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Glutamate recepter subtypes

María De Jesús-Burgos, Vanessa Torres-Llenza, Nivia L Pérez-Acevedo
Anxiety disorders are more prevalent in females than males. The underlying reasons for this gender difference are unknown. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been linked to anxiety and it has been shown that interaction between estrogen receptors and mGluRs modulate sexual receptivity in rats. We investigated the role of mGluRs in anxiety-related behaviors in ovariectomized female rats with (OVX+EB) or without (OVX) estradiol implants. We centrally infused (s)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), a group I mGluR agonist, into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of OVX+EB and OVX rats at 0...
May 2012: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Caroline A Runyan, James Schummers, Audra Van Wart, Sandra J Kuhlman, Nathan R Wilson, Z Josh Huang, Mriganka Sur
Inhibitory interneurons in the cerebral cortex include a vast array of subtypes, varying in their molecular signatures, electrophysiological properties, and connectivity patterns. This diversity suggests that individual inhibitory classes have unique roles in cortical circuits; however, their characterization to date has been limited to broad classifications including many subtypes. We used the Cre/LoxP system, specifically labeling parvalbumin(PV)-expressing interneurons in visual cortex of PV-Cre mice with red fluorescent protein (RFP), followed by targeted loose-patch recordings and two-photon imaging of calcium responses in vivo to characterize the visual receptive field properties of these cells...
September 9, 2010: Neuron
Clair Booth, Christopher P Wayman, Vivienne Margaret Jackson
INTRODUCTION: The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) controls female rodent copulatory behavior, which can be modulated by injection of various compounds into the VMH. Aim. The aim was to determine whether evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) or single-unit activity within the VMH ex vivo is a better parameter to predict lordosis. METHODS: VMH slices were placed onto a 64 microelectrode chip and spontaneous single-unit activity was recorded or slices stimulated to evoke EPSPs...
July 2010: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Lesley A Wilson, Chris P Wayman, V Margaret Jackson
INTRODUCTION: Neuropeptides are known to modulate female receptivity. However, even though receptivity is a spinal reflex, the role of neuropeptides within the spinal cord remains to be elucidated. AIM: The aims were to (i) investigate neuropeptides in the lumbosacral region; and (ii) determine how neuropeptides modulate glutamate release from stretch Ia fibers, touch sensation Abeta fibers and Adelta/C pain fibers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Neuropeptide modulation of the lumbosacral dorsal-root ventral-root reflex in vitro...
April 2009: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Xin Su, Mark O Urban
We investigated whether the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) selective antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) has direct effects on primary afferent fiber responses to noxious mechanical stimulation following inflammation. Mechanosensory primary afferent fibers innervating the hind paw were recorded in naïve and complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) inflamed rats. Following intraplantar injection of CFA, afferent fibers showed property changes including expanded receptive fields, burst firing with fast adaptive mechanical responses and a higher incidence of cold and/or heat sensitivities compared to naïve rats...
December 30, 2005: Neuroscience Letters
Weidong Li, Volker Neugebauer
The laterocapsular division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is now defined as the "nociceptive amygdala" because of its high content of neurons that respond to painful stimuli. The majority of these neurons become sensitized in a model of arthritis pain. Here we address the role of G protein-coupled group I metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes mGluR1 and mGluR5 in nociceptive processing under normal conditions and in pain-related sensitization. Extracellular single-unit recordings were made from 65 CeA neurons in anesthetized rats...
January 2004: Journal of Neurophysiology
Florian Engert, Huizhong W Tao, Li I Zhang, Mu-ming Poo
During development of the visual system, the pattern of visual inputs may have an instructive role in refining developing neural circuits. How visual inputs of specific spatiotemporal patterns shape the circuit development remains largely unknown. We report here that, in the developing Xenopus retinotectal system, the receptive field of tectal neurons can be 'trained' to become direction-sensitive within minutes after repetitive exposure of the retina to moving bars in a particular direction. The induction of direction-sensitivity depends on the speed of the moving bar, can not be induced by random visual stimuli, and is accompanied by an asymmetric modification of the tectal neuron's receptive field...
October 3, 2002: Nature
K Walker, A Reeve, M Bowes, J Winter, G Wotherspoon, A Davis, P Schmid, F Gasparini, R Kuhn, L Urban
Previous studies have demonstrated that the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5 receptor) is expressed in the cell bodies of rat primary afferent neurones. We have further investigated the function and expression of mGlu5 receptors in primary afferent neurones, and their role in inflammatory nociception. Freund's complete adjuvant-induced inflammatory hyperalgesia of the rat hind paw was significantly reduced by intraplantar, but not by intracerebroventricular or intrathecal microinjection of the selective mGlu5 receptor antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP)...
2001: Neuropharmacology
C A Frye, J M Vongher
In hamsters, progesterone (P) in the hypothalamus and ventral tegmental area (VTA) is necessary for receptivity; in rats, hypothalamic P induces receptivity and midbrain P further enhances it. How P exerts its effects in the VTA on lordosis is of interest because few estrogen-induced P receptors (PRs) have been identified there. Sexual receptivity of rats and hamsters is enhanced when P's actions in the VTA are restricted to the membrane and when the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A agonist, muscimol, is infused into the VTA, but attenuated with infusions of the GABA(A) antagonist, bicuculline...
August 1999: Behavioural Brain Research
W Riedel, G Maulik
Immediately after bacterial endotoxin (LPS) enters the circulatory system there is increased production of free oxygen radicals by cells of the reticulo-endothelial system, followed by the release of cytokines considered as putative endogenous pyrogens. Fever originates by central nervous system activities, but neither exogenous nor endogenous pyrogens are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and the true signal which is transmitted to structures inside the blood-brain barrier is still unknown. To study the role of oxygen radicals in fever, we pretreated rats with methylene blue, an inhibitor of superoxide and hydroxyl radical production and investigated the febrile response to LPS in conscious rats by measuring malondialdehyde formation as an index of lipid peroxidation by oxygen radicals...
June 1999: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
K F Medler, H N Tran, J M Parker, J Caprio, R C Bruch
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) were identified in olfactory receptor neurons of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, by polymerase chain reaction. DNA sequence analysis confirmed the presence of two subtypes, mGluR1 and mGluR3, that were coexpressed with each other and with the putative odorant receptors within single olfactory receptor neurons. Immunocytochemical data showed that both mGluR subtypes were expressed in the apical dendrites and some cilia of olfactory neurons. Pharmacological analysis showed that antagonists to each mGluR subtype significantly decreased the electrophysiological response to odorant amino acids...
April 1998: Journal of Neurobiology
T Kasamatsu, K Imamura, N Mataga, E Hartveit, U Heggelund, P Heggelund
We have re-examined whether N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors play a specific role in experience-dependent plasticity in kitten visual cortex. A specific antagonist of this glutamate receptor subtype, D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid, was directly and continuously infused into kitten striate cortex for one week concurrently with monocular lid suture. In the hemisphere infused with 50 mM antagonist, we found the usual shift in ocular dominance toward the open eye with only a few binocular cells remaining. The changes were accompanied by an extremely high incidence (38%) of abnormal cells lacking orientation selectivity across different ocular dominance groups...
February 1998: Neuroscience
W Wuttke, H Jarry, C Feleder, J Moguilevsky, S Leonhardt, J Y Seong, K Kim
We review the crucial role of the two neurotransmitters norepinephrine (NE) and GABA in eliciting GnRH pulse. NE acts via an alpha l-receptor mechanism and also GABA acts at the alpha-subtype of the GABA receptor. The function of NE appears to be induction of phasic activation of GnRH neurons and GABA inhibits GnRH neurons tonically until they are all ready for phasic activation. By an unknown mechanism preoptic GABA release in dramatically reduced which causes simultaneous desinhibition of the GnRH neurons...
1996: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Q Lin, Y B Peng, W D Willis
1. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is thought to inhibit both pre- and postsynaptically the transfer of nociceptive signals from primary afferent fibers to spinal dorsal horn sensory cells, including spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons. The inhibition can be mediated by both GABAA and GABAB receptors. We now attempt to characterize the synaptic inhibition of STT cells by spinal GABAA and GABAB receptors in anesthetized monkeys and to analyze the roles of these two receptor subtypes in the inhibition of STT cellular activity produced by stimulation in the periaqueductal gray (PAG)...
January 1996: Journal of Neurophysiology
B Gao, J M Fritschy, D Benke, H Mohler
GABAA-receptors in the brain display a striking structural heterogeneity, which is based on a multiplicity of diverse subunits. The allocation of GABAA-receptor subtypes to identified neurons is essential for an analysis of the functional significance of receptor heterogeneity. Among GABA-receptive neurons, well-characterized examples include the serotonergic and GABAergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. The GABAA-receptor subtypes expressed in these two types of neurons were analysed using antisera which recognize selectively the alpha 1- and alpha 3-subunits, and their co-localization with serotonin and glutamate decarboxylase was assessed by confocal laser microscopy in double and triple immunofluorescence staining in the rat...
June 1993: Neuroscience
S P Schneider, E R Perl
1. Responses of dorsal horn neurons to cutaneous mechanical stimulation were studied in an in vitro preparation of hamster spinal cord with partially intact innervation from an isolated patch of hairy skin. Stable extracellular and intracellular recordings were obtained from cells with different mechanoreceptive properties similar to those reported for other species in vivo. Analyses were made of the intracellular responses of 25 dorsal horn neurons activated selectively by mechanical stimulation to the skin patch...
August 1994: Journal of Neurophysiology
J E Downing, A Kaneko
The neuropharmacological basis for the different receptive field properties of cat retinal ganglion cells was investigated using whole cell voltage-clamp recordings from acutely dissociated adult tissue. Subclasses of physiologically characterised ganglion cells were determined on the basis of (i) their soma diameters and (ii) their projection to central visual nuclei (identified by microinjection of fluorescent dyes into the lateral geniculate and/or superior colliculus). The sensitivities of all categories of ganglion cells, prepared from peripheral retina were found to be similar for gamma-amino butyric acid, glycine, acetylcholine and glutamate...
March 16, 1992: Neuroscience Letters
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