
Slit proteins act as repulsive axon guidance cues by activating receptors of the Roundabout (Robo) family. During early neurogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster, Slit prevents the growth cones of longitudinal tract neurons from inappropriately crossing the midline, thus restricting these cells to trajectories parallel to the midline. Slit is expressed in midline glial cells, and Robo is present in longitudinal axon tracts and growth cones. We showed that the enzyme Mummy (Mmy) controlled Slit-Robo signaling through mechanisms that affected both the ligand and the receptor...
June 20, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633893/genes-encoding-cuticular-proteins-are-components-of-the-nimrod-gene-cluster-in-drosophila
#18
Gyöngyi Cinege, János Zsámboki, Maite Vidal-Quadras, Anne Uv, Gábor Csordás, Viktor Honti, Erika Gábor, Zoltán Hegedűs, Gergely I B Varga, Attila L Kovács, Gábor Juhász, Michael J Williams, István Andó, Éva Kurucz
The Nimrod gene cluster, located on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, is the largest synthenic unit of the Drosophila genome. Nimrod genes show blood cell specific expression and code for phagocytosis receptors that play a major role in fruit fly innate immune functions. We previously identified three homologous genes (vajk-1, vajk-2 and vajk-3) located within the Nimrod cluster, which are unrelated to the Nimrod genes, but are homologous to a fourth gene (vajk-4) located outside the cluster...
June 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633361/evolution-of-mirna-tailing-by-3-terminal-uridylyl-transferases-in-metazoa
#19
Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Yehu Moran
In bilaterian animals the 3' ends of microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently modified by tailing and trimming. These modifications affect miRNA-mediated gene regulation by modulating miRNA stability. Here we analyzed data from three non-bilaterian animals: two cnidarians (Nematostella vectensis and Hydra magnipapillata) and one poriferan (Amphimedon queenslandica). Our analysis revealed that non-bilaterian miRNAs frequently undergo modifications like the bilaterian counterparts: the majority are expressed as different length isoforms and frequent modifications of the 3' end by mono U or mono A tailing are observed...
June 14, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633019/edem-function-in-erad-protects-against-chronic-er-proteinopathy-and-age-related-physiological-decline-in-drosophila
#20
Michiko Sekiya, Akiko Maruko-Otake, Stephen Hearn, Yasufumi Sakakibara, Naoki Fujisaki, Emiko Suzuki, Kanae Ando, Koichi M Iijima
The unfolded protein response (UPR), which protects cells against accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, is induced in several age-associated degenerative diseases. However, sustained UPR activation has negative effects on cellular functions and may worsen disease symptoms. It remains unknown whether and how UPR components can be utilized to counteract chronic ER proteinopathies. We found that promotion of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) through upregulation of ERAD-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs) protected against chronic ER proteinopathy without inducing toxicity in a Drosophila model...
June 19, 2017: Developmental Cell
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