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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438776/the-immunoproteasome-is-induced-by-cytokines-and-regulates-apoptosis-in-human-islets
#1
Morten Lundh, Marco Bugliani, Tina Dahlby, Danny Hung-Chieh Chou, Bridget Wagner, Seyed Mojtaba Ghiasi, Vincenzo De Tata, Zhifei Chen, Marianne Nissen Lund, Michael J Davies, Piero Marchetti, Thomas Mandrup-Poulsen
In addition to degrading misfolded and damaged proteins, the proteasome regulates the fate of cells in response to stress. The role of the proteasome in pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced human beta-cell apoptosis is unknown. INS-1, INS-1E and human islets were exposed to combinations of IFNγ, IL-1β and TNFα with or without addition of small molecules. Gene expression was assessed by microarray or quantitative PCR. Proteasome activities were analyzed using luminescent assays. Protein oxidation, Western blotting and electron microscopy were used to examine mechanisms underlying cytokine-induced apoptosis...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426175/differences-in-xylem-and-leaf-hydraulic-traits-explain-differences-in-drought-tolerance-among-mature-amazon-rainforest-trees
#2
Thomas L Powell, James K Wheeler, Alex A R de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos Lola da Costa, Scott R Saleska, Patrick Meir, Paul R Moorcroft
Considerable uncertainty surrounds the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on the composition and structure Amazon forests. Two large-scale ecosystem drought experiments in the eastern Brazilian Amazon observed increases in mortality rates among some tree species but not others; and therefore, the physiological traits underpinning these differential demographic responses were investigated. Xylem pressure at 50% conductivity (xylem-P50 ), leaf turgor loss point (TLP), cellular osmotic potential (πo ) and cellular bulk modulus of elasticity (ε), all traits mechanistically linked to drought tolerance, were measured on upper canopy branches and leaves of mature trees from selected species growing at the two drought experiment sites...
April 20, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417313/impact-of-season-and-different-vitamin-d-thresholds-on-prevalence-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-epidemiological-cohorts-a-note-of-caution
#3
Sara Schramm, Harald Lahner, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Raimund Erbel, Dagmar Führer, Susanne Moebus
PURPOSE: We investigated the impact of different cut-offs on the prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25-(OH)D] deficiency. METHODS: We used baseline data of 4149 participants (45-75 years, 50% women) of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. Serum 25-(OH)D was measured with the Roche Cobas assay. Quartiles (p25, p50, and p75) were calculated. Data were stratified by months, sex, and age. According to the recommendations of 'Dachverband Osteologie', Endocrine Society and National Institute of Health we used 25-(OH)D thresholds of 12, 20, and 30 ng/ml to estimate vitamin D deficiency...
April 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411009/skeletal-muscle-morphology-and-regulatory-signalling-in-endurance-trained-and-sedentary-individuals-the-influence-of-ageing
#4
U R Mikkelsen, J Agergaard, C Couppé, J F Grosset, A Karlsen, S P Magnusson, P Schjerling, M Kjaer, A L Mackey
Muscle mass in humans is inversely associated with circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines, but the interaction between ageing and training on muscle composition and the intra-muscular signalling behind inflammation and contractile protein synthesis and degradation is unknown. We studied 15 healthy life-long endurance runners, 12 age-matched untrained controls, 10 young trained and 12 young untrained individuals. Thigh muscle composition was investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where non-contractile intramuscular tissue (NCIT) area (fat and connective tissue) was found to be greater in older but lower in trained individuals...
April 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402148/should-modulation-of-p50-be-a-therapeutic-target-in-the-critically-ill
#5
Amudan J Srinivasan, Clare Morkane, Daniel S Martin, Ian J Welsby
A defining feature of human hemoglobin is its oxygen binding affinity, quantified by the partial pressure of oxygen at which hemoglobin is 50% saturated (p50), and the variability of this parameter over a range of physiological and environmental states. Modulation of this property of hemoglobin can directly affect the degree of peripheral oxygen offloading and tissue oxygenation. Areas covered: This review summarizes the role of hemoglobin oxygen affinity in normal and abnormal physiology and discusses the current state of the literature regarding artificial modulation of p50...
April 12, 2017: Expert Review of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400775/in-silico-mcmv-silencing-concludes-potential-host-derived-mirnas-in-maize
#6
Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal, Basit Jabbar, Muhammad Nauman Sharif, Qurban Ali, Tayyab Husnain, Idrees A Nasir
Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMV) is a deleterious pathogen which causes Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) that results in substantial yield loss of Maize crop worldwide. The positive-sense RNA genome of MCMV (4.4 kb) encodes six proteins: P32 (32 kDa protein), RNA dependent RNA polymerases (P50 and P111), P31 (31 kDa protein), P7 (7 kDa protein), coat protein (25 kDa). P31, P7 and coat protein are encoded from sgRNA1, located at the 3'end of the genome and sgRNA2 is located at the extremity of the 3'genome end...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397408/effect-of-oxygen-affinity-of-liposome-encapsulated-hemoglobin-on-cerebral-ischemia-and-reperfusion-as-detected-by-positron-emission-tomography-in-nonhuman-primates
#7
Akira T Kawaguchi, Mariko Yamano, Munetaka Haida, Hiroyuki Ohba, Takeharu Kakiuchi, Hideo Tsukada
We tested a hypothesis that liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) with high oxygen (O2 ) affinity (h-LEH, P50 O2  = 10 mm Hg) may work better than LEH with low O2 affinity (l-LEH, P50 O2  = 40 mm Hg) in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury using positron emission tomography (PET) in primates undergoing middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and reperfusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), O2 extract fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of O2 (CMRO2 ) were successively determined by PET before ischemia, at 2 h of ischemia, immediately after reperfusion, and 3 h after reperfusion...
April 2017: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392416/aminochrome-induces-microglia-and-astrocyte-activation
#8
Cleonice C Santos, Fillipe M Araújo, Rafael S Ferreira, Vanessa B Silva, Juliana H C Silva, Maria S Grangeiro, Érica N Soares, Érica Patricia L Pereira, Cleide S Souza, Silvia L Costa, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Victor Diogenes A Silva
Aminochrome has been suggested as a more physiological preclinical model capable of inducing five of the six mechanisms of Parkinson's Disease (PD). Until now, there is no evidence that aminochrome induces glial activation related to neuroinflammation, an important mechanism involved in the loss of dopaminergic neurons. In this study, the potential role of aminochrome on glial activation was studied in primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cultures and microglial primary culture from Wistar rats. We demonstrated that aminochrome induced a reduction in the number of viable cells on cultures exposed to concentration between 10 and 100μM...
April 6, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389511/epigenetic-regulation-of-kpc1-ubiquitin-ligase-effects-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-melanoma
#9
Yuuki Iida, Aaron Ciechanover, Diego M Marzese, Keisuke Hata, Matias Bustos, Shigeshi Ono, Jinhua Wang, Matthew P Salomon, Kevin Tran, Stella Lam, Sandy C Hsu, Nellie Nelson, Yelena Kravtsova-Ivantsiv, Gordon B Mills, Michael A Davies, Dave Sb Hoon
PURPOSE: Abnormal activation of the NF-κB pathway induces a more aggressive phenotype of cutaneous melanoma. Understanding the mechanisms involved in melanoma NF-κB activation may identify novel targets for this pathway. KPC1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is a regulator of NF-κB pathway. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms regulating KPC1 expression and its clinical impact in melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The clinical impact of KPC1 expression and its epigenetic regulation were assessed in large cohorts of clinically well-annotated melanoma tissues (tissue micro-arrays; n=137, JWCI cohort; n=40) and The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA cohort, n=370)...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381804/tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induces-the-expression-of-the-endothelial-cell-specific-receptor-roundabout4-through-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#10
Toru Tanaka, Naoki Maekawa, Taito Kashio, Kohei Izawa, Ryosuke Ishiba, Keisuke Shirakura, Kenji Ishimoto, Nobumasa Hino, William C Aird, Takefumi Doi, Yoshiaki Okada
Roundabout4 (Robo4) is an endothelial cell-specific receptor that regulates vascular stability. Recently, Robo4 has been shown to regulate vascular permeability in inflammation. However, the mechanisms regulating the Robo4 gene in the context of inflammation are poorly understood. In this study, we found that intravenous injection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α increased Robo4 expression in mouse organs. In vitro analyses showed that TNFα increased Robo4 expression in human primary endothelial cells, but not in cells pretreated with a nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitor...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378882/aridity-drove-the-evolution-of-extreme-embolism-resistance-and-the-radiation-of%C3%A2-conifer-genus-callitris
#11
Maximilian Larter, Sebastian Pfautsch, Jean-Christophe Domec, Santiago Trueba, Nathalie Nagalingum, Sylvain Delzon
Xylem vulnerability to embolism is emerging as a major factor in drought-induced tree mortality events across the globe. However, we lack understanding of how and to what extent climate has shaped vascular properties or functions. We investigated the evolution of xylem hydraulic function and diversification patterns in Australia's most successful gymnosperm clade, Callitris, the world's most drought-resistant conifers. For all 23 species in this group, we measured embolism resistance (P50 ), xylem specific hydraulic conductivity (Ks ), wood density, and tracheary element size from natural populations...
April 5, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374086/notch-4-silencing-inhibits-prostate-cancer-growth-and-emt-via-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#12
Jianwei Zhang, Youlin Kuang, Yan Wang, Quanquan Xu, Qinghua Ren
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is implicated in the metastasis of human prostate cancer (PCa). Notch signaling has been established as a regulator of EMT. Notch-4 has emerged as a mammary proto-oncogene and a target in several cancers. However, the role and the mechanism of action of Notch-4 in PCa are still unclear. In the present study, we first observed a marked increase in Notch-4 expression in the PCa cell lines DU145, PC3 and LnCAP compared with the non-malignant prostate epithelial cell line RWPE1...
June 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373667/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-bmscs-repair-acute-necrotized-pancreatitis-by-secreting-microrna-9-to-target-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb1-p50-gene-in-rats
#13
Daohai Qian, Ge Wei, Chenglei Xu, Zhigang He, Jie Hua, Jian Li, Qili Hu, Shengping Lin, Jian Gong, Hongbo Meng, Bo Zhou, Hongfei Teng, Zhenshun Song
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdominal disease, 10-20% of which can evolve into severe AP (SAP) causing significant morbidity and mortality. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the potential of repairing SAP, but the detailed mechanism remains unknown. We demonstrate here that microRNA-9 (miR-9) modified BMSCs (pri-miR-9-BMSCs) can significantly reduce the pancreatic edema, infiltration, hemorrhage, necrosis, the release of amylase and lipase. Meanwhile, decreased local/systemic inflammatory response (TNF-α↓, IL-1β↓, IL-6↓, HMGB1↓, MPO↓, CD68↓, IL-4↑, IL-10↑, and TGF-β↑) and enhanced regeneration of damaged pancreas (Reg4↑, PTF1↑, and PDX1↑) are also promoted...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369535/the-production-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-by-human-sertoli-cells-is-substantially-reduced-in-sertoli-cell-only-testes
#14
D Singh, D A Paduch, P N Schlegel, K E Orwig, A Mielnik, A Bolyakov, W W Wright
STUDY QUESTION: Do human Sertoli cells in testes that exhibit the Sertoli cell-only (SCO) phenotype produce substantially less glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) than Sertoli cells in normal testes? SUMMARY ANSWER: In human SCO testes, both the amounts of GDNF mRNA per testis and the concentration of GDNF protein per Sertoli cell are markedly reduced as compared to normal testes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vivo, GDNF is required to sustain the numbers and function of mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and their immediate progeny, transit-amplifying progenitor spermatogonia...
May 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367713/src-syk-targeted-anti-inflammatory-actions-of-triterpenoidal-saponins-from-gac-momordica-cochinchinensis-seeds
#15
Jae Sik Yu, Jun Ho Kim, Seulah Lee, Kiwon Jung, Ki Hyun Kim, Jae Youl Cho
Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (family Cucurbitaceae), also known as gac, or red melon, is an edible Southeast Asian fruit valued for its nutritional and medicinal properties. Specifically, Momordicae Semen, the seeds of the gac fruit, is used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat boils, rheumatic pain, muscle spasm, hemorrhoids, and hemangiomas. In this study, a chemical investigation into a gac seed ethanol (EtOH) extract resulted in the identification of three triterpenoidal saponins (1-3), which were investigated for their anti-inflammatory effects...
April 2, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367625/epigallocatechin-3-gallate-reduces-scavenger-receptor-a-expression-and-foam-cell-formation-in-human-macrophages
#16
Sy-Jou Chen, Yung-Hsi Kao, Li Jing, Yi-Ping Chuang, Wan-Lin Wu, Shu-Ting Liu, Shih-Ming Huang, Jenn-Haung Lai, Ling-Jun Ho, Min-Chien Tsai, Chin-Sheng Lin
Foam cells are formed when macrophages imbibe low-density lipoprotein (LDL) through scavenger receptors. Here we examined how epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) influences foam cell formation. We found that EGCG dose-dependently reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL) uptake in THP-1 (10 μM, 20.0 ± 0.50, p < 0.05) and primary macrophages (134.6 ± 15.6, p < 0.05) and reduced intracellular cholesterol content in these cells, respectively (10 μM, 32.6 ± 0.14, p < 0.05; 31.7 ± 1.26, p < 0.05). EGCG treatment decreased scavenger receptor A expression, but not the expression of CD36 or of reverse cholesterol transporters...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367614/ophthalmic-evaluation-in-beta-thalassemia
#17
Rashid H Merchant, Hrishikesh Punde, Neepa Thacker, Deepak Bhatt
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of ocular manifestations in beta-thalassemia with the patient's age, blood transfusion requirements, average serum ferritin and dose and duration of iron chelation therapy. METHODS: Sixty multi-transfused beta thalassemia patients of 12 to 18 y of age on chelation therapy were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Structural and functional evaluation of the retina was done using Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Electroretinography (ERG), including flash ERG and Pattern ERG (PERG)...
April 3, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366178/a-comparison-of-heart-rate-variability-n-3-pufa-status-and-lipid-mediator-profile-in-age-and-bmi-matched-middle-aged-vegans-and-omnivores
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ana M Pinto, Thomas A B Sanders, Alexandra C Kendall, Anna Nicolaou, Robert Gray, Haya Al-Khatib, Wendy L Hall
Low heart rate variability (HRV) predicts sudden cardiac death. Long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (C20-C22) status is positively associated with HRV. This cross-sectional study investigated whether vegans aged 40-70 years (n 23), whose diets are naturally free from EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3), have lower HRV compared with omnivores (n 24). Proportions of LC n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, plasma fatty acids and concentrations of plasma LC n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators were significantly lower in vegans...
March 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361957/comparative-subcellular-proteomics-analysis-of-susceptible-and-near-isogenic-resistant-bombyx-mori-lepidoptera-larval-midgut-response-to-bmnpv-infection
#19
Xue-Yang Wang, Hai-Zhong Yu, Jia-Ping Xu, Shang-Zhi Zhang, Dong Yu, Ming-Hui Liu, Lin-Ling Wang
The molecular mechanism of silkworm resistance to Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection remains largely unclear. Accumulating evidence suggests that subcellular fractionation combined with proteomics is an ideal technique to analyse host antiviral mechanisms. To clarify the anti-BmNPV mechanism of the silkworm, the near-isogenic line BC9 (resistant strain) and the recurrent parent P50 (susceptible strain) were used in a comparative subcellular proteomics study. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) was conducted on proteins extracted from the cytosol, mitochondria, and microsomes of BmNPV-infected and control larval midguts...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357931/monitoring-exposure-and-risk-assessment-of-sulfur-dioxide-residues-in-fresh-or-dried-fruits-and-vegetables-in-china
#20
Tiantian Lou, Weisu Huang, Xiaodan Wu, Mengmeng Wang, Liying Zhou, Baiyi Lu, Lufei Zheng, Yinzhou Hu
Sulfur dioxide residues in 20 kinds of fresh or dried fruits and vegetables collected from 23 provinces of China (Jilin, Beijing, Shanxi, Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Anhui, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Sichuan, Gansu, Neimenggu, Xinjiang, Hainan) were analyzed, and a health risk assessment was performed. The detection rates of sulfur dioxide residues in fresh vegetables, fresh fruits, dried vegetables and dried fruits were 11.1%~95.9%, 12.6%~92...
March 30, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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