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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777761/functional-organization-of-postsynaptic-glutamate-receptors
#1
REVIEW
Nicky Scheefhals, Harold D MacGillavry
Glutamate receptors are the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain, responsible for mediating the vast majority of excitatory transmission in neuronal networks. The AMPA- and NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate the fast synaptic responses, while metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are coupled to downstream signaling cascades that act on much slower timescales. These functionally distinct receptor sub-types are co-expressed at individual synapses, allowing for the precise temporal modulation of postsynaptic excitability and plasticity...
May 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772491/calpain-inhibition-reduces-nmda-receptor-rundown-in-rat-substantia-nigra-dopamine-neurons
#2
Jerry Zhao, Michel Baudry, Susan Jones
Repeated activation of N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) causes a Ca2+ -dependent reduction in NMDAR-mediated current in dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in one week old rats; however, a Ca2+ -dependent regulatory protein has not been identified. The role of the Ca2+ -dependent cysteine protease, calpain, in mediating NMDAR current rundown was investigated. In brain slices from rats aged postnatal day 7-9 ('P7'), bath application of either of the membrane permeable calpain inhibitors, N-Acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal (ALLN, 20 μM) or MDL-28170 (30 μM) significantly reduced whole-cell NMDAR current rundown...
May 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766040/the-midline-axon-crossing-decision-is-regulated-through-an-activity-dependent-mechanism-by-the-nmda-receptor
#3
Jingxia Gao, Tamara J Stevenson, Adam D Douglass, Joshua P Barrios, Joshua L Bonkowsky
Axon guidance in vertebrates is controlled by genetic cascades as well as by intrinsic activity-dependent refinement of connections. Midline axon crossing is one of the best studied pathfinding models and is fundamental to the establishment of bilaterally symmetric nervous systems. However, it is not known whether crossing requires intrinsic activity in axons, and what controls that activity. Further, a mechanism linking neuronal activity and gene expression has not been identified for axon pathfinding. Using embryonic zebrafish, we found that the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) NR1...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761580/cross-modal-restoration-of-ocular-dominance-plasticity-in-adult-mice
#4
Manuel Teichert, Marcel Isstas, Yitong Zhang, Jürgen Bolz
The temporal closure of one eye in juvenile and young adult mice induces a shift of the ocular dominance (OD) of neurons in the binocular visual cortex. However, OD-plasticity typically declines with age and is completely absent in matured mice beyond postnatal day (PD) 110. As it has been shown that the deprivation of one sensory input can induce neuronal alterations in non-deprived sensory cortices, we here investigated whether cross-modal interactions have the potential to reinstall OD-plasticity in matured mice...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760525/two-distinct-mechanisms-for-experience-dependent-homeostasis
#5
Michelle C D Bridi, Roberto de Pasquale, Crystal L Lantz, Yu Gu, Andrew Borrell, Se-Young Choi, Kaiwen He, Trinh Tran, Su Z Hong, Andrew Dykman, Hey-Kyoung Lee, Elizabeth M Quinlan, Alfredo Kirkwood
Models of firing rate homeostasis such as synaptic scaling and the sliding synaptic plasticity modification threshold predict that decreasing neuronal activity (for example, by sensory deprivation) will enhance synaptic function. Manipulations of cortical activity during two forms of visual deprivation, dark exposure (DE) and binocular lid suture, revealed that, contrary to expectations, spontaneous firing in conjunction with loss of visual input is necessary to lower the threshold for Hebbian plasticity and increase miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude...
May 14, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758384/disruption-of-shp1-nmda-receptor-signaling-in-spinal-cord-dorsal-horn-alleviated-inflammatory-pain
#6
Li Yang, Hu-Hu Bai, Zi-Yang Zhang, Jiang-Ping Liu, Zhan-Wei Suo, Xian Yang, Xiao-Dong Hu
Src-homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP1) is one of the non-receptor-like phosphatases that are highly enriched in hematopoietic cells. Although accumulating evidence has implicated the protein tyrosine phosphatases in the regulation of nociceptive transmission and plasticity, it is largely unknown whether SHP1 was expressed in pain-related spinal cord dorsal horn and engaged in the synaptic modification of nociceptive signals. Here we found that SHP1 was present in spinal neurons of rats and functionally coupled to GluN2A subunit-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors, one of the key players in central sensitization of nociceptive behaviors...
April 30, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751228/prenatal-nicotine-exposure-alters-postsynaptic-ampa-receptors-and-glutamate-neurotransmission-within-the-laterodorsal-tegmentum-ldt-of-juvenile-mice
#7
Filip S Polli, Kristi A Kohlmeier
Despite dissemination of information regarding the harm on fetal development of smoking while pregnant, the number of pregnancies associated with nicotine exposure appears to have stagnated. Presence of nicotine during neural formulation is associated with a higher susceptibility of drug dependence, suggesting an altered development of neurons in circuits involved in saliency and motivation. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) plays a role in coding stimuli valence via afferents to mesolimbic nuclei. Accordingly, alterations in development of neural mechanisms in the LDT could be involved in vulnerability to drug dependency...
April 25, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750883/involvement-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-in-the-descending-antinociceptive-effect-induced-by-the-central-nucleus-of-amygdala
#8
N Bourbia, A Pertovaara
Here we studied whether descending control of mechanical nociception by glutamate in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) of healthy control animals is induced by amygdaloid NMDA receptors and relayed through the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Mechanical nociception in the hind paws was assessed in rats with chronic guide cannulae for glutamate administration in the right CeA and for inducing local anesthesia in the PAG. In a separate electrophysiological study, ON-like PAG neurons giving an excitatory response to noxious pinch of the tail were recorded in anesthetized rats following glutamate administration into the CeA...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749407/peripheral-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-localization-and-role-in-gastric-acid-secretion-regulation-immunofluorescence-and-pharmacological-studies
#9
Iuliia Golovynska, Tatiana V Beregova, Tatiana M Falalyeyeva, Ludmila I Stepanova, Sergii Golovynskyi, Junle Qu, Tymish Y Ohulchanskyy
The enteric nervous system (ENS) and a glutamate receptor (GluR), N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), participate in gastric acid secretion (GAS) regulation. NMDARs are localized in different stomach cells; however, knowledge of NMDAR expression and function in the ENS is limited. In the present study, we clarified the types of stomach cells that express the NMDARs that are involved in GAS regulation. The pharmacological method of isolated stomach perfusion by Ghosh and Shild combined with direct mapping of NMDARs by fluorescence microscopy in the rat stomach was employed...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748616/prion-protein-is-essential-for-the-re1-silencing-transcription-factor-rest-dependent-developmental-switch-in-synaptic-nmda-receptors
#10
Zhiqi Song, Wei Yang, Guangyu Cheng, Xiangmei Zhou, Lifeng Yang, Deming Zhao
It is important that the correct amounts of GluN2 subunits are maintained, as they determine NMDAR functional properties, which are crucial to neuronal communication, synaptogenesis and cognitive function. The transcriptional repressor RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST) is critical for the postnatal developmental switch in NMDARs. However, the mechanisms triggering REST and the link between NMDARs and REST are unclear. Here we show a new physiological essential role for cellular prion protein (PrPC ) in REST-dependent homeostasis and the developmental switch of NMDARs...
May 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747570/ketamine-exacerbates-cortical-neuroapoptosis-under-hyperoxic-conditions-by-upregulating-expression-of-the-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-subunit-nr1-in-the-developing-rat-brain
#11
Changyi Wu, Jun Wang, Xiangyang Guo, Ying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Ketamine and hyperoxia are widely used in obstetric and pediatric settings. Either ketamine or hyperoxia has been reported to cause neuroapoptosis in the developing brain, and ketamine-induced neuronal apoptosis may involve a compensatory upregulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1 subunit. This study investigated the impact of ketamine administration under hyperoxic conditions on cortical neuroapoptosis and NR1 subunit expression in the infant rat brain. METHODS: Male, 7-day-old rats were randomly allocated to four groups: control, ketamine, hyperoxia, and ketamine + hyperoxia (n = 18 per group)...
May 10, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741614/loss-of-cerebellar-glutamate-transporters-eaat4-and-glast-differentially-affects-the-spontaneous-firing-pattern-and-survival-of-purkinje-cells
#12
Emma M Perkins, Yvonne L Clarkson, Daumante Suminaite, Alastair R Lyndon, Kohichi Tanaka, Jeffrey D Rothstein, Paul Skehel, David J A Wyllie, Mandy Jackson
Loss of excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) has been implicated in a number of human diseases including spinocerebellar ataxias, Alzhiemer's disease and motor neuron disease. EAAT4 and GLAST/EAAT1 are the two predominant EAATs responsible for maintaining low extracellular glutamate levels and preventing neurotoxicity in the cerebellum, the brain region essential for motor control. Here using genetically modified mice we identify new critical roles for EAAT4 and GLAST/EAAT1 as modulators of Purkinje cell (PC) spontaneous firing patterns...
May 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737230/the-nitric-oxide-donor-sin-1-produced-panic-like-behaviour-and-fear-induced-antinociception-are-modulated-by-nmda-receptors-in-the-anterior-hypothalamus
#13
Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
BACKGROUND: An excitatory imbalance in the hypothalamus of rodents caused by local chemical stimulation elicits fear-related defensive reactions such as escape and freezing. In addition, these panic attack-like defensive reactions induced by hypothalamic neurons may cause antinociception. However, there is a shortage of studies showing the participation of the anterior hypothalamic nucleus in these adaptive defensive mechanisms. Nitric oxide (NO) donors have been shown to evoke fear-related defensive responses when microinjected into paralimbic and limbic structures, and this excitatory neuromodulation can recruit the glutamatergic system...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735530/nmda-receptor-dependent-dephosphorylation-of-serine-387-in-argonaute-2-increases-its-degradation-and-affects-dendritic-spine-density-and-maturation
#14
Nicolas Paradis-Isler, Jannic Boehm
Argonaute (AGO) proteins are essential components of the microRNA (miRNA) pathway. AGO proteins are loaded with miRNAs to target mRNAs and thereby regulate mRNA stability and protein translation. As such, AGO proteins are important actors in controlling local protein synthesis, for instance, at dendritic spines and synapses. Although miRNA-mediated regulation of dendritic mRNAs has become a focus of intense interest over the past years, the mechanisms regulating neuronal AGO proteins remain largely unknown...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723552/pi3k-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-induced-creb-activation-ameliorates-arsenic-mediated-alterations-in-nmda-receptors-and-associated-signaling-in-rat-hippocampus-neuroprotective-role-of-curcumin
#15
Pranay Srivastava, Yogesh K Dhuriya, Vivek Kumar, Akriti Srivastava, Richa Gupta, Rajendra K Shukla, Rajesh S Yadav, Hari N Dwivedi, Aditya B Pant, Vinay K Khanna
Protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced NMDA receptor dysfunctions and PI3 K/Akt/ GSK3β signalling in hippocampus has been investigated in vivo and in vitro. Exposure to sodium arsenite (in vivo - 20 mg/kg, body weight p.o. for 28 days; in vitro - 10 µM for 24 hrs) and curcumin (in vivo - 100 mg/kg body weight p.o. for 28 days; in vitro - 20 µM for 24 hrs) was carried out alone or simultaneously. Treatment with curcumin ameliorated sodium arsenite induced alterations in the levels of NMDA receptors, its receptor subunits and synaptic proteins - pCaMKIIα, PSD-95 and SynGAP both in vivo and in vitro...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718139/ion-channels-in-eeg-isolating-channel-dysfunction-in-nmda-receptor-antibody-encephalitis
#16
Mkael Symmonds, Catherine H Moran, M Isabel Leite, Camilla Buckley, Sarosh R Irani, Klaas Enno Stephan, Karl J Friston, Rosalyn J Moran
Neurological and psychiatric practice frequently lack diagnostic probes that can assess mechanisms of neuronal communication non-invasively in humans. In N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody encephalitis, functional molecular assays are particularly important given the presence of NMDA antibodies in healthy populations, the multifarious symptomology and the lack of radiological signs. Recent advances in biophysical modelling techniques suggest that inferring cellular-level properties of neural circuits from macroscopic measures of brain activity is possible...
April 30, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713995/full-protection-against-soman-induced-seizures-and-brain-damage-by-ly293558-and-caramiphen-combination-treatment-in-adult-rats
#17
James P Apland, Vassiliki Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Taiza H Figueiredo, Marcio De Araujo Furtado, Maria F M Braga
Acute exposure to nerve agents induces status epilepticus (SE), which causes brain damage or death. LY293558, an antagonist of AMPA and GluK1 kainate receptors is a very effective anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant against soman; however, some neuronal damage is still present after treatment of soman-exposed rats with LY293558. Here, we have tested whether combining LY293558 with an NMDA receptor antagonist can eliminate the residual damage. For this purpose, we chose caramiphen (CRM), an antimuscarinic compound with NMDA receptor antagonistic properties...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713308/-in-vivo-multimodal-magnetic-resonance-imaging-changes-after-n-methyl-d-aspartate-triggered-spasms-in-infant-rats
#18
Minyoung Lee, Mi-Sun Yum, Dong-Cheol Woo, Woo-Hyun Shim, Tae-Sung Ko, Libor Velíšek
Objective: Despite the serious neurodevelopmental sequelae of epileptic encephalopathy during infancy, the pathomechanisms involved remain unclear. To find potential biomarkers that can reflect the pathogenesis of epileptic encephalopathy, we explored the neurometabolic and microstructural sequelae after infantile spasms using a rat model of infantile spasms and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Methods: Rats prenatally exposed to betamethasone were subjected to three rounds of intraperitoneal N -methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) triggering of spasms or received saline injections (controls) on postnatal days (P) 12, 13, and 15...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713269/effects-of-subanesthetic-ketamine-administration-on-visual-and-auditory-event-related-potentials-erp-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#19
André Schwertner, Maxciel Zortea, Felipe V Torres, Wolnei Caumo
Ketamine is a non-competitive N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist whose effect in subanesthetic doses has been studied for chronic pain and mood disorders treatment. It has been proposed that ketamine could change the perception of nociceptive stimuli by modulating the cortical connectivity and altering the top-down mechanisms that control conscious pain perception. As this is a strictly central effect, it would be relevant to provide fresh insight into ketamine's effect on cortical response to external stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706992/nmda-receptor-subunits-change-after-synaptic-plasticity-induction-and-learning-and-memory-acquisition
#20
REVIEW
María Verónica Baez, Magalí Cecilia Cercato, Diana Alicia Jerusalinsky
NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are crucial in activity-dependent synaptic changes and in learning and memory. NMDARs are composed of two GluN1 essential subunits and two regulatory subunits which define their pharmacological and physiological profile. In CNS structures involved in cognitive functions as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, GluN2A and GluN2B are major regulatory subunits; their expression is dynamic and tightly regulated, but little is known about specific changes after plasticity induction or memory acquisition...
2018: Neural Plasticity
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