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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935766/serotonin-2b-receptors-in-mesoaccumbens-dopamine-pathway-regulate-cocaine-responses
#1
Stéphane Doly, Emily Quentin, Raphaël Eddine, Stefania Tolu, Sebastian P Fernandez, Jesus Bertran-Gonzalez, Emmanuel Valjent, Arnauld Belmer, Xavier Viñals, Jacques Callebert, Philippe Faure, Frank J Meye, Denis Hervé, Patricia Robledo, Manuel Mameli, Jean-Marie Launay, Rafael Maldonado, Luc Maroteaux
Addiction is a maladaptive pattern of behavior following repeated use of reinforcing drugs in predisposed individuals, and leading to lifelong changes. A common substrate of these changes lies in alterations of neurons releasing dopamine in the ventral and dorsal territories of the striatum. The serotonin 5-HT2B receptor has been involved in various behaviors including impulsivity, response to antidepressants and to psychostimulants pointing toward putative interactions with the dopamine system. Despite these findings, it remains unknown whether 5-HT2B receptors directly modulate dopaminergic activity and the possible mechanisms involved...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935586/impairment-of-neural-coordination-in-hippocampal-neuronal-ensembles-after-a-psychotomimetic-dose-of-dizocilpine
#2
Ewa Szczurowska, Nikhil Ahuja, Přemysl Jiruška, Eduard Kelemen, Aleš Stuchlík
The discoordination hypothesis of schizophrenia posits discoordination of neural activity as the central mechanism that underlies some psychotic symptoms (including 'hallmark' cognitive symptoms) of schizophrenia. To test this proposition, we studied the activity of hippocampal neurons in urethane anesthetized Long Evans rats after 0.15mg/kg dizocilpine (MK-801), an N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist, which can cause psychotic symptoms in humans and cognitive control impairments in animals...
September 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929331/glutamatergic-regulation-of-hypothalamic-presympathetic-neurons-in-hypertension
#3
De-Pei Li, Hui-Lin Pan
Elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone emanating from the brain is a major mechanism involved in the development of hypertension. Increased glutamatergic excitatory input to presympathetic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus leads to increased sympathetic outflow in various animal models of hypertension. Recent studies have revealed molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying enhanced glutamatergic synaptic input to PVN presympathetic neurons in hypertension. In this review article, we summarize recent findings on changes in inotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, at both presynaptic and postsynaptic sites, responsible for increased glutamatergic input to PVN presympathetic neurons in hypertension...
September 19, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928637/alpha7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-play-a-predominant-role-in-the-cholinergic-potentiation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-evoked-firing-responses-of-hippocampal-ca1-pyramidal-cells
#4
Zsolt K Bali, Lili V Nagy, István Hernádi
The aim of the present study was to identify in vivo electrophysiological correlates of the interaction between cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission underlying memory. Extracellular spike recordings were performed in the hippocampal CA1 region of anesthetized rats in combination with local microiontophoretic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and acetylcholine (ACh). Both NMDA and ACh increased the firing rate of the neurons. Furthermore, the simultaneous delivery of NMDA and ACh resulted in a more pronounced excitatory effect that was superadditive over the sum of the two mono-treatment effects and that was explained by cholinergic potentiation of glutamatergic neurotransmission...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925523/bdnf-haplo-insufficiency-impairs-high-frequency-cortical-oscillations-in-mice
#5
Nigel C Jones, Matthew Hudson, Joshua Foreman, Gil Rind, Rachel Hill, Elizabeth E Manning, Maarten van den Buuse
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous aetiology involving genetic and environmental factors. Deficiencies in both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NMDA receptor function have been implicated in the disorder, and may play causal and synergistic roles. Perturbations in the regulation of electrophysiological signals, including high-frequency (gamma: 30-80 Hz and beta: 20-30 Hz) neuronal oscillations, are also associated with the disorder. This study investigated the influence of BDNF deficiency and NMDA receptor hypofunction on electrophysiological responses to brief acoustic stimuli...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922504/selective-remodeling-of-glutamatergic-transmission-to-striatal-cholinergic-interneurons-after-dopamine-depletion
#6
Jose de Jesus Aceves Buendia, Lior Tiroshi, Wei-Hua Chiu, Joshua A Goldberg
The widely-held view that the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease arises from an under-activation of the direct pathway striatal spiny neurons (dSPNs) has gained support from a recently described weakening of the glutamatergic projection from the parafascicular nucleus (PfN) to dSPNs in experimental parkinsonism. However, the impact of the remodeling of the thalamostriatal projection cannot be fully appreciated without considering its impact on cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) that themselves preferentially activate indirect pathway spiny neurons (iSPNs)...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922156/soluble-oligomers-require-a-ganglioside-to-trigger-neuronal-calcium-overload
#7
Roberta Cascella, Elisa Evangelisti, Alessandra Bigi, Matteo Becatti, Claudia Fiorillo, Massimo Stefani, Fabrizio Chiti, Cristina Cecchi
An altered distribution of membrane gangliosides (GM), including GM1, has recently been reported in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Moreover, amyloid-positive synaptosomes obtained from AD brains were found to contain high-density GM1 clusters, suggesting a pathological significance of GM1 increase at presynaptic neuritic terminals in AD. Here, we show that membrane GM1 specifically recruits small soluble oligomers of the 42-residue form of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42), with intracellular flux of Ca2+ ions in primary rat hippocampal neurons and in human neuroblastoma cells...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921744/cholinergic-basal-forebrain-structures-are-not-essential-for-mediation-of-the-arousing-action-of-glutamate
#8
Zoltán Lelkes, Shamsiiat Abdurakhmanova, Tarja Porkka-Heiskanen
The cholinergic basal forebrain contributes to cortical activation and receives rich innervations from the ascending activating system. It is involved in the mediation of the arousing actions of noradrenaline and histamine. Glutamatergic stimulation in the basal forebrain results in cortical acetylcholine release and suppression of sleep. However, it is not known to what extent the cholinergic versus non-cholinergic basal forebrain projection neurones contribute to the arousing action of glutamate. To clarify this question, we administered N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), a glutamate agonist, into the basal forebrain in intact rats and after destruction of the cholinergic cells in the basal forebrain with 192 immunoglobulin (Ig)G-saporin...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921679/maternal-immune-activation-leads-to-increased-nnos-immunoreactivity-in-the-brain-of-postnatal-day-2-rat-offspring
#9
Jiaxian Zhang, Yu Jing, Hu Zhang, David K Bilkey, Ping Liu
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is a key arginine metabolising enzyme in the brain, and nNOS-derived nitric oxide plays an important role in regulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. Nitric oxide and its related molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and human genetic studies have identified schizophrenia risk genes encoding nNOS. The present study systematically investigated how maternal immune activation (MIA; a risk factor for schizophrenia) induced by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid affected nNOS-immunoreactivity in the brain of the resulting male and female offspring at the age of postnatal day (PND) 2...
September 16, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919534/glutamate-induced-rapid-induction-of-arc-arg3-1-requires-nmda-receptor-mediated-phosphorylation-of-erk-and-creb
#10
Tao Chen, Jie Zhu, Li-Kun Yang, Yi Feng, Wei Lin, Yu-Hai Wang
Arc/Arg3.1 is a unique immediate early gene whose expression is highly dynamic and correlated with various forms of synaptic plasticity. Many previous reports highlight the complexity of mechanisms that regulate Arc/Arg3.1 expression in neurons. In the present study, the expression and regulation of Arc/Arg3.1 after glutamate treatment in primary cultured cortical neurons were investigated. We found that both Arc/Arg3.1 mRNA and Arc/Arg3.1 protein dynamically increased within 24h after glutamate treatment. The results of immunostaining showed that abundant amounts of Arc/Arg3...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918258/olfactory-function-in-an-excitotoxic-model-for-secondary-neuronal-degeneration-role-of-dopaminergic-interneurons
#11
Concepció Marin, Sara Laxe, Cristobal Langdon, Joan Berenguer, Eduardo Lehrer, Franklin Mariño-Sánchez, Isam Alobid, Montserrat Bernabeu, Joaquim Mullol
Secondary neuronal degeneration (SND) occurring in Traumatic brain injury (TBI) consists in downstream destructive events affecting cells that were not or only marginally affected by the initial wound, further increasing the effects of the primary injury. Glutamate excitotoxicity is hypothesized to play an important role in SND. TBI is a common cause of olfactory dysfunction that may be spontaneous and partially recovered. The role of the glutamate excitotoxicity in the TBI-induced olfactory dysfunction is still unknown...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918254/permissive-role-for-mglu1-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-in-excitotoxic-retinal-degeneration
#12
Francesca Liberatore, Domenico Bucci, Giada Mascio, Michele Madonna, Paola Di Pietro, Martina Beneventano, Alda Maria Puliti, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria Bruno, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Maria Rosaria Romano
Neuroprotection is an unmet need in eye disorders characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death, such as prematurity-induced retinal degeneration, glaucoma, and age- related macular degeneration. In all these disorders excitotoxicity is a prominent component of neuronal damage, but clinical data discourage the development of NMDA receptor antagonists as neuroprotectants. Here, we show that activation of mGlu1 metabotropic glutamate receptors largely contributes to excitotoxic degeneration of RGCs. Mice at postnatal day 9 were challenged with a toxic dose of monosodium glutamate (MSG, 3 g/kg), which caused the death of >70% of Brn-3a(+) RGCs...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916137/oxytocin-induces-penile-erection-and-yawning-when-injected-into-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-involvement-of-glutamic-acid-dopamine-and-nitric-oxide
#13
Fabrizio Sanna, Jessica Bratzu, Antonio Argiolas, Maria Rosaria Melis
Oxytocin (5-100ng), but not Arg(8)-vasopressin (100ng), injected unilaterally into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) induces penile erection and yawning in a dose-dependent manner in male rats. The minimal effective dose was 20ng for penile erection and 5ng for yawning. Oxytocin responses were abolished not only by the oxytocin receptor antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin (1μg), but also by (+) MK-801 (1μg), an excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) subtype, SCH 23390 (1μg), a D1 receptor antagonist, but not haloperidol (1μg), a D2 receptor antagonist, and SMTC (40μg), an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, injected into the BNST 15min before oxytocin...
September 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913780/anxiolytic-like-effects-of-%C3%AE-asarone-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-pain
#14
Jiao Tian, Zhen Tian, Shu-Li Qin, Pu-Yu Zhao, Xun Jiang, Zhen Tian
α-asarone (ASR) is a major bioactive compound isolated from the rhizome of Acorus tatarinowii Schott and it has extensive biological effects. Clinically, anxiety disorder is a common comorbidity of chronic pain. However, limited information is available regarding the effects of ASR on chronic pain-related anxiety. This study aims to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of ASR in chronic pain mice. Chronic inflammatory pain was induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Behavioral tests, western-blot analysis and whole-cell patch recordings were performed to evaluate the subsequent events...
September 15, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912687/alterations-in-properties-of-glutamatergic-transmission-in-the-temporal-cortex-and-hippocampus-following-pilocarpine-induced-acute-seizures-in-wistar-rats
#15
Dmitry V Amakhin, Sergey L Malkin, Julia L Ergina, Kirill A Kryukov, Ekaterina A Veniaminova, Olga E Zubareva, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of focal epilepsy in humans, and is often developed after an initial precipitating brain injury. This form of epilepsy is frequently resistant to pharmacological treatment; therefore, the prevention of TLE is the prospective approach to TLE therapy. The lithium-pilocarpine model in rats replicates some of the main features of TLE in human, including the pathogenic mechanisms of cell damage and epileptogenesis after a primary brain injury. In the present study, we investigated changes in the properties of glutamatergic transmission during the first 3 days after pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in Wistar rats (PILO-rats)...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912557/a-nmda-receptor-calcium-influx-assay-sensitive-to-stimulation-by-glutamate-and-glycine-d-serine
#16
Hongqiu Guo, L Miguel Camargo, Fred Yeboah, Mary Ellen Digan, Honglin Niu, Yue Pan, Stephan Reiling, Gilberto Soler-Llavina, Wilhelm A Weihofen, Hao-Ran Wang, Y Gopi Shanker, Travis Stams, Anke Bill
N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptors (NMDARs) are ionotropic glutamate receptors that function in synaptic transmission, plasticity and cognition. Malfunction of NMDARs has been implicated in a variety of nervous system disorders, making them attractive therapeutic targets. Overexpression of functional NMDAR in non-neuronal cells results in cell death by excitotoxicity, hindering the development of cell-based assays for NMDAR drug discovery. Here we report a plate-based, high-throughput approach to study NMDAR function...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912160/dopamine-d2-receptors-modulate-pyramidal-neurons-in-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex-through-a-stimulatory-g-protein-pathway
#17
Sarah E Robinson, Vikaas S Sohal
Dopaminergic modulation of prefrontal cortex is believed to play key roles in many cognitive functions and to be disrupted in pathological conditions such as schizophrenia. We have previously described a phenomenon whereby dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) activation elicits afterdepolarizations (ADPs) in subcortically-projecting (SC) pyramidal neurons within L5 of the prefrontal cortex. These D2R-induced ADPs only occur following synaptic input which activates NMDA receptors (NMDARs) even when the delay between the synaptic input and afterdepolarizations is relatively long, e...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912019/a-nigro-vagal-pathway-controls-gastric-motility-and-is-affected-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#18
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, Jessica Hampton, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In most patients with Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and constipation, are prodromal to the cardinal motor symptoms of the disease. Sporadic Parkinson's disease has been proposed to develop following ingestion of neurotoxicants that affect the brain-gut axis via the vagus nerve, and then travel to higher centers compromising the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), and, later, the cerebral cortex. We aimed to identify the pathway that connects the brainstem vagal nuclei and the SNpc, and to determine whether this pathway is compromised in a rat model of Parkinsonism...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910619/loss-of-hyperdirect-pathway-cortico-subthalamic-inputs-following-degeneration-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#19
Hong-Yuan Chu, Eileen L McIver, Ryan F Kovaleski, Jeremy F Atherton, Mark D Bevan
The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are linked to abnormally correlated and coherent activity in the cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN). However, in parkinsonian mice we found that cortico-STN transmission strength had diminished by 50%-75% through loss of axo-dendritic and axo-spinous synapses, was incapable of long-term potentiation, and less effectively patterned STN activity. Optogenetic, chemogenetic, genetic, and pharmacological interrogation suggested that downregulation of cortico-STN transmission in PD mice was triggered by increased striato-pallidal transmission, leading to disinhibition of the STN and increased activation of STN NMDA receptors...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910611/revealing-a-role-for-nmda-receptors-in-regulating-stn-inputs-following-the-loss-of-dopamine
#20
Aphroditi A Mamaligas, Christopher P Ford
In this issue of Neuron, Chu et al. (2017) show that dopamine depletion using a 6-OHDA model causes a decrease in hyperdirect inputs from the motor cortex directly to the STN and that rescuing this loss alleviates Parkinsonian symptoms.
September 13, 2017: Neuron
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