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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090351/the-prevalence-and-practice-impact-of-weight-bias-amongst-australian-dietitians
#1
T M Diversi, R Hughes, K J Burke
OBJECTIVES: This study explored weight bias amongst Australian Accredited Practising Dietitians (APDs) and the effect of client weight status on dietetic practice. METHODS: Participants were 201 APDs, recruited using purposive sampling. A self-administered questionnaire, the fat phobia scale (FPS), was completed to assess explicit weight bias. Participants were then randomized to receive either a female within the healthy weight range or female with obesity, accompanied by an identical case study for a condition unrelated to weight...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088417/milk-fat-threshold-determination-and-the-effect-of-milk-fat-content-on-consumer-preference-for-fluid-milk
#2
K S McCarthy, K Lopetcharat, M A Drake
Milk consumption in the United States has been in decline since the 1960s. Milk fat plays a critical role in sensory properties of fluid milk. The first objective of this study was to determine the change in percent milk fat needed to produce a detectable or just noticeable difference (JND) to consumers in skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milks. The second objective was to evaluate how milk fat affected consumer preferences for fluid milk. Threshold tests were conducted to determine the JND for each reference milk (skim, 1%, 2%, and whole milk), with a minimum of 60 consumers for each JND...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069900/impact-of-donor-and-recipient-adiposity-on-feto-placental-growth-in-adolescent-sheep
#3
Jacqueline M Wallace, John S Milne, Clare L Adam, Raymond P Aitken
The influence of maternal obesity during oocyte development and its putative interaction with nutrient reserves at conception on pregnancy outcome were examined in an adolescent sheep model. Donor ewes were nutritionally managed to achieve contrasting adiposity (control [CD]/obese [ObD]) for 6 weeks prior to superovulation, and inseminated by a non-obese sire. Morulae from 6 CD and 7 ObD were transferred in singleton into adolescent recipients of identical age but differing adiposity, classified as relatively fat or thin, respectively...
January 9, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049491/fenofibrate-in-the-management-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-fame-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Sophie E Rowbotham, Doug Cavaye, Rene Jaeggi, Jason S Jenkins, Corey S Moran, Joseph V Moxon, Jenna L Pinchbeck, Frank Quigley, Christopher M Reid, Jonathan Golledge
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a slowly progressive destructive process of the main abdominal artery. Experimental studies indicate that fibrates exert beneficial effects on AAAs by mechanisms involving both serum lipid modification and favourable changes to the AAA wall. METHODS/DESIGN: Fenofibrate in the management of AbdoMinal aortic anEurysm (FAME) is a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of orally administered therapy with fenofibrate on key pathological markers of AAA in patients undergoing open AAA repair...
January 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045770/clinical-variability-following-partial-external-biliary-diversion-in-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis-1-deficiency
#5
James E Squires, Neslihan Celik, Amy Morris, Kyle Soltys, George Mazariegos, Benjamin Shneider, Robert H Squires
OBJECTIVES: Familial intrahepatic cholestasis 1 (FIC1) deficiency is caused by a mutation in the ATP8B1 gene. Partial external biliary diversion (PEBD) is pursued to improve pruritus and arrest disease progression. Our aim is to describe clinical variability after PEBD in FIC1 disease. METHODS: We performed a single-center, retrospective review of genetically confirmed FIC1 deficient patients who received PEBD. Clinical outcomes after PEBD were cholestasis, pruritus, fat-soluble vitamin supplementation, growth, and markers of disease progression that included splenomegaly and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043334/ryanodine-receptor-genes-of-the-rice-stem-borer-chilo-suppressalis-molecular-cloning-alternative-splicing-and-expression-profiling
#6
Y C Peng, C W Sheng, John E Casida, C Q Zhao, Z J Han
The ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the calcium release channel is the main target of anthranilic and phthalic diamide insecticides which have high selective insecticidal activity relative to mammalian toxicity. In this study, the full-length cDNA of Chilo suppressalis RyR (CsRyR) was isolated and characterized. The CsRyR mRNA has an open reading frame (ORF) of 15,387bp nucleotides, which encodes 5128 amino acids with GenBank ID: KR088972. Comparison of protein sequences showed that CsRyR shared high identities with other insects of 77-96% and lower identity to mammals and nematodes with only 42-45%...
January 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013331/correlations-between-serum-adipocytokine-concentrations-disease-stage-radiological-status-and-total-body-fat-content-in-the-patients-with-primary-knee-osteoarthritis
#7
Magdalena Richter, Tomasz Trzeciak, Jakub Dalibor Rybka, Wiktoria Suchorska, Ewelina Augustyniak, Michał Lach, Małgorzata Kaczmarek, Jacek Kaczmarczyk
PURPOSE: The study was designed to investigate whether serum concentrations of leptin, resistin and adiponectin in obese and normal-weight patients with primary knee osteoarthritis (OA) correlate with clinical and radiological stages of the disease and percentage of total body fat. METHODS: Seventy-three patients with knee OA, divided into obese and normal-weight groups, were clinically evaluated according to the Knee Society Score (KSS), and radiologically assessed using Kellgren and Lawrence scale...
December 24, 2016: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012200/obesity-bodily-change-and-health-identities-a-qualitative-study-of-canadian-women
#8
Andrea E Bombak, Lee F Monaghan
Medicalised concerns about an obesity crisis persist yet more needs to be learnt about everyday orientations to weight (loss). This article reports and analyses data generated using qualitative methods, including repeated interviews and fieldwork conducted over one year in Canada with women (n = 13) identifying as (formerly) obese. Three ideal types are explored using empirical data: (1) hopeful narratives; (2) disordered eating distress; and (3) weight-cycling or stagnation. Core themes include women's desire to embody a thin(ner) future and the good life, the harms of intentional weight-loss, and resignation to living as a fat woman whilst nonetheless challenging stigma...
December 24, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012184/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-impairs-exercise-economy-and-negates-the-performance-benefit-from-intensified-training-in-elite-race-walkers
#9
Louise M Burke, Megan L Ross, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Marijke Welvaert, Ida A Heikura, Sara G Forbes, Joanne G Mirtschin, Louise E Cato, Nicki Strobel, Avish P Sharma, John A Hawley
We investigated the effects of adaptation to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate (CHO), high-fat diet (LCHF) during 3 wk of intensified training on metabolism and performance of world-class endurance athletes. We controlled three isoenergetic diets in elite race walkers: High CHO availability (8.6 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) CHO, 2.1 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) protein; 1.2 g.kg(-) 1.d(-1) fat) consumed before/during/after training (HCHO, n = 9): identical macronutrient intake, periodised within/between days to alternate between low and high CHO availability (PCHO, n = 10); LCHF (<50 g...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009786/low-force-muscle-activity-regulates-energy-expenditure-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Jessica R Woelfel, Amy L Kimball, Chu-Ling Yen, Richard K Shields
: Reduced physical activity is a primary risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality, People with spinal cord injury (SCI) have reduced activity for a lifetime, as they cannot volitionally activate affected skeletal muscles. We explored whether low force and low frequency stimulation is a viable strategy to enhance systemic energy expenditure in people with SCI. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of low stimulation frequency (1 Hz, 3 Hz) and stimulation intensity (50 mA and 100 mA) on energy expenditure in people with SCI...
December 22, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990659/oxidative-stability-of-sesame-and-flaxseed-oils-and-their-effects-on-morphometric-and-biochemical-parameters-in-an-animal-model
#11
Priscila S Figueiredo, Camila J Candido, Jeandre As Jaques, Ângela A Nunes, Anderson Rl Caires, Flávio Santana Michels, Jeeser A Almeida, Wander Fo Filiú, Priscila A Hiane, Valter A Nascimento, Octavio L Franco, Rita Ca Guimarães
BACKGROUND: Sesame and flaxseed oils, which are rich in essential n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, are widely consumed. We have determined the optical behavior with the quality and identity of cold-pressed sesame and flaxseed oils. The effects of these oils and their combinations on metabolic parameters in animal models were also measured. RESULTS: Flaxseed oil emitted carotenoid fluorescence (500-650 nm), but it was more unstable than sesame oil, which had a larger induction period by the Rancimat method...
December 18, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974793/targeting-metastasis-initiating-cells-through-the-fatty-acid-receptor-cd36
#12
Gloria Pascual, Alexandra Avgustinova, Stefania Mejetta, Mercè Martín, Andrés Castellanos, Camille Stephan-Otto Attolini, Antoni Berenguer, Neus Prats, Agustí Toll, Juan Antonio Hueto, Coro Bescós, Luciano Di Croce, Salvador Aznar Benitah
The fact that the identity of the cells that initiate metastasis in most human cancers is unknown hampers the development of antimetastatic therapies. Here we describe a subpopulation of CD44(bright) cells in human oral carcinomas that do not overexpress mesenchymal genes, are slow-cycling, express high levels of the fatty acid receptor CD36 and lipid metabolism genes, and are unique in their ability to initiate metastasis. Palmitic acid or a high-fat diet specifically boosts the metastatic potential of CD36(+) metastasis-initiating cells in a CD36-dependent manner...
December 7, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932239/the-therapeutic-effect-of-rosuvastatin-and-propylthiouracil-on-ameliorating-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-rabbit-aortic-atherosclerosis-and-stiffness
#13
Pao-Yuan Lin, Fan-Yen Lee, Christopher Glenn Wallace, Kuan-Hung Chen, Gour-Shenq Kao, Pei-Hsun Sung, Sarah Chua, Sheung-Fat Ko, Yung-Lung Chen, Shun-Cheng Wu, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Hon-Kan Yip, Pei-Lin Shao
BACKGROUND: We tested the hypothesis that arteriosclerosis-augmented aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and -impaired vasorelaxation were attenuated by rosuvastatin (Rosu) and propylthiouracil (PTU) therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were equally divided into group 1 (sham-control), group 2 [high-cholesterol-diet (HCD) for 8weeks], group 3 [HCD-Rosu (20mg/kg/day administration after 4-week HFD for 4weeks)], and group 4 [HCD-PTU (0.1% PTU in drinking water), the treatment course as group 3]...
January 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923808/ucp1-inhibition-in-cidea-overexpressing-mice-is-physiologically-counteracted-by-brown-adipose-tissue-hyperrecruitment
#14
Alexander W Fischer, Irina G Shabalina, Charlotte L Mattsson, Gustavo Abreu-Vieira, Barbara Cannon, Jan Nedergard, Natasa Petrovic
Cidea is a gene highly expressed in thermogenesis-competent (UCP1-containing) adipose cells, both brown and brite/beige. Here we initially demonstrate a remarkable adipose-depot specific regulation of Cidea expression. In classical brown fat, Cidea mRNA is expressed continuously and invariably, irrespective of tissue recruitment. However, Cidea protein levels are regulated posttranscriptionally, being conspicuously induced in the thermogenically recruited state. In contrast, in brite fat, Cidea protein levels are regulated at the transcriptional level, and Cidea mRNA and protein levels are proportional to tissue "briteness"...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919269/comparison-of-voluntary-food-intake-and-palatability-of-commercial-weight-loss-diets-in-healthy-dogs-and-cats
#15
Marie Anne Hours, Emmanuelle Sagols, Ariane Junien-Castagna, Alexandre Feugier, Delphine Moniot, Ingrid Daniel, Vincent Biourge, Serisier Samuel, Yann Queau, Alexander J German
BACKGROUND: Obesity in dogs and cats is usually managed by dietary energy restriction using a purpose-formulated weight loss diet, but signs of hunger and begging commonly occur causing poor owner compliance. Altering diet characteristics so as to reduce voluntary food intake (VFI) can improve the likelihood of success, although this should not be at the expense of palatability. The aim of the current study was to compare the VFI and palatibility of novel commercially available canine and feline weight loss diets...
December 5, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916515/oestrogen-and-anti-androgen-therapy-for-transgender-women
#16
REVIEW
Vin Tangpricha, Martin den Heijer
Transgender women experience lifelong gender dysphoria due to a gender assignment at birth that is incongruent with their gender identity. They often seek hormone therapy, with or without surgery, to improve their gender dysphoria and to better align their physical and psychological features with a more feminine gender role. Some of the desired physical changes from oestrogen and anti-androgen therapy include decreased body and facial hair, decreased muscle mass, breast growth, and redistribution of fat. Overall the risks of treatment are low, but include thromboembolism, the risk of which depends on the dose and route of oestrogen administration...
December 1, 2016: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908189/thermoacoustic-imaging-of-rabbit-knee-joints
#17
Zihui Chi, Yuan Zhao, Lin Huang, Zhu Zheng, Huabei Jiang
PURPOSE: Knee joint is one of the largest and most complex joints of the body. Knee joint diseases are common, and current clinical imaging technologies such as x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound imaging have limitations in the diagnosis of knee joint diseases. Emerging imaging technologies such as diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) have been applied to the detection of osteoarthritis (OA). However, they are limited to small joints such as the finger and difficult to be used for large joints such as the knee...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904388/content-of-total-phenolics-flavan-3-ols-and-proanthocyanidins-oxidative-stability-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-chocolate-during-storage
#18
Jovanka Laličić-Petronijević, Draženka Komes, Stanislava Gorjanović, Ana Belščak-Cvitanović, Lato Pezo, Ferenc Pastor, Sanja Ostojić, Jovanka Popov-Raljić, Desanka Sužnjević
Antioxidant (AO) capacity of chocolates with 27, 44 and 75% cocoa was assessed after production and during twelve months of storage by direct current (DC) polarographic assay, based on the decrease of anodic current caused by the formation of hydroxo-perhydroxyl mercury(II) complex (HPMC) in alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide at potentials of mercury oxidation, and two spectrophotometric assays. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) was calculated by taking the average value of the AO assay (the sample mass in all assays was identical)...
March 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903833/meal-distribution-of-dietary-protein-and-leucine-influences-long-term-muscle-mass-and-body-composition-in-adult-rats
#19
Layne E Norton, Gabriel J Wilson, Christopher J Moulton, Donald K Layman
BACKGROUND: Protein quantity and quality at a meal affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS); however, long-term effects of protein distribution at individual meals on adult muscle mass remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We used a precise feeding protocol in adult rats to determine if optimizing postmeal MPS response by modifying the meal distribution of protein, and the amino acid leucine (Leu), would affect muscle mass. METHODS: Two studies were conducted with the use of male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300 g) trained to consume 3 meals/d, then assigned to diet treatments with identical macronutrient contents (16% of energy from protein, 54% from carbohydrates, and 30% from fat) but differing in protein quality or meal distribution...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902529/perceived-exertion-during-exercise-is-associated-with-children-s-energy-intake
#20
S Nicole Fearnbach, Travis D Masterson, Haley A Schlechter, Eric Loken, Danielle S Downs, David Thivel, Kathleen L Keller
PURPOSE: To examine the individual-level factors that predict energy intake (EI) following imposed exercise (EX) and sedentary time (SED) in children. METHODS: Healthy-weight children ages 9-12 years (n = 20) reported to the laboratory for 1 baseline and 2 experimental visits (EX and SED) each separated by 1 week in a randomized crossover design. Percent body fat, weight (kg), and height (m) were used to calculate fat-mass index (FM index) and fat-free mass index (FFM index; kg/m)...
November 29, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
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