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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230106/longitudinal-assessments-of-normal-and-perilesional-tissues-in-focal-brain-ischemia-and-partial-optic-nerve-injury-with-manganese-enhanced-mri
#1
Kevin C Chan, Iris Y Zhou, Stanley S Liu, Yolandi van der Merwe, Shu-Juan Fan, Victor K Hung, Sookja K Chung, Wu-Tian Wu, Kwok-Fai So, Ed X Wu
Although manganese (Mn) can enhance brain tissues for improving magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessments, the underlying neural mechanisms of Mn detection remain unclear. In this study, we used Mn-enhanced MRI to test the hypothesis that different Mn entry routes and spatiotemporal Mn distributions can reflect different mechanisms of neural circuitry and neurodegeneration in normal and injured brains. Upon systemic administration, exogenous Mn exhibited varying transport rates and continuous redistribution across healthy rodent brain nuclei over a 2-week timeframe, whereas in rodents following photothrombotic cortical injury, transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, or neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, Mn preferentially accumulated in perilesional tissues expressing gliosis or oxidative stress within days...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229107/translational-relevance-of-rodent-models-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-function-and-stressors-in-adolescence
#2
REVIEW
Cheryl M McCormick, Matthew R Green, Jonathan J Simone
Elevations in glucocorticoids that result from environmental stressors can have programming effects on brain structure and function when the exposure occurs during sensitive periods that involve heightened neural development. In recent years, adolescence has gained increasing attention as another sensitive period of development, a period in which pubertal transitions may increase the vulnerability to stressors. There are similarities in physical and behavioural development between humans and rats, and rats have been used effectively as an animal model of adolescence and the unique plasticity of this period of ontogeny...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224980/alpha-synuclein-prevents-the-formation-of-spherical-mitochondria-and-apoptosis-under-oxidative-stress
#3
Stefanie Menges, Georgia Minakaki, Patrick M Schaefer, Holger Meixner, Iryna Prots, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Kristina Friedland, Beate Winner, Tiago F Outeiro, Konstanze F Winklhofer, Christine A F von Arnim, Wei Xiang, Jürgen Winkler, Jochen Klucken
Oxidative stress (OS), mitochondrial dysfunction, and dysregulation of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) homeostasis are key pathogenic factors in Parkinson's disease. Nevertheless, the role of aSyn in mitochondrial physiology remains elusive. Thus, we addressed the impact of aSyn specifically on mitochondrial response to OS in neural cells. We characterize a distinct type of mitochondrial fragmentation, following H2O2 or 6-OHDA-induced OS, defined by spherically-shaped and hyperpolarized mitochondria, termed "mitospheres"...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224450/artificial-neural-network-based-model-enhances-risk-stratification-and-reduces-non-invasive-cardiac-stress-imaging-compared-to-diamond-forrester-and-morise-risk-assessment-models-a-prospective-study
#4
Hussain A Isma'eel, George E Sakr, Mustapha Serhan, Nader Lamaa, Ayman Hakim, Paul C Cremer, Wael A Jaber, Torkom Garabedian, Imad Elhajj, Antoine B Abchee
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) accounts for more than half of all cardiovascular events. Stress testing remains the cornerstone for non-invasive assessment of patients with possible or known CAD. Clinical utilization reviews show that most patients presenting for evaluation of stable CAD by stress testing are categorized as low risk prior to the test. Attempts to enhance risk stratification of individuals who are sent for stress testing seem to be more in need today. The present study compares artificial neural networks (ANN)-based prediction models to the other risk models being used in practice (the Diamond-Forrester and the Morise models)...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223158/aminoguanidine-alleviated-mma-induced-impairment-of-cognitive-ability-in-rats-by-downregulating-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-reaction
#5
Qiliang Li, Wenqi Song, Ze Tian, Peichang Wang
Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is the most common organic acidemia in childhood. Many "treated" patients continued to display various degrees of mental retardation and psychomotor delay, which could be caused by brain damage from elevated oxidative stress. Aminoguanidine (AG), a synthetic antioxidant, was tested in a MMA rat model for its potential therapeutic effects on memory impairment. The effects of AG on MMA-induced cognitive impairment in Wistar rats were evaluated with Morris Water Maze. The levels of nerve cell apoptosis and microglial activation were investigated to illustrate the mechanisms of the improvement of cognition with AG treatment in MMA rats...
February 13, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219987/a-unique-angiotensin-sensitive-neuronal-population-coordinates-neuroendocrine-cardiovascular-and-behavioral-responses-to-stress
#6
Annette D de Kloet, Lei Wang, Soledad Pitra, Helmut Hiller, Justin A Smith, Yalun Tan, Dani Nguyen, Karlena M Cahill, Colin Sumners, Javier E Stern, Eric G Krause
Stress elicits neuroendocrine, autonomic and behavioral responses that mitigate homeostatic imbalance and ensure survival; however, chronic engagement of such responses promotes psychological, cardiovascular and metabolic impairments. Over recent years, the renin-angiotensin system has emerged as a key mediator of stress responding and its related pathologies, but the neuronal circuits that orchestrate these interactions are not known. These studies combine the use of the Cre-recombinase/loxP system in mice with optogenetics to structurally and functionally characterize angiotensin type-1a receptor-containing neurons of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the goal being to determine the extent of their involvement in the regulation of stress responses...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218623/dreadding-proglucagon-neurons-a-fresh-look-at-metabolic-regulation-by-the-brain
#7
Jonathan E Campbell, David A D'Alessio
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) signaling in the CNS has been linked to reduced food intake, lower body weight, improved glucose homeostasis, and activation of CNS stress axes. GLP-1 is produced by cells that express proglucagon (GCG); however, the stimuli that activate GCG+ neurons are not well known, which has made understanding the role of this neuronal population in the CNS a challenge. In this issue of the JCI, Gaykema et al. use designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology to specifically activate GCG+ neurons in mouse models...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216895/vincamine-alleviates-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-peptides-induced-cytotoxicity-in-pc12-cells
#8
Jianfeng Han, Qiumin Qu, Jin Qiao, Jie Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Vincamine is a plant alkaloid used clinically as a peripheral vasodilator that increases cerebral blood flow and oxygen and glucose utilization by neural tissue to combat the effect of aging. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of vincamine on amyloid-β 25-35 (Aβ25-35) induced cytotoxicity, to gain a better understanding of the neuroprotective effects of this clinically used anti-Alzheimer's disease drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216088/sex-differences-in-the-neuro-immune-consequences-of-stress-focus-on-depression-and-anxiety
#9
REVIEW
Mandakh Bekhbat, Gretchen N Neigh
Women appear to be more vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of inflammation than men. Chronic stress, one of the most pertinent risk factors of depression and anxiety, is known to induce behavioral and affective-like deficits via neuroimmune alterations including activation of the brain's immune cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and subsequent changes in neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity within stress-related neural circuitry. Despite well-established sexual dimorphisms in the stress response, immunity, and prevalence of stress-linked psychiatric illnesses, much of current research investigating the neuroimmune impact of stress remains exclusively focused on male subjects...
February 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213588/a-differential-autophagy-dependent-response-to-dna-double-strand-brakes-in-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-sporadic-als-patients
#10
Shane Wald-Altman, Edward Pichinuk, Or Kakhlon, Miguel Weil
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable motor neurodegenerative disease caused by a diversity of genetic and environmental factors leading to neuromuscular degeneration and pathophysiological implications in non-neural systems. Our previous work showed abnormal transcriptional expression levels of biomarker genes in non-neuronal cell samples from ALS patients. The same genes proved to be differentially expressed in brain, spinal cord and muscle of the SOD1(G93A) ALS mouse model. These observations support the pathophysiological relevance of the ALS biomarkers discovered in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) isolated from bone marrow samples of ALS patients (ALS-hMSC)...
February 16, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212724/mechanistic-insight-into-neurotoxicity-induced-by-developmental-insults
#11
REVIEW
Christoffer Tamm, Sandra Ceccatelli
Epidemiological and/or experimental studies have shown that unfavorable prenatal environmental factors, such as stress or exposure to certain neurotoxic environmental contaminants, may have adverse consequences for neurodevelopment. Alterations in neurogenesis can have harmful effects not only for the developing nervous system, but also for the adult brain where neurogenesis is believed to play a role in learning, memory, and even in depression. Many recent advances in the understanding of the complex process of nervous system development can be integrated into the field of neurotoxicology...
January 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212354/the-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-oxidative-stress-response-following-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-and-the-expression-of-intracellular-adhesion-molecule-1-icam-1-and-s100b
#12
Yanwen Li, Shikun Liu
BACKGROUND Ischemia-reperfusion injury of whole brain involves a complicated pathophysiology mechanism. Dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been shown to have neuro protective functions. This study observed the effect of Dex on serum S100B and cerebral intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. MATERIAL AND METHODS Healthy Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (males, 7 weeks old) were randomly divided into sham, model, and Dex groups (n=20 each). A cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model was prepared by clipping of the bilateral common carotid artery combined with hypotension...
February 17, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197343/chronic-social-defeat-stress-modulates-dendritic-spines-structural-plasticity-in-adult-mouse-frontal-association-cortex
#13
Yu Shu, Tonghui Xu
Chronic stress is associated with occurrence of many mental disorders. Previous studies have shown that dendrites and spines of pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex undergo drastic reorganization following chronic stress experience. So the prefrontal cortex is believed to play a key role in response of neural system to chronic stress. However, how stress induces dynamic structural changes in neural circuit of prefrontal cortex remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic social defeat stress on dendritic spine structural plasticity in the mouse frontal association (FrA) cortex in vivo using two-photon microscopy...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197079/sirt3-in-neural-stem-cells-attenuates-microglia-activation-induced-oxidative-stress-injury-through-mitochondrial-pathway
#14
De-Qi Jiang, Yan Wang, Ming-Xing Li, Yan-Jiao Ma, Yong Wang
Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial protein, is involved in energy metabolism, cell apoptosis and mitochondrial function. However, the role of SIRT3 in neural stem cells (NSCs) remains unknown. In previous studies, we found that microglia activation-induced cytotoxicity negatively regulated survival of NSCs, along with mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of SIRT3 on the microglia activation-induced oxidative stress injury in NSCs and its possible mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196470/proteasome-impairment-in-neural-cells-derived-from-hmsn-p-patient-ipscs
#15
Nagahisa Murakami, Keiko Imamura, Yuishin Izumi, Naohiro Egawa, Kayoko Tsukita, Takako Enami, Takuya Yamamoto, Toshitaka Kawarai, Ryuji Kaji, Haruhisa Inoue
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is caused by a heterozygous mutation (P285L) in Tropomyosin-receptor kinase Fused Gene (TFG), histopathologically characterized by progressive spinal motor neuron loss with TFG cytosolic aggregates. Although the TFG protein, found as a type of fusion oncoprotein, is known to facilitate vesicle transport from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi apparatus at ER exit site, it is unclear how mutant TFG causes motor neuron degeneration...
February 15, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195568/military-deployment-correlates-with-smaller-prefrontal-gray-matter-volume-and-psychological-symptoms-in-a-subclinical-population
#16
O Butler, J Adolf, T Gleich, G Willmund, P Zimmermann, U Lindenberger, J Gallinat, S Kühn
Research investigating the effects of trauma exposure on brain structure and function in adults has mainly focused on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), whereas trauma-exposed individuals without a clinical diagnoses often serve as controls. However, this assumes a dichotomy between clinical and subclinical populations that may not be supported at the neural level. In the current study we investigate whether the effects of repeated or long-term stress exposure on brain structure in a subclinical sample are similar to previous PTSD neuroimaging findings...
February 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188216/amygdalar-gating-of-early-sensory-processing-through-interactions-with-locus-coeruleus
#17
Cynthia D Fast, John P McGann
Fear- and stress-induced activity in the amygdala has been hypothesized to influence sensory brain regions through the amygdala's influence on neuromodulatory centers. To directly examine this relationship, we used optical imaging to observe odor-evoked activity in populations of olfactory bulb inhibitory interneurons and of synaptic terminals of olfactory sensory neurons (the olfactory system's primary sensory neurons, which provide the initial olfactory input to the brain) during pharmacological inactivation of amygdala and locus coeruleus (LC) in mice...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186440/britanin-ameliorates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-inducing-the-nrf2-protective-pathway
#18
Guozhen Wu, Lili Zhu, Xing Yuan, Hao Chen, Rui Xiong, Shoude Zhang, Hao Cheng, Yunheng Shen, Huazhang An, Tiejun Li, Honglin Li, Weidong Zhang
AIMS: Oxidative stress is considered the major cause of tissue injury after cerebral ischemia. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway is one of the most important defensive mechanisms against oxidative stresses and has been confirmed as a target for stroke treatment. Thus, we desired to find new Nrf2 activators and test their neuronal protective activity both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: The herb-derived compound Britanin is a potent inducer of the Nrf2 system...
February 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185952/region-specific-vulnerability-to-lipid-peroxidation-and-evidence-of-neuronal-mechanisms-for-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-biosynthesis-in-the-healthy-adult-human-central-nervous-system
#19
Alba Naudí, Rosanna Cabré, Mayelin Dominguez-Gonzalez, Victoria Ayala, Mariona Jové, Natalia Mota-Martorell, Gerard Piñol-Ripoll, Maria Pilar Gil-Villar, Montserrat Rué, Manuel Portero-Otín, Isidre Ferrer, Reinald Pamplona
Lipids played a determinant role in the evolution of the brain. It is postulated that the morphological and functional diversity among neural cells of the human central nervous system (CNS) is projected and achieved through the expression of particular lipid profiles. The present study was designed to evaluate the differential vulnerability to oxidative stress mediated by lipids through a cross-regional comparative approach. To this end, we compared 12 different regions of CNS of healthy adult subjects, and the fatty acid profile and vulnerability to lipid peroxidation, were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), respectively...
February 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182316/tissue-mechanics-during-temporal-summation-of-sequentially-cuff-pressure-induced-pain-in-healthy-volunteers-and-patients-with-painful-osteoarthritis
#20
B Manafi-Khanian, K Kjaer Petersen, L Arendt-Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of temporal summation to repetitive pressure pain stimuli is an important central neural mechanism for pain intensity encoding. This study evaluated the time-dependent behaviour of mechanical characteristics of soft tissue during repeated cuff stimulation used for eliciting temporal summation of cuff pressure-evoked pain. Such information of tissue mechanics is important for the interpretation of the pain response evoked during sequential stimulations. METHODS: Temporal summation was assessed in 16 subjects separated into two groups (healthy controls and severe knee osteoarthritis patients) using a visual analogue scale during 10 repetitive painful cuff stimuli (1-s duration, 1-s break) of the lower leg...
February 9, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
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