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Spinal glial cells

Xiao-Qian Li, Zai-Li Zhang, Wen-Fei Tan, Xi-Jia Sun, Hong Ma
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is important for the pathogenesis of inflammatory reactions and the promotion of pain processing after ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in spinal cord. Recently, C-X-C chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor, C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), were demonstrated to be simultaneously critical for inflammatory reactions, thereby facilitating glial activation. However, whether CXCL12/CXCR4 expression can contribute to IR-induced inflammatory pain via spinal TLR4 remained unclear. A rat model was established by 8 min of aortic arch occlusion...
2016: PloS One
Rachelle T Hassarati, L John R Foster, Rylie A Green
The recent success of olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) assisted regeneration of injured spinal cord has seen a rising interest in the use of these cells in tissue-engineered systems. Previously shown to support neural cell growth through glial scar tissue, OECs have the potential to assist neural network formation in living electrode systems to produce superior neuroprosthetic electrode surfaces. The following study sought to understand the influence of biphasic electrical stimulation (ES), inherent to bionic devices, on cell survival and function, with respect to conventional metallic and developmental conductive hydrogel (CH) coated electrodes...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Kei Ando, Shiro Imagama, Zenya Ito, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Hiroaki Nakashima, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Yoshimoto Ishikawa, Akiyuki Matsumoto, Koji Nishida, Yoshihiro Nishida, Naoki Ishiguro
STUDY DESIGN: Self-assembling peptide gel (SPG-178) provides new evidence for the role of a scaffold for treatment of the spinal cord through induction of neuroprotective factors. OBJECTIVE: To verify the reproducibility of SPG-178 as scaffold after spinal cord injury, we examine the characteristics of SPG-178 and protective effect on neural cells in vitro and in vivo. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The central nervous system extracellular matrix may play a role in maintenance of the neuronal network by inhibiting axonal growth and suppressing formation of additional inadequate synapses...
October 15, 2016: Spine
Lauren E Cornelison, Jordan L Hawkins, Paul L Durham
Orofacial pain conditions including temporomandibular joint disorder and migraine are characterized by peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is implicated in the development of central sensitization, the pathway by which elevated spinal cord CGRP levels promote peripheral sensitization of primary trigeminal nociceptive neurons is not well understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of CGRP in promoting bidirectional signaling within the trigeminal system to mediate sensitization of primary trigeminal ganglion nociceptive neurons...
October 13, 2016: Neuroscience
Lei-Lei Wang, Zhida Su, Wenjiao Tai, Yuhua Zou, Xiao-Ming Xu, Chun-Li Zhang
Although the adult mammalian spinal cord lacks intrinsic neurogenic capacity, glial cells can be reprogrammed in vivo to generate neurons after spinal cord injury (SCI). How this reprogramming process is molecularly regulated, however, is not clear. Through a series of in vivo screens, we show here that the p53-dependent pathway constitutes a critical checkpoint for SOX2-mediated reprogramming of resident glial cells in the adult mouse spinal cord. While it has no effect on the reprogramming efficiency, the p53 pathway promotes cell-cycle exit of SOX2-induced adult neuroblasts (iANBs)...
October 11, 2016: Cell Reports
Johannes Brettschneider, David J Irwin, Susana Boluda, Matthew D Byrne, Lubin Fang, Edward B Lee, John L Robinson, EunRan Suh, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, Jon B Toledo, Murray Grossman, Howard Hurtig, Reinhard Dengler, Susanne Petri, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski
AIMS: To identify early foci of α-synuclein (α-syn pathology) accumulation, subsequent progression and neurodegeneration in multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C). METHODS: We analyzed 70 μm thick sections of 10 cases with MSA-C and 24 normal controls. RESULTS: MSA-C cases with the lowest burden of pathology showed α-syn glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in the cerebellum as well as in medullary and pontine cerebellar projections...
September 22, 2016: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
Zhuofeng Ding, Wei Xu, Jie Zhang, Wangyuan Zou, Qulian Guo, Changsheng Huang, Chang Liu, Tao Zhong, Jun-Ming Zhang, Zongbin Song
Bone cancer pain (BCP) is the most common complication in patients with bone cancer. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is believed to be involved in chronic pain conditions. In this article, the expression and roles of GDNF were studied in a rat model of BCP induced by tibia injection of Walker 256 rat mammary gland carcinoma cells. Significant mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and ongoing pain were observed beginning as early as day 5 post injection. The expression level of GDNF protein examined on day 16 after tibia injection was decreased in the L3 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and lumbar spinal cord, but not in other spinal levels or the anterior cingulate cortex...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Harun Najib Noristani, Jean Charles Sabourin, Hassan Boukhaddaoui, Emilie Chan-Seng, Yannick Nicolas Gerber, Florence Evelyne Perrin
BACKGROUND: Neurons have intrinsic capability to regenerate after lesion, though not spontaneously. Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes permanent neurological impairments partly due to formation of a glial scar that is composed of astrocytes and microglia. Astrocytes play both beneficial and detrimental roles on axonal re-growth, however, their precise role after SCI is currently under debate. METHODS: We analyzed molecular changes in astrocytes at multiple stages after two SCI severities using cell-specific transcriptomic analyses...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Neurodegeneration
Yongxin Luan, Mo Chen, Lixiang Zhou
OBJECTIVES: We attempted to discover the regulatory role of miR-17 and PTEN in glial scar formation accompanied with spinal cord injuries. METHODS: We established a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in mice which were transfected with different groups of adenoviruses: miR-17 mimics, miR-17 inhibitors and PTEN cDNAs. The improvement of hind limb functions was assessed using the 21-point Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotion scale. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Vimentin and neurofilaments...
September 29, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Jieun Jung, Jong-Wan Kim, Ho-Jin Moon, Jin Young Hong, Jung Keun Hyun
Neural stem cells (NSCs) have a high potency for differentiation to neurons and glial cells for replacement of damaged cells and paracrine effects for the regeneration and remyelination of host axons. Dental pulp is known to have a potential to differentiate into neural-like cells; therefore, dental pulp may be used as an autologous cell source for neural repair. In this study, we selectively expanded stem cells from human dental pulp in an initial culture using NSC media under xeno- and serum-free conditions...
2016: Stem Cells International
Daniel Cortés, Yolanda Robledo-Arratia, Ricardo Hernández-Martínez, Itzel Escobedo-Ávila, José Bargas, Iván Velasco
Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are pluripotent and thus can differentiate into every cell type present in the body. Directed differentiation into motor neurons (MNs) has been described for pluripotent cells. Although neurotrophic factors promote neuronal survival, their role in neuronal commitment is elusive. Here, we developed double-transgenic lines of mouse ESC (mESC) that constitutively produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and also contain a GFP reporter, driven by HB9, which is expressed only by postmitotic MNs...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Fei Wang, Hongfei Xiang, Gregory Fischer, Zhen Liu, Matthew J Dupont, Quinn H Hogan, Hongwei Yu
In dorsal root ganglia (DRG), satellite glial cells (SGCs) tightly ensheathe the somata of primary sensory neurons to form functional sensory units. SGCs are identified by their flattened and irregular morphology and expression of a variety of specific marker proteins. In this report, we present evidence that the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase isoenzymes 1 and 2 (HMGCS1 and HMGCS2) are abundantly expressed in SGCs. Immunolabeling with the validated antibodies revealed that both HMGCS1 and HMGCS2 are highly colabeled with a selection of SGC markers, including GS, GFAP, Kir4...
September 23, 2016: Brain Research
Chien-Cheng Liu, Yong-Jing Gao, Hao Luo, Temugin Berta, Zhen-Zhong Xu, Ru-Rong Ji, Ping-Heng Tan
It is well known that interferons (IFNs), such as type-I IFN (IFN-α) and type-II IFN (IFN-γ) are produced by immune cells to elicit antiviral effects. IFNs are also produced by glial cells in the CNS to regulate brain functions. As a proinflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ drives neuropathic pain by inducing microglial activation in the spinal cord. However, little is known about the role of IFN-α in regulating pain sensitivity and synaptic transmission. Strikingly, we found that IFN-α/β receptor (type-I IFN receptor) was expressed by primary afferent terminals in the superficial dorsal horn that co-expressed the neuropeptide CGRP...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ji-Hey Lim, Natasha J Olby
OBJECTIVE To identify an optimal technique for isolation, purification, and amplification of Schwann cells (SCs) from biopsy specimens of the dorsal cutaneous branches of the cervical nerves of dogs. SAMPLE Biopsy specimens of dorsal cervical cutaneous nerves from the cadavers of three 1- to 2-year-old dogs. PROCEDURES Nerve specimens were dissected, predegenerated, and dissociated to isolate single cells. After culture to enhance SC growth, cells were immunopurified by use of magnetic beads. Cell purity was evaluated by assessing expression of cell surface antigens p75 (to detect SCs) and CD90 (to detect fibroblasts)...
October 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
F Bianchi, G Tamburrini, L Massimi, M Caldarelli
OBJECT: Desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas (DIGs) and desmoplastic infantile astrocytomas (DIAs) are tumors typical of the infantile age. A large size, with a mixed solid and cystic component, clinical presentation with progressing signs of increased intracranial pressure, a prominent benign desmoplastic structure at histological examination, and a favorable clinical course in the majority of cases are the prominent features of these tumors. The objective of the present paper was to review the pertinent literature on the topic together with our personal experience, with the aim of an updated review of the subject...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Eugene A Kiyatkin, Hari Sharma
Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful and often abused stimulant with potent addictive and neurotoxic properties. While it is generally believed that structural brain damage induced by METH results from oxidative stress, in this work we present data suggesting robust disruption of blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers (BBB and BSCB) during acute METH intoxication in rats. We demonstrate the relationships between METH-induced brain hyperthermia and widespread but structure-specific barrier leakage, acute glial activation, changes in brain water and ionic homeostasis, and structural damage of different types of cells in the brain and spinal cord...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Joanna M Dragich, Takaaki Kuwajima, Megumi Hirose-Ikeda, Michael S Yoon, Evelien Eenjes, Joan R Bosco, Leora M Fox, Alf H Lystad, Tinmarla F Oo, Olga Yarygina, Tomohiro Mita, Satoshi Waguri, Yoshinobu Ichimura, Masaaki Komatsu, Anne Simonsen, Robert E Burke, Carol A Mason, Ai Yamamoto
The regulation of protein degradation is essential for maintaining the appropriate environment to coordinate complex cell signaling events and to promote cellular remodeling. The Autophagy linked FYVE protein (Alfy), previously identified as a molecular scaffold between the ubiquitinated cargo and the autophagic machinery, is highly expressed in the developing central nervous system, indicating that this pathway may have yet unexplored roles in neurodevelopment. To examine this possibility, we used mouse genetics to eliminate Alfy expression...
2016: ELife
Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Roberta Barbizan, Rui Seabra Ferreira, Benedito Barraviera, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
Axonal injuries at the interface between central and peripheral nervous system, such as ventral root avulsion (VRA), induce important degenerative processes, mostly resulting in neuronal and motor function loss. In the present work, we have compared two different fibrin sealants, one derived from human blood and another derived from animal blood and Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, as a promising treatment for this type of injury. Lewis rats were submitted to VRA (L4-L6) and had the avulsed roots reimplanted to the surface of the spinal cord, with the aid of fibrin sealant...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Arbour Danielle, Christine Vande Velde, Richard Robitaille
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a disease leading to the death of motor neurons (MNs). It is also recognized as a non-cell autonomous disease where glial cells in the CNS are involved in its pathogenesis and progression. However, although denervation of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) represents an early and major event in ALS, the importance of glial cells at this synapse receives little attention. An interesting possibility is that altered relationships between glial cells and MNs in the spinal cord in ALS may also take place at the NMJ...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Chizuka Ide, Kenji Kanekiyo
Transplantation of somatic cells, including bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs), and choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPECs), enhances the outgrowth of regenerating axons and promotes locomotor improvements. They are not integrated into the host spinal cord, but disappear within 2-3 weeks after transplantation. Regenerating axons extend at the spinal cord lesion through the astrocyte-devoid area that is filled with connective tissue matrices. Regenerating axons have characteristics of peripheral nerves: they are associated with Schwann cells, and embedded in connective tissue matrices...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
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