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Fat identity

Christian Carpéné, Francisco Les, Mounia Hasnaoui, Simon Biron, Picard Marceau, Denis Richard, Jean Galitzky, Denis R Joanisse, Pascale Mauriège
Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), identical to primary amine oxidase or vascular adhesion protein-1, is a membrane enzyme that generates hydrogen peroxide. SSAO is highly expressed at the adipocyte surface, and its plasma levels increase with type 2 diabetes. Since visceral adipose tissue (AT) is more tightly associated with obesity complications than subcutaneous (SC) abdominal fat, we compared SSAO activity in plasma and 4 distinct AT locations in 48 severely obese women (body mass index (BMI), averaging 54 ± 11 kg/m(2)), with or without a dysmetabolic profile...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
Stephany P Monsanto, Korry J Hintze, Robert E Ward, Deanna P Larson, Michael Lefevre, Abby D Benninghoff
In this study, we determined the impact of the total Western diet (TWD) for rodents and its macro- and micronutrient components on weight gain and biomarkers of metabolic function in mice compared to a 45% fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet and the standard AIN93G diet. We hypothesized that mice fed the TWD would have increased body fat with indicators of metabolic syndrome similar to mice consuming the DIO diet. As expected, DIO-fed mice acquired a metabolic syndrome phenotype typified by increased energy intake, increased body weight gain, increased fat mass, higher fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and higher plasma leptin relative to the AIN93G diet...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Zygmunt Zdrojewicz, Ewelina Pachura, Paulina Pachura
Medical science seems to be on the threshold of a revolution: It seems possible that in twenty years, doctors will be able to replace organs in the human body like parts in a car. This is thanks to the recent achievement of a team from the Medical Research Council Center for Regenerative Medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland - the group of researchers tried to regenerate the thymus gland in mice. The thymus gland is an essential organ for the development of the immune system, but very few people have any idea that it exists...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Nicholas W Pilfold, Daryll Hedman, Ian Stirling, Andrew E Derocher, Nicholas J Lunn, Evan Richardson
Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have adapted to an annual cyclic regime of feeding and fasting, which is extreme in seasonal sea ice regions of the Arctic. As a consequence of climate change, sea ice breakup has become earlier and the duration of the open-water period through which polar bears must rely on fat reserves has increased. To date, there is limited empirical data with which to evaluate the potential energetic capacity of polar bears to withstand longer fasts. We measured the incoming and outgoing mass of inactive polar bears (n = 142) that were temporarily detained by Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship during the open-water period near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, in 2009-2014...
September 2016: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Aarthi V Maganti, Sarah A Tersey, Farooq Syed, Jennifer B Nelson, Stephanie C Colvin, Bernhard Maier, Raghavendra G Mirmira
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that is characterized by a failure of the unfolded protein response in islet β cells with subsequent endoplasmic reticulum stress and cellular death. Thiazolidinediones are insulin sensitizers that activate the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ and have been shown to partially ameliorate autoimmune type 1 diabetes in humans and non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We hypothesized that thiazolidinediones reduce β cell stress and death independently of insulin sensitivity. To test this hypothesis, female NOD mice were administered pioglitazone during the pre-diabetic phase and assessed for insulin sensitivity and β cell function relative to controls...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jechan Lee, Yiu Fai Tsang, Jong-Min Jung, Jeong-Ik Oh, Hyung-Wook Kim, Eilhann E Kwon
In-situ production of fatty acid methyl esters from swine fat via thermally induced pseudo-catalytic transesterification on silica was investigated in this study. Instead of methanol, dimethyl carbonate (DMC) was used as acyl acceptor to achieve environmental benefits and economic viability. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of swine fat reveals that swine fat contains 19.57wt.% of water and impurities. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles obtained under various conditions (extracted swine oil+methanol+NaOH, extracted swine oil+DMC+pseudo-catalytic, and swine fat+DMC+pseudo-catalytic) were compared...
November 2016: Bioresource Technology
S Steven, K G Hollingsworth, P K Small, S A Woodcock, A Pucci, B Aribasala, A Al-Mrabeh, R L Batterham, R Taylor
AIMS: To compare directly the impact of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion on glucose metabolism in individuals with Type 2 diabetes listed for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, randomized to be studied before and 7 days after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or after following a very-low-calorie diet. METHODS: A semi-solid meal test was used to investigate glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 response. Insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose and arginine stimulus was measured...
September 2, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Baojian Zhu, Hao Yu, Sen Tian, Li-Shang Dai, Yu Sun, Chao-Liang Liu
The receptor for activated C kinase (RACK) is an important scaffold protein with regulatory functions in cells. However, its role in the immune response of Antheraea pernyi to pathogen challenge remains unclear. To investigate the biological functions of RACK in the wild silkworm A. pernyi, cloning was performed and the expression patterns of the RACK gene were analyzed. Sequence analysis revealed that the RACK gene was 1120 bp containing a 960-bp open reading frame. The deduced RACK protein sequence reveals the higher identity with its homologs from other insects...
August 31, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
James A H Smith, Alexander D McKerrow, Tertius A Kohn
Exercise testing on motorised treadmills provides valuable information about running performance and metabolism; however, the impact of treadmill type on these tests has not been investigated. This study compared the energy demand of running on two laboratory treadmills: an HP Cosmos (C) and a Quinton (Q) model, with the latter having a 4.5 times stiffer running platform. Twelve experienced runners ran identical bouts on these treadmills at a range of four submaximal velocities (reported data is for the velocity that approximated 75-81% VO2max)...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Mingyue Lv, Amr Ahmed Mohamed, Liwei Zhang, Pengfei Zhang, Long Zhang
Insect defensins are effector components of the innate defense system. During infection, these peptides may play a role in the control of pathogens by providing protective antimicrobial barriers between epithelial cells and the hemocoel. The cDNAs encoding four defensins of the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, designated LmDEF 1, 3-5, were identified for the first time by transcriptome-targeted analysis. Three of the members of this CSαβ defensin family, LmDEF 1, 3, and 5, were detected in locust tissues...
2016: PloS One
Masaki Tomonaga
When two identical faces are aligned vertically, humans readily perceive the face at the bottom to be fatter than the top one. This phenomenon is called the fat face illusion. Furthermore, an apparent similarity has been pointed out between the fat face illusion and the Jastrow illusion. Recent studies have suggested the importance of facial contours and the role of basic-level processing of faces. In the present study, we directly compared the typical Jastrow illusion and fat face illusion in humans and chimpanzees using the same task...
December 2015: I-Perception
L Pu, L C Zhang, J S Zhang, X Song, L G Wang, J Liang, Y B Zhang, X Liu, H Yan, T Zhang, J W Yue, N Li, Q Q Wu, L X Wang
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5) is essential for apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses, and is a candidate marker for residual feed intake (RFI) in pig. We cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of porcine MAP3K5 by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. The 5451-bp gene contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (718 bp), a coding region (3738 bp), and a 3'-UTR (995 bp), and encodes a peptide of 1245 amino acids, which shares 97, 99, 97, 93, 91, and 84% sequence identity with cattle, sheep, human, mouse, chicken, and zebrafish MAP3K5, respectively...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Xueyao Zhang, Yahong Li, Junxiu Wang, Tingting Zhang, Tao Li, Wei Dong, Enbo Ma, Jianzhen Zhang
Catalase (CAT) is a ubiquitous antioxidant enzyme in almost all living organisms exposed to atmosphere, which involved in decomposing harmful hydrogen peroxide, into oxygen and water. In this study, a full-length cDNA (1524bp) encoding the catalase gene (LmCAT) from Locusta migratoria was cloned (accession number KT716445). The open reading frame of the LmCAT gene encoded 507 amino acids and shared 57.8%-97.8% amino acid identities with other insect CATs. The coding region was interrupted by 9 introns, while its promoter region contained 15 putative binding sites for 5 kinds of transcriptional regulation factors...
September 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Hongyu Liu, Xiaohui Dong, Shuyan Chi, Qihui Yang, Shuang Zhang, Liqiao Chen, Beiping Tan
The glucose transporter family proteins play pivotal roles in glucose metabolism. In this study, we successfully cloned the orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) glucose transporter 1 (EcGlut1) gene (GenBank accession: JQ623903). The full-length EcGlut1 cDNA was 2126 bp with a 1476 bp ORF, a 437bp5'-UTR and 223bp3'-UTR. EcGlut1 is predicted to encode a 491 amino acid protein with a MW of 53.9 kDa, a pI of 8.66 and a Pfam domain. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that EcGlut1 was evolutionally conserved between fishes with 80-89 % amino acid identities...
August 5, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Ye Feng, Yanyan Shi, Mingyang Yu, Weidi Xu, Wenjie Gong, Zhongzhong Tu, Laixi Ding, Biao He, Huancheng Guo, Changchun Tu
Dogs play an important role in rabies transmission throughout the world. In addition to the severe human rabies situation in China, spillover of rabies virus from dogs in recent years has caused rabies outbreaks in sheep, cattle and pigs, showing that there is an increasing threat to other domestic animals. Two livestock rabies outbreaks were caused by dogs in Shanxi province, China from April to October in 2015, resulting in the deaths of 60 sheep, 10 cattle and one donkey. Brain samples from one infected bovine and the donkey were determined to be rabies virus (RABV) positive by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
October 2016: Archives of Virology
Fernando J Sutili, Alejandro Velasquez, Carlos G Pinheiro, Berta M Heinzmann, Delbert M Gatlin, Bernardo Baldisserotto
This study evaluated productive parameters, whole-body composition, non-specific immune responses and pH and microbiota of digestive tract contents of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fed diets supplemented with Ocimum americanum essential oil (OAEO) (0 - control, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg diet). After 7 weeks no significant differences in productive parameters and whole-body composition were observed. Plasma and intestinal lysozyme measurements and pH of the stomach and intestine (6 h after feeding) did not show significant differences among groups...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Gregory W O'Neil, John R Williams, Julia Wilson-Peltier, Gerhard Knothe, Christopher M Reddy
The need to replace petroleum fuels with alternatives from renewable and more environmentally sustainable sources is of growing importance. Biomass-derived biofuels have gained considerable attention in this regard, however first generation biofuels from edible crops like corn ethanol or soybean biodiesel have generally fallen out of favor. There is thus great interest in the development of methods for the production of liquid fuels from domestic and superior non-edible sources. Here we describe a detailed procedure for the production of a purified biodiesel from the marine microalgae Isochrysis...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Bin Tian, Lili Xu, Miao Zhang, Yuqian Feng, Shixiang Zong
BACKGROUND: Holcocerus hippophaecolus is the most serious pest occurred in seabuckthorn forest of three north areas. OBJECTIVE: The primary aims of the current study were to explore the physiological mechanisms and adaptability of H. hippophaecolus to low temperatures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Assessing supercooling point, freezing point, and cryoprotectants of different larval instars from three different populations. RESULTS: Supercooling capacity of larvae from the 8-13 instar groups was relatively independent of temperature and other indicators such as latitude...
May 2016: Cryo Letters
Kentaro Hayashi, Shibu Mathew, Christian-H Heeger, Tilman Maurer, Christine Lemes, Johannes Riedl, Christian Sohns, Ardan M Saguner, Francesco Santoro, Bruno Reißmann, Andreas Metzner, Karl-Heinz Kuck, Feifan Ouyang
BACKGROUND: Focal atrial tachycardia (FAT) is extremely difficult to map and ablate when it is difficult to induce and nonsustained. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of pace mapping in identifying the FAT origin. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 7 patients with drug-refractory FAT who experienced daily multiple episodes before ablation and presented with difficult-to-induce and nonsustained FAT and a distinct P wave morphology. Pace mapping was systematically performed in the areas of interest using 3-dimensional mapping to match the P wave morphology and paced intracardiac activation sequence recorded from multiple catheters...
July 2016: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Kirstine J Bell, Elena Toschi, Garry M Steil, Howard A Wolpert
OBJECTIVE: To determine insulin dose adjustments required for coverage of high-fat, high-protein (HFHP) meals in type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ten adults with T1D received low-fat, low-protein (LFLP) and HFHP meals with identical carbohydrate content, covered with identical insulin doses. On subsequent occasions, subjects repeated the HFHP meal with an adaptive model-predictive insulin bolus until target postprandial glycemic control was achieved...
September 2016: Diabetes Care
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