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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164389/early-life-stress-induces-motor-coordination-dysfunction-in-adult-mice
#1
Michifumi Kokubo, Syutaro Toya, Izuki Amano, Yusuke Takatsuru
Although child abuse has become a serious social problem in most countries, the neural mechanisms by which it induces adulthood mental disorders is not yet fully understood. Mice exposed to early-life stresses, such as maternal deprivation (MD) during lactation, are a good model for studying the effects of neglect of humans in early life. Early-life stress induces structural/functional changes of neurons in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, and causes mental disorders in adulthood. In this study, we found motor coordination dysfunction in male MD mice...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150182/mature-hippocampal-neurons-require-lis1-for-synaptic-integrity-implications-for-cognition
#2
Anamaria Sudarov, Xin-Jun Zhang, Leighton Braunstein, Eve LoCastro, Shawn Singh, Yu Taniguchi, Ashish Raj, Song-Hai Shi, Holly Moore, M Elizabeth Ross
BACKGROUND: Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1B1 (LIS1), a critical mediator of neuronal migration in developing brain, is expressed throughout life. However, relatively little is known about LIS1 function in the mature brain. We previously demonstrated that LIS1 involvement in the formation and turnover of synaptic protrusions and synapses of young brain after neuronal migration is complete. Here we examine the requirement for LIS1 to maintain hippocampal circuit function in adulthood...
September 23, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149731/purinergic-drug-targets-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Kenneth A Jacobson, Fievos L Christofi
Purinergic receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders and are being explored as potential therapeutic targets. Gut inflammation releases ATP that acts on neuronal, glial, epithelial and immune cells. Purinergic signalling in glia and neurons is implicated in enteric neuropathies. Inflammation activates glia to increase ATP release and alter purinergic signalling. ATP release causes neuron death and gut motor dysfunction in colitis via a P2X7-dependent neural-glial pathway and a glial purinergic-connexin-43 pathway...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102776/assessing-disease-modifying-effects-of-norepinephrine-in-down-syndrome-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Ravikumar Ponnusamy, M Windy McNerney, Shahrzad Moghadam, Ahmad Salehi
Building upon the knowledge that a number of important brain circuits undergo significant degeneration in Alzheimer's disease, numerous recent studies suggest that the norepinephrine-ergic system in the brainstem undergoes significant alterations early in the course of both Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome. Massive projections from locus coeruleus neurons to almost the entire brain, extensive innervation of brain capillaries, and widespread distribution of noradrenergic receptors enable the norepinephrine-ergic system to play a crucial role in neural processes, including cognitive function...
November 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102238/endocrinal-description-of-two-chinese-kennedy-s-disease-pedigrees
#5
Fang Li, Gulibositan Aji, Fei Leng, Jia-Chao Chen, Yu Luo, Jing Zhang, Ke Hu, Zi-Yun Cheng, Xi Xu, Zhi-Qiang Lu
Kennedy's disease (KD), also known as X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), is caused by the expansion of cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG) repeats in the first exon of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. KD is a late-onset neural-endocrinal disease that is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord. In addition, partial androgen insensitivity is an important manifestation of KD. Here, we report two Chinese KD pedigrees that reveal the clinical and genetic manifestations and fully elaborate the endocrinal characteristics of KD patients...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102164/soy-isoflavone-genistein-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairments-in-the-rat-via-exerting-anti-oxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-effects
#6
Seyed-Mohamad-Sadegh Mirahmadi, Alireza Shahmohammadi, Ali-Mohammad Rousta, Mohammad-Reza Azadi, Javad Fahanik-Babaei, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
Systemic inflammation during infectious disorders usually accompanies chronic complications including cognitive dysfunction. Neuroinflammation and cognitive deficit are also observed in some debilitating neurological disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Genistein is a soy isoflavone with multiple beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and protective properties. In this research study, the effect of genistein in prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive dysfunction was investigated...
October 25, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059347/sim1-neurons-are-sufficient-for-mc4r-mediated-sexual-function-in-male-mice
#7
Erin Semple, Jennifer W Hill
Sexual dysfunction is a poorly understood condition that affects up to one-third of men around the world. Existing treatments that target the periphery do not work for all men. Previous studies have shown that central melanocortins, which are released by pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, can lead to male erection and increased libido. Several studies specifically implicate the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) in the central control of sexual function, but the specific neural circuitry involved is unknown...
October 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053743/in-vitro-modeling-of-experimental-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-deficiency-ssadhd-using-brain-derived-neural-stem-cells
#8
Kara R Vogel, Garrett R Ainslie, Erwin E Jansen, Gajja S Salomons, Jean-Baptiste Roullet, K Michael Gibson
We explored the utility of neural stem cells (NSCs) as an in vitro model for evaluating preclinical therapeutics in succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase-deficient (SSADHD) mice. NSCs were obtained from aldh5a1+/+ and aldh5a1-/- mice (aldh5a1 = aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1 = SSADH). Multiple parameters were evaluated including: (1) production of GHB (γ-hydroxybutyrate), the biochemical hallmark of SSADHD; (2) rescue from cell death with the dual mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibitor, XL-765, an agent previously shown to rescue aldh5a1-/- mice from premature lethality; (3) mitochondrial number, total reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial superoxide production, all previously documented as abnormal in aldh5a1-/- mice; (4) total ATP levels and ATP consumption; and (5) selected gene expression profiles associated with epilepsy, a prominent feature in both experimental and human SSADHD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038244/overactivity-of-liver-related-neurons-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus-electrophysiological-findings-in-db-db-mice
#9
Hong Gao, Adrien Jr Molinas, Kayoko Miyata, Xin Qiao, Andrea Zsombok
Preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus play a large role in the regulation of hepatic functions via the autonomic nervous system. Activation of hepatic sympathetic nerves increases glucose and lipid metabolism and contributes to the elevated hepatic glucose production observed in type 2 diabetic condition. This augmented sympathetic output could originate from altered activity of liver-related PVN neurons. Remarkably, despite the importance of the brain-liver pathway, the cellular properties of liver-related neurons are not known...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027111/excessive-d1-dopamine-receptor-activation-in-the-dorsal-striatum-promotes-autistic-like-behaviors
#10
Yunjin Lee, Hannah Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, Jin-Young Park, Juli Choi, Jung-Eun Lee, Eun-Hwa Lee, Pyung-Lim Han
The dopamine system has been characterized in motor function, goal-directed behaviors, and rewards. Recent studies recognize various dopamine system genes as being associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how dopamine system dysfunction induces ASD pathophysiology remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that mice with increased dopamine functions in the dorsal striatum via the suppression of dopamine transporter expression in substantia nigra neurons or the optogenetic stimulation of the nigro-striatal circuitry exhibited sociability deficits and repetitive behaviors relevant to ASD pathology in animal models, while these behavioral changes were blocked by a D1 receptor antagonist...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987281/the-effects-of-the-5-ht7-receptor-on-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-and-apoptosis-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Nasrin Hashemi-Firouzi, Alireza Komaki, Sara Soleimani Asl, Siamak Shahidi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder involving synaptic loss and impairments in learning and memory. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic function is a model of learning- and memory-related neural plasticity, of which serotonin (5-HT) is a key modulator in the hippocampus. As the 5-HT7 receptor subtype is implicated in hippocampal neuronal function, dendritic rearrangement, and neurogenesis, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 5-HT7 receptor activation on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and apoptosis in a rat model of AD...
October 5, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956332/from-age-related-cognitive-decline-to-alzheimer-s-disease-a-translational-overview-of-the-potential-role-for-phosphodiesterases
#12
Pim R A Heckman, Arjan Blokland, Jos Prickaerts
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE-Is) are pharmacological compounds enhancing cAMP and/or cGMP signaling. Both these substrates affect neural communication by influencing presynaptic neurotransmitter release and postsynaptic intracellular pathways after neurotransmitter binding to its receptor. Both cAMP and cGMP play an important role in a variety of cellular functions including neuroplasticity and neuroprotection. This chapter provides a translational overview of the effects of different classes of PDE-Is on cognition enhancement in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941357/microrna-in-alzheimer-s-disease-revisited-implications-for-major-neuropathological-mechanisms
#13
Reihaneh Dehghani, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) goes far beyond neurotoxicity resulting from extracellular deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques. Aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein and accumulation of Aβ in the form of the plaque or neurofibrillary tangles are the known primary culprits of AD pathogenesis and target for various regulatory mechanisms. Hyper-phosphorylation of tau, a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, precipitates its aggregation and prevents its clearance. Lipid particles, apolipoproteins and lipoprotein receptors can act in favor or against Aβ and tau accumulation by altering neural membrane characteristics or dynamics of transport across the blood-brain barrier...
September 23, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912019/a-nigro-vagal-pathway-controls-gastric-motility-and-is-affected-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinsonism
#14
Laura Anselmi, Luca Toti, Cecilia Bove, Jessica Hampton, R Alberto Travagli
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In most patients with Parkinson's disease, gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions, such as gastroparesis and constipation, are prodromal to the cardinal motor symptoms of the disease. Sporadic Parkinson's disease has been proposed to develop after ingestion of neurotoxicants that affect the brain-gut axis via the vagus nerve, and then travel to higher centers, compromising the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and, later, the cerebral cortex. We aimed to identify the pathway that connects the brainstem vagal nuclei and the SNpc, and to determine whether this pathway is compromised in a rat model of Parkinsonism...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901728/gaba-type-a-receptor-trafficking-and-the-architecture-of-synaptic-inhibition
#15
REVIEW
Joshua M Lorenz-Guertin, Tija C Jacob
Ubiquitous expression of GABA type A receptors (GABAA R) in the central nervous system establishes their central role in coordinating most aspects of neural function and development. Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission manifests in a number of human health disorders and conditions that in certain cases can be alleviated by drugs targeting these receptors. Precise changes in the quantity or activity of GABAA Rs localized at the cell surface and at GABAergic postsynaptic sites directly impact the strength of inhibition...
September 13, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900300/rogdi-defines-gabaergic-control-of-a-wake-promoting-dopaminergic-pathway-to-sustain-sleep-in-drosophila
#16
Minjong Kim, Donghoon Jang, Eunseok Yoo, Yangkyun Oh, Jun Young Sonn, Jongbin Lee, Yoonhee Ki, Hyo Jin Son, Onyou Hwang, Changwook Lee, Chunghun Lim, Joonho Choe
Kohlschutter-Tönz syndrome (KTS) is a rare genetic disorder with neurological dysfunctions including seizure and intellectual impairment. Mutations at the Rogdi locus have been linked to development of KTS, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that a Drosophila homolog of Rogdi acts as a novel sleep-promoting factor by supporting a specific subset of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission. Rogdi mutant flies displayed insomnia-like behaviors accompanied by sleep fragmentation and delay in sleep initiation...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890075/down-regulation-of-dorsal-striatal-%C3%AE-camkii-causes-striatum-related-cognitive-and-synaptic-disorders
#17
Qi Wang, Pengcheng Yin, Bin Yu, Zheng Zhao, Gal Richter-Levin, Lu Yu, Xiaohua Cao
Alpha calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) is a serine/threonine protein kinase which is expressed abundantly in dorsal striatum and is highly involved in the corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. Nevertheless, it currently remains unclear whether and how αCaMKII plays a in the striatum-related neural disorders. To address the above issue, lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to silence the expression of αCaMKII gene in the dorsal striatum of mice. As a consequence of down-regulation of dorsal striatal αCaMKII expression, we observed defective motor skill learning in accelerating rotarod and response learning in water cross maze...
December 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864976/overview-of-human-oxytocin-research
#18
Keith M Kendrick, Adam J Guastella, Benjamin Becker
Social dysfunction is a core symptom of many psychiatric disorders and current medications have little or no remedial effects on this. Following on from extensive studies on animal models demonstrating that the neuropeptide oxytocin plays an important role in social recognition and bonding, human-based research has explored its therapeutic potential for social dysfunction in psychiatric disorders. Here we outline the historical background of this human-based research and some of the current methodological challenges it is facing...
September 2, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864239/network-oscillatory-activity-driven-by-context-memory-processing-is-differently-regulated-by-glutamatergic-and-cholinergic-neurotransmission
#19
Adam M P Miller, Brendan J Frick, David M Smith, Jelena Radulovic, Kevin A Corcoran
Memory retrieval requires coordinated intra- and inter-regional activity in networks of brain structures. Dysfunction of these networks and memory impairment are seen in many psychiatric disorders, but relatively little is known about how memory retrieval and memory failure are represented at the level of local and regional oscillatory activity. To address this question, we measured local field potentials (LFPs) from mice as they explored a novel context, retrieved memories for contextual fear conditioning, and after administration of two amnestic agents: the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine (SCOP)...
November 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855798/abnormalities-of-dopamine-d3-receptor-signaling-in-the-diseased-brain
#20
REVIEW
G Aleph Prieto
Dopamine D3 receptors (D3R) modulate neuronal activity in several brain regions including cortex, striatum, cerebellum, and hippocampus. A growing body of evidence suggests that aberrant D3R signaling contributes to multiple brain diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, schizophrenia, and addiction. In line with these findings, D3R has emerged as a potential target in the treatment of neurological disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying neuronal D3R signaling are poorly understood, either in healthy or diseased brain...
2017: Journal of Central Nervous System Disease
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