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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434616/impaired-tuning-of-neural-ensembles-and-the-pathophysiology-of-schizophrenia-a-translational-and-computational-neuroscience-perspective
#1
REVIEW
John H Krystal, Alan Anticevic, Genevieve J Yang, George Dragoi, Naomi R Driesen, Xiao-Jing Wang, John D Murray
The functional optimization of neural ensembles is central to human higher cognitive functions. When the functions through which neural activity is tuned fail to develop or break down, symptoms and cognitive impairments arise. This review considers ways in which disturbances in the balance of excitation and inhibition might develop and be expressed in cortical networks in association with schizophrenia. This presentation is framed within a developmental perspective that begins with disturbances in glutamate synaptic development in utero...
May 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394427/opioid-system-and-human-emotions
#2
REVIEW
Lauri Nummenmaa, Lauri Tuominen
Emotions are states of vigilant readiness that guide human and animal behaviour during survival-salient situations. Categorical models of emotions posit neurally and physiologically distinct human basic emotions (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and surprise) that govern different survival functions. Opioid receptors are expressed abundantly in the mammalian emotion circuit and the opioid system modulates a multitude of functions related to arousal and motivation. Yet, its specific contribution to different basic emotions has remained poorly understood...
April 10, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390877/effects-of-chronic-prenatal-mk-801-treatment-on-object-recognition-cognitive-flexibility-and-drug-induced-locomotor-activity-in-juvenile-and-adult-rat-offspring
#3
S Gallant, L Welch, P Martone, U Shalev
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia display impaired cognitive functioning and increased sensitivity to psychomimetic drugs. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia posits that disruption of the developing brain predisposes neural networks to lasting structural and functional abnormalities resulting in the emergence of such symptoms in adulthood. Given the critical role of the glutamatergic system in early brain development, we investigated whether chronic prenatal exposure to the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, induces schizophrenia-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in juvenile and adult rats...
April 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383046/systemic-administration-of-induced-neural-stem-cells-regulates-complement-activation-in-mouse-closed-head-injury-models
#4
Mou Gao, Qin Dong, Hui Yao, Yingzhou Lu, Xinchao Ji, Mingming Zou, Zhijun Yang, Minhui Xu, Ruxiang Xu
Complement activation plays important roles in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Patients face neurological disorders due to the development of complement activation, which contributes to cell apoptosis, brain edema, blood-brain barrier dysfunction and inflammatory infiltration. We previously reported that induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) can promote neurological functional recovery in closed head injury (CHI) animals. Remarkably, we discovered that local iNSC grafts have the potential to modulate CNS inflammation post-CHI...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361518/ketanserin-and-naftopidil-enhance-the-potentiating-effect-of-alpha-methyl-serotonin-on-the-neurally-induced-contraction-of-human-isolated-urinary-bladder-muscle-strips
#5
Tsuyoshi Hattori, Philippe Lluel, Céline Rouget, Moèz Rekik, Mitsuharu Yoshiyama
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential involvement of a specific subtype of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5HT2 receptors in neurally-induced contractions of the human detrusor. METHODS: Contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were examined in human isolated urinary bladder muscle strips. The potentiation of EFS-induced detrusor contraction was examined by adding cumulative concentrations of a 5-HT and 5-HT2 receptor agonist, α-methyl-serotonin (α-Me-5-HT) (1nM-100μM) in the presence or absence of a 5-HT2 antagonist, ketanserin (5-HT2A>5-HT2C) or naftopidil (5-HT2B>5-HT2A) (0...
March 24, 2017: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360866/from-toxoplasmosis-to-schizophrenia-via-nmda-dysfunction-peptide-overlap-between-toxoplasma-gondii-and-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-as-a-potential-mechanistic-link
#6
Guglielmo Lucchese
The present work aims at investigating how Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection may be linked to N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction in schizophrenia and related disorders and puts forward the hypothesis that immune responses against T. gondii may involve NMDARs. Indeed, the analysis of the protozoan proteome and NMDAR subunits for peptide commonalities shows a massive peptide overlap and supports the possibility that anti-T. gondii immune responses raised during active protozoan infection may cross-react with host NMDARs, determining disruption of neural circuits and cognitive deficits...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350371/a-neurophysiological-perspective-on-a-preventive-treatment-against-schizophrenia-using-transcranial-electric-stimulation-of-the-corticothalamic-pathway
#7
REVIEW
Didier Pinault
Schizophrenia patients are waiting for a treatment free of detrimental effects. Psychotic disorders are devastating mental illnesses associated with dysfunctional brain networks. Ongoing brain network gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations, naturally implicated in integrative function, are excessively amplified during hallucinations, in at-risk mental states for psychosis and first-episode psychosis. So, gamma oscillations represent a bioelectrical marker for cerebral network disorders with prognostic and therapeutic potential...
March 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343185/frameworking-memory-and-serotonergic-markers
#8
Alfredo Meneses
The evidence for neural markers and memory is continuously being revised, and as evidence continues to accumulate, herein, we frame earlier and new evidence. Hence, in this work, the aim is to provide an appropriate conceptual framework of serotonergic markers associated with neural activity and memory. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) has multiple pharmacological tools, well-characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species, and established 5-HT neural markers showing new insights about memory functions and dysfunctions, including receptors (5-HT1A/1B/1D, 5-HT2A/2B/2C, and 5-HT3-7), transporter (serotonin transporter [SERT]) and volume transmission present in brain areas involved in memory...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343184/regulatory-role-of-ngfs-in-neurocognitive-functions
#9
Ashutosh Kumar, Vikas Pareek, Muneeb A Faiq, Pavan Kumar, Khursheed Raza, Pranav Prasoon, Subrahamanyam Dantham, Sankat Mochan
Nerve growth factors (NGFs), especially the prototype NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), have a diverse array of functions in the central nervous system through their peculiar set of receptors and intricate signaling. They are implicated not only in the development of the nervous system but also in regulation of neurocognitive functions like learning, memory, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Evidence even suggests their role in continued neurogenesis and experience-dependent neural network remodeling in adult brain...
March 27, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338977/effects-of-augmenting-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-signaling-on-working-memory-and-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study-using-acute-d-cycloserine
#10
Jennifer K Forsyth, Peter Bachman, Daniel H Mathalon, Brian J Roach, Elissa Ye, Robert F Asarnow
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been hypothesized to reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction. However, the mechanisms through which the NMDAR contributes to individual cognitive functions differ. To explore how NMDAR signaling relates to specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we tested the effects of enhancing NMDAR signaling on working memory and experience-dependent plasticity using d-cycloserine (DCS). Plasticity was assessed using an EEG paradigm that utilizes high-frequency visual stimulation (HFvS) to induce neural potentiation, and 2 learning tasks, the information integration (IIT) and weather prediction (WPT) tasks...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337171/the-skull-vibration-induced-nystagmus-test-of-vestibular-function-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Georges Dumas, Ian S Curthoys, Alexis Lion, Philippe Perrin, Sébastien Schmerber
A 100-Hz bone-conducted vibration applied to either mastoid induces instantaneously a predominantly horizontal nystagmus, with quick phases beating away from the affected side in patients with a unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). The same stimulus in healthy asymptomatic subjects has little or no effect. This is skull vibration-induced nystagmus (SVIN), and it is a useful, simple, non-invasive, robust indicator of asymmetry of vestibular function and the side of the vestibular loss. The nystagmus is precisely stimulus-locked: it starts with stimulation onset and stops at stimulation offset, with no post-stimulation reversal...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336261/methane-rescues-retinal-ganglion-cells-and-limits-retinal-mitochondrial-dysfunction-following-optic-nerve-crush
#12
Ruobing Wang, Qinglei Sun, Fangzhou Xia, Zeli Chen, Jiangchun Wu, Yuelu Zhang, Jiajun Xu, Lin Liu
Secondary degeneration is a common event in traumatic central nervous system disorders, which involves neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Exogenous methane exerts the therapeutic effects in many organ injury. Our study aims to investigate the potential neuroprotection of methane in a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ONC and administrated intraperitoneally with methane-saturated or normal saline (10 ml/kg) once per day for one week after ONC...
March 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315269/sigma-1-receptors-and-neurodegenerative-diseases-towards-a-hypothesis-of-sigma-1-receptors-as-amplifiers-of-neurodegeneration-and-neuroprotection
#13
Linda Nguyen, Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Shona Mookerjee, Nidhi Kaushal, Rae R Matsumoto
Sigma-1 receptors are molecular chaperones that may act as pathological mediators and targets for novel therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases. Accumulating evidence indicates that sigma-1 ligands can either directly or indirectly modulate multiple neurodegenerative processes, including excitotoxicity, calcium dysregulation, mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction, inflammation, and astrogliosis. In addition, sigma-1 ligands may act as disease-modifying agents in the treatment for central nervous system (CNS) diseases by promoting the activity of neurotrophic factors and neural plasticity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262416/the-auxiliary-calcium-channel-subunit-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-4-is-required-for-axonal-elaboration-synaptic-transmission-and-wiring-of-rod-photoreceptors
#14
Yuchen Wang, Katherine E Fehlhaber, Ignacio Sarria, Yan Cao, Norianne T Ingram, Debbie Guerrero-Given, Ben Throesch, Kristin Baldwin, Naomi Kamasawa, Toshihisa Ohtsuka, Alapakkam P Sampath, Kirill A Martemyanov
Neural circuit wiring relies on selective synapse formation whereby a presynaptic release apparatus is matched with its cognate postsynaptic machinery. At metabotropic synapses, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. In the mammalian retina, rod photoreceptors form selective contacts with rod ON-bipolar cells by aligning the presynaptic voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel directing glutamate release (CaV1.4) with postsynaptic mGluR6 receptors. We show this coordination requires an extracellular protein, α2δ4, which complexes with CaV1...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243714/nicotine-withdrawal-induced-inattention-is-absent-in-alpha7-nachr-knockout-mice
#15
K K Higa, A Grim, M E Kamenski, J van Enkhuizen, X Zhou, K Li, J C Naviaux, L Wang, R K Naviaux, M A Geyer, A Markou, J W Young
RATIONALE: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, but quit attempts result in withdrawal-induced cognitive dysfunction and predicts relapse. Greater understanding of the neural mechanism(s) underlying these cognitive deficits is required to develop targeted treatments to aid quit attempts. OBJECTIVES: We examined nicotine withdrawal-induced inattention in mice lacking the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) using the five-choice continuous performance test (5C-CPT)...
February 28, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235660/targeting-the-tlr4-signaling-pathway-by-polyphenols-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-neuroinflammation
#16
REVIEW
Mahban Rahimifard, Faheem Maqbool, Shermineh Moeini-Nodeh, Kamal Niaz, Mohammad Abdollahi, Nady Braidy, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi
A wide array of cell signaling mediators and their interactions play vital roles in neuroinflammation associated with ischemia, brain trauma, developmental disorders and age-related neurodegeneration. Along with neurons, microglia and astrocytes are also affected by the inflammatory cascade by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and reactive oxygen species. The release of pro-inflammatory mediators in response to neural dysfunction may be helpful, neutral or even deleterious to normal cellular survival...
February 21, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228252/complete-disruption-of-the-kainate-receptor-gene-family-results-in-corticostriatal-dysfunction-in-mice
#17
Jian Xu, John J Marshall, Herman B Fernandes, Toshihiro Nomura, Bryan A Copits, Daniele Procissi, Susumu Mori, Lei Wang, Yongling Zhu, Geoffrey T Swanson, Anis Contractor
Kainate receptors are members of the glutamate receptor family that regulate synaptic function in the brain. They modulate synaptic transmission and the excitability of neurons; however, their contributions to neural circuits that underlie behavior are unclear. To understand the net impact of kainate receptor signaling, we generated knockout mice in which all five kainate receptor subunits were ablated (5ko). These mice displayed compulsive and perseverative behaviors, including over-grooming, as well as motor problems, indicative of alterations in striatal circuits...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212375/epilepsy-associated-gene-nedd4-2-mediates-neuronal-activity-and-seizure-susceptibility-through-ampa-receptors
#18
Jiuhe Zhu, Kwan Young Lee, Kathryn A Jewett, Heng-Ye Man, Hee Jung Chung, Nien-Pei Tsai
The neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated gene 4-2, Nedd4-2, is an epilepsy-associated gene with at least three missense mutations identified in epileptic patients. Nedd4-2 encodes a ubiquitin E3 ligase that has high affinity toward binding and ubiquitinating membrane proteins. It is currently unknown how Nedd4-2 mediates neuronal circuit activity and how its dysfunction leads to seizures or epilepsies. In this study, we provide evidence to show that Nedd4-2 mediates neuronal activity and seizure susceptibility through ubiquitination of GluA1 subunit of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor, (AMPAR)...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188216/amygdalar-gating-of-early-sensory-processing-through-interactions-with-locus-coeruleus
#19
Cynthia D Fast, John P McGann
Fear- and stress-induced activity in the amygdala has been hypothesized to influence sensory brain regions through the influence of the amygdala on neuromodulatory centers. To directly examine this relationship, we used optical imaging to observe odor-evoked activity in populations of olfactory bulb inhibitory interneurons and of synaptic terminals of olfactory sensory neurons (the primary sensory neurons of the olfactory system, which provide the initial olfactory input to the brain) during pharmacological inactivation of amygdala and locus coeruleus (LC) in mice...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177983/the-contribution-of-transgenic-and-nontransgenic-animal-models-in-alzheimer-s-disease-drug-research-and-development
#20
Emanuela Mhillaj, Vincenzo Cuomo, Cesare Mancuso
Over the last few years, several papers have become available in the literature on both the main hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the several intracellular pathways whose alteration is responsible for its onset and progression. The use of transgenic and nontransgenic animal models has played a key role in achieving such a remarkable amount of preclinical data, allowing researchers to dissect the cellular changes occurring in the AD brain. In addition, the huge amount of preclinical evidence arising from these animal models was necessary for the further clinical development of pharmacological agents capable of interfering with most of the impaired neural pathways in AD patients...
April 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
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