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Tobias M R Houlton, Caroline Wilkinson
Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Harold S Matthews, Anthony J Penington, Rita Hardiman, Yi Fan, John G Clement, Nicola M Kilpatrick, Peter D Claes
Many disorders present with characteristic abnormalities of the craniofacial complex. Precise descriptions of how and when these abnormalities emerge and change during childhood and adolescence can inform our understanding of their underlying pathology and facilitate diagnosis from craniofacial shape. In this paper we develop a framework for analysing how anatomical differences between populations emerge and change over time, and for binary group classification that adapts to the age of each participant. As a proxy for a disease-control comparison we use a database of 3D photographs of normally developing boys and girls to examine emerging sex-differences...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amy L Cole, Yvonne Cosgrove Sweeney, Amanda G Lasseter, Justin M Gray, Ashley C Beavis, Christine F Chong, Safarali V Hajheidari, Alex Beyene, Dorothy L Patton, Alexander M Cole
Staphylococcus aureus ( SA ) nasal carriage is a common condition effecting both healthy and immunocompromised populations, and provides a reservoir for dissemination of potentially infectious strains by casual contact. Factors regulating the onset and duration of nasal SA colonization are mostly unknown, and a human-relevant animal model is needed. Here, we screened 17 pig-tailed macaques ( Macaca nemestrina ) for SA carriage, and 14 of 17 animals tested positive in the nose at one or both screening sessions (8 weeks apart), while the other three animals were negative in the nose but positive in the pharynx at least once...
March 19, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Lei Zhang, Xiaofeng Bai, Zengjian Li, Qiang Liu, Mingliang Yang, Xukai Wang, Li Lu
OBJECTIVE: To assess the improvement of nasal morphologies and ventilation after septal cartilage graft and septoplasty of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Tertiary stomatology hospital. PATIENTS: In total, 118 patients with UCLP who had been diagnosed with a secondary nasal deformity and had reconstructive rhinoplasty and/or septoplasty between 2010 and 2015...
April 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Wei Zeng, Gang Chen, Rui Ju, Huaqiang Yin, Weidong Tian, Wei Tang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to present a virtual planning protocol based on the database and three-dimensional (3D) image registration technology for the restoration of the total nasal defect, and evaluate its feasibility and clinical efficacy. METHODS: Patients were scanned with a FaceScan to obtain the 3D facial model which was stored in an Extensible Neuroimaging Archive Toolkit (XNAT) database. Personalized search and similarity evaluation were performed in the database to find a normal 3D facial model with the highest similarity to the patient's...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Oswaldo Javir Gómez Díaz, Diana Carolina Martínez Gutiérrez, Luz Elena Rueda Gallardo
This article describes 2 patients with complex facial asymmetry characterized by hemiarhinia, microorbitism, palpebral fissure shortening, ipsilateral canthal dystopia, maxillomandibular hypoplasia, and occlusal plane inclination. These unusual phenotypes are part of the oculoauriculo-vertebral spectrum. Their devastating functional, esthetic, and psychologic effects demand the use of different craniofacial surgery techniques, in order to alleviate the profound impact of these pathologies. Initial skeletal balance through bimaxillary distraction osteogenesis and orbital expansion sets the basis for further reconstruction of the nose and periorbital area with local tissue...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
C Incorvaia, S Masieri, C Cavaliere, E Makri, B Sposato, F Frati
A large amount of data show that AR and asthma are associated both epidemiologically and clinically, introducing the definition of “united airway disease”. The mechanisms underlying such association were initially suggested to start from the nose, including the loss of the protective and homeostatic effects of nasal function, the activation of a naso-bronchial reflex and the spread of allergic inflammation from the nose to the lower airways. Later, other factors such as microbial stimuli and systemic inflammatory mechanisms, involving bloodstream and bone marrow, were advocated...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Ming-San Miao, Li-Ling Xiang, Ming Bai, Li-Hua Cao
Frostbite is a common disease in winter, and systemic or local injury caused by low temperature invasion. Frostbite sites are commonly face, ears, nose, hands, feet and other peripheral blood circulation parts. The main symptoms are pale skin, cold, pain and numbness, skin itching in high temperature, and severe cases may suffer from skin erosions and ulcers. Frostbite model is a pathological model mainly based on Western medicine index. Based on the analysis of clinical symptoms of frostbite in traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine, and a large number of experimental studies on the existing animal models, the animal model preparation of specifications (draft) was formulated as follows...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Paul A Garber
Over the past few decades, field studies conducted by Chinese primatologists have contributed significant new theoretical and empirical insights into the behavior, ecology, biology, genetics, and conservation of lorises, macaques, langurs, snub-nosed monkeys, and gibbons. With the recent establishment and inaugural meeting of the China Primatological Society in 2017, China has emerged as a leading nation in primate research. Several research teams have conducted long-term studies despite the difficult challenges of habituating and observing wild primates inhabiting mountainous temperate forests, and the fact that some 80% of China's 25-27 primate species are considered vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered and are distributed in small isolated subpopulations...
January 24, 2018: Zoological Research
Gu Fang, Jing Chen, Ru-Liang Pan, Xiao-Guang Qi, Bao-Guo Li
In primate species with social systems consisting of one-male breeding units (OMUs), resident male takeover represents a major challenge to individual reproductive success and mating strategies. The golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is characterized by large multilevel societies (MLS) comprised of several OMUs and all-male units (AMUs); however, the factors and mechanisms associated with resident male takeover, which offer important insight into primate reproduction and social strategies, are still poorly understood...
March 12, 2018: Zoological Research
Ingrid Zyserman, Deboprosad Mondal, Francisco Sarabia, James H McKerrow, William R Roush, Anjan Debnath
Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. PAM occurs principally in healthy children of less than 13 years old with a history of recent exposure to warm fresh water. While as yet not a reportable disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) documents a total of 143 cases in the United States. Only four patients have survived. Infection results from water containing N. fowleri entering the nose, followed by migration of the amebae to the brain...
March 15, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Virendra N Sehgal, Navjeeven Singh, Sonal Sharma, Jolly Rohatgi, Rakesh Oberai, Kingshuk Chatterjee
An 11-year-old girl presented with an insidiously evolving, reddish-brown, small, hard, elevated lesion, occupying the midsection of her face, which had been present since early childhood. There were also a few small white spots over the trunk. There was no history of seizures or visual deficit, and no burning on exposure to sunlight. There were no known congenital defect noted at birth, and her parents were nonconsanguineous. There was no significant family history. There were numerous 2- to 4-mm reddish-brown papules located symmetrically on the nose, nasolabial folds, and cheeks (Figure 1A)...
2018: Skinmed
Mofiyinfolu Sokoya, Joseph R Gonzalez, Andrew A Winkler
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis affects surgical outcomes of open septorhinoplasty (OSR) and to examine whether OSR provides the same level of improvement in quality of life to patients with and without allergic rhinitis. STUDY DESIGN, SETTING, SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective evaluation of 646 patients who underwent open septorhinoplasty in a tertiary otolaryngology practice between 2008 and 2015. Preoperative and postoperative quality of life (QoL) measurement using the validated Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) Scale was performed on 307 patients meeting inclusion criteria...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Florencia Escarrá, Ana G Fedullo, Natalia Veliz, Julián Rosa, Rodrigo Oribe, Marisa Di Santo, Bqca Vanesa Reijtman, Lic Alejandra Mastroianni, Guadalupe Pérez
INTRODUCTION: the incidence of invasive infections caused by pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) has declined since generalized vaccination with pneumococcal conjugated vaccine, but it is still a prevalent pathogen in children. Amongst pneumococcal invasive infections, IE (infectious endocarditis) is rare, with an incidence between 1 and 7%. CASE REPORT: We describe the case of a previously healthy 4 year old boy, who had received one dose of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine who presents with fever, a new heart murmur and heart failure...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Niels Rueegger, Brad Law, Ross Goldingay
Understanding maternity roost requirements is fundamental to guide timber production forest management given such roosts are vital to sustain bat populations. We tracked lactating females of three tree cavity-roosting species: Gould's long-eared bat (Nyctophilus gouldi) (n = 7), eastern broad-nosed bat (Scotorepens orion) (n = 6) and little forest bat (Vespadelus vulturnus) (n = 25), over five weeks in young (predominately <5 years old) forest regenerating from heavy timber harvest in southeast Australia...
2018: PloS One
Fabio Sonvico, Adryana Clementino, Francesca Buttini, Gaia Colombo, Silvia Pescina, Silvia Stanisçuaski Guterres, Adriana Raffin Pohlmann, Sara Nicoli
In the field of nasal drug delivery, nose-to-brain delivery is among the most fascinating applications, directly targeting the central nervous system, bypassing the blood brain barrier. Its benefits include dose lowering and direct brain distribution of potent drugs, ultimately reducing systemic side effects. Recently, nasal administration of insulin showed promising results in clinical trials for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Nanomedicines could further contribute to making nose-to-brain delivery a reality...
March 15, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Mireguli Tuersunjiang, Xing Long, Yuchuan Fu, Jin Ke, He Huijun, Jian Li
Bifid nose, an indicator of Tessier No.0, is a rare congenital malformation. Because of its rarity, few cases were reported and the optimal surgical procedure and the best time for surgery have not been widely acknowledged. In this brief report, a 9-year-old girl with mild bifid nose and unilateral mini-microform cleft lip, and its surgical management, is presented. We focused our attention on modifying the shape of the nose through open rhinoplasty without excising the surplus skin on the nasal dorsum and achieved good results...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Fariha Hasan, Mohammad O Khan, Mukarram Ali
Introduction Pakistan is extremely susceptible to an influenza outbreak, as it shares borders with the most affected countries, namely China and India. The medical and dental students come into direct contact with the affected population and should be aware of the risk factors and signs and symptoms pertaining to swine influenza virus (SIV). Hence, this survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, perceptions and self-care practices of the medical and dental students with regards to this pandemic. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the swine flu-related knowledge, attitudes and practices of the medical and dental students at various institutions in Karachi, Pakistan...
January 9, 2018: Curēus
Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Sandra de M G Bosco, Sybren de Hoog, Frank Ebel, Daniel Elad, Renata R Gomes, Ilse D Jacobsen, An Martel, Bernard Mignon, Frank Pasmans, Elena Piecková, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Karuna Singh, Vania A Vicente, Gudrun Wibbelt, Nathan P Wiederhold, Jacques Guillot
The importance of fungal infections in both human and animals has increased over the last decades. This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans. In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Michelle de Lima Farah, Murillo Santinello, Luis Eduardo Morato Rebouças de Carvalho, Carlos Fumiaki Uesugui, Ronaldo Boaventura Barcellos
PURPOSE: To describe a new method for measuring anomalous head positions by using a cell phone. METHODS: The photo rotation feature of the iPhone® PHOTOS application was used. With the patient seated on a chair, a horizontal stripe was fixed on the wall in the background and a sagittal stripe was fixed on the seat. Photographs were obtained in the following views: front view (photographs A and B; with the head tilted over one shoulder) and upper axial view (photographs C and D; viewing the forehead and nose) (A and C are without camera rotation, and B and D are with camera rotation)...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
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