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Fat identity

Hai-Zhong Yu, Shang-Zhi Zhang, Yan Ma, Dong-Qiong Fei, Bing Li, Li-Ang Yang, Jie Wang, Zhen Li, Azharuddin Muhammad, Jia-Ping Xu
Ferritins are conserved iron-binding proteins that are primarily involved in iron storage, detoxification and the immune response. Despite the importance of ferritin in organisms, little is known about their roles in the eri-silkworm (Samia cynthia ricini). We previously identified a ferritin heavy chain subunit named ScFerHCH in the S. c. ricini transcriptome database. The full-length S. c. ricini ferritin heavy chain subunit (ScFerHCH) was 1863 bp and encoded a protein of 231 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 25...
October 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Laurie R Braun, Meghan N Feldpausch, Natalia Czerwonka, Martin Torriani, Steven K Grinspoon, Takara L Stanley
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) ameliorates steatohepatitis but is increased in humans with fatty liver, potentially due to compensatory mechanisms and/or FGF21 resistance. Further, animal models suggest that GH increases serum FGF21. Tesamorelin, a growth hormone releasing hormone agonist, reduces liver fat in HIV-infected individuals. The objectives of this study were to investigate changes in FGF21 during tesamorelin treatment, to elucide the interplay between FGF21, GH augmentation, and liver fat reduction in humans...
October 7, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Jorge Gutiérrez-Hellín, Juan Del Coso
The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects different doses of p-synephrine on maximal fat oxidation during exercise. Seventeen healthy subjects volunteered to participate in a double-blind and randomised experimental design composed of four identical experimental trials. On four trials separated by 72 h, participants ingested a placebo or 1, 2 or 3 mg/kg of p-synephrine. After resting for 60 min to allow substance absorption, participants performed an exercise test of increasing intensity on a cycle ergometer while gas exchange was measured continuously...
October 11, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Shuguang Li, Yixiang Li, Lin Xiang, Jing Dong, Min Liu, Guangda Xiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate that short-term treatment of sildenafil can induce browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) in human adults. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial. METHODS: Sixteen eligibility overweight male subjects were recruited, comparing 100 mg/day sildenafil versus an identical placebo therapy for 7 days. sWAT samples were collected from subjects before and after 7-day sildenafil or placebo intervention...
October 3, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Hengchuan Xia, Dandan Shao, Xiaoyong Liu, Qiang Wang, Yang Zhou, Keping Chen
Vps20-associated 1 (Vta1) positively regulates Vacuolar protein sorting 4 (Vps4) to disassemble endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) for repeated uses in multivesicular body (MVB) pathway, virus budding and other processes. Currently, these proteins have mainly been studied in yeast and mammalian cells, while identities of them in insects remain largely unknown. We previously identified BmVps4, a Vps4 homologue from Bombyx mori. Here, we report the identification of a homologue for Vta1, designated as BmVta1...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Claudia D C Navarro, Tiago R Figueira, Annelise Francisco, Genoefa A Dal'Bó, Juliana A Ronchi, Juliana C Rovani, Cecilia A F Escanhoela, Helena C F Oliveira, Roger F Castilho, Anibal E Vercesi
The mechanisms by which a high fat diet (HFD) promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) appear to involve liver mitochondrial dysfunctions and redox imbalance. We hypothesized that a HFD would increase mitochondrial reliance on NAD(P)-transhydrogenase (NNT) as the source of NADPH for antioxidant systems that counteract NAFLD development. Therefore, we studied HFD-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunctions and NAFLD in C57Unib.B6 congenic mice with (Nnt(+/+)) or without (Nnt(-/-)) NNT activity; the spontaneously mutated allele (Nnt(-/-)) was inherited from the C57BL/6J mouse substrain...
September 28, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Martina Kšiňanová, Štefan Čikoš, Janka Babel'ová, Zuzana Šefčíková, Alexandra Špirková, Juraj Koppel, Dušan Fabian
The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that leptin can directly mediate the negative effect of maternal obesity on preimplantation embryos. As previously shown, maternal obesity retards early embryonic development in vivo and increases the incidence of apoptosis in blastocysts. When two-cell embryos isolated from control and obese mice were transferred to identical (leptin free) conditions in vitro, no differences in any growth or quality parameters were recorded, including apoptosis incidence in blastocysts...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Manoj Mannil, Tilman Hickethier, Jochen von Spiczak, Matthias Baer, André Henning, Madeleine Hertel, Bernhard Schmidt, Thomas Flohr, David Maintz, Hatem Alkadhi
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate computed tomography (CT) imaging characteristics of coronary stents using a novel photon-counting detector (PCD) in comparison with a conventional energy-integrating detector (EID). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this in vitro study, 18 different coronary stents were expanded in plastic tubes of 3 mm diameter, were filled with contrast agent (diluted to an attenuation of 250 Hounsfield units [HU] at 120 kVp), and were sealed...
September 23, 2017: Investigative Radiology
Ya-Jun Ma, Yanchun Zhu, Xing Lu, Michael Carl, Eric Y Chang, Jiang Du
PURPOSE: To investigate high contrast imaging of short T2 tissues with a three-dimensional double adiabatic inversion recovery prepared ultrashort echo time Cones (3D DIR-UTE-Cones) sequence. METHODS: The sequence used two sequential adiabatic inversion pulses to suppress signals from long T2 tissues, followed by multispoke UTE acquisition to detect signals from short T2 tissues. The two adiabatic inversion pulses are identical with a center frequency located at the water peak, but the spectral width is broad enough to cover both water and fat frequencies...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Julie Paradis, Pierre Boureau, Thomas Moyon, Sophie Nicklaus, Patricia Parnet, Vincent Paillé
Perinatal maternal consumption of energy dense food increases the risk of obesity in children. This is associated with an overconsumption of palatable food that is consumed for its hedonic property. The underlying mechanism that links perinatal maternal diet and offspring preference for fat is still poorly understood. In this study, we aim at studying the influence of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding [western diet (WD)] during gestation and lactation on the reward pathways controlling feeding in the rat offspring from birth to sexual maturity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Xu Wang, Linlin Shi, Sun Joyce, Yuan Wang, Yi Feng
Hyperlipidemia is a serious epidemic disease caused by lipid metabolism disorder, which is harmful to human health. MDG-1, a β-d-fructan polysaccharide extracted from Ophiopogon japonicus, has been shown to improve abnormal blood lipid levels and alleviate diabetes. However, the underlying mechanism on hyperlipidemia is largely unknown. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were randomly separated into three groups, respectively: low-fat diet (Con), high-fat diet (HFD), and high-fat diet plus 5‰ MDG-1 (HFD + MDG-1)...
September 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Pao-Yuan Lin, Chih-Hung Chen, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Kuan-Hung Chen, Chia-Lo Chang, Hong-Hwa Chen, Pei-Hsun Sung, Kun-Chen Lin, Sheung-Fat Ko, Cheuk-Kwan Sun, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Pei-Lin Shao, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
This study tested the hypothesis that high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced fatty liver disease could be ameliorated by rosuvastatin (Ros) and propylthiouracil (PTU) therapy. Thirty-two Zealand rabbits were equally divided into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 (HCD for 8 weeks), group 3 [HCD-Ros (20 mg/kg/day administration after 4-week HFD for 4 weeks)], group 4 [HCD-PTU (0.1% PTU in drinking water) with treatment course as group 3]. Liver weight, fibrosis, collagen deposition area, and serum levels of AST/ALT were highest in group 2, lowest in group 1, and significantly higher in group 4 than group 3 (all P<0...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
Chi Zhang, Darcie J Miller, Cristina D Guibao, Dominique M Donato, Steven K Hanks, Jie J Zheng
The CAs family scaffolding 130Cas is a Src substrate localized in focal adhesions (FAs) and functions in integrin signaling to promote cell motility, invasion, proliferation, and survival. P130Cas targeting to FAs is essential for its tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream signaling. Although the N-terminal SH3 domain is important for p130Cas localization, it has also been reported that the C-terminal region is involved in p130Cas FA targeting. The Cterminal region of p130Cas or Cas family homology domain (CCHD), has been reported to adopt a structure similar to that of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) C-terminal focal adhesion targeting (FAT) domain...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yu-Xuan Sun, Bao-Jian Zhu, Lin Tang, Yu Sun, Chen Chen, Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Lei Wang, Cen Qian, Guo-Qing Wei, Chao-Liang Liu
Cathepsins are key members of mammalian papain-like cysteine proteases that play an important role in the immune response. In this study, a fragment of cDNA encoding cathepsin O proteinase (ApCathepsin O) was cloned from Antheraea pernyi. It contains an open reading frame of 1170bp and encodes a protein with 390 amino acid residues, including a conserved I29 inhibitor domain and a peptidase C1A (clan CA of cysteine proteases, papain family C1 subfamily) domain. Comparison with other previously reported cathepsin O proteins showed identity ranging from 45% to 79%...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Chuanshang Cheng, Xiaming Zhang, Mao Xia, Zuhong Liu, Hongkui Wei, Zhao Deng, Chao Wang, Siwen Jiang, Jian Peng
BACKGROUND: Consumers are becoming increasingly interested in food containing appropriately high concentration of intramuscular fat (IMF) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The supplementation of feed with antioxidants decreases degradation of lipids in muscles thereby enhances nutritional and sensory properties of meat. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding oregano essential oil (OEO) and benzoic acid (BA) to low-protein, amino acid-supplemented diets on meat quality, sensory profile, fatty acid composition, and lipid oxidation of longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in pigs...
August 31, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
Julia D Fine, Christopher A Mullin
In chronic feeding assays, the common agrochemical inert formulant N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is at least 20 times more toxic to honey bee larvae than to adults, but the underlying cause of this difference is unknown. In other taxa, NMP is primarily detoxified via a cytochrome P450 mediated pathway. Using a LC-MS method, putative cytochrome P450 metabolites of NMP were identified and quantified in adults and larvae following chronic exposure to NMP. Major differences in the identities and quantities of the generated metabolites were observed between adults and larvae...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Alba Santos, F Javier Giráldez, Javier Mateo, Javier Frutos, Sonia Andrés
The objective of the study was to determine the effect of early feed restriction on carcass and meat quality traits in Merino lambs. Twenty-four male Merino lambs (4.81±0.256kg) were assigned to two groups (12 animals in each group). The first group (ad libitum, ADL) was kept permanently with the dams. The second group (restricted, RES) was milk-restricted. After weaning (15kg), daily feed intake of all lambs was identical, but a lower gain: feed ratio was recorded in the RES group (0.320 vs. 0.261; P<0...
August 19, 2017: Meat Science
Yang Lv, Yu Wang, Jiajia Sun, Chunling Gong, Yan Chen, Guanghua Su, Guangqi Gao, Chunling Bai, Zhuying Wei, Lisheng Zhang, Shorgan Bou, Guangpeng Li
Fat-1 transgenic cattle have high levels of ω-3 fatty acids, which regulate several genes in fatty acid metabolism. In the current study, fibroblasts derived from in vivo fertilized (Ferti) and fat-1 transgenic (TG) Luxi cattle (Bos taurus), a local breed in China, were cultured and their miRNA expression was characterized. Expression of 352 known miRNAs differed in cells from Ferti and TG cattle: 83 miRNAs were found to be specifically expressed in cells from Ferti cattle while 23 miRNAs were found to be specifically expressed in cells from TG cattle...
December 15, 2017: Gene
Ruairi P McDonnell, Martin vH Staines
This research paper describes the effect of partially replacing wheat with maize grain and canola meal on milk production and body condition changes in early lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows consuming a grass silage-based diet over an 83-d period. Two groups of 39 cows were stratified for age, parity, historical milk yield and days in milk (DIM), and offered one of two treatment diets. The first treatment (CON) reflected a typical diet used by Western Australian dairy producers in summer and comprised (kg DM/cow per d); 8 kg of annual ryegrass silage, 6 kg of crushed wheat (provided once daily in a mixed ration), 3·6 kg of crushed lupins (provided in the milking parlour in two daily portions) and ad libitum lucerne haylage...
August 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
Daihua Wen, Hao Luo, Tienan Li, Chunfu Wu, Jinghai Zhang, Xialu Wang, Rong Zhang
Apolipoproteins are protein components of lipoprotein particles, and are increasingly recognized to be functioning in the innate immune systems of both insects and mammals. Mammalian apolipoprotein B (apoB) is associated with a diverse range of innate immune defenses including suppression of bacterial pathogenesis, virus toxicity neutralization, and inhibition of cytokine releases from immune cells. However, little is known about apoB homologous insect apolipophorin-II/I (apoLp-II/I) in controlling of specific pathogen-host encounters such as microbial infections...
August 19, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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