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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606038/site-related-effects-of-relaxin-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-through-nitric-oxide-signaling-an-updated-report
#1
Rachele Garella, Roberta Squecco, Maria Caterina Baccari
The peptide hormone relaxin (RLX), in addition to its effects on reproduction, has been reported to influence gastrointestinal motility. Interestingly, the digestive tract has been shown to express RLX receptors and the hormone appears to exert site-specific effects acting at the neural or at the smooth muscle level, mainly by a nitric oxide (NO)-mediated mechanism. NO, released by the enteric nerves and/or smooth muscle cells, is one of the main mediators of gastrointestinal relaxation. In fact, in murine in vitro preparations, RLX depresses organ motility acting at the neural level in the stomach and at the muscular level in the small intestine; conversely, in the colon, this hormone paradoxically increases contractility operating at both neural and muscle levels...
June 12, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600746/dopamine-induces-inhibitory-effects-on-the-circular-muscle-contractility-of-mouse-distal-colon-via-d1-and-d2-like-receptors
#2
Michelangelo Auteri, Maria Grazia Zizzo, Antonella Amato, Rosa Serio
Dopamine (DA) acts as gut motility modulator, via D1- and D2-like receptors, but its effective role is far from being clear. Since alterations of the dopaminergic system could lead to gastrointestinal dysfunctions, a characterization of the enteric dopaminergic system is mandatory. In this study, we investigated the role of DA and D1- and D2-like receptors in the contractility of the circular muscle of mouse distal colon by organ-bath technique. DA caused relaxation in carbachol-precontracted circular muscle strips, sensitive to domperidone, D2-like receptor antagonist, and mimicked by bromocriptine, D2-like receptor agonist...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596106/mechanisms-of-axon-regeneration-the-significance-of-proteoglycans
#3
Kazuma Sakamoto, Kenji Kadomatsu
BACKGROUND: Therapeutics specific to neural injury have long been anticipated but remain unavailable. Axons in the central nervous system do not readily regenerate after injury, leading to dysfunction of the nervous system. This failure of regeneration is due to both the low intrinsic capacity of axons for regeneration and the various inhibitors emerging upon injury. After many years of concerted efforts, however, these hurdles to axon regeneration have been partially overcome. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the mechanisms regulating axon regeneration...
June 5, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570322/autoimmune-neurology-of-the-central-nervous-system
#4
W Oliver Tobin, Sean J Pittock
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the rapidly evolving spectrum of autoimmune neurologic disorders with a focus on those that involve the central nervous system, providing an understanding of how to approach the diagnostic workup of patients presenting with central nervous system symptoms or signs that could be immune mediated, either paraneoplastic or idiopathic, to guide therapeutic decision making. RECENT FINDINGS: The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the discovery of novel neural antibodies and their targets...
June 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551752/behavioural-phenotypes-and-neural-circuit-dysfunctions-in-mouse-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Allain-Thibeault Ferhat, Sonja Halbedl, Michael J Schmeisser, Martien J Kas, Thomas Bourgeron, Elodie Ey
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition primarily characterised by alterations in social interaction and communication combined with the presence of restricted interests and stereotyped behaviours. Mutations in several genes have been associated with ASD resulting in the generation of corresponding mouse models. Here, we focus on the behavioural (social and stereotyped behaviours), functional and structural traits of mice with mutations in genes encoding defined synaptic proteins including adhesion proteins, scaffolding proteins and subunits of channels and receptors...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550283/high-resolution-bioelectrical-imaging-of-a%C3%AE-induced-network-dysfunction-on-cmos-meas-for-neurotoxicity-and-rescue-studies
#6
Hayder Amin, Thierry Nieus, Davide Lonardoni, Alessandro Maccione, Luca Berdondini
Neurotoxicity and the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta1-42 (Aβ) peptides are associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlate with neuronal activity and network dysfunctions, ultimately leading to cellular death. However, research on neurodegenerative diseases is hampered by the paucity of reliable readouts and experimental models to study such functional decline from an early onset and to test rescue strategies within networks at cellular resolution. To overcome this important obstacle, we demonstrate a simple yet powerful in vitro AD model based on a rat hippocampal cell culture system that exploits large-scale neuronal recordings from 4096-electrodes on CMOS-chips for electrophysiological quantifications...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540228/research-in-pharmacotherapy-for-erectile-dysfunction
#7
REVIEW
Ji-Kan Ryu, Jun-Kyu Suh, Arthur L Burnett
Although oral phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors are generally accepted as an effective therapy for erectile dysfunction (ED), men with ED from diabetes or radical prostatectomy respond poorly to these drugs. Many researchers have tried to develop novel therapeutics that target alternative molecular pathways. A group of therapeutics belongs to centrally acting agents that target dopamine and melanocortin receptors. The other one is the peripherally acting agents that target soluble guanylate cyclase, Rho-kinase pathway, and Maxi-K channel, etc...
April 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527575/coup-tf-genes-human-diseases-and-the-development-of-the-central-nervous-system-in-murine-models
#8
Xiong Yang, Su Feng, Ke Tang
COUP-TFI and -TFII are members of the steroid/thyroid nuclear receptor superfamily. Recent clinical studies reveal that COUP-TFI gene mutations are associated with Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome displaying symptoms of optic atrophy, intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizure, autism spectrum disorders, oromotor dysfunction, thin corpus callosum, or hearing defects, and COUP-TFII gene mutations lead to congenital heart defects and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with developmental delay and mental defects...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502844/a-novel-approach-to-map-induced-activation-of-neuronal-networks-using-chemogenetics-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-rats-a-proof-of-concept-study-on-the-mesocorticolimbic-system
#9
Theresia J M Roelofs, Jeroen P H Verharen, Geralda A F van Tilborg, Linde Boekhoudt, Annette van der Toorn, Johannes W de Jong, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Willem M Otte, Roger A H Adan, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Linking neural circuit activation at whole-brain level to neuronal activity at cellular level remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience research. We set up a novel functional neuroimaging approach to map global effects of locally induced activation of specific midbrain projection neurons using chemogenetics (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD)-technology) combined with pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in the rat mesocorticolimbic system. Chemogenetic activation of DREADD-targeted mesolimbic or mesocortical pathways, i...
May 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482072/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-chop-inhibits-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-causes-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-diabetic-embryopathy
#10
Xi Chen, Jianxiang Zhong, Daoyin Dong, Gentao Liu, Peixin Yang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the development of maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs). ER stress-induced C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) plays an important role in the pro-apoptotic execution pathways. However, the molecular mechanism underlying ER stress- and CHOP-induced neuroepithelium cell apoptosis in diabetic embryopathy are still unclear. Deletion of the Chop gene significantly reduced maternal diabetes-induced NTDs. CHOP deficiency abrogated maternal diabetes-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neuroepithelium cell apoptosis...
May 8, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467418/a-kcnc3-mutation-causes-a-neurodevelopmental-non-progressive-sca13-subtype-associated-with-dominant-negative-effects-and-aberrant-egfr-trafficking
#11
Swati Khare, Jerelyn A Nick, Yalan Zhang, Kira Galeano, Brittany Butler, Habibeh Khoshbouei, Sruti Rayaprolu, Tyisha Hathorn, Laura P W Ranum, Lisa Smithson, Todd E Golde, Martin Paucar, Richard Morse, Michael Raff, Julie Simon, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Karin Wirdefeldt, Diego E Rincon-Limas, Jada Lewis, Leonard K Kaczmarek, Pedro Fernandez-Funez, Harry S Nick, Michael F Waters
The autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a diverse group of neurological disorders anchored by the phenotypes of motor incoordination and cerebellar atrophy. Disease heterogeneity is appreciated through varying comorbidities: dysarthria, dysphagia, oculomotor and/or retinal abnormalities, motor neuron pathology, epilepsy, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric manifestations. Our study focuses on SCA13, which is caused by several allelic variants in the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 (Kv3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453662/mglur5-tunes-ngf-trka-signaling-to-orient-spiny-stellate-neuron-dendrites-toward-thalamocortical-axons-during-whisker-barrel-map-formation
#12
Jui-Yen Huang, Hui-Chen Lu
Neurons receive and integrate synaptic inputs at their dendrites, thus dendritic patterning shapes neural connectivity and behavior. Aberrant dendritogenesis is present in neurodevelopmental disorders such as Down's syndrome and autism. Abnormal glutamatergic signaling has been observed in these diseases, as has dysfunction of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). Deleting mGluR5 in cortical glutamatergic neurons disrupted their coordinated dendritic outgrowth toward thalamocortical axons and perturbed somatosensory circuits...
April 27, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434616/impaired-tuning-of-neural-ensembles-and-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia-a-translational-and-computational-neuroscience-perspective
#13
REVIEW
John H Krystal, Alan Anticevic, Genevieve J Yang, George Dragoi, Naomi R Driesen, Xiao-Jing Wang, John D Murray
The functional optimization of neural ensembles is central to human higher cognitive functions. When the functions through which neural activity is tuned fail to develop or break down, symptoms and cognitive impairments arise. This review considers ways in which disturbances in the balance of excitation and inhibition might develop and be expressed in cortical networks in association with schizophrenia. This presentation is framed within a developmental perspective that begins with disturbances in glutamate synaptic development in utero...
May 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394427/opioid-system-and-human-emotions
#14
REVIEW
Lauri Nummenmaa, Lauri Tuominen
Emotions are states of vigilant readiness that guide human and animal behaviour during survival-salient situations. Categorical models of emotions posit neurally and physiologically distinct basic human emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness and surprise) that govern different survival functions. Opioid receptors are expressed abundantly in the mammalian emotion circuit, and the opioid system modulates a variety of functions related to arousal and motivation. Yet, its specific contribution to different basic emotions has remained poorly understood...
April 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390877/effects-of-chronic-prenatal-mk-801-treatment-on-object-recognition-cognitive-flexibility-and-drug-induced-locomotor-activity-in-juvenile-and-adult-rat-offspring
#15
S Gallant, L Welch, P Martone, U Shalev
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia display impaired cognitive functioning and increased sensitivity to psychomimetic drugs. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that disruption of the developing brain predisposes neural networks to lasting structural and functional abnormalities resulting in the emergence of such symptoms in adulthood. Given the critical role of the glutamatergic system in early brain development, we investigated whether chronic prenatal exposure to the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, induces schizophrenia-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in juvenile and adult rats...
April 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383046/systemic-administration-of-induced-neural-stem-cells-regulates-complement-activation-in-mouse-closed-head-injury-models
#16
Mou Gao, Qin Dong, Hui Yao, Yingzhou Lu, Xinchao Ji, Mingming Zou, Zhijun Yang, Minhui Xu, Ruxiang Xu
Complement activation plays important roles in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Patients face neurological disorders due to the development of complement activation, which contributes to cell apoptosis, brain edema, blood-brain barrier dysfunction and inflammatory infiltration. We previously reported that induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) can promote neurological functional recovery in closed head injury (CHI) animals. Remarkably, we discovered that local iNSC grafts have the potential to modulate CNS inflammation post-CHI...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361518/ketanserin-and-naftopidil-enhance-the-potentiating-effect-of-alpha-methyl-serotonin-on-the-neurally-induced-contraction-of-human-isolated-urinary-bladder-muscle-strips
#17
Tsuyoshi Hattori, Philippe Lluel, Céline Rouget, Moèz Rekik, Mitsuharu Yoshiyama
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential involvement of a specific subtype of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5HT2 receptors in neurally-induced contractions of the human detrusor. METHODS: Contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were examined in human isolated urinary bladder muscle strips. The potentiation of EFS-induced detrusor contraction was examined by adding cumulative concentrations of a 5-HT and 5-HT2 receptor agonist, α-methyl-serotonin (α-Me-5-HT) (1nM-100μM) in the presence or absence of a 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserin (5-HT2A>5-HT2C) or naftopidil (5-HT2B>5-HT2A) (0...
March 24, 2017: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360866/from-toxoplasmosis-to-schizophrenia-via-nmda-dysfunction-peptide-overlap-between-toxoplasma-gondii-and-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-as-a-potential-mechanistic-link
#18
Guglielmo Lucchese
The present work aims at investigating how Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection may be linked to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction in schizophrenia and related disorders and puts forward the hypothesis that immune responses against T. gondii may involve NMDARs. Indeed, the analysis of the protozoan proteome and NMDAR subunits for peptide commonalities shows a massive peptide overlap and supports the possibility that anti-T. gondii immune responses raised during active protozoan infection may cross-react with host NMDARs, determining disruption of neural circuits and cognitive deficits...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350371/a-neurophysiological-perspective-on-a-preventive-treatment-against-schizophrenia-using-transcranial-electric-stimulation-of-the-corticothalamic-pathway
#19
REVIEW
Didier Pinault
Schizophrenia patients are waiting for a treatment free of detrimental effects. Psychotic disorders are devastating mental illnesses associated with dysfunctional brain networks. Ongoing brain network gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations, naturally implicated in integrative function, are excessively amplified during hallucinations, in at-risk mental states for psychosis and first-episode psychosis. So, gamma oscillations represent a bioelectrical marker for cerebral network disorders with prognostic and therapeutic potential...
March 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343185/frameworking-memory-and-serotonergic-markers
#20
Alfredo Meneses
The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
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