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Jo Durham, Lisa Schubert, Lisa Vaughan, Cameron D Willis
BACKGROUND: Middle ear disease (otitis media) is endemic among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia and represents an important cause of hearing loss. The disease is the result of a mix of biological, environmental and host risk factors that interact in complex, non-linear ways along a dynamic continuum. As such, it is generally recognised that a holistic, systems approach is required to reverse the high rates of otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children...
2018: PloS One
Sascha D Wellig, Sébastien Nusslé, Daniela Miltner, Oliver Kohle, Olivier Glaizot, Veronika Braunisch, Martin K Obrist, Raphaël Arlettaz
Wind turbines represent a source of hazard for bats, especially through collision with rotor blades. With increasing technical development, tall turbines (rotor-swept zone 50-150 m above ground level) are becoming widespread, yet we lack quantitative information about species active at these heights, which impedes proposing targeted mitigation recommendations for bat-friendly turbine operation. We investigated vertical activity profiles of a bat assemblage, and their relationships to wind speed, within a major valley of the European Alps where tall wind turbines are being deployed...
2018: PloS One
Nayeon Choi, Jungmin Ahn, Yang-Sun Cho
OBJECTIVES: The aim of study was to evaluate the subjective changes of taste and salivation after middle ear surgery according to chorda tympani nerve (CTN) injury. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: We enrolled 180 patients older than 13 years old who received middle ear surgery. INTERVENTIONS: The patients were classified into cut, manipulated, and intact groups according to intraoperative assessments of the CTN...
March 20, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Eric M Sugihara, Seilesh C Babu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Lucas Resende Lucinda, Rita De Cassia Cassou Guimarães, Otávio Pereira Lima Zanini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Jörg Encke, Werner Hemmert
The mammalian auditory system is able to extract temporal and spectral features from sound signals at the two ears. One important cue for localization of low-frequency sound sources in the horizontal plane are inter-aural time differences (ITDs) which are first analyzed in the medial superior olive (MSO) in the brainstem. Neural recordings of ITD tuning curves at various stages along the auditory pathway suggest that ITDs in the mammalian brainstem are not represented in form of a Jeffress-type place code. An alternative is the hemispheric opponent-channel code, according to which ITDs are encoded as the difference in the responses of the MSO nuclei in the two hemispheres...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Shih-Chieh Chen, Chao-Yuah Chang, Ming-Lu Lin
The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular diseases induced by chronic exposure to arsenic remain unclarified. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether increased vascular leakage is induced by inflammatory mustard oil in mice systemically exposed to various doses of arsenic and whether an increased vascular leakage response is still present in arsenic-fed mice after arsenic discontinuation for 2 or 6 months. ICR mice were fed water or various doses of sodium arsenite (10, 15, or 20 mg/kg/day; 5 days/week) for 8 weeks...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Tesfaye Assebe Yadeta, Alemayehu Worku, Gudina Egata, Berhanu Seyoum, Dadi Marami, Yemane Berhane
Background: Vertically transmitted group B Streptococcus (GBS) causes fetal and neonatal infections. However, there is limited information on the vertical transmission of GBS in low-income countries. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the rate of vertical transmission of GBS and associated factors among pregnant women in Eastern Ethiopia. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional, facility-based study was conducted among pregnant women in Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia, from June to October, 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Marine Potez, Audrey Bouchet, Jeannine Wagner, Mattia Donzelli, Elke Bräuer-Krisch, John W Hopewell, Jean Laissue, Valentin Djonov
PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of micro-beam irradiation (MBI) on the normal tissues of the mouse ear. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Normal mouse ears are a unique model, which in addition to skin contain striated muscles, cartilage, blood and lymphatic vessels, and few hair follicles. This renders the mouse ear an excellent model for complex tissue studies. The ears of C57BL6 mice were exposed to MBI (50-μm-wide micro-beams, spaced 200 μm between centers) with peak entrance doses of 200, 400, or 800 Gy (at ultra-high dose rates)...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Tobias M R Houlton, Caroline Wilkinson
Shrunken heads are a mummification phenomenon unique to South America. Ceremonial tsantsa are ritually reduced heads from enemy victims of the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún (Aguaruna), Wampís (Huambisa), and Candoshi-Shapra cultures. Commercial shrunken heads are comparatively modern and fraudulently produced for the curio-market, often using stolen bodies from hospital mortuaries and graves. To achieve shrinkage and desiccation, heads undergo skinning, simmering (in water) and drying. Considering the intensive treatments applied, this research aims to identify how the facial structure can alter and impact identification using post-mortem depiction...
March 6, 2018: Forensic Science International
Andrzej N Majda, Aleksandra Majdan, Paweł Piłat, Paweł Cisek
Gout tophi around auricular area are common in old men. The differential diagnosis of papules or nodules on the ear includes tophaceous gout, rheumatoid nodules, basal or squamous cell cancer, melanoma, verruca vulgaris or actinic keratosis. The presence of the skin cancer, most commonly located on the head and neck, is often related to the long exposure of the skin to sunlight. Elderly patients are the predominant group of patients with skin malignancies. The aim of this study is to emphasize the importance of early cancer detection in elderly people and use of appropriate therapeutic options that take into account the special requirements of geriatric patients...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Kristine A Schulz, Elnaz Esmati, Frederick A Godley, Claude L Hill, Ashkan Monfared, Michael Teixido, Debara L Tucci, David L Witsell
Objective To evaluate the prevalence of migraine disease in an otolaryngologic cohort and migraine-related otologic and sinonasal symptoms in this population. Study Design Cross-sectional study utilizing the CHEER (Creating Healthcare Excellence through Education and Research) network for recruitment. Setting Patients were recruited in a cross-sectional and pragmatic manner in 14 CHEER sites between June 2015 and March 2017 (9 academic, 5 community based). Subjects and Methods Patients were included if they were aged ≥18 years and seen for any concern that was not head and neck cancer...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Arnaud Attyé, Michael Eliezer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Sam Denys, Michael Hofmann, Heleen Luts, Cécile Guérin, Ann Keymeulen, Katelijne Van Hoeck, Astrid van Wieringen, Karel Hoppenbrouwers, Jan Wouters
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the large-scale applicability of the Digit Triplet test (DTT) for school-age hearing screening in fifth grade elementary (5E) (9 to 12 years old) and third grade secondary (3S) (13 to 16 years old) school children. The reliability of the test is investigated as well as whether pass/fail criteria need to be corrected for training and/or age, and whether these criteria have to be refined with respect to referral rates and pure-tone audiometry results...
March 19, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Francesca Yoshie Russo, Daniele De Seta, Ghizlene Lahlou, Stéphanie Borel, Yann Nguyen, Didier Bouccara, Olivier Sterkers, Daniele Bernardeschi, Isabelle Mosnier
Objective To investigate the hearing performance of adult patients presenting unilateral deafness with contralateral fluctuating hearing loss who received a cochlear implant on the deaf side. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting University tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods Preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively, 23 patients underwent pure tone audiometry and speech audiometry with disyllabic and monosyllabic words in a quiet environment and sentences in quiet and noisy (signal-to-noise ratio +10 dB SPL) environments under best-aided conditions...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Tatiana M Lanzieri, Winnie Chung, Jessica Leung, A Chantal Caviness, Jason L Baumgardner, Peggy Blum, Stephanie R Bialek, Gail Demmler-Harrison
Objectives To compare hearing trajectories among children with symptomatic and asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection through age 18 years and to identify brain abnormalities associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in asymptomatic case patients. Study Design Longitudinal prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods The study included 96 case patients (4 symptomatic and 92 asymptomatic) identified through hospital-based newborn cytomegalovirus screening from 1982 to 1992 and 72 symptomatic case patients identified through referrals from 1993 to 2005...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Tang-Chuan Wang, Chia-Der Lin, Tzu-Ching Shih, Hsiung-Kwang Chung, Ching-Yuang Wang, Yung-An Tsou, Ching-Hsuan Huang, Ming-Hsui Tsai
Objective We aimed to perform a meta-analysis examining balloon dilatation and laser tuboplasty for the treatment of eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD). Data Sources PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase search up to April 18, 2016, with the following keywords: eustachian, middle-ear, eustachian tuboplasty, balloon tuboplasty, laser tuboplasty, laser dilatation, and balloon dilatation. Review Methods Randomized controlled trials and prospective, retrospective, and 1-arm studies of patients with ETD treated with balloon dilatation or laser tuboplasty were included...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Alison M Condliffe, Anita Chandra
The activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS), also known as p110δ-activating mutation causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency (PASLI), is a combined immunodeficiency syndrome caused by gain-of-function mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) genes PIK3CD (encoding p110δ: APDS1 or PASLI-CD) and PIK3R1 (encoding p85α: APDS2 or PASLI-R1). While the disease is clinically heterogeneous, respiratory symptoms and complications are near universal and often severe...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Muhammad Kamran, Su Wennan, Irshad Ahmad, Meng Xiangping, Cui Wenwen, Zhang Xudong, Mou Siwei, Aaqil Khan, Han Qingfang, Liu Tiening
A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of paclobutrazol on ear characteristics and grain yield by regulating root growth and root-bleeding sap of maize crop. Seed-soaking at rate of 0 (CK1), 200 (S1), 300 (S2), and 400 (S3) mg L-1 , and seed-dressing at rate of 0 (CK2), 1.5 (D1), 2.5 (D2), and 3.5 (D3) g kg-1 were used. Our results showed that paclobutrazol improved the ear characteristics and grain yield, and were consistently higher than control during 2015-2016. The average grain yield of S1, S2 and S3 were 18...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Benjamin Dieudonné, Tom Francart
Many hearing-impaired listeners struggle to localize sounds due to poor availability of binaural cues. Listeners with a cochlear implant and a contralateral hearing aid - so-called bimodal listeners - are amongst the worst performers, as both interaural time and level differences are poorly transmitted. We present a new method to enhance head shadow in the low frequencies. Head shadow enhancement is achieved with a fixed beamformer with contralateral attenuation in each ear. The method results in interaural level differences which vary monotonically with angle...
March 12, 2018: Hearing Research
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