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Stefan Dürschmid, Christoph Reichert, Jens Kuhn, Hans-Joachim Freund, Hermann Hinrichs, Hans-Jochen Heinze
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deterioration of memory and cognitive function and a degeneration of neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM). The NBM is the major input source of Acetylcholine (ACh) to the cortex. The decreasing cholinergic innervation of the cortex due to degeneration of the NBM might be the cause of loss of memory function. NBM-Deep Brain Stimulation (NBM-DBS) is considered to serve as a potential therapeutic option for AD patients by supporting residual cholinergic transmission to stabilize oscillatory activity in memory relevant circuits...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kyung-A Hwang, Yu-Jin Hwang, Jin Song
BACKGROUND: Aster yomena, an edible vegetable, is a perennial herb found in Korea, China, Japan, and Siberia. It is used as folk medicine to treat cough, bronchial asthma, and insect bites. A. yomena was recently shown to have antioxidant and anti-asthmatic activities. Studies have not yet evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of the various solvent fractions of A. yomena. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of various solvent fractions (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol) from ethanol extract of A...
October 18, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Seo Ju Kim, Eun Shil Kim, Sujong Kim, Jieun Uhm, Young Woong Won, Byeong Bae Park, Jung Hye Choi, Young Yiul Lee
KML001 (sodium metaarsenite;NaAs2O3) is known to have antitumor activity against a variety of cancers. In this study, we examined its effect on multiple myeloma (MM). KML001 reduced the growth of all MM cell lines examined with an IC50 of 5x10‑8 M. Exposure to KML001 (5x10‑8 M) decreased levels of cyclins A/B1/D1/E1, CDK2/4/6 in U266 cells and increased the p21 and p27 levels. Furthermore, p21 became bound to CDK2/4/6, resulting in a reduction of CDK2/4/6 kinase activity. The cleaved forms of Bcl-2, and caspases‑3, ‑8 and ‑9 were detected, and the anti-apoptotic molecule, Bax, also increased...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
Jingshu Wang, Kun Zou, Xu Feng, Miao Chen, Cong Li, Ranran Tang, Yang Xuan, Meihua Luo, Wangbing Chen, Huijuan Qiu, Ge Qin, Yixin Li, Changlin Zhang, Binyi Xiao, Lan Kang, Tiebang Kang, Wenlin Huang, Xinfa Yu, Xiaojun Wu, Wuguo Deng
BACKGROUND: N-myc (and STAT) interactor (NMI) plays vital roles in tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. In this study, we identified NMI as a potential tumor suppressor in lung cancer and explored its molecular mechanism involved in lung cancer progression. METHODS: Human lung cancer cell lines and a mouse xenograft model was used to study the effect of NMI on tumor growth. The expression of NMI, COX-2 and relevant signaling proteins were examined by Western blot...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Cancer
Untack Cho, Boyun Kim, Soochi Kim, Youngjin Han, Yong Sang Song
Obesity is a serious health problem and critically related to poor prognosis in cancer, presumably through induction of chronic inflammation. The major culprit for cancer progression in obesity is presumed to be macrophages. Accumulation of macrophages in adipose tissue due to obesity induced chronic inflammation has been observed. However, obesity-induced macrophage accumulation related to ovarian cancer progression remains unclear. So, the role of macrophage in cancer progression is needed to be further defined for therapeutic intervention...
October 12, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Junran Sun, Peirong Huang, Jian Liang, Jie Li, Mengxi Shen, Xiangjun She, Yiji Feng, Xueting Luo, Te Liu, Xiaodong Sun
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) is a hallmark component of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which induces secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Previous studies have shown that p50/RelA (p65), a member of NF-κB family, is an essential pro-inflammatory transcription factor responding to Aβ1-40 stimulation, but few focused on the other two Rel transcription factor members - RelB and c-Rel - and their role in Aβ1-40-mediated inflammation. It was reported that RelA, RelB and c-Rel are also implicated in various NF-κB-mediated inflammatory diseases...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
Papawee Saiki, Yasuhiro Kawano, Leo J L D Van Griensven, Koyomi Miyazaki
For hundreds of years mushrooms have been used as functional food for health. The basidiomycete Agaricus brasiliensis (A. brasiliensis) is famous for the medicinal properties of its beta glucans and of its antioxidants. Most researchers have studied polysaccharides from A. brasiliensis for their anti-inflammatory activity. However, active compounds from this mushroom have not yet been studied for the inactivation of NO inhibitory activity. The present study aimed to find the active compounds from A. brasiliensis for their NO inhibitory activity related inflammatory activity...
October 12, 2017: Food & Function
Nakhle S Saba, Deanna H Wong, Georges Tanios, Jessica R Iyer, Patricia Lobelle-Rich, Eman L Dadashian, Delong Liu, Lorena Fontan, Erik K Flemington, Cydney M Nichols, Chingiz Underbayev, Hana Safah, Ari Melnick, Adrian Wiestner, Sarah E M Herman
The clinical efficacy displayed by ibrutinib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been challenged by the frequent emergence of resistant clones. The ibrutinib target, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), is essential for B cell receptor signaling, and most resistant cases carry mutations in BTK or PLCG2, a downstream effector target of BTK. Recent findings show that MI-2, a small molecule inhibitor of the para-caspase MALT1, is effective in preclinical models of another type of BCR pathway-dependent lymphoma...
October 9, 2017: Cancer Research
Xiaoju Tang, Ling Sun, Gang Wang, Bojiang Chen, Fengming Luo
Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1), a member of the RUNX family, is one of the key regulatory proteins in vertebrates. RUNX1 is involved in embryonic development, hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis and immune response. In the past few decades, studies mainly focused on the effect of RUNX1 on acute leukemia and cancer. Only few studies about the function of RUNX1 in the pathological process of pulmonary diseases have been reported. Recent studies have demonstrated that RUNX1 is highly expressed in both mesenchymal and epithelial compartments of the developing and postnatal lung and that it plays a critical role in the lipopolysaccharide induced lung inflammation by regulating the NF-κB pathway...
October 9, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
Hardik Patel, Nahla Zaghloul, Ki Lin, Shu Fang Liu, Edmund J Miller, Mohamed Ahmed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary Hypertension (pH) is a chronic progressive disease. Endothelial cells (EC) play a central and critical role in the initiation and progression of pH. The NF-κB family (NF-κB1 (p50/p105), NF-κB2 (p52/p100), RelA (p65), RelB, and C-Rel) regulates a wide array of genes involved in inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, and survival. The involvement of specific NF-κB family members in the pathogenesis of hypoxia-induced pH remains to be determined...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Hui-Wen Lin, Cheng-Wei Liu, Deng-Jye Yang, Ching-Chung Chen, Shih-Yin Chen, Jung-Kai Tseng, Tien-Jye Chang, Yuan-Yen Chang
Recent investigations have demonstrated that carotenoid extract of Dunaliella salina alga (Alga) contains abundant β-carotene and has good anti-inflammatory activities. Murine macrophage (RAW264.7 cells) was used to establish as an in vitro model of pseudorabies virus-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) response. In this study, antioxidant activities of Alga were measured based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays, reducing power, and virus-induced ROS formation in RAW264...
October 2017: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Yunmei Huang, Yu Lin, Yinsheng Wu, Jianwei Zeng, Meiya Huang, Shiming Guo, Wenjuan Luo, Haiming Lin, Yanping Lin
Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) is characterized by increased bone loss due to enhanced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. A Chinese herbal formula, jiangugranule (JG), exhibited great efficacy in the clinical treatment of PMOP. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects remain unclear. The present study aimed to examine the effects of JG‑containing serum on receptor activator of nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) ligand (RANKL)‑induced osteoclastogenesis. Osteoclast precursor RAW264...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Vivek P Jani, Shawn Mailo, Ali Athar, Alfredo Lucas, Alexander T Williams, Pedro Cabrales
In 2013, nearly 15 million units of banked blood were transfused in the United States of America alone. Blood shortages are expected to increase globally. Donated blood is not equal due to differences in quality and deterioration rate. There are no methods to detect time-dependent biochemical and biophysical changes of red blood cells (RBCs) or the deterioration rate of donated RBCs. Nine randomly selected RBC units collected by the San Diego Blood Bank were examined for interdonor variability over six weeks of storage...
October 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Xun Wang, Shuang Zou, Yu-Long Lan, Jin-Shan Xing, Xiao-Qiang Lan, Bo Zhang
The global burden of malignant glioma is expected to increase and new therapy approaches are urgently required. Solasonine is a natural glycoalkaloid compound that has been used in cancer treatment for many years; however the precise mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we seek to explore the potential roles of solasonine in glioma that could add to the development of newer therapeutic approaches for the treatment of malignant glioma. Cell proliferation of glioma cells was determined by MTT assay, and the biological functions of solasonine were investigated by migration, colony formation, apoptosis assays and cell cycle analysis in glioma cells...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Chang-Suk Chae, Gi-Cheon Kim, Eun Sil Park, Choong-Gu Lee, Ravi Verma, Hagg-Lim Cho, Chang-Duk Jun, Yung Joon Yoo, Sin-Hyeog Im
The transcription factor NFAT1 plays a pivotal role in the homeostasis of T lymphocytes. However, its functional importance in non-CD4(+) T cells, especially in systemic immune disorders, is largely unknown. In this study, we report that NFAT1 regulates dendritic cell (DC) tolerance and suppresses systemic autoimmunity using the experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) as a model. Myasthenia gravis and EAMG are T cell-dependent, Ab-mediated autoimmune disorders in which the acetylcholine receptor is the major autoantigen...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Fatma Guesmi, Sahdeo Prasad, Amit K Tyagi, Ahmed Landoulsi
Teucrium alopecurus is an endemic plant limited to southern Tunisia. In the present study, the chemical composition, anticancer and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitory effects of Teucrium alopecurus leaf essential oil was investigated. The analysis of Teucrium alopecurus (TA-1) with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) showed that α-Bisabolol, (+)-epi-Bicyclosesquiphellandrene and α-Cadinol, were found in relatively high amounts (16.16%, 15.40% and 8.52%, respectively). Cell viability was determined by 3-(4-5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2-5-diphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay...
September 28, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tadeja Savi, Andrea Miotto, Francesco Petruzzellis, Adriano Losso, Serena Pacilè, Giuliana Tromba, Stefan Mayr, Andrea Nardini
Vulnerability curves (VCs) are a useful tool to investigate the susceptibility of plants to drought-induced hydraulic failure, and several experimental techniques have been used for their measurement. The validity of the bench dehydration method coupled to hydraulic measurements, considered as a 'golden standard', has been recently questioned calling for its validation with non-destructive methods. We compared the VCs of a herbaceous crop plant (Helianthus annuus) obtained during whole-plant dehydration followed by i) hydraulic flow measurements in stem segments (classical destructive method) or by ii) in vivo micro-CT observations of stem xylem conduits in intact plants...
September 23, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Manoel D Souza Filho, Jand V R Medeiros, Daniel F P Vasconcelos, Durcilene A Silva, Ana C M Leódido, Hygor F Fernandes, Felipe R P Silva, Luiz F C França, David Lenardo, Giovanny R Pinto
This study aimed to investigate the chemical characteristics and the effects of an orabase gel with Cashew Gum Polysaccharide (CG-P) from Anacardium occidentale L. on alveolar bone loss and relative mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, RANK, RANKL, and OPG in the periodontal tissue of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis. Crude cashew gum was collected and purified by chemical processes; then, the CG-P was mixed with orabase gel. Female rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each: saline 0...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yu-Shi Wang, Yingjia Lin, He Li, Yang Li, Zhiguang Song, Ying-Hua Jin
The 20S ginsenoside Rh2 (G-Rh2) effectively inhibits cancer cell growth and survival in both animal models and cell lines. However, its molecular targets and mechanism of action remain largely unknown. By screening for molecules that interact with (20S)G-Rh2 in a phage display assay, we have identified Annexin A2 as a potential target that mediates its anti-cancer activity. Isothermal titration calorimetry and a cellular thermal shift assay demonstrated that (20S)G-Rh2 directly bound to either recombinant or intracellular Annexin A2...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
Duha G Ahmed, Sebastian Paquette, Anthony Zeitouni, Alexandre Lehmann
Cochlear implants (CIs) partially restore the sense of hearing in the deaf. However, the ability to recognize emotions in speech and music is reduced due to the implant's electrical signal limitations and the patient's altered neural pathways. Electrophysiological correlations of these limitations are not yet well established. Here we aimed to characterize the effect of CIs on auditory emotion processing and, for the first time, directly compare vocal and musical emotion processing through a CI-simulator. We recorded 16 normal hearing participants' electroencephalographic activity while listening to vocal and musical emotional bursts in their original form and in a degraded (CI-simulated) condition...
September 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
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