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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689339/mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-implicated-in-retinoic-acid-induced-spina-bifida-aperta-in-rat-fetuses
#1
Jia Xue, Hui Gu, Dan Liu, Wei Ma, Xiaowei Wei, Lianshuai Zhao, Yusi Liu, Chaonan Zhang, Zhengwei Yuan
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common and severe congenital malformations, which result from failure of the neural tube to close during embryonic development. The etiology of NTDs is complex, caused by interactions between genetic defects and environmental factors, but the exact mechanisms of this disease are still not fully understood. We herein employ a Seahorse Bioscience microplate-based extracellular flux (XF) analyzer to determine mitochondrial function and quantify respiratory coupling to various bioenergetic functions using specific pharmacological inhibitors of bioenergetic pathways...
April 21, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687164/central-noradrenergic-interactions-with-alcohol-and-regulation-of-alcohol-related-behaviors
#2
Elena M Vazey, Carolina R den Hartog, David E Moorman
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) results from disruption of a number of neural systems underlying motivation, emotion, and cognition. Patients with AUD exhibit not only elevated motivation for alcohol but heightened stress and anxiety, and disruptions in cognitive domains such as decision-making. One system at the intersection of these functions is the central norepinephrine (NE) system. This catecholaminergic neuromodulator, produced by several brainstem nuclei, plays profound roles in a wide range of behaviors and functions, including arousal, attention, and other aspects of cognition, motivation, emotional regulation, and control over basic physiological processes...
April 24, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685283/blood-biomarkers-are-associated-with-brain-function-and-blood-flow-following-sport-concussion
#3
Alex P Di Battista, Nathan Churchill, Tom A Schweizer, Shawn G Rhind, Doug Richards, Andrew J Baker, Michael G Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Secondary injury pathophysiology after sport-related concussion (SRC) is poorly understood. Blood biomarkers may be a useful tool for characterizing these processes, yet there are limitations in their application as a single modality. Combining blood biomarker analysis with advanced neuroimaging may help validate their continued utility in brain injury research by elucidating important secondary injury mechanisms. Hence, the purpose of this study was to evaluate co-modulation between peripheral blood biomarkers and advanced functional brain imaging after SRC...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684872/developmental-toxicity-of-dibutyl-phthalate-and-citrate-ester-plasticizers-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos
#4
Yang Xu, Myung Chan Gye
Citrate esters have been considered as alternatives to phthalate plasticizers. Being considered to have low toxicity in mammals, their toxicological information for aquatic animals remains poorly understood. We examined the developmental toxicity of citrate esters including tributyl O-acetylcitrate (ATBC), triethyl 2-acetylcitrate (ATEC), and trihexyl O-acetylcitrate (ATHC) together with dibutyl phthalate (DBP) based on the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). ATBC has the lowest 96 h LC50 and 96 h EC50 values...
April 15, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684712/high-salt-intake-enhances-swim-stress-induced-pvn-vasopressin-cell-activation-and-active-stress-coping
#5
N C Mitchell, T L Gilman, L C Daws, G M Toney
PURPOSE: Stress contributes to many psychiatric disorders; however, responsivity to stressors can vary depending on previous or current stress exposure. Relatively innocuous heterotypic (differing in type) stressors can summate to result in exaggerated neuronal and behavioral responses. Here we investigated the ability of prior high dietary sodium chloride (salt) intake, a dehydrating osmotic stressor, to enhance neuronal and behavioral responses of mice to an acute psychogenic swim stress (SS)...
April 6, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681024/extracellular-alpha-synuclein-oligomers-induce-parkin-s-nitrosylation-relevance-to-sporadic-parkinson-s-disease-etiopathology
#6
Anna Wilkaniec, Anna M Lenkiewicz, Grzegorz A Czapski, Henryk M Jęśko, Wojciech Hilgier, Robert Brodzik, Magdalena Gąssowska-Dobrowolska, Carsten Culmsee, Agata Adamczyk
α-Synuclein (ASN) and parkin, a multifunctional E3 ubiquitin ligase, are two proteins that are associated with the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Excessive release of ASN, its oligomerization, aggregation, and deposition in the cytoplasm contribute to neuronal injury and cell death through oxidative-nitrosative stress induction, mitochondrial impairment, and synaptic dysfunction. In contrast, overexpression of parkin provides protection against cellular stresses and prevents dopaminergic neural cell loss in several animal models of PD...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675841/early-life-conditions-that-impact-song-learning-in-male-zebra-finches-also-impact-neural-and-behavioral-responses-to-song-in-females
#7
Kendra B Sewall, Rindy C Anderson, Jill A Soha, Susan Peters, Stephen Nowicki
Early life stressors can impair song in songbirds by negatively impacting brain development and subsequent learning. Even in species in which only males sing, early life stressors might also impact female behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms, but fewer studies have examined this possibility. We manipulated brood size in zebra finches to simultaneously examine the effects of developmental stress on male song learning and female behavioral and neural response to song. Although adult male HVC volume was unaffected, we found that males from larger broods imitated tutor song less accurately...
April 20, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674958/neuronal-calcium-signaling-in-metabolic-regulation-and-adaptation-to-nutrient-stress
#8
REVIEW
Siddharth Jayakumar, Gaiti Hasan
All organisms can respond physiologically and behaviorally to environmental fluxes in nutrient levels. Different nutrient sensing pathways exist for specific metabolites, and their inputs ultimately define appropriate nutrient uptake and metabolic homeostasis. Nutrient sensing mechanisms at the cellular level require pathways such as insulin and target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling that integrates information from different organ systems like the fat body and the gut. Such integration is essential for coordinating growth with development...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673625/abnormal-target-detection-and-novelty-processing-neural-response-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#9
Pilar M Sanjuan, Chloe Andrews, Eric D Claus
Attention impairments are common symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the nature of these impairments remains elusive. Attention impairment may arise as the result of either excessive response to task-irrelevant stimuli or reduced response to task-relevant information. To test the association between PTSD and response to task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli, we used a 3-tone novelty auditory oddball task (AOD). We hypothesized that participants with PTSD relative to trauma controls would have less response during novelty processing in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex, as well as less response in the dlPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex during target detection...
April 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673616/nxy-059-a-failed-stroke-neuroprotectant-offers-no-protection-to-stem-cell-derived-human-neurons
#10
Ana Antonic, Mirella Dottori, Malcolm R Macleod, Geoffrey A Donnan, David W Howells
BACKGROUND: Developing new medicines is a complex process where understanding the reasons for both failure and success takes us forward. One gap in our understanding of most candidate stroke drugs before clinical trial is whether they have a protective effect on human tissues. NXY-059 is a spin-trap reagent hypothesized to have activity against the damaging oxidative biology which accompanies ischemic stroke. Re-examination of the preclinical in vivo dataset for this agent in the wake of the failed SAINT-II RCT highlighted the presence of a range of biases leading to overestimation of the magnitude of NXY-059's effects in laboratory animals...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673379/erythropoietin-as-an-add-on-treatment-for-cognitive-side-effects-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Lejla Sjanic Schmidt, Jeff Zarp Petersen, Maj Vinberg, Ida Hageman, Niels Vidiendal Olsen, Lars Vedel Kessing, Martin Balslev Jørgensen, Kamilla Woznica Miskowiak
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for severe depression, but its use is impeded by its cognitive side effects. Novel treatments that can counteract these side effects may therefore improve current treatment strategies for depression. The present randomized trial investigates (1) whether short-term add-on treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) can reduce the cognitive side -effects of ECT and (2) whether such effects are long-lasting. Further, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be used to explore the neural underpinnings of such beneficial effects of EPO...
April 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670103/histone-h2ax-deficiency-causes-neurobehavioral-deficits-and-impaired-redox-homeostasis
#12
Urbain Weyemi, Bindu D Paul, Adele M Snowman, Parthav Jailwala, Andre Nussenzweig, William M Bonner, Solomon H Snyder
ATM drives DNA repair by phosphorylating the histone variant H2AX. While ATM mutations elicit prominent neurobehavioral phenotypes, neural roles for H2AX have been elusive. We report impaired motor learning and balance in H2AX-deficient mice. Mitigation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reverses the behavioral deficits. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient for H2AX exhibit increased ROS production and failure to activate the antioxidant response pathway controlled by the transcription factor NRF2...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669222/a-mitochondrial-delicacy-dynamin-related-protein-1-and-mitochondrial-dynamics
#13
Mason T Breitzig, Matthew D Alleyn, Richard F Lockey, Narasaiah Kolliputi
The constant physiological flux of mitochondrial fission and fusion is inextricably tied to the maintenance of cellular bioenergetics and the fluidity of mitochondrial networks. Yet, the intricacies of this dynamic duo remain unclear in diseases that encompass mitochondrial dysregulation. Particularly, the role of the GTPase fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is of profound interest. Studies have identified that Drp1 participates in complex signaling pathways, suggesting that the function of mitochondria in pathophysiology may extend far beyond energetics alone...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668729/using-machine-learning-on-cardiorespiratory-fitness-data-for-predicting-hypertension-the-henry-ford-exercise-testing-fit-project
#14
Sherif Sakr, Radwa Elshawi, Amjad Ahmed, Waqas T Qureshi, Clinton Brawner, Steven Keteyian, Michael J Blaha, Mouaz H Al-Mallah
This study evaluates and compares the performance of different machine learning techniques on predicting the individuals at risk of developing hypertension, and who are likely to benefit most from interventions, using the cardiorespiratory fitness data. The dataset of this study contains information of 23,095 patients who underwent clinician- referred exercise treadmill stress testing at Henry Ford Health Systems between 1991 and 2009 and had a complete 10-year follow-up. The variables of the dataset include information on vital signs, diagnosis and clinical laboratory measurements...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667119/a-novel-neural-electrode-with-micro-motion-attenuation-capability-based-on-compliant-mechanisms-physical-design-concepts-and-evaluations
#15
Wenguang Zhang, Jiaqi Tang, Zhengwei Li, Yakun Ma
In order to solve the problem of the short lifespan of the neural electrode caused by micro motion, this study designed a novel neural electrode based on lumped compliance compliant mechanism to control different modes of micro-motion in a more effective way. According to the mathematical modeling of the novel neural electrode, the equivalent bending stiffness and equivalent tensile (compression) stiffness were calculated. The results of the finite element analysis based on the mathematical modeling revealed that the novel neural electrode showed excellent micro-motion-attenuation capability...
April 18, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666637/recovery-of-chronic-stress-triggered-changes-of-hippocampal-glutamatergic-transmission
#16
Min Lin, Gonglin Hou, Ying Zhao, Ti-Fei Yuan
Chronic stress results in neurochemical, physiological, immune, molecular, cellular, and structural changes in the brain and often dampens the cognition. The hippocampus has been one major focus in studying the stress responsivity and neural mechanisms underlying depression. Both acute and chronic stress stimuli lead to dynamic changes in excitatory transmission in the hippocampus. The present study examined the potential effects of spontaneous recovery after chronic stress on spatial memory function and glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666600/the-temporal-prediction-of-stress-in-speech-and-its-relation-to-musical-beat-perception
#17
REVIEW
Eleonora J Beier, Fernanda Ferreira
While rhythmic expectancies are thought to be at the base of beat perception in music, the extent to which stress patterns in speech are similarly represented and predicted during on-line language comprehension is debated. The temporal prediction of stress may be advantageous to speech processing, as stress patterns aid segmentation and mark new information in utterances. However, while linguistic stress patterns may be organized into hierarchical metrical structures similarly to musical meter, they do not typically present the same degree of periodicity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665540/information-theoretic-decomposition-of-embodied-and-situated-systems
#18
Federico Da Rold
The embodied and situated view of cognition stresses the importance of real-time and nonlinear bodily interaction with the environment for developing concepts and structuring knowledge. In this article, populations of robots controlled by an artificial neural network learn a wall-following task through artificial evolution. At the end of the evolutionary process, time series are recorded from perceptual and motor neurons of selected robots. Information-theoretic measures are estimated on pairings of variables to unveil nonlinear interactions that structure the agent-environment system...
March 27, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663559/sex-differences-in-hippocampal-mineralocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-in-response-to-acute-mate-pair-separation-in-zebra-finches-taeniopygia-guttata
#19
Farrah N Madison, Andrew J Kesner, Beau A Alward, Gregory F Ball
Mate separation has been shown to mediate changes in physiological and behavioral processes via activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in both mammalian and avian species. In order to elucidate the neural mechanisms associated with changes in the HPA axis in response to social stress, we investigated the effects of mate pair separation on circulating corticosterone concentrations as well as gene expression levels of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of both male and female zebra finches, a species that forms strong pair bonds...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662948/reduced-orexin-system-function-contributes-to-resilience-to-repeated-social-stress
#20
Laura A Grafe, Darrell Eacret, Jane Dobkin, Seema Bhatnagar
Exposure to stress increases the risk of developing affective disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these disorders occur in only a subset of individuals, those that are more vulnerable to the effects of stress, whereas others remain resilient. The coping style adopted to deal with the stressor, either passive or active coping, is related to vulnerability or resilience, respectively. Important neural substrates that mediate responses to a stressor are the orexins. These neuropeptides are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with stress-related illnesses such as depression and PTSD...
March 2018: ENeuro
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