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Spinal glial cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766931/-in-vitro-differentiation-of-neural-cells-from-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stromal-cells
#1
Shruti D Dave, Chetan N Patel, Aruna V Vanikar, Hargovind L Trivedi
Background: Stem cells, including neural stem cells (NSCs), are endowed with self-renewal capability and hence hold great opportunity for the institution of replacement/protective therapy. We propose a method for in vitro generation of stromal cells from human adipose tissue and their differentiation into neural cells. Materials and Methods: Ten grams of donor adipose tissue was surgically resected from the abdominal wall of the human donor after the participants' informed consents...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763918/comprehensive-effects-of-suppression-of-microrna-383-in-human-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-treating-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Guo-Jun Wei, Ke-Wen Zheng, Gang An, Zuo-Wei Shi, Kai-Fu Wang, Ying Guan, Yan-Song Wang, Peng-Fei Li, Da-Ming Dong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transplantation of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promotes neural cell regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). Recently, we showed that suppression of microRNA-383 (miR-383) in MSCs increased the protein levels of glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), resulting in improved therapeutic effects on SCI. However, the overall effects of miR-383 suppression in MSCs on SCI therapy were not determined yet. Here, we addressed this question...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756516/transplantation-of-a-peripheral-nerve-with-neural-stem-cells-plus-lithium-chloride-injection-promote-the-recovery-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Li-Qun Zhang, Wen-Ming Zhang, Lingxiao Deng, Zi-Xing Xu, Wen-Bin Lan, Jian-Hua Lin
Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) holds great potential for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, transplanted NSCs poorly survive in the SCI environment. We injected NSCs into tibial nerve and transplanted tibial nerve into a hemisected spinal cord and investigated the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on the survival of spinal neurons, axonal regeneration, and functional recovery. Our results show that most of the transplanted NSCs expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein, while there was no obvious expression of nestin, neuronal nuclei, or acetyltransferase found in NSCs...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751769/repeated-injections-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-significantly-promotes-functional-recovery-in-rabbits-with-spinal-cord-injury-of-two-noncontinuous-segments
#4
Chaohua Yang, Gaoju Wang, Fenfen Ma, Baoqing Yu, Fancheng Chen, Jin Yang, Jianjun Feng, Qing Wang
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are sustained by an increasing number of patients each year worldwide. The treatment of SCIs has long been a hard nut to crack for doctors around the world. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown benefits for the repair of SCI and recovery of function. Our present study aims to investigate the effects of intravenously infused human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs) on functional recovery after subacute spinal cord compression injury of two noncontinuous segments...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748539/sirt1-activation-with-neuroheal-is-neuroprotective-but-sirt2-inhibition-with-ak7-is-detrimental-for-disconnected-motoneurons
#5
David Romeo-Guitart, Tatiana Leiva-Rodríguez, María Espinosa-Alcantud, Núria Sima, Alejandro Vaquero, Helena Domínguez-Martín, Diego Ruano, Caty Casas
Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity is neuroprotective, and we have recently demonstrated its role in the retrograde degenerative process in motoneurons (MNs) in the spinal cord of rats after peripheral nerve root avulsion (RA) injury. SIRT2 has been suggested to exert effects opposite those of SIRT1; however, its roles in neurodegeneration and neuron response after nerve injury remain unclear. Here we compared the neuroprotective potentials of SIRT1 activation and SIRT2 inhibition in a mouse model of hypoglossal nerve axotomy...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743351/survival-of-syngeneic-and-allogeneic-ipsc-derived-neural-precursors-after-spinal-grafting-in-minipigs
#6
Jan Strnadel, Cassiano Carromeu, Cedric Bardy, Michael Navarro, Oleksandr Platoshyn, Andreas N Glud, Silvia Marsala, Jozef Kafka, Atsushi Miyanohara, Tomohisa Kato, Takahiro Tadokoro, Michael P Hefferan, Kota Kamizato, Tetsuya Yoshizumi, Stefan Juhas, Jana Juhasova, Chak-Sum Ho, Taba Kheradmand, PeiXi Chen, Dasa Bohaciakova, Marian Hruska-Plochan, Andrew J Todd, Shawn P Driscoll, Thomas D Glenn, Samuel L Pfaff, Jiri Klima, Joseph Ciacci, Eric Curtis, Fred H Gage, Jack Bui, Kazuhiko Yamada, Alysson R Muotri, Martin Marsala
The use of autologous (or syngeneic) cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) holds great promise for future clinical use in a wide range of diseases and injuries. It is expected that cell replacement therapies using autologous cells would forego the need for immunosuppression, otherwise required in allogeneic transplantations. However, recent studies have shown the unexpected immune rejection of undifferentiated autologous mouse iPSCs after transplantation. Whether similar immunogenic properties are maintained in iPSC-derived lineage-committed cells (such as neural precursors) is relatively unknown...
May 9, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743034/glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf-attenuates-the-peripheral-neuromuscular-dysfunction-without-inhibiting-the-activation-of-spinal-microglia-monocyte
#7
Fei Xie, Fan Zhang, Su Min, Jingyuan Chen, Jun Yang, Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuromuscular dysfunctions were found in elderly individuals, and spinal microglia/monocyte plays an important role on this process. This study aims to test whether the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) could attenuate age-related neuromuscular dysfunction by inhibiting the activation of spinal microglia/monocyte. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into an adult group and an aged group. The aged rats were intrathecally injected with normal saline (NS) and GDNF...
May 9, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733569/directing-ipsc-derived-neural-stem-cell-fate-with-3d-biomimetic-hydrogel-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#8
Lei Fan, Can Liu, Xiuxing Chen, Yan Zou, Zhengnan Zhou, Chengkai Lin, Guoxin Tan, Lei Zhou, Chengyun Ning, Qiyou Wang
Current treatment approaches for spinal cord injuries (SCIs) are mainly based on cellular transplantation. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) without supply constraints and ethical concerns have emerged as a viable treatment option for repairing neurological disorders. However, the primarily limitations in the neuroregeneration field are uncontrolled cell differentiation, and low cell viability caused by the ischemic environment. The mechanical property of three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel can be easily controlled and shared similar characteristics with nerve tissue, thus promoting cell survival and controlled cell differentiation...
May 7, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730970/spinal-glial-adaptations-occur-in-a-minimally-invasive-mouse-model-of-endometriosis-potential-implications-for-lesion-etiology-and-persistent-pelvic-pain
#9
Kelsi N Dodds, Elizabeth A H Beckett, Susan F Evans, Mark R Hutchinson
Glial adaptations within the central nervous system are well known to modulate central sensitization and pain. Recently, it has been suggested that activity of glial-related proinflammatory cytokines may potentiate peripheral inflammation, via central neurogenic processes. However, a role for altered glial function has not yet been investigated in the context of endometriosis, a chronic inflammatory condition in women associated with peripheral lesions, often manifesting with persistent pelvic pain. Using a minimally invasive mouse model of endometriosis, we investigated associations between peripheral endometriosis-like lesions and adaptations in central glial reactivity...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728852/glial-cells-shape-pathology-and-repair-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
REVIEW
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken
Glial cell types were classified less than 100 years ago by del Rio-Hortega. For instance, he correctly surmised that microglia in pathologic central nervous system (CNS) were "voracious monsters" that helped clean the tissue. Although these historical predictions were remarkably accurate, innovative technologies have revealed novel molecular, cellular, and dynamic physiologic aspects of CNS glia. In this review, we integrate recent findings regarding the roles of glia and glial interactions in healthy and injured spinal cord...
May 4, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722321/macrophage-depletion-and-schwann-cell-transplantation-reduce-cyst-size-after-rat-contusive-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Yee-Shuan Lee, Lucy H Funk, Jae K Lee, Mary Bartlett Bunge
Schwann cell transplantation is a promising therapy for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) and is currently in clinical trials. In our continuing efforts to improve Schwann cell transplantation strategies, we sought to determine the combined effects of Schwann cell transplantation with macrophage depletion. Since macrophages are major inflammatory contributors to the acute spinal cord injury, and are the major phagocytic cells, we hypothesized that transplanting Schwann cells after macrophage depletion will improve cell survival and integration with host tissue after SCI...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717413/spinal-cord-injury-scarring-and-inflammation-therapies-targeting-glial-and-inflammatory-responses
#12
REVIEW
Michael B Orr, John C Gensel
Deficits in neuronal function are a hallmark of spinal cord injury (SCI) and therapeutic efforts are often focused on central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration. However, secondary injury responses by astrocytes, microglia, pericytes, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, fibroblasts, meningeal cells, and other glia not only potentiate SCI damage but also facilitate endogenous repair. Due to their profound impact on the progression of SCI, glial cells and modification of the glial scar are focuses of SCI therapeutic research...
May 1, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708252/dna-aptamers-from-whole-cell-selex-as-new-diagnostic-agents-against-glioblastoma-multiforme-cells
#13
Qiaoyi Wu, Yuzhe Wang, Hongyao Wang, Liang Wu, Huimin Zhang, Yanling Song, Zhi Zhu, Dezhi Kang, Chaoyong Yang
Glioma is a cancer derived from transformed glial cells, which are often invasive and display a heterogeneous cell population. Currently, no trustworthy biomarkers for the detection and risk stratification of glioma have been discovered. The objective of the present research was to select DNA aptamers to facilitate early diagnosis and effective therapy of glioma. Using cell-SELEX, three aptamers (WYZ-37, WYZ-41, WYZ-50), which can specifically recognize the molecular differences between target cells T98G and negative cells SVGp12, were identified...
April 30, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701915/complete-adult-neurogenesis-within-a-wallerian-degenerating-nerve-expressed-as-an-ectopic-ganglion
#14
Tomonori Nakano, Shigeru Kurimoto, Shuichi Kato, Kenichi Asano, Takuma Hirata, Hiroshi Kiyama, Hitoshi Hirata
Neurogenesis in the adult peripheral nervous system remains to be demonstrated. We transplanted embryonic neural stem cells into a Wallerian-degenerating nerve graft, and observed development of a nodular structure consisting of neurons, glia, and Schwann cells. Histological analysis revealed a structure loosely resembling the spinal cord, including a synaptic network that formed along the neuron. Furthermore, the new axons re-innervated the paralyzed muscle, forming both de novo and revived neuromuscular junctions...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695808/uncovering-inherent-cellular-plasticity-of-multiciliated-ependyma-leading-to-ventricular-wall-transformation-and-hydrocephalus
#15
Khadar Abdi, Chun-Hsiang Lai, Patricia Paez-Gonzalez, Mark Lay, Joon Pyun, Chay T Kuo
Specialized, differentiated cells often perform unique tasks that require them to maintain a stable phenotype. Multiciliated ependymal cells (ECs) are unique glial cells lining the brain ventricles, important for cerebral spinal fluid circulation. While functional ECs are needed to prevent hydrocephalus, they have also been reported to generate new neurons: whether ECs represent a stable cellular population remains unclear. Via a chemical screen we found that mature ECs are inherently plastic, with their multiciliated state needing constant maintenance by the Foxj1 transcription factor, which paradoxically is rapidly turned over by the ubiquitin-proteasome system leading to cellular de-differentiation...
April 25, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693281/recombinant-interleukin-4-alleviates-mechanical-allodynia-via-injury-induced-interleukin-4-receptor-alpha-in-spinal-microglia-in-a-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#16
Hiroai Okutani, Hiroki Yamanaka, Kimiko Kobayashi, Masamichi Okubo, Koichi Noguchi
Glial cells play important roles in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. In particular, activated microglia in the spinal cord facilitate the hyper-excitability of dorsal horn neurons after peripheral nerve injury via pro-inflammatory molecules. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-4 (IL-4), in neuropathic pain. We did not detect the expression of IL-4 mRNA in the rat dorsal root ganglion or spinal cord; however, peripheral nerve injury induced the expression of IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) alpha mRNA in the spinal cord...
April 25, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686269/lysosomal-damage-after-spinal-cord-injury-causes-accumulation-of-ripk1-and-ripk3-proteins-and-potentiation-of-necroptosis
#17
Shuo Liu, Yun Li, Harry M C Choi, Chinmoy Sarkar, Eugene Y Koh, Junfang Wu, Marta M Lipinski
Necroptosis, a regulated necrosis pathway mediated by the receptor-interacting protein kinases 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3), is induced following spinal cord injury (SCI) and thought to contribute to neuronal and glial cell death. However, mechanisms leading to activation of necroptosis after SCI remain unclear. We have previously shown that autophagy, a catabolic pathway facilitating degradation of cytoplasmic proteins and organelles in a lysosome-dependent manner, is inhibited following SCI in rats. Our current data confirm that inhibition of autophagy also occurs after thoracic contusive SCI in the mouse model, as indicated by accumulation of both the autophagosome marker, LC3-II and autophagy cargo protein, p62/SQSTM1...
April 23, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680669/exposing-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-chondroitin-sulphated-proteoglycans-reduces-their-angiogenic-and-neuro-adhesive-paracrine-activity
#18
Chelsea R Wood, Ibtesam R T Al Delfi, John F Innes, Peter Myint, William E B Johnson
The multifactorial complexity of spinal cord injuries includes the formation of a glial scar, of which chondroitin sulphated proteoglycans (CSPG) are an integral component. Previous studies have shown CSPG to have inhibitory effects on endothelial and neuronal cell growth, highlighting the difficulty of spinal cord regeneration. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are widely used a cell therapy, and there is mounting evidence for their angiogenic and neurotrophic paracrine properties. However, in vivo studies have observed poor engraftment and survival of MSC when injected into SCI...
April 19, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674624/brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-repair-by-implantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-seeded-onto-polymer-scaffolds
#19
Jeong Eun Shin, Kwangsoo Jung, Miri Kim, Kyujin Hwang, Haejin Lee, Il-Sun Kim, Bae Hwan Lee, Il-Shin Lee, Kook In Park
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and spinal cord injury (SCI) lead to extensive tissue loss and axonal degeneration. The combined application of the polymer scaffold and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has been reported to enhance neural repair, protection and regeneration through multiple modes of action following neural injury. This study investigated the reparative ability and therapeutic potentials of biological bridges composed of human fetal brain-derived NPCs seeded upon poly(glycolic acid)-based scaffold implanted into the infarction cavity of a neonatal HI brain injury or the hemisection cavity in an adult SCI...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666570/role-of-caspase-8-and-fas-in-cell-death-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
REVIEW
Daniel Sobrido-Cameán, Antón Barreiro-Iglesias
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes the death of neurons and glial cells due to the initial mechanical forces (i.e., primary injury) and through a cascade of secondary molecular events (e.g., inflammation or excitotoxicity) that exacerbate cell death. The loss of neurons and glial cells that are not replaced after the injury is one of the main causes of disability after SCI. Evidence accumulated in last decades has shown that the activation of apoptotic mechanisms is one of the factors causing the death of intrinsic spinal cord (SC) cells following SCI...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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