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Neuronal peptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232715/profound-loss-of-neprilysin-accompanied-by-decreased-levels-of-neuropeptides-and-increased-crp-in-ulcerative-colitis
#1
Zeynep Gök Sargın, Nuray Erin, Gokhan Tazegul, Gülsüm Özlem Elpek, Bülent Yıldırım
Neprilysin (NEP, CD10) acts to limit excessive inflammation partly by hydrolyzing neuropeptides. Although deletion of NEP exacerbates intestinal inflammation in animal models, its role in ulcerative colitis (UC) is not well explored. Herein, we aimed to demonstrate changes in NEP and associated neuropeptides at the same time in colonic tissue. 72 patients with UC and 27 control patients were included. Patients' demographic data and laboratory findings, five biopsy samples from active colitis sites and five samples from uninvolved mucosa were collected...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232108/biocompatible-electroactive-tetra-aniline-conjugated-peptide-nanofibers-for-neural-differentiation
#2
Idil Arioz, Ozlem Erol, Gokhan Bakan, F Begum Dikecoglu, Ahmet Emin Topal, Mustafa Urel, Aykutlu Dana, Ayse B Tekinay, Mustafa O Guler
Peripheral nerve injuries cause devastating problems for the quality of the patients' lives and regeneration following a damage to the peripheral nervous system is limited depending on the degree of the damage. Use of nanobiomaterials can provide therapeutic approaches for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. Electroactive biomaterials, in particular, can provide a promising cure for the regeneration of nerve defects. Here, a supramolecular electroactive nanosystem with tetra(aniline) (TA) containing peptide nanofibers was developed and utilized for nerve regeneration...
December 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227247/stress-induced-cdk5-activity-enhances-cytoprotective-basal-autophagy-in-drosophila-melanogaster-by-phosphorylating-acinus-at-serine437
#3
Nilay Nandi, Lauren K Tyra, Drew Stenesen, Helmut Krämer
Cdk5 is a post-mitotic kinase with complex roles in maintaining neuronal health. The various mechanisms by which Cdk5 inhibits and promotes neurodegeneration are still poorly understood. Here, we show that in Drosophila melanogaster Cdk5 regulates basal autophagy, a key mechanism suppressing neurodegeneration. In a targeted screen, Cdk5 genetically interacted with Acinus (Acn), a primarily nuclear protein, which promotes starvation-independent, basal autophagy. Loss of Cdk5, or its required cofactor p35, reduces S437-Acn phosphorylation, whereas Cdk5 gain-of-function increases pS437-Acn levels...
December 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226617/activation-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-attenuates-cocaine-seeking-in-rats
#4
Nicole S Hernandez, Bernadette O'Donovan, Pavel I Ortinski, Heath D Schmidt
Recent evidence indicates that activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors reduces cocaine-mediated behaviors and cocaine-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, no studies have examined the role of NAc GLP-1 receptors in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse. Here, we show that systemic infusion of a behaviorally relevant dose of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 penetrated the brain and localized with neurons and astrocytes in the NAc...
December 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226549/fasting-induces-astroglial-plasticity-in-the-olfactory-bulb-glomeruli-of-rats
#5
Virginie Daumas-Meyer, Gaëlle Champeil-Potokar, Catherine Chaumontet, Patrice Dahirel, Catherine Papillon, Patrice Congar, Isabelle Denis
The detection of food odors by the olfactory system, which plays a key role in regulating food intake and elaborating the hedonic value of food, is reciprocally influenced by the metabolic state. Fasting increases olfactory performance, notably by increasing the activity of olfactory bulb (OB) neurons. The glutamatergic synapses between olfactory sensory neurons and mitral cells in the OB glomeruli are regulated by astrocytes, periglomerular neurons, and centrifugal afferents. We compared the expansion of astroglial processes by quantifying GFAP-labeled areas in fed and fasted rats to see whether OB glomerular astrocytes are involved in the metabolic sensing and adaptation of the olfactory system...
December 11, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223733/mitochondrial-pore-opening-and-loss-of-ca2-exchanger-nclx-levels-occur-after-frataxin-depletion
#6
R Purroy, E Britti, F Delaspre, J Tamarit, J Ros
Frataxin-deficient neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and dorsal root ganglia neurons have been used as cell models of Friedreich ataxia. In previous work we show that frataxin depletion resulted in mitochondrial swelling and lipid droplet accumulation in cardiomyocytes, and compromised DRG neurons survival. Now, we show that these cells display reduced levels of the mitochondrial calcium transporter NCLX that can be restored by calcium-chelating agents and by external addition of frataxin fused to TAT peptide. Also, the transcription factor NFAT3, involved in cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis, becomes activated by dephosphorylation in both cardiomyocytes and DRG neurons...
December 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223600/trans-%C3%AE%C2%B5-viniferin-is-an-amyloid-%C3%AE-disaggregating-and-anti-inflammatory-drug-in-a-mouse-primary-cellular-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Elodie Vion, Guylène Page, Eric Bourdeaud, Marc Paccalin, Jérôme Guillard, Agnès Rioux Bilan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by several cellular and molecular damage. Therefore, the therapeutic interest of multi-target molecules is increasingly justified. Polyphenols presenting multiple pharmacological effects would be more efficient. In this study, beneficial effects of trans ε-viniferin, a natural polyphenol were thus evaluated. This study reported that this stilbenoid (1) induced the disaggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide and (2) rescued inflammation in murine primary neuronal cultures. These both effects are higher than those of resveratrol, and so, trans ε-viniferin could be a good therapeutic multi-target candidate...
December 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223528/glp-1-receptor-agonists-downregulate-aberrant-gnt-iii-expression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-models-through-the-akt-gsk-3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#8
Ying Wang, Song Chen, Zheng Xu, Suting Chen, Wenbing Yao, Xiangdong Gao
Alterations of glycoprotein glycans contribute to a wide variety of diseases. Bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) levels increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of most Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and the mRNA levels of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III), a glycosyltransferase responsible for synthesizing a bisecting GlcNAc residue, were found highly expressed in the brains of AD patients. In our previous studies, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its mimetics showed neuroprotective effects...
December 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221794/glp-1-action-in-the-mouse-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#9
Diana L Williams, Nicole A Lilly, Ian J Edwards, Pallas Yao, James E Richards, Stefan Trapp
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) injected into the brain reduces food intake. Similarly, activation of preproglucagon (PPG) cells in the hindbrain which synthesize GLP-1, reduces food intake. However, it is far from clear whether this happens because of satiety, nausea, reduced reward, or even stress. Here we explore the role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), an area involved in feeding control as well as stress responses, in GLP-1 responses. Using cre-expressing mice we visualized projections of NTS PPG neurons and GLP-1R-expressing BNST cells with AAV-driven Channelrhodopsin-YFP expression...
December 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221142/d-4f-increases-microrna-124a-and-reduces-neuroinflammation-in-diabetic-stroke-rats
#10
Ruizhuo Ning, Poornima Venkat, Michael Chopp, Alex Zacharek, Tao Yan, Xu Cui, Don Seyfried, Jieli Chen
D-4F is an apolipoprotein-A1 mimetic peptide that promotes anti-inflammatory effects. MicroRNA-124 is the most abundant brain-specific microRNA and has anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms of D-4F treatment of stroke in type one diabetes mellitus (T1DM) rats. Male Wistar rats were induced with T1DM, subjected to embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion and treated with PBS or D-4F (1 mg/kg i.p.) at 2, 24 and 48 hours after stroke (n=8/group). A battery of function tests, brain blood barrier (BBB) integrity, white matter changes and microRNA expression were evaluated in vivo and in vitro...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218504/temporal-spatial-profiling-of-pedunculopontine-galanin-cholinergic-neurons-in-the-lactacystin-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Joanna L Elson, Rafael Kochaj, Richard Reynolds, Ilse S Pienaar
Parkinson's disease (PD) is conventionally seen as resulting from single-system neurodegeneration affecting nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. However, accumulating evidence indicates multi-system degeneration and neurotransmitter deficiencies, including cholinergic neurons which degenerate in a brainstem nucleus, the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), resulting in motor and cognitive impairments. The neuropeptide galanin can inhibit cholinergic transmission, while being upregulated in degenerating brain regions associated with cognitive decline...
December 7, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218440/biochemical-properties-of-the-sensitivity-to-gabaaergic-ligands-cl-hco3-atpase-isolated-from-fish-cyprinus-carpio-olfactory-mucosa-and-brain
#12
Sergey Menzikov
This paper presents a comparative study of the roles of Cl- and HCO3- in the functioning of the GABAAR-associated Cl-/HCO3--ATPase of the plasma membranes of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and mature brain neurons (MBNs) of fish. The ATPase activity of OSNs and its dephosphorylation were increased twofold by Cl-(15-30 mmol l-1), whereas the enzyme from MBNs was not significantly affected by Cl-. By contrast, HCO3-(15-30 mmol l-1) significantly activated the MBN enzyme and its dephosphorylation, but had no effect on the OSN ATPase...
December 7, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215540/the-insulin-receptor-is-colocalized-with-the-trpv1-nociceptive-ion-channel-and-neuropeptides-in-pancreatic-spinal-and-vagal-primary-sensory-neurons
#13
Bence András Lázár, Gábor Jancsó, Orsolya Oszlács, István Nagy, Péter Sántha
OBJECTIVES: Recent observations demonstrated the expression of the insulin receptor (InsR) and its functional interaction with the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor (TRPV1) in sensory ganglion neurons. Because sensory nerves are implicated in pancreatic inflammatory processes, we studied the colocalization of the InsR with TRPV1 and proinflammatory neuropeptides in spinal and vagal pancreatic afferent neurons. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometry were used to analyze the expression of TRPV1, InsR, substance P (SP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in retrogradely labeled pancreatic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and nodose ganglion (NG) neurons...
January 2018: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215306/a-peptide-mimetic-of-tyrosine-phosphatase-step-as-a-potential-therapeutic-agent-for-treatment-of-cerebral-ischemic-stroke
#14
Ranjana Poddar, Sathyanarayanan Rajagopal, Lucas Winter, Andrea M Allan, Surojit Paul
Extensive research over the last two decades has advanced our understanding of the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. However, current pharmacologic therapies are still limited to rapid reperfusion using thrombolytic agents, and neuroprotective approaches that can reduce the consequences of ischemic and reperfusion injury, are still not available. To bridge this gap, we have evaluated the long-term efficacy and therapeutic time window of a novel peptide-based neuroprotectant TAT-STEP, derived from the brain-enriched and neuron-specific tyrosine phosphatase STEP...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213032/-staging-of-neuroplasticity-alterations-during-epileptogenesis-temporal-lobe-epileply-as-an-example
#15
N V Gulyaeva
Using temporal lobe epilepsy as an example, staging of long term plasticity in the hippocampus is considered. Major stages demonstrating opposite alterations in neuroplasticity are active epileptogenesis and the period of established temporal lobe epilepsy. During the epileptogenesis, multiple events resulting in forming of epileptic neuronal nets occur: changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, increase of aberrant neurogenesis, axonal sprouting and dendrite remodeling, particularly, supported by an excessive enhancement of the BDNF system in specific hippocampal regions...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207107/modular-organization-of-a-hypocretin-gene-minimal-promoter
#16
Adriana Sánchez-García, Griselda A Cabral-Pacheco, Viviana C Zomosa-Signoret, Rocío Ortiz-López, Alberto Camacho, Paulo M Tabera-Tarello, José A Garnica-López, Román Vidaltamayo
Orexins or hypocretins are neurotransmitters produced by a small population of neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This family of peptides modulates sleep‑wake cycle, arousal and feeding behaviors; however, the mechanisms regulating their expression remain to be fully elucidated. There is an interest in defining the key molecular elements in orexin regulation, as these may serve to identify targets for generating novel therapies for sleep disorders, obesity and addiction. Our previous studies showed that the expression of orexin was decreased in mice carrying null‑mutations of the transcription factor early B‑cell factor 2 (ebf2) and that the promoter region of the prepro‑orexin (Hcrt) gene contained two putative ebf‑binding sites, termed olf‑1 sites...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206597/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-the-hippocampus-of-rats-with-gcr-induced-spatial-memory-impairment
#17
Sucharita M Dutta, Melissa M Hadley, Scott Peterman, Jessica S Jewell, Vania D Duncan, Richard A Britten
NASA is planning future missions to Mars, which will result in astronauts being exposed to ∼13 cGy/year of galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). Previous ground-based experiments have demonstrated that low (15 cGy) doses of 1 GeV/n 56Fe ions impair hippocampus-dependent spatial memory in rats. However, some irradiated rats maintain a spatial memory performance comparable to that seen in the sham-irradiated rats, suggesting that some of these animals are able to ameliorate the deleterious effects of the GCR, while others are not...
December 5, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205695/diminished-gastric-prokinetic-response-to-ghrelin-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#18
E M Besecker, A R White, G M Holmes
BACKGROUND: Patients with cervical or high-thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) often present reduced gastric emptying and early satiety. Ghrelin provokes motility via gastric vagal neurocircuitry and ghrelin receptor agonists offer a therapeutic option for gastroparesis. We have previously shown that experimental high-thoracic injury (T3-SCI) diminishes sensitivity to another gastrointestinal peptide, cholecystokinin. This study tests the hypothesis that T3-SCI impairs the vagally mediated response to ghrelin...
December 5, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203718/dnaj-proteins-in-neurodegeneration-essential-and-protective-factors
#19
REVIEW
Christina Zarouchlioti, David A Parfitt, Wenwen Li, Lauren M Gittings, Michael E Cheetham
Maintenance of protein homeostasis is vitally important in post-mitotic cells, particularly neurons. Neurodegenerative diseases such as polyglutamine expansion disorders-like Huntington's disease or spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), Alzheimer's disease, fronto-temporal dementia (FTD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's disease-are often characterized by the presence of inclusions of aggregated protein. Neurons contain complex protein networks dedicated to protein quality control and maintaining protein homeostasis, or proteostasis...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203206/expression-of-hypothalamic-kisspeptin-neurokinin-b-and-dynorphin-a-neurons-attenuates-in-female-zucker-fatty-rats
#20
Kimihiko Nakao, Kinuyo Iwata, Toshiyuki Takeshita, Hitoshi Ozawa
Zucker fatty (ZF) rats are considered to be an obese model due to leptin receptor abnormality and such rats show infertility. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone/luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, which is important for follicular development in females, is considered to be controlled by KNDy neurons coexpressing kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin A (DynA), encoded by Kiss1, Tac3, and Pdyn, respectively, in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). The purpose of this study is to examine the expression of KNDy neurons in female ZF rats by histochemical approach because pulsatile LH secretion is suppressed...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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