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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621451/knockdown-of-a-metathoracic-scent-gland-desaturase-enhances-the-production-of-e-4-oxo-2-hexenal-and-suppresses-female-sexual-attractiveness-in-the-plant-bug-adelphocoris-suturalis
#1
J Luo, Z Li, C Ma, Z Zhang, J J Hull, C Lei, S Jin, L Chen
Insect sex pheromones (SPs) are central to mate-finding behaviour, and play an essential role in the survival and reproduction of organisms. Understanding the roles, biosynthetic pathways and evolution of insect chemical communication systems has been an exciting challenge for biologists. Compared with Lepidoptera, little is known about the mechanisms underlying pheromone biosynthesis in Hemiptera. In this study, we isolated and characterized two new desaturase-like genes, termed Asutdes1 and Asutdes2, from Adelphocoris suturalis, an important agricultural pest in China...
June 16, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619471/oral-haloperidol-or-olanzapine-intake-produces-distinct-and-region-specific-increase-in-cannabinoid-receptor-levels-that-is-prevented-by-high-fat-diet
#2
Foteini Delis, Lauren Rosko, Aditya Schroff, Kenneth E Leonard, Panayotis K Thanos
Clinical studies show higher levels of cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1R) in the brain of schizophrenic patients while preclinical studies report a significant functional interaction between dopamine D2 receptors and CB1Rs as well as an upregulation of CB1Rs after antipsychotic treatment. These findings prompted us to study the effects of chronic oral intake of a first and a second generation antipsychotic, haloperidol and olanzapine, on the levels and distribution of CB1Rs in the rat brain. Rats consumed either regular chow or high-fat food and drank water, haloperidol drinking solution (1...
June 12, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587847/molecular-cloning-and-tissue-distribution-of-crh-and-pomc-mrna-in-the-fat-tailed-dunnart-sminthopsis-crassicaudata-an-australian-marsupial
#3
Ellyse B Noy, Melissa K Scott, Sylvia V H Grommen, Kylie A Robert, Bert De Groef
Like all vertebrates, marsupials respond to stressors with the activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, peptides operating at the higher regulatory levels of this hormonal system, i.e. corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), have not been investigated in marsupials. Here we report the molecular cloning of the precursor cDNAs of CRH (prepro-CRH) and of ACTH (proopiomelanocortin; POMC) in an Australian marsupial, the fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata)...
June 3, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575048/effects-of-a-weight-management-program-delivered-by-social-media-on-weight-and-metabolic-syndrome-risk-factors-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Monica Jane, Martin Hagger, Jonathan Foster, Suleen Ho, Robert Kane, Sebely Pal
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of using social media to augment the delivery of, and provide support for, a weight management program delivered to overweight and obese individuals during a twenty four week intervention. METHODS: Participants randomly divided into either one of two intervention groups or a control group. The two intervention groups were instructed to follow identical weight-management program. One group received the program within a Facebook group, along with a support network with the group, and the other intervention group received the same program in a booklet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562391/pierpont-syndrome-report-of-a-new-patient
#5
Anne-Karin Kahlert, Sabine Weidensee, Luisa Mackenroth, Joseph Porrmann, Andreas Rump, Nataliya Di Donato, Evelin Schröck, Andreas Tzschach
Pierpont syndrome (OMIM #602342) is a rare disorder characterized by developmental delay, characteristic facial gestalt, hearing loss, and abnormal fat distribution in the distal limbs. A specific mutation in TBL1XR1 [c.1337A>G; p.(Tyr446Cys)] has been described recently in six unrelated patients with Pierpont syndrome. We report on a male child with developmental delay, distinctive facial dysmorphic features, dystrophy, and abnormal fat distribution in the feet, in whom we identified the identical TBL1XR1 mutation...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Dysmorphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560004/impact-of-impaired-cardiac-function-on-the-progression-of-chronic-kidney-disease-role-of-pharmacomodulation-of-valsartan
#6
Chih-Chao Yang, Hon-Kan Yip, Kuan-Hung Chen, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Yen-Ta Chen, Han-Tan Chai, Pei-Hsun Sung, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Sheung-Fat Ko, Sheng-Ying Chung, Chih-Hung Chen, Kun-Chen Lin, Pao-Yuan Lin, Jiunn-Jye Sheu
Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) is known to aggravate cardiovascular disease in the setting of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), the impact of impaired cardiac function on the progression of CKD has seldom been reported. This study tested the impact of acute myocardial infarction on a rodent CKD model and the therapeutic effect of valsartan in this setting. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 50) equally divided into group 1 (sham control), group 2 (CKD induced by 5/6 nephrectomy), group 3 (AMI by ligation of left coronary artery), group 4 (CKD+AMI), group 5 (CKD+AMI+valsartan, orally 10 mg/kg/day)...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558775/fat-content-fatty-acid-pattern-and-iron-content-in-livers-of-turkeys-with-hepatic-lipidosis
#7
Christian Visscher, Lea Middendorf, Ronald Günther, Alexandra Engels, Christof Leibfacher, Henrik Möhle, Kristian Düngelhoef, Stefan Weier, Wolfram Haider, Dimitri Radko
BACKGROUND: The so-called "hepatic lipidosis" in turkeys is an acute progressive disease associated with a high mortality rate in a very short time. Dead animals show a massive fatty degeneration of the liver. The cause is still unclear. Previous findings suggest that there may be parallels to human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The object of the study was to examine the changes in the fat contents, the fatty acid composition and the iron content in livers of animals, which have died from hepatic lipidosis...
May 30, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545546/emulsifying-dietary-fat-modulates-postprandial-endotoxemia-associated-with-chylomicronemia-in-obese-men-a-pilot-randomized-crossover-study
#8
Cécile Vors, Jocelyne Drai, Gaëlle Pineau, Martine Laville, Hubert Vidal, Fabienne Laugerette, Marie-Caroline Michalski
BACKGROUND: Postprandial hyperlipemia is recognized as a major cardio-metabolic risk factor, recently linked to the co-absorption of pro-inflammatory lipopolysaccharides with dietary lipids. This causes endotoxemia that is involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance, but to date the impact of food formulation is unknown. We tested a novel concept that endotoxin absorption can be modulated by fat emulsified structure in the meal, and potentially differently in obese vs...
May 25, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542485/a-link-between-thrifty-phenotype-and-maternal-care-across-two-generations-of-intercrossed-mice
#9
Bruno Sauce, Carolina P Goes, Isabela Forti, Bruno Gabriel O do Monte, Isabela M Watanabe, Joao Cunha, Andrea C Peripato
Maternal effects are causal influences from mother to offspring beyond genetic information, and have lifelong consequences for multiple traits. Previously, we reported that mice whose mothers did not nurse properly had low birth weight followed by rapid fat accumulation and disturbed development of some organs. That pattern resembles metabolic syndromes known collectively as the thrifty phenotype, which is believed to be an adaptation to a stressful environment which prepares offspring for reduced nutrient supply...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534088/the-ppar-gamma-binding-sequence-pal3-is-necessary-for-basal-but-dispensable-for-high-fat-diet-regulated-human-renin-expression-in-the-kidney
#10
Peter Lachmann, Jenny Selbmann, Linda Hickmann, Bernd Hohenstein, Christian Hugo, Vladimir T Todorov
We reported earlier that PPAR-gamma regulates renin transcription through a human-specific atypical binding sequence termed hRen-Pal3. Here we developed a mouse model to investigate the functional relevance of the hRen-Pal3 sequence in vivo since it might be responsible for the increased renin production in obesity and thus for the development of accompanying arterial hypertension. We used bacterial artificial chromosome construct and co-placement strategy to generate two transgenic mouse lines expressing the human renin gene from identical genomic locus without affecting the intrinsic mouse renin expression...
May 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521863/high-pre-ischemic-fatty-acid-levels-decrease-cardiac-recovery-in-an-isolated-rat-heart-model-of-donation-after-circulatory-death
#11
Petra Niederberger, Emilie Farine, Maria Arnold, Rahel K Wyss, Maria N Sanz, Natalia Méndez-Carmona, Brigitta Gahl, Georg M Fiedler, Thierry P Carrel, Hendrik T Tevaearai Stahel, Sarah L Longnus
RATIONALE: Donation after circulatory death (DCD) could improve cardiac graft availability. However, strategies to optimize cardiac graft recovery remain to be established in DCD; these hearts would be expected to be exposed to high levels of circulatory fat immediately prior to the inevitable period of ischemia prior to procurement. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether acute exposure to high fat prior to warm, global ischemia affects subsequent hemodynamic and metabolic recovery in an isolated rat heart model of DCD...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489803/reproducibility-analysis-on-shear-wave-elastography-swe-based-quantitative-assessment-for-skin-elasticity
#12
Yang Sun, Chuan Ma, XiaoLong Liang, Run Wang, Ying Fu, ShuMin Wang, LiGang Cui, ChunLei Zhang
Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) is an objective and non-invasive method widely used to quantify the tissue solidity. However, there are concerns about the accuracy of the skin SWE results due to the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) caused by subcutaneous fat, muscle and bone. This article analyzed the reproducibility of the result for skin SWE and therefore evaluated the availability of SME for skin elasticity involved diseases. Thirty volunteers (mean age: 37 ± 12 years) were selected. SWE were taken on the skin of abdomen and the middle tibia in order to assess the impact of fat, muscle and bone on SWE results...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486018/development-and-validation-of-skinfold-model-for-estimation-of-body-density-for-a-safe-weight-reduction-in-young-iranian-wrestlers
#13
Sadjad Riyahi-Alam, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Yaser Kabirizadeh, Nasrin Mansournia, Ewout Steyerberg, Ramin Kordi
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of excessive body mass reduction among wrestlers dictate minimum weight determination through body composition. Although skinfold equations are essential to estimate body composition in the field setting, they are mostly derived from Western societies and may lack generalizability to other populations. PURPOSE: Previously published skinfold equations lacked external validity in predicting body density of Iranian wrestlers. We aimed to derive a new anthropometric model specific to young Iranian male wrestlers...
May 1, 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484112/association-between-serum-elaidic-acid-concentration-and-insulin-resistance-in-two-japanese-cohorts-with-different-lifestyles
#14
Kiyotaka Itcho, Yoko Yoshii, Haruya Ohno, Kenji Oki, Masakazu Shinohara, Yasuhiro Irino, Ryuji Toh, Tatsuro Ishida, Ken-Ichi Hirata, Masayasu Yoneda
AIM: Many cohort studies have shown that increased trans fatty acid (TFA) intake increases the risk of developing coronary heart disease. However, whether TFA intake is directly associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) remains unknown. METHODS: We performed the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test in two Japanese cohorts: a cohort of 454 native Japanese living in Hiroshima, Japan, and a cohort of 426 Japanese-Americans living in Los Angeles, USA, who shared identical genetic predispositions but had different lifestyles...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484089/xenogeneic-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reduce-mortality-in-rats-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-complicated-by-sepsis
#15
Fan-Yen Lee, Kuan-Hung Chen, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Pei-Hsun Sung, Jiunn-Jye Sheu, Sheng-Ying Chung, Yung-Lung Chen, Hung-I Lu, Sheung-Fat Ko, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hsin-Ju Chiang, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
This study tested the hypothesis that xenogeneic human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (HUCDMSC) therapy would improve survival rates in rats with acute respiratory distress-syndrome (ARDS, induction by 48 h inhalation of 100% oxygen) and sepsis-syndrome (SS, induction by cecal-ligation and puncture) (ARDS-SS). Adult-male Sprague-Dawley rats were categorized into group 1 (sham-controls), group 2 (ARDS-SS), group 3 [ARDS-SS+HUCDMSC (1.2 x106 cells administered 1 h after SS-induction)], and group 4 [ARDS-SS+HUCDMSC (1...
April 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469772/epo-cyclosporine-combination-therapy-reduced-brain-infarct-area-in-rat-after-acute-ischemic-stroke-role-of-innate-immune-inflammatory-response-micro-rnas-and-mapk-family-signaling-pathway
#16
Chun-Man Yuen, Kuo-Ho Yeh, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Kuan-Hung Chen, Hung-Sheng Lin, Pei-Hsun Sung, Han-Tan Chai, Yung-Lung Chen, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Chih-Hung Chen, Gour-Shenq Kao, Sheung-Fat Ko, Hon-Kan Yip
This study tested the hypothesis that erythropoietin (EPO) and cyclosporine (CsA) could effectively reduce brain infarct area (BIA) in rat after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) through regulating inflammation, oxidative stress, MAPK family signaling and microRNA (miR-223/miR-30a/miR-383). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were equally divided into group 1 (sham control), group 2 (AIS), group 3 [AIS+EPO (5,000 IU/kg at 0.5/24/48 h, subcutaneous)] and group 4 [AIS+CsA (20.0 mg/kg at 0.5/24/48 h, intra-peritoneal)]...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446627/silicon-alleviates-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-reducing-apoptosis-in-aged-wistar-rats-fed-a-high-saturated-fat-high-cholesterol-diet
#17
Alba Garcimartín, M Elvira López-Oliva, Jorge A Sántos-López, Rosa A García-Fernández, Adrián Macho-González, Sara Bastida, Juana Benedí, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
Background: Lipoapoptosis has been identified as a key event in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hence, antiapoptotic agents have been recommended as a possible effective treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Silicon, included in meat as a functional ingredient, improves lipoprotein profiles and liver antioxidant defenses in aged rats fed a high-saturated fat, high-cholesterol diet (HSHCD). However, to our knowledge, the antiapoptotic effect of this potential functional meat on the liver has never been tested...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445454/body-composition-at-birth-and-its-relationship-with-neonatal-anthropometric-ratios-the-newborn-body-composition-study-of-the-intergrowth-21st-project
#18
José Villar, Fabien A Puglia, Tanis R Fenton, L Cheikh Ismail, Eleonora Staines-Urias, Francesca Giuliani, Eric O Ohuma, Cesar G Victora, Peter Sullivan, Fernando C Barros, Ann Lambert, Aris T Papageorghiou, Roseline Ochieng, Yasmin A Jaffer, Douglas G Altman, Alison J Noble, Michael G Gravett, Manorama Purwar, Ruyan Pang, Ricardo Uauy, Stephen H Kennedy, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe newborn body composition and identify which anthropometric ratio (weight/length; BMI; or ponderal index, PI) best predicts fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM). METHODS: Air-displacement plethysmography (PEA POD) was used to estimate FM, FFM and body fat percentage (BF%). Associations between FFM, FM and BF% and weight/length, BMI and PI were evaluated in 1,019 newborns using multivariate regression analysis. Charts for FM, FFM and BF% were generated using a prescriptive sub-sample (n=247)...
April 26, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428261/ebf2-transcriptionally-regulates-brown-adipogenesis-via-the-histone-reader-dpf3-and-the-baf-chromatin-remodeling-complex
#19
Suzanne N Shapira, Hee-Woong Lim, Sona Rajakumari, Alexander P Sakers, Jeff Ishibashi, Matthew J Harms, Kyoung-Jae Won, Patrick Seale
The transcription factor early B-cell factor 2 (EBF2) is an essential mediator of brown adipocyte commitment and terminal differentiation. However, the mechanisms by which EBF2 regulates chromatin to activate brown fat-specific genes in adipocytes were unknown. ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation [ChIP] followed by deep sequencing) analyses in brown adipose tissue showed that EBF2 binds and regulates the activity of lineage-specific enhancers. Mechanistically, EBF2 physically interacts with the chromatin remodeler BRG1 and the BAF chromatin remodeling complex in brown adipocytes...
April 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417910/effects-of-three-commercially-available-sports-drinks-on-substrate-metabolism-and-subsequent-endurance-performance-in-a-postprandial-state
#20
Lu Qin, Qi-Rong Wang, Zi-Long Fang, Ting Wang, Ai-Qi Yu, Yu-Jie Zhou, Yi Zheng, Mu-Qing Yi
Purpose: To examine the effects of commercially available sports beverages with various components on substrate metabolism and subsequent performance. Methods: Two studies were conducted in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Study I was designed to determine the glycemic index, while study II determined the utilization of substrates and subsequent exercise performance. Ten healthy male participants (age 21.70 ± 2.41 years, height 176.60 ± 5.23 cm, weight 66.58 ± 5.38 kg, V̇O2max 48.1 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min) participated in both study I and study II...
April 12, 2017: Nutrients
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