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Rapid melanin loss

Xiaopeng Wei, Linchun Mao, Xueyuan Han, Wenjing Lu, Dandan Xie, Xingchen Ren, Yuying Zhao
BACKGROUND: Rapid wound healing would be critical for successful long-term storage of fruits and vegetables. However, there was no direct evidence for the requirement and efficiency of oxygen in the fruit wound-healing process. This study was conducted to investigate the role of oxygen in wound-induced suberization by analyzing melanin, suberin polyphenolics (SPPs) and related enzymes in half-cut kiwifruits exposed to 100%, 50%, 21% and 0% oxygen. RESULTS: By 3 days after wounding, the wound surface of kiwifruit in high (50 and 100%) oxygen appeared as a continuous layer of melanin and SPPs underneath, which effectively prevent excessive water vapor loss from the fruit halves...
April 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Johnny Nakhleh, George K Christophides, Mike A Osta
Clip domain serine protease homologs (SPHs) are positive and negative regulators of Anopheles gambiae immune responses mediated by the complement-like protein TEP1 against Plasmodium malaria parasites and other microbial infections. We have previously reported that the SPH CLIPA2 is a negative regulator of the TEP1-mediated response by showing that CLIPA2 knockdown (kd) enhances mosquito resistance to infections with fungi, bacteria, and Plasmodium parasites. Here, we identify another SPH, CLIPA14, as a novel regulator of mosquito immunity...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jennifer Lynn Schiefer, Rebekka Rath, Elena Ahrens, Daniel Grigutsch, Ingo Gräff, Jan-Philipp Stromps, Paul Christian Fuchs, Alexandra Schulz
INTRODUCTION: The aesthetic outcome after burn of exposed areas such as the hand and face is of high importance. A number of wound dressings used for the treatment of superficial and partial thickness burns promise rapid wound healing and reduced scarring. Previously, wound healing of hands and faces with superficial burns treated with Dressilk® compared to Biobrane® was evaluated intra-individually with similar results. Nevertheless, up to date objective information regarding the scarring after superficial burns treated with Dressilk® does not exist...
March 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Ming-Yueh Wu, Matthew E Mead, Sun-Chang Kim, Antonis Rokas, Jae-Hyuk Yu
Bridging cellular reproduction and survival is essential for all life forms. Aspergillus fungi primarily reproduce by forming asexual spores called conidia, whose formation and maturation is governed by the central genetic regulatory circuit BrlA→AbaA→WetA. Here, we report that WetA is a multi-functional regulator that couples spore differentiation and survival, and governs proper chemical development in Aspergillus flavus. The deletion of wetA results in the formation of conidia with defective cell walls and no intra-cellular trehalose, leading to reduced stress tolerance, a rapid loss of viability, and disintegration of spores...
2017: PloS One
Takayuki Yamashita, Akihiro Yamanaka
The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the diencephalon is crucially involved in controlling instinctive behavior such as sleep-wake cycle and feeding behavior. LHA is a heterogeneous structure that contains spatially intermingled, genetically distinct cell populations. Among LHA neurons, orexin/hypocretin (OX) neuron is the key cell type that promotes waking, and specific loss of OX neurons results in narcolepsy. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) containing neurons are known to be active during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and stimulation of these neurons promotes REM sleep...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Karen K Fugate, Wellington S Ribeiro, Edward C Lulai, Edward L Deckard, Fernando L Finger
Storage temperature affects the rate and extent of wound-healing in a number of root and tuber crops. The effect of storage temperature on wound-healing in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots, however, is largely unknown. Wound-healing of sugarbeet roots was investigated using surface-abraded roots stored at 6 and 12°C for 28 days. Surface abrasions are common injuries of stored roots, and the storage temperatures used are typical of freshly harvested or rapidly cooled roots. Transpiration rate from the wounded surface and root weight loss were used to quantify wound healing...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
J R Eidet, S Reppe, L Pasovic, O K Olstad, T Lyberg, A Z Khan, I G Fostad, D F Chen, T P Utheim
Restoration of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to prevent further loss of vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration represents a promising novel treatment modality. Development of RPE transplants, however, requires up to 3 months of cell differentiation. We explored whether the silk protein sericin can induce maturation of primary human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells. Microarray analysis demonstrated that sericin up-regulated RPE-associated transcripts (RPE65 and CRALBP). Upstream analysis identified the NF-κB pathway as one of the top sericin-induced regulators...
2016: Scientific Reports
Amélie N Dreiss, Robin Séchaud, Paul Béziers, Nicolas Villain, Michel Genoud, Bettina Almasi, Lukas Jenni, Alexandre Roulin
Endothermic animals vary in their physiological ability to maintain a constant body temperature. Since melanin-based coloration is related to thermoregulation and energy homeostasis, we predict that dark and pale melanic individuals adopt different behaviours to regulate their body temperature. Young animals are particularly sensitive to a decrease in ambient temperature because their physiological system is not yet mature and growth may be traded-off against thermoregulation. To reduce energy loss, offspring huddle during periods of cold weather...
February 2016: Oecologia
Mi Young Noh, Karl J Kramer, Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan, Richard W Beeman, Michael R Kanost, Yasuyuki Arakane
Yellow protein (dopachrome conversion enzyme, DCE) is involved in the melanin biosynthetic pathway that significantly accelerates pigmentation reactions in insects. Recent studies have suggested that the insect yellow genes represent a rapidly evolving gene family generating functionally diverse paralogs, but the exact physiological functions of several yellow genes are still not understood. To study the function(s) of one of the yellow genes, yellow-e (TcY-e), in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we performed real-time PCR to analyze its developmental and tissue-specific expression, and utilized immunohistochemistry to identify the localization of the TcY-e protein in adult cuticle...
March 15, 2015: Developmental Biology
G N Stamatas, A Lopes-DaCunha, A Nkengne, C Bertin
BACKGROUND: Striae Distensae (SD) or stretch marks are manifestations of epidermal atrophy that occurs after tissue tearing due to rapid growth or over-stretching and are characterized by distinct microstructural features. The objective of this in vivo study was to investigate the biophysical properties of SD lesions, including skin barrier function, skin surface hydration, mechanical properties, and chromophore concentrations, compared to normal adjacent skin. METHODS: Non-invasive methods were used on 29 volunteers with SD to characterize: (i) visual appearance (visual assessment and clinical imaging), (ii) skin barrier function by measuring transepidermal water loss, (iii) skin surface hydration using corneometry (skin capacitance), (iv) mechanical properties measuring skin elasticity under vacuum and surface propagation of a sonic wave, (v) the presence of erythema and pigmentation using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and (vi) the levels of interleukin-1α on the skin surface...
May 2015: Skin Research and Technology
Alberto K De la Herrán-Arita, Fabio García-García
Narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency (now called type 1 narcolepsy) is a lifelong neurologic disorder with well-established diagnostic criteria and etiology. Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and symptoms of dissociated rapid eye movement sleep such as cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone), hypnagogic hallucinations (sensory events that occur at the transition from wakefulness to sleep), sleep paralysis (inability to perform movements upon wakening or sleep onset), and nocturnal sleep disruption...
November 2013: Drugs
Jeffrey H Kordower, C Warren Olanow, Hemraj B Dodiya, Yaping Chu, Thomas G Beach, Charles H Adler, Glenda M Halliday, Raymond T Bartus
The pace of nigrostriatal degeneration, both with regards to striatal denervation and loss of melanin and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons, is poorly understood especially early in the Parkinson's disease process. This study investigated the extent of nigrostriatal degeneration in patients with Parkinson's disease at different disease durations from time of diagnosis. Brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (n=28) with post-diagnostic intervals of 1-27 years and normal elderly control subjects (n=9) were examined...
August 2013: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
A G M Jünemann
Pseudoexfoliation (PEX) glaucoma is the most frequent and most important type of secondary glaucoma, accounting for approximately 25% of open angle glaucoma worldwide and currently representing the most common identifiable cause of glaucoma overall. Due to high intraocular pressure levels, marked diurnal pressure fluctuations and spikes, and rapid optic nerve damage and visual field loss, PEX glaucoma represents a relatively severe and progressive type of glaucoma. Therefore, hard and fast lowering of intraocular pressure is necessary...
October 2012: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Jung-Im Na, Jee-Woong Choi, Hye-Ryung Choi, Jeong-Bok Jeong, Kyoung-Chan Park, Sang-Woong Youn, Chang-Hun Huh
BACKGROUND: Fractional carbon dioxide laser resurfacing (FxCR) has shown considerable efficacy in reducing wrinkles, although complications such as scarring and prolonged erythema are more common and down-time is longer than with nonablative laser treatment. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a high concentration of platelets in a small volume of plasma, is known to enhance tissue healing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefits of PRP in the wound healing process after FxCR...
April 2011: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Hiroya Kuwahara, Kuniaki Tsuchiya, Yukinobu Saito, Zen Kobayashi, Hiroshi Miyazaki, Yoko Izumiyama, Haruhiko Akiyama, Tetsuaki Arai, Hidehiro Mizusawa
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is characterized by a variety of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms based on the dysfunction of frontal and/or temporal lobes. A 63-year-old Japanese man without a family history of neurological diseases developed progressive symptoms of frontotemporal dementia, followed by motor neuron disease (MND). Brain magnetic resonance images demonstrated severe atrophy in the anterior temporal lobes from early clinical stage. The symptoms got rapidly worsened and the patient died of respiratory failure 1year 8months after the disease onset...
October 15, 2010: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Imran Z Haq, Yogini Naidu, Prashanth Reddy, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri
Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), such as excessive daytime sleepiness, 'sleep attacks', insomnia, restless legs syndrome and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, are common and provide a challenge to treatment. These sleep symptoms are also described in patients suffering from the sleep/wake disorder, narcolepsy. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) narcolepsy criteria uses a number of markers for diagnosis, of which lack or deficiency of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin-1 levels is a key marker...
June 2010: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
John P M Wood, Malcolm Plunkett, Victor Previn, Glyn Chidlow, Robert J Casson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is becoming increasingly employed to reduce elevated intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients. SLT is known to target the ocular trabecular meshwork (TM), but the exact response mechanisms to this treatment have not been clearly delineated. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the modes of death of cultured bovine TM cells subjected to SLT in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bovine TM cell cultures were established, pigmented with exogenous melanin and irradiated with a Q-switched, frequency doubled, Nd:YAG laser, at different energy settings (0...
April 2010: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Nilgün Cerikçioğlu
Sexual reproduction provides natural selection and adaptation of the organisms to environmental conditions by allowing benefical mutations to spread and by diluting deleterious mutations. In recent years new findings which indicate the role of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogenicity, have been obtained. However, the pathogenic fungi limit their sexual cycles to generate clonal populations instead of recombinants, to enable themselves to adapt to the new conditions in the environment and in the host such as antimicrobial therapy...
July 2009: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Mathilde Bonnet-Duquennoy, Janine Papon, Florence Mishellany, Pierre Labarre, Jean-Luc Guerquin-Kern, Ting-Di Wu, Maryline Gardette, Jean Maublant, Frédérique Penault-Llorca, Elisabeth Miot-Noirault, Anne Cayre, Jean-Claude Madelmont, Jean-Michel Chezal, Nicole Moins
In recent years, there has been dramatic worldwide increase in incidence of malignant melanoma. Although localised disease is often curable by surgical excision, metastatic melanoma is inherently resistant to most treatments. In this context, targeted radionuclide therapy could be an efficient alternative. After pharmacomodulation study, we selected a quinoxaline derivative molecule (ICF01012) for its high, specific and long-lasting uptake in melanoma with rapid clearance from nontarget organs providing suitable dosimetry parameters for targeted radiotherapy...
August 1, 2009: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Wendy Harless Mollat, Katherine L Gailbreath, Geoffrey M Orbell
A case of malignant melanoma in a 7-year-old, intact, black, male Huacaya alpaca with a history of a chronic, nonhealing wound involving the left external nostril, weight loss, and inappetence is described. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed by histology of punch biopsy specimens from a mass on the maxilla associated with the nonhealing wound and from a mass in the submandibular region. The alpaca was humanely euthanized 10 days after the diagnosis on the basis of the poor prognosis and rapid clinical deterioration...
January 2009: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
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