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Biodegradable scaffold

Juan de Dios Ruiz-Rosado, Yong-Ung Lee, Nathan Mahler, Tai Yi, Frank Robledo-Avila, Diana Martinez-Saucedo, Avione Y Lee, Toshihiro Shoji, Eric Heuer, Andrew R Yates, Jordan S Pober, Toshiharu Shinoka, Santiago Partida-Sanchez, Christopher K Breuer
We previously developed a tissue-engineered vascular graft (TEVG) made by seeding autologous cells onto a biodegradable tubular scaffold, in an attempt to create a living vascular graft with growth potential for use in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. Results of our clinical trial showed that the TEVG possesses growth capacity but that its widespread clinical use is not yet advisable due to the high incidence of TEVG stenosis. In animal models, TEVG stenosis is caused by increased monocytic cell recruitment and its classic ("M1") activation...
June 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Carlijn V C Bouten, Anthal I P M Smits, Frank P T Baaijens
In situ heart valve tissue engineering using cell-free synthetic, biodegradable scaffolds is under development as a clinically attractive approach to create living valves right inside the heart of a patient. In this approach, a valve-shaped porous scaffold "implant" is rapidly populated by endogenous cells that initiate neo-tissue formation in pace with scaffold degradation. While this may constitute a cost-effective procedure, compatible with regulatory and clinical standards worldwide, the new technology heavily relies on the development of advanced biomaterials, the processing thereof into (minimally invasive deliverable) scaffolds, and the interaction of such materials with endogenous cells and neo-tissue under hemodynamic conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
S Chakraborty, T Ponrasu, S Chandel, M Dixit, V Muthuvijayan
Tissue engineering combines cells, scaffolds and signalling molecules to synthesize tissues in vitro . However, the lack of a functioning vascular network severely limits the effective size of a tissue-engineered construct. In this work, we have assessed the potential of reduced graphene oxide (rGO), a non-protein pro-angiogenic moiety, for enhancing angiogenesis in tissue engineering applications. Polyvinyl alcohol/carboxymethyl cellulose (PVA/CMC) scaffolds loaded with different concentrations of rGO nanoparticles were synthesized via lyophilization...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Svetlana Shkarina, Roman Shkarin, Venera Weinhardt, Elizaveta Melnik, Gabriele Vacun, Petra Kluger, Kateryna Loza, Matthias Epple, Sergei I Ivlev, Tilo Baumbach, Maria A Surmeneva, Roman A Surmenev
To date, special interest has been paid to composite scaffolds based on polymers enriched with hydroxyapatite (HA). However, the role of HA containing different trace elements such as silicate in the structure of a polymer scaffold has not yet been fully explored. Here, we report the potential use of silicate-containing hydroxyapatite (SiHA) microparticles and microparticle aggregates in the predominant range from 2.23 to 12.40 µm in combination with polycaprolactone (PCL) as a hybrid scaffold with randomly oriented and well-aligned microfibers for regeneration of bone tissue...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuki Shirosaki, Motomasa Furuse, Takuji Asano, Yoshihiko Kinoshita, Toshihiko Kuroiwa
Burr holes in craniotomy are not self-repairing bone defects. To regenerate new bone at the sites of these defects, a good scaffold is required. Biodegradable hybrids including silica or siloxane networks have been investigated as bone tissue scaffolds. This study examined skull bone regeneration using chitosan-siloxane hybrids after long-term implantation (two and three years). After implantation of the hybrids, the surrounding cells migrated and formed fibrous tissues and blood vessels. Then, bone formation occurred from the surrounding blood vessels...
June 8, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Beata Niemczyk, Paweł Łukasz Sajkiewicz, Dorota Kolbuk
Injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) can cause serious and permanent disability due to limited regeneration ability of the CNS. Presently available therapies are focused on lesion spreading inhibition rather than on tissue regeneration. Recent investigations in the field of neural tissue engineering indicate extremely promising properties of novel injectable and non-injectable hydrogels which are tailored to serve as biodegradable scaffolds for CNS regeneration. 
 This review discusses the state-of-the-art and barriers in application of novel polymer-based hydrogels without and with nanoparticles for CNS regeneration...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Lei Sui, Ming Wang, Qianqian Han, Liming Yu, Lan Zhang, Leilei Zheng, Junxiang Lian, Jin Zhang, Paloma Valverde, Qiaobing Xu, Qisheng Tu, Jake Chen
Specific microRNAs (miRs) and the Wnt signaling pathway play critical roles in regulating bone development and homeostasis. Our previous studies revealed the ability of miR-335-5p to promote osteogenic differentiation by downregulating Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1). The purpose of this study was to use nano-materials to efficiently deliver miR-335-5p into osteogenic cells for tissue engineering applications. We synthesized and screened a library of 12 candidate nano-lipidoids,of which L8 was identified as the preferred biodegradable lipidoid for miRNA molecule delivery into cells...
May 23, 2018: Biomaterials
Roqia Ashraf, Hasham S Sofi, Aijaz Malik, Mushtaq A Beigh, Rabia Hamid, Faheem A Sheikh
Electrospinning a versatile and the most preferred technique for the fabrication of nanofibers has revolutionized by opening unlimited avenues in biomedical fields. Presently, the simultaneous functionalization and/or post-modification of as-spun nanofibers with biomolecules has been explored, to serve the distinct goals in the aforementioned field. Starch is one of the most abundant biopolymers on the earth. Besides, being biocompatible and biodegradable in nature, it has unprecedented properties of gelatinization and retrogradation...
June 8, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Evren Erten, Yavuz Emre Arslan
Thanks to novel approaches and emerging technologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have made a great effort to regenerate damaged tissue or organ with no donor needed. The approaches involve two fundamental components: bioengineered scaffolds and stem cells. Bioengineered scaffolds which can also be enriched with bioactive molecules such as cytokines, growth factors, and so on have been fabricated using a wide range of synthetically or naturally derived biodegradable and biocompatible polymers...
June 7, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Roghaieh Didekhani, Mahmoud Reza Sohrabi, Ehsan Seyedjafari, Masoud Soleimani, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz
In bone tissue engineering, bioceramics are of the most widely used materials for treatment of bone defects clinically. The composites of bioceramic/polymer fibrous scaffolds have been designed and developed to fulfill the mechanical and biological requirements of the damaged tissue. In the present study, oyster shell (OS) as a bioceramic in combination with the biodegradable and biocompatible poly (l-lactide) has been used to prepare a new tissue-engineered composite. The morphology, porosity, water contact angle and mechanical properties of scaffolds were investigated...
June 2, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Xianfeng Zhou, Zhibo Li
Polypeptide hydrogels, having the ability to mimic certain properties of natural, native extracellular matrix components, are being actively designed and described for various applications in the construction of tissue engineering scaffolds, living cell encapsulation, and drug delivery systems. Compared to conventional hydrogels, polypeptide hydrogels possess biocompatibility, biodegradability, bioactivity, functional diversity, and structural advantage based on the unique secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet)...
June 5, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Miroslav L Djordjevic, Uros Bumbasirevic, Borko Stojanovic, Tamara Kravic Stevovic, Tamara Martinovic, Marta Bizic, Vladimir Kojovic
Autologous tissue engineering using biodegradable scaffolds as a carrier is a well-known procedure for penile girth enhancement. We evaluated a group of previously treated patients with the aim to analyze histomorphometric changes after tissue remodeling and to estimate the benefits of repeated procedure. Between February 2012 and December 2016, a group of 21 patients, aged 22-37 (mean 28.0) years, underwent a repeated penile girth enhancement procedure with biodegradable scaffolds. Procedure included insertion of two poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffolds seeded with laboratory-prepared fibroblasts from scrotal tissue specimens...
June 1, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Isabelle Denry, Ourania-Menti Goudouri, Douglas C Fredericks, Adil Akkoush, Michael R Acevedo, Julie A Holloway
There is increasing interest in biodegradable ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering capable of in situ delivery of ionic species favoring bone formation. Strontium has been shown to be osteogenic, but strontium-containing drugs such as strontium ranelate, used in Europe for the treatment of osteoporosis, are now restricted due to clinical evidence of systemic effects. By doping fluorapatite-based glasses with strontium, we developed ceramic scaffolds with fully interconnected macroporosity and cell size similar to that of cancellous bone, that are also capable of releasing strontium...
May 30, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Soraya Lanouar, Rachida Aid-Launais, Ana Oliveira, Laurent Bidault, Brigitte Closs, Marie-Noëlle Labour, Didier Letourneur
Hydrogels are very promising for tissue engineering as they provide scaffolds and a suitable microenvironment to control cell behavior and tissue regeneration. We used a patented method to obtain beads of pullulan/dextran cross-linked with sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP), that were already described for in vivo bone repair. The aim of this study was to provide a comparative analysis of microbeads made of polysaccharides prepared using three different STMP feeding ratio of 1.5, 2.25 or 3 % w/w. The morphology, swelling and biodegradability of these structures were assessed...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Simona Varriale, Jos Houbraken, Zoraide Granchi, Olimpia Pepe, Gabriella Cerullo, Valeria Ventorino, Thomas Chin-A-Woeng, Martin Meijer, Robert Riley, Igor V Grigoriev, Bernard Henrissat, Ronald P de Vries, Vincenza Faraco
A novel fungal species able to synthesize enzymes with potential synergistic actions in lignocellulose conversion was isolated from the biomass of Arundo donax during biodegradation under natural conditions in the Gussone Park of the Royal Palace of Portici (Naples, Italy). In this work, this species was subjected to morphological and phylogenetic analyses. Sequencing of its genome was performed, resulting in 28 scaffolds that were assembled into 27.05 Mb containing 9744 predicted genes, among which 396 belong to carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme)-encoding genes...
April 23, 2018: Mycologia
Yanchao Wang, Hong Tan, Xuhui Hui
The central nervous system (CNS) is the most important section of the nervous system as it regulates the function of various organs. Injury to the CNS causes impairment of neurological functions in corresponding sites and further leads to long-term patient disability. CNS regeneration is difficult because of its poor response to treatment and, to date, no effective therapies have been found to rectify CNS injuries. Biomaterial scaffolds have been applied with promising results in regeneration medicine. They also show great potential in CNS regeneration for tissue repair and functional recovery...
2018: BioMed Research International
Xiujuan Zhao, Liangyu Zhou, Qingtao Li, Qingxia Zou, Chang Du
Inspired by the natural extracellular matrix, the organic-inorganic composite nanofibers are promising scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Chitosan-based nanofibers are widely used as bone tissue engineering scaffolds with good biocompatibility but pungent solvents are frequently used for its processing. Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), a water-soluble derivative of chitosan, has better biodegradability and bioactivity which allows CMCS to chelate Ca2+ and induce the deposition of apatite. Moreover, with water as solvent, CMCS nanofibers avoid the acidic salt removal comparing to electrospun-chitosan...
September 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Tomoatsu Kaneko, Bin Gu, Phyo Pyai Sone, Su Yee Myo Zaw, Hiroki Murano, Zar Chi Thein Zaw, Takashi Okiji
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells that can be isolated from human and animal sources such as rats. Recently, an in vivo protocol for pulp tissue engineering using implantation of bone marrow MSCs into rat pulpotomized molars was established by our research group. This coronal pulp regeneration model showed almost complete regeneration/healing with dentin bridge formation when the cavity was sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to create a biocompatible seal of the pulp. This method is a powerful tool for elucidating the processes of dental pulp tissue regeneration following implantation of MSCs...
May 26, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Jay M Korde, Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian
Cyanoacrylate adhesives and their homologues have elicited interest over the past few decades owing to their applications in the biomedical sector, extending from tissue adhesives to scaffolds to implants to dental material and adhesives, because of their inherent biocompatibility and ability to polymerize solely with moisture, thanks to which they adhere to any substrate containing moisture such as the skin. The ability to tailor formulations of alkyl cyanoacrylate to form derivative compounds to meet application requirements along with their biodegradability in conjunction with their inherent biocompatibility make them highly sought after candidates in the biomedical sector...
May 22, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Mojtaba Ghanbari Mehrabani, Ramin Karimian, Rasul Rakhshaei, Farzaneh Pakdel, Hosein Eslami, Vahid Fakhrzadeh, Mahdi Rahimi, Roya Salehi, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Interconnected microporous biodegradable and biocompatible chitin/silk fibroin/TiO2 nanocomposite wound dressing with high antibacterial, blood clotting and mechanical strength properties were synthesized using freeze-drying method. The prepared nanocomposite dressings were characterized using SEM, FTIR, and XRD analysis. The prepared nanocomposite dressings showed high porosity above 90% with well-defined interconnected porous construction. Swelling and water uptake of the dressing were 93%, which is great for wound dressing applications...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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