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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932955/what-do-we-really-know-about-5-ht1a-receptor-signaling-in-neuronal-cells
#1
REVIEW
Paulina S Rojas, Jenny L Fiedler
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in neuronal plasticity. Variations in the levels of 5-HT at the synaptic cleft, expression or dysfunction of 5-HT receptors may alter brain development and predispose to various mental diseases. Here, we review the transduction pathways described in various cell types transfected with recombinant 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR), specially contrasting with those findings obtained in neuronal cells. The 5-HT1AR is detected in early stages of neural development and is located in the soma, dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926574/neural-activity-memory-and-dementias-serotonergic-markers
#2
Alfredo Meneses
Dysfunctional memory seems to be a key component of diverse dementias and other neuropsychiatric disorders; unfortunately, no effective treatment exists for this, probably because of the absence of neural biomarkers accompanying it. Diverse neurotransmission systems have been implicated in memory, including serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). There are multiple serotonergic pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species and neural markers providing new insights into memory functions and dysfunctions...
December 6, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913408/neurophysiological-mechanisms-of-cortical-plasticity-impairments-in-schizophrenia-and-modulation-by-the-nmda-receptor-agonist-d-serine
#3
Joshua T Kantrowitz, Michael L Epstein, Odeta Beggel, Stephanie Rohrig, Jonathan M Lehrfeld, Nadine Revheim, Nayla P Lehrfeld, Jacob Reep, Emily Parker, Gail Silipo, Merav Ahissar, Daniel C Javitt
Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in cortical plasticity that affect sensory brain regions and lead to impaired cognitive performance. Here we examined underlying neural mechanisms of auditory plasticity deficits using combined behavioural and neurophysiological assessment, along with neuropharmacological manipulation targeted at the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR). Cortical plasticity was assessed in a cohort of 40 schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients relative to 42 healthy control subjects using a fixed reference tone auditory plasticity task...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906690/the-long-road-to-leptin
#4
Jeffrey Friedman
Leptin is an adipose tissue hormone that functions as an afferent signal in a negative feedback loop that maintains homeostatic control of adipose tissue mass. This endocrine system thus serves a critical evolutionary function by protecting individuals from the risks associated with being too thin (starvation) or too obese (predation and temperature dysregulation). Mutations in leptin or its receptor cause massive obesity in mice and humans, and leptin can effectively treat obesity in leptin-deficient patients...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870937/spinosad-induces-programmed-cell-death-involves-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cytochrome-c-release-in-spodoptera-frugiperda-sf9-cells
#5
Mingjun Yang, Bo Wang, Jufang Gao, Yang Zhang, Wenping Xu, Liming Tao
Spinosad, a reduced-risk insecticide, acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor in the nervous system of target insects. However, its mechanism of action in non-neural insect cells is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate mitochondrial functional changes associated with spinosad in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. Our results indicate that in Sf9 cells, spinosad induces programmed cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction through enhanced reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, eventually leading to cytochrome C release and apoptosis...
November 18, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862119/increased-expression-of-nerve-growth-factor-correlates-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-and-impaired-gut-barrier-function-in-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-preliminary-explorative-study
#6
X J Xu, Y L Zhang, L Liu, L Pan, S K Yao
BACKGROUND: Neural-immune-endocrine network mechanism has attracted increased attention in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Pre-clinical evidence indicates that nerve growth factor (NGF) mediates visceral hypersensitivity and gut barrier dysfunction, via interactions with mast cells and sensory nerve fibres. AIM: To explore the role of nerve growth factor, as well as mast cell-nerve growth factor-nerve interaction in IBS-D pathophysiology...
January 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789312/ppar%C3%AE-%C3%AE-activation-protects-against-corticosterone-induced-er%C3%A2-stress%C3%A2-in-astrocytes-by-inhibiting-the-cpg-hypermethylation-of%C3%A2-microrna-181a
#7
Juan Ji, Xiao-Ning Zeng, Lu-Lu Cao, Ling Zhang, Zhan Zhao, Dan-Dan Yang, Xiu-Lan Sun
Increasing evidence indicates that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play neuroprotective roles in various neurodegenerative disease models in vivo and in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Astrocyte proliferation is a key process in neural development and plays significant roles in the regeneration of neural tissue after a penetrating injury. Corticosterone can significantly reduce the expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) in cultured rat hippocampal astrocytes in vitro, and induce astrocytic dysfunction...
February 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771973/dopaminergic-enhancement-of-striatal-response-to-reward-in-major-depression
#8
Roee Admon, Roselinde H Kaiser, Daniel G Dillon, Miranda Beltzer, Franziska Goer, David P Olson, Gordana Vitaliano, Diego A Pizzagalli
OBJECTIVE: Major depressive disorder is characterized by reduced reward-related striatal activation and dysfunctional reward learning, putatively reflecting decreased dopaminergic signaling. The goal of this study was to test whether a pharmacological challenge designed to facilitate dopaminergic transmission can enhance striatal responses to reward and improve reward learning in depressed individuals. METHOD: In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 46 unmedicated depressed participants and 43 healthy control participants were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or a single low dose (50 mg) of the D2/D3 receptor antagonist amisulpride, which is believed to increase dopamine signaling through presynaptic autoreceptor blockade...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765516/effects-of-gintonin-enriched-fraction-on-hippocampal-cell-proliferation-in-wild-type-mice-and-an-appswe-psen-1-double-tg-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Hyeon-Joong Kim, Dae-Joong Kim, Eun-Ju Shin, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewhon Rhim, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
We previously showed that gintonin, an exogenous lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, attenuated β-amyloid plaque formation in the cortex and hippocampus, and restored β-amyloid-induced memory dysfunction. Both endogenous LPA and LPA receptors play a key role in embryonic brain development. However, little is known about whether gintonin can induce hippocampal cell proliferation in adult wild-type mice and an APPswe/PSEN-1 double Tg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we examined the effects of gintonin on the proliferation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vitro and its effects on the hippocampal cell proliferation in wild-type mice and a transgenic AD mouse model...
December 2016: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746315/trpa1-mediates-changes-in-heart-rate-variability-and-cardiac-mechanical-function-in-mice-exposed-to-acrolein
#10
Nicole Kurhanewicz, Rachel McIntosh-Kastrinsky, Haiyan Tong, Allen Ledbetter, Leon Walsh, Aimen Farraj, Mehdi Hazari
Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution is linked with adverse cardiovascular effects. While previous research focused primarily on particulate matter-induced responses, gaseous air pollutants also contribute to cause short-term cardiovascular effects. Mechanisms underlying such effects have not been adequately described, however the immediate nature of the response suggests involvement of irritant neural activation and downstream autonomic dysfunction. Thus, this study examines the role of TRPA1, an irritant sensory receptor found in the airways, in the cardiac response of mice to acrolein and ozone...
October 13, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721184/liraglutide-promotes-improvements-in-objective-measures-of-cognitive-dysfunction-in-individuals-with-mood-disorders-a-pilot-open-label-study
#11
Rodrigo B Mansur, Juhie Ahmed, Danielle S Cha, Hanna O Woldeyohannes, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Julie Lovshin, Jung G Lee, Jae-Hon Lee, Elisa Brietzke, Eva Z Reininghaus, Kang Sim, Maj Vinberg, Natalie Rasgon, Tomas Hajek, Roger S McIntyre
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of treatments that are capable of reliably and robustly improving cognitive function in adults with mood disorders. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is synthesized centrally and its receptors are abundantly expressed in neural circuits subserving cognitive function. We aimed to determine the effects of liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, on objective measures of cognition in adults with a depressive or bipolar disorder. METHODS: In this 4-week, pilot, open-label, domain-based study (e...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714684/pharmacological-tools-to-study-the-role-of-astrocytes-in-neural-network-functions
#12
Fernando Peña-Ortega, Ana Julia Rivera-Angulo, Jonathan Julio Lorea-Hernández
Despite that astrocytes and microglia do not communicate by electrical impulses, they can efficiently communicate among them, with each other and with neurons, to participate in complex neural functions requiring broad cell-communication and long-lasting regulation of brain function. Glial cells express many receptors in common with neurons; secrete gliotransmitters as well as neurotrophic and neuroinflammatory factors, which allow them to modulate synaptic transmission and neural excitability. All these properties allow glial cells to influence the activity of neuronal networks...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687148/cathepsin-s-contributes-to-microglia-mediated-olfactory-dysfunction-through-the-regulation-of-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-axis-in-a-niemann-pick-disease-type-c1-model
#13
Yoojin Seo, Hyung-Sik Kim, Insung Kang, Soon Won Choi, Tae-Hoon Shin, Ji-Hee Shin, Byung-Chul Lee, Jin Young Lee, Jae-Jun Kim, Myung Geun Kook, Kyung-Sun Kang
Microglia can aggravate olfactory dysfunction by mediating neuronal death in the olfactory bulb (OB) of a murine model of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder accompanied by lipid trafficking defects. In this study, we focused on the crosstalk between neurons and microglia to elucidate the mechanisms underlying extensive microgliosis in the NPC1-affected brain. Microglia in the OB of NPC1 mice strongly expressed CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (Cx3cr1), a specific receptor for the neural chemokine C-X3-C motif ligand 1 (Cx3cl1)...
December 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671171/the-neural-retina-in-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#14
REVIEW
Ronald M Hansen, Anne Moskowitz, James D Akula, Anne B Fulton
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a neurovascular disease that affects prematurely born infants and is known to have significant long term effects on vision. We conducted the studies described herein not only to learn more about vision but also about the pathogenesis of ROP. The coincidence of ROP onset and rapid developmental elongation of the rod photoreceptor outer segments motivated us to consider the role of the rods in this disease. We used noninvasive electroretinographic (ERG), psychophysical, and retinal imaging procedures to study the function and structure of the neurosensory retina...
September 23, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663539/postoperative-delirium-following-orthognathic-surgery-in-a-young-patient
#15
Fernanda Herrera da Costa, Paulo Adilson Herrera, Cecília Luiz Pereira-Stabile, Glaykon Alex Vitti Stabile
Delirium is an organic mental syndrome with acute onset characterized by diffuse brain dysfunction and neural activity disorganization. It is usually related to cognition and perception changes, decreased level of consciousness, and disorganization of thoughts that are unrelated to previous dementia. Occurrence is more frequent in patients with previous degenerative disease and elderly patients, especially those older than 85 years. Although the pathophysiology is not totally known, studies have shown that, among the main factors that lead to delirium, the drugs used for general anesthesia induction are the most relevant (hypnotics, anticholinergic drugs, and H2 receptor blockers), especially those used in long surgical procedures...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651755/trpv1-may-increase-the-effectiveness-of-estrogen-therapy-on-neuroprotection-and-neuroregeneration
#16
REVIEW
Ricardo Ramírez-Barrantes, Ivanny Marchant, Pablo Olivero
Aging induces physical deterioration, loss of the blood brain barrier, neuronal loss-induced mental and neurodegenerative diseases. Hypotalamus-hypophysis-gonad axis aging precedes symptoms of menopause or andropause and is a major determinant of sensory and cognitive integrated function. Sexual steroids support important functions, exert pleiotropic effects in different sensory cells, promote regeneration, plasticity and health of the nervous system. Their diminution is associated with impaired cognitive and mental health and increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases...
August 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651114/circadian-dynamics-in-measures-of-cortical-excitation-and-inhibition-balance
#17
Sarah L Chellappa, Giulia Gaggioni, Julien Q M Ly, Soterios Papachilleos, Chloé Borsu, Alexandre Brzozowski, Mario Rosanova, Simone Sarasso, André Luxen, Benita Middleton, Simon N Archer, Derk-Jan Dijk, Marcello Massimini, Pierre Maquet, Christophe Phillips, Rosalyn J Moran, Gilles Vandewalle
Several neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders have recently been characterized as dysfunctions arising from a 'final common pathway' of imbalanced excitation to inhibition within cortical networks. How the regulation of a cortical E/I ratio is affected by sleep and the circadian rhythm however, remains to be established. Here we addressed this issue through the analyses of TMS-evoked responses recorded over a 29 h sleep deprivation protocol conducted in young and healthy volunteers. Spectral analyses of TMS-evoked responses in frontal cortex revealed non-linear changes in gamma band evoked oscillations, compatible with an influence of circadian timing on inhibitory interneuron activity...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650785/impact-of-the-innate-immune-response-in-the-actions-of-ethanol-on-the-central-nervous-system
#18
Jorge Montesinos, Silvia Alfonso-Loeches, Consuelo Guerri
The innate immune response in the central nervous system (CNS) participates in both synaptic plasticity and neural damage. Emerging evidence from human and animal studies supports the role of the neuroimmune system response in many actions of ethanol (EtOH) on the CNS. Research studies have shown that alcohol stimulates brain immune cells, microglia, and astrocytes, by activating innate immune receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (inflammasome NLRs) triggering signaling pathways, which culminate in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that lead to neuroinflammation...
September 21, 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647473/in-vitro-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-toxicity-in-striatal-cerebrocortical-and-hippocampal-slices-is-attenuated-by-atorvastatin-and-mk-801
#19
Caio M Massari, Adalberto A Castro, Tharine Dal-Cim, Débora Lanznaster, Carla I Tasca
Parkinson's disease (PD) involves the loss of striatal dopaminergic neurons, although other neurotransmitters and brain areas are also involved in its pathophysiology. In rodent models to PD it has been shown statins improve cognitive and motor deficits and attenuate inflammatory responses evoked by PD-related toxins. Statins are the drugs most prescribed to hypercholesterolemia, but neuroprotective effects have also been attributed to statins treatment in humans and in animal models. This study aimed to establish an in vitro model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity, used as an initial screening test to identify effective drugs against neural degeneration related to PD...
December 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647218/role-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-in-action-based-predictive-coding-deficits-in-schizophrenia
#20
Naomi S Kort, Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Handan Gunduz-Bruce, John H Krystal, Judith Jaeger, Robert M G Reinhart, Daniel H Mathalon
BACKGROUND: Recent theoretical models of schizophrenia posit that dysfunction of the neural mechanisms subserving predictive coding contributes to symptoms and cognitive deficits, and this dysfunction is further posited to result from N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. Previously, by examining auditory cortical responses to self-generated speech sounds, we demonstrated that predictive coding during vocalization is disrupted in schizophrenia. To test the hypothesized contribution of NMDAR hypofunction to this disruption, we examined the effects of the NMDAR antagonist, ketamine, on predictive coding during vocalization in healthy volunteers and compared them with the effects of schizophrenia...
July 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
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