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Spinal glial cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544974/cetuximab-modified-collagen-scaffold-directs-neurogenesis-of-injury-activated-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#1
Xing Li, Yannan Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Sufang Han, Muya Shu, Bing Chen, Xuyi Chen, Fengwu Tang, Nuo Wang, Yue Tu, Bin Wang, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Studies have shown that endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) activated by spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily generate astrocytes to form glial scar. The NSCs do not differentiate into neurons because of the adverse microenvironment. In this study, we defined the activation timeline of endogenous NSCs in rats with severe SCI. These injury-activated NSCs then migrated into the lesion site. Cetuximab, an EGFR signaling antagonist, significantly increased neurogenesis in the lesion site. Meanwhile, implanting cetuximab modified linear ordered collagen scaffolds (LOCS) into SCI lesion sites in dogs resulted in neuronal regeneration, including neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelination, and synapse formation...
May 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536509/chronic-social-stress-time-dependently-affects-neuropathic-pain-related-cold-allodynia-and-leads-to-altered-expression-of-spinal-biochemical-mediators
#2
Glenn-Marie Le Coz, Julien Genty, Fernand Anton, Ulrike Hanesch
Clinical data have shown that chronic exposure to stress may be accompanied by an enhancement of inflammation-related pain sensitivity. In this context, little is however known on the impact of stress on neuropathic pain. In the present study we addressed this issue by combining the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model with an ongoing social stress (OSS) paradigm. Cold plate and von Frey tests were performed in 48 rats divided into four groups: OSS exposed to OSS, CCI subjected to chronic nerve constriction, OSS+CCI with a combination of neuropathy and stress and CON, a control group lacking any manipulation...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533177/immunohistochemical-comparison-of-astrocytic-mglur5-upregulation-in-infraorbital-nerve-versus-sciatic-nerve-ligated-rat
#3
Benoit Michot, Ronald Deumens, Emmanuel Hermans
The differential pharmacological responsiveness of cephalic and extra-cephalic neuropathic pain has been proposed to relate to distinct mechanisms that may involve neuroinflammatory reactions mediated by glial cells. Astrocytes are particularly important for neuronal sensitization in neuropathic pain, in part through modulation of glutamatergic transmission. Because the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is involved in the astrocytic regulation of the glutamatergic system, we investigated modifications of its expression in models of cephalic versus extra-cephalic neuropathic pain...
May 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529158/evaluation-of-direct-and-cell-mediated-triple-gene-therapy-in-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#4
Rustem Robertovich Islamov, Andrey Alexandrovich Izmailov, Mikhail Evgenyevich Sokolov, Philip Olegovich Fadeev, Farid Vagizovich Bashirov, Anton Alexandrovich Eremeev, Gulnara Ferdinantovna Shaymardanova, Maxim Michaylovich Shmarov, Boris Savelyevich Naroditskiy, Yuri Alexandrovich Chelyshev, Igor Aleksandrovich Lavrov, András Palotás
Current treatment options for spinal cord injury (SCI) are scarce. One of the most promising innovative approaches include gene-therapy, however no single gene has so far been shown to be of clinical relevance. This study investigates the efficacy of various combinations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), angiogenin (ANG) and neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in rats. Multiple therapeutic genes were administered intrathecally either via adenoviral vectors or by using genetically modified human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCBMCs)...
May 18, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524001/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-promotes-growth-of-neurons-and-neural-stem-cells-possibly-by-triggering-the-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-akt-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#5
Jin-Wei Yang, Zhang Liang, Shi-Kang Deng Deng, Wei Ma, Xian-Bin Wang, Xing-Tong Li, Tong-Tong Wang, Yun-Fei Dai, Jian-Hui Guo, Li-Yan Li
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a crucial role in promoting survival and differentiation of neurons and neural stem cells (NSCs), but the downstream regulating mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether BDNF exerts its effect by triggering the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B, PKB (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and β-catenin signaling pathway in cultured neurons and NSCs derived from the rat embryonic spinal cord...
May 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522962/alterations-in-cd200-cd200r1-system-during-eae-already-manifest-at-presymptomatic-stages
#6
Tony Valente, Joan Serratosa, Unai Perpiñá, Josep Saura, Carme Solà
In the brain of patients with multiple sclerosis, activated microglia/macrophages appear in active lesions and in normal appearing white matter. However, whether they play a beneficial or a detrimental role in the development of the pathology remains a controversial issue. The production of pro-inflammatory molecules by chronically activated microglial cells is suggested to contribute to the progression of neurodegenerative processes in neurological disease. In the healthy brain, neurons control glial activation through several inhibitory mechanisms, such as the CD200-CD200R1 interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514764/trim32-affects-the-recovery-of-motor-function-following-spinal-cord-injury-through-regulating-proliferation-of-glia
#7
Qiang Fu, Ming-Ming Zou, Jian-Wei Zhu, Yan Zhang, Wen-Jin Chen, Mei Cheng, Chun-Feng Liu, Quan-Hong Ma, Ru-Xiang Xu
Both the extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic neuronal mechanisms limit the axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we identify tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, which is barely detected in glial cells in the normal uninjured spinal cord, exhibits strong expression in both astrocytes and microglia following SCI. We further observe that deficiency of TRIM32 results in increased numbers of astrocytes and microglia, which is accompanied by enhanced proliferation of both cells and increased secretion of interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-10...
April 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514742/effect-and-mechanism-of-inhibition-of-pi3k-akt-mtor-signal-pathway-on-chronic-neuropathic-pain-and-spinal-microglia-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-constriction-injury
#8
Jian-Rong Guo, Huan Wang, Xiao-Ju Jin, Dong-Lin Jia, Xun Zhou, Qiang Tao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway on chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) and spinal microglia in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI). METHODS: Male SD rats were assigned into control, sham, CCI, wortmannin, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and wortmannin-positive control groups. Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) were recorded. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect PI3K, Akt and mTOR expressions and their phosphorylation...
May 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509312/histological-immunohistochemical-and-ultrastructural-study-of-secondary-compressed-spinal-cord-injury-in-a-rat-model
#9
Wafaa S Ramadan, Ghada A Abdel-Hamid, Saleh Al-Karim, Aymn T Abbas
INTRODUCTION: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a life-disrupting condition in which the first few days are the most critical. Secondary conditions remain the main causes of death for people with SCI. The response of different cell types to SCI and their role at different times in the progression of secondary degeneration are not well understood. The aim of this study was to study the histopathological changes of compressed spinal cord injury (CSCI) in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups...
2017: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509260/rapid-serum-free-isolation-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-from-adult-rat-spinal-cord
#10
John Bianco, Dario Carradori, Ronald Deumens, Anne des Rieux
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) play a pivotal role in both health and disease within the central nervous system, with oligodendrocytes, arising from resident OPCs, being the main myelinating cell type. Disruption in OPC numbers can lead to various deleterious health defects. Numerous studies have described techniques for isolating OPCs to obtain a better understanding of this cell type and to open doors for potential treatments of injury and disease. However, the techniques used in the majority of these studies involve several steps and are time consuming, with current culture protocols using serum and embryonic or postnatal cortical tissue as a source of isolation...
May 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508172/targeting-enolase-in-reducing-secondary-damage-in-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#11
Azizul Haque, Mollie Capone, Denise Matzelle, April Cox, Naren L Banik
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex debilitating condition leading to permanent life-long neurological deficits. The complexity of SCI suggests that a concerted multi-targeted therapeutic approach is warranted to optimally improve function. Damage to spinal cord is complicated by an increased detrimental response from secondary injury factors mediated by activated glial cells and infiltrating macrophages. While elevation of enolase especially neuron specific enolase (NSE) in glial and neuronal cells is believed to trigger inflammatory cascades in acute SCI, alteration of NSE and its subsequent effects in acute SCI remains unknown...
May 15, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505030/association-between-neurotrophic-factor-expression-and-pain-related-behavior-induced-by-nucleus-pulposus-applied-to-rat-nerve-root
#12
Shinobu Seki, Miho Sekiguchi, Shin-Ichi Konno
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental animal study OBJECTIVE.: To investigate the relationship between pain-related behavior and the expression of neurotrophic factors in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) using a nucleus pulposus (NP) rat model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neurotrophic factors are released from activated glial cells and are associated with pain-related behavior. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor that is induced by inflammation...
April 12, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503634/an-acute-mouse-spinal-cord-slice-preparation-for-studying-glial-activation-ex-vivo
#13
Juan Mauricio Garré, Guang Yang, Feliksas F Bukauskas, Michael V L Bennett
Pathological conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal cord injury and chronic pain are characterized by activation of astrocytes and microglia in spinal cord and have been modeled in rodents. In vivo imaging at cellular level in these animal models is limited due to the spinal cord's highly myelinated funiculi. The preparation of acute slices may offer an alternative and valuable strategy to collect structural and functional information in vitro from dorsal, lateral and ventral regions of spinal cord...
January 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501777/mir-140-bdnf-axis-regulates-normal-human-astrocyte-proliferation-and-lps-induced-il-6-and-tnf-%C3%AE-secretion
#14
Zhiming Tu, Yawei Li, Yuliang Dai, Lei Li, Guohua Lv, Ivan Chen, Bing Wang
Reactive astrocyte proliferation after spinal cord injury (SCI) contributes to glial scar formation that impedes axonal regeneration. The mechanisms underlying astrocyte proliferation upon injury remain partially understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function as a major class of post-transcriptional gene expression regulators that participate in many biological processes. In this study, we focused on the functional role of miR-140 in normal human astrocyte (NHA) cell proliferation. Ectopic miR-140 expression significantly inhibited NHA cell viability and proliferation; miR-140 inhibition exerted the opposite function...
May 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492437/continuous-intrathecal-infusion-of-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists-attenuates-nerve-ligation-induced-pain-in-rats
#15
Sheng-Jie Shiue, Hsien-Yu Peng, Chung-Ren Lin, Shih-Wei Wang, Ruey-Horng Rau, Jen-Kun Cheng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cannabinoid receptors (CB1R/CB2R) are known to play important roles in pain transmission. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous intrathecal infusion of CB1/2R agonists in the L5/6 spinal nerve ligation pain model. METHODS: Under isoflurane anesthesia, rats received nerve ligation and intrathecal catheter connected to an infusion pump. After surgery, saline (1 μL/h), CB1/2R agonist WIN55,212-2, CB1R agonist ACEA, or CB2R agonist AM1241 (1 μmol/h) was given intrathecally for 7 days...
May 10, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484372/potential-involvement-of-snail-members-in-neuronal-survival-and-astrocytic-migration-during-the-gecko-spinal-cord-regeneration
#16
Tingting Shen, Yingjie Wang, Qing Zhang, Xue Bai, Sumei Wei, Xuejie Zhang, Wenjuan Wang, Ying Yuan, Yan Liu, Mei Liu, Xiaosong Gu, Yongjun Wang
Certain regenerative vertebrates such as fish, amphibians and reptiles are capable of regenerating spinal cord after injury. Most neurons of spinal cord will survive from the injury and regrow axons to repair circuits with an absence of glial scar formation. However, the underlying mechanisms of neuronal anti-apoptosis and glia-related responses have not been fully clarified during the regenerative process. Gecko has becoming an inspiring model to address spinal cord regeneration in amniotes. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory roles of Snail family members, the important transcriptional factors involved in both triggering of the cell migration and cell survival, during the spontaneous spinal cord regeneration...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478920/intravenous-infusion-of-adipose-derived-stem-stromal-cells-improves-functional-recovery-of-rats-with-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Yuki Ohta, Akemi Hamaguchi, Masanori Ootaki, Minoru Watanabe, Yuko Takeba, Taroh Iiri, Naoki Matsumoto, Mitsuko Takenaga
BACKGROUND AIMS: Adipose tissue has therapeutic potential for spinal cord injury (SCI) because it contains multipotent cells known as adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs). In this study, we attempted intravenous ASC transplantation in rats with SCI to examine the effect on functional recovery. METHODS: ASCs (2.5 × 10(6)) were intravenously infused into SCI rats, after which hindlimb motor function was evaluated. Distribution of transplanted ASCs was investigated and growth factor/cytokine levels were determined...
May 3, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473192/characterization-of-a-cerebral-palsy-like-model-in-rats-analysis-of-gait-pattern-and-of-brain-and-spinal-cord-motor-areas
#18
Adriana Souza Dos Santos, Wellington de Almeida, Bruno Popik, Bruno Marques Sbardelotto, Márcia Miranda Torrejais, Marcelo Alves de Souza, Lígia Aline Centenaro
In an attempt to propose an animal model that reproduces in rats the phenotype of cerebral palsy, this study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to bacterial endotoxin associated with perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction on gait pattern, brain and spinal cord morphology. Two experimental groups were used: Control Group (CTG) - offspring of rats injected with saline during pregnancy and Cerebral Palsy Group (CPG) - offspring of rats injected with lipopolysaccharide during pregnancy, submitted to perinatal asphyxia and sensorimotor restriction for 30days...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461136/olfactory-ensheathing-cell-transplantation-inhibits-p2x4-receptor-overexpression-in-spinal-cord-injury-rats-with-neuropathic-pain
#19
Zuncheng Zheng, Xiaojing Du, Kaigang Zhang, Xiaoyu Wang, Yuexia Chen, Naifeng Kuang, Tao Fan, Baoliang Sun
Cell-based therapy is a promising strategy to alleviate neuropathic pain caused by spinal cord injury (SCI). We transplanted olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) into SCI rats with neuropathic pain and quantitatively detected the sensory nerve function. The expression levels of P2X4 receptor (P2X4R), 200kD neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NF200), and glial fiber acidic protein (GFAP) were measured by immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. Results showed that NF200 expression significantly increased, GFAP expression decreased, and sensory nerve function improved...
April 28, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458638/oriental-medicine-samhwangsasim-tang-alleviates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-suppressing-th1-cell-responses-and-upregulating-treg-cell-responses
#20
Min J Lee, Jong H Choi, Sung J Lee, Ik-Hyun Cho
Oriental medicine Samhwangsasim-tang (SHSST) has traditionally been used in East Asia to treat hypertension and its complications. However, little is known about its potential value regarding the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated whether SHSST has a beneficial effect in treating myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Onset-treatment with SHSST was found to alleviate neurological symptoms as well as demyelination and glial activation in the spinal cords from the EAE mice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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