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Weight identity

Anna M Gorczyca, Richard A Washburn, Lauren Ptomey, Matthew S Mayo, Debra K Sullivan, Cheryl A Gibson, Robert Lee, Sarah Stolte, Joseph E Donnelly
Obesity prevalence is higher in rural compared to urban residents. Rural health clinics offer a potential venue for delivery of weight management. However, traditional programs require travel to attend on-site meetings which is impractical or inconvenient for rural residents. Clinic staff in most rural settings are unlikely to be trained to provide effective weight management. Remote delivery using group phone conferences (GP) or individual phone calls (IP), by staff associated with rural clinics eliminates the need for travel to attend on-site meetings...
February 14, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Justin X Zhong, John R Clegg, Eric W Ander, Nicholas A Peppas
Environmentally responsive biomaterials have played key roles in the design of biosensors and drug delivery vehicles. Their physical response to external stimuli, such as temperature or pH, can transduce a signal or trigger the release of a drug. In this work, we designed a robust, highly tunable, pH responsive nanoscale hydrogel system. We present the design and characterization of poly((methacrylic acid) - co - acrylamide) hydrogel nanoparticles, crosslinked with methylenebisacrylamide, through inverse emulsion polymerization...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
D Levi Craft, Reilly E Sonstrom, Virginia G Rovnyak, David Rovnyak
A flexible strategy for choosing samples nonuniformly from a Nyquist grid using the concept of statistical quantiles is presented for broad classes of NMR experimentation. Quantile-directed scheduling is intuitive and flexible for any weighting function, promotes reproducibility and seed independence, and is generalizable to multiple dimensions. In brief, weighting functions are divided into regions of equal probability, which define the samples to be acquired. Quantile scheduling therefore achieves close adherence to a probability distribution function, thereby minimizing gaps for any given degree of subsampling of the Nyquist grid...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
M Ijadi Bajestani, S M Mousavi, S B Mousavi, A Jafari, S A Shojaosadati
BLAST analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence for the newly isolated bacterium, revealed significant identity (99.5%) with Bacillus sonorensis [Ijadi Bajestani, M., et al., International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2017. 96: p. 100-110]. According to the literature review for closely related species of Bacillus sonorensis, the production of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) as an extra cellular biopolymer was investigated for the isolated bacteria which is deposited in IBRC (Iranian Biological Resource Center) as Bacillus sp...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gal Y Kreitman, Ryan J Elias, David W Jeffery, Gavin L Sacks
Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs), particularly low molecular weight sulfhydryls like hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and methanethiol (MeSH), are often observed in wines with sulfurous off-aromas. Recent work has shown both H 2 S and MeSH can increase up to a few µM (> 40 µg/L) during anoxic storage, but the identity of the latent sources of these sulfhydryls is still disputed. This review critically evaluates the latent precursors and pathways likely to be responsible for the loss and formation of these sulfhydryls during wine storage based on the existing enology literature as well as studies from food chemistry, geochemistry, biochemistry, and synthetic chemistry...
February 16, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Ricardo Miguel Godinho, Paul O'Higgins
Paranasal sinuses are highly variable among living and fossil hominins and their function(s) are poorly understood. It has been argued they serve no particular function and are biological 'spandrels' arising as a structural consequence of changes in associated bones and/or soft tissue structures. In contrast, others have suggested that sinuses have one or more functions, in olfaction, respiration, thermoregulation, nitric oxide production, voice resonance, reduction of skull weight, and craniofacial biomechanics...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Colbey W Freeman, Talissa A Altes, Patrice K Rehm, Eduard E de Lange, Luke Lancaster, John P Mugler, James T Patrie, Sean Corbett, Carlos Leiva-Salinas, Lucia Flors
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether unenhanced MRI without sedation is a feasible substitute for dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy in the detection of renal scars in pediatric patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients scheduled for 99mTc-labeled DMSA scintigraphy for assessment of possible renal scars were recruited to undergo unenhanced MRI (free-breathing fat-suppressed T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin-echo and T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging, 13 minutes' total imaging time)...
February 15, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Soo Youn Lee, Simranjeet Singh Sekhon, Mihye Kim, Ji-Young Ahn, Hyung Cheol Kim, Young-Chang Kim, Yang-Hoon Kim
Sphingobium chungbukense DJ77 is a Gram-negative bacterium has metabolic capability of producing exopolysaccharide (EPS) as a potential reducing and stabilizing agent for metallic nanoparticle synthesis. In this study, we investigated the genomic and proteomic analysis to verify metabolic pathway and involved genes and enzymes related to EPS biosynthesis in S. chungbukense DJ77. End-sequencing results of randomly selected fosmid library, which were prepared from high molecular weight DNA of S. chungbukense DJ77, showed identity to sequences from genes related the EPS biosynthesis pathways in several bacteria...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Cyril Galitzine, Jarrett Egertson, Susan E Abbatiello, Clark M Henderson, Lindsay Pino, Michael J MacCoss, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Olga Vitek
The need for assay characterization is ubiquitous in quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Among many assay characteristics, the limit of blank (LOB) and limit of detection (LOD) are two particularly useful figures of merit. LOB and LOD are determined by repeatedly quantifying the observed intensities of peptides in samples with known peptide concentrations, and deriving an intensity versus concentration response curve. Most commonly, a weighted linear or logistic curve is fit to the intensity-concentration response, and LOB and LOD are estimated from the fit...
February 9, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
David Bars-Cortina, María-Carmen López de Las Hazas, Alfred Benavent-Vallés, Maria-José Motilva
A preliminary study to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with olive phenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and secoiridoids), thyme phenols and a combination of these (5 mg per kg rat weight per day) on the α-tocopherol concentrations in the muscle and liver of healthy adult Wistar rats over 21 days was conducted. In addition, the excretion of α-tocopherol through the faeces was examined. The results demonstrated that the diet supplemented with some phenolic compounds of olive and thyme increased α-tocopherol (P < 0...
February 13, 2018: Food & Function
Katharina Dobs, Johannes Schultz, Isabelle Bülthoff, Justin L Gardner
What cortical mechanisms allow humans to easily discern the expression or identity of a face? Subjects detected changes in expression or identity of a stream of dynamic faces while we measured BOLD responses from topographically and functionally defined areas throughout the visual hierarchy. Responses in dorsal areas increased during the expression task, whereas responses in ventral areas increased during the identity task, consistent with previous studies. Similar to ventral areas, early visual areas showed increased activity during the identity task...
February 9, 2018: NeuroImage
Joseane Cristina Ferreira, Rafael Antonio Casarin Penha Filho, Ana Paula Yorika Kuaye, Leonardo Neves Andrade, Angelo Berchieri Junior, Ana Lúcia Costa Darini
The expression of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes confers low-level quinolone and fluoroquinolones resistance alone. However, the association to chromosomal resistance mechanisms determines an expressively higher resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. These mechanisms are horizontally disseminated within plasmids and have contributed to the emergence of bacteria with reduced susceptibility or resistant to therapies worldwide. The epidemiological characterization of PMQR dissemination is highly relevant in the scientific and medical context, to investigate the dissemination within enterobacteria, from different populations, including humans and food-producing animals...
February 7, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Dawei Ni, Wei Xu, Yuxiang Bai, Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Wanmeng Mu
Levan, a versatile fructan, possesses promising prospects for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries and in many other fields due to the superior physicochemical properties and physiological functions of this fructan. In this study, a thermostable levansucrase was identified from Lactobacillus reuteri LTH5448. This enzyme shared higher identity with reported inulosucrases than levansucrases but, unexpectedly, yielded a levan-type fructan. Structural analysis of the produced polysaccharide revealed that the glycosidic bonds were β-(2, 6) linkages, and the average molecular weight was 3...
February 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Anne Thaler, Michael N Geuss, Simone C Mölbert, Katrin E Giel, Stephan Streuber, Javier Romero, Michael J Black, Betty J Mohler
Previous literature suggests that a disturbed ability to accurately identify own body size may contribute to overweight. Here, we investigated the influence of personal body size, indexed by body mass index (BMI), on body size estimation in a non-clinical population of females varying in BMI. We attempted to disentangle general biases in body size estimates and attitudinal influences by manipulating whether participants believed the body stimuli (personalized avatars with realistic weight variations) represented their own body or that of another person...
2018: PloS One
Sahar D Al-Shamari, Mohamed Aly ElSherif, Wahiba Hamid, Fahad Hanna
Background: Severe weight loss through means of bariatric surgery has been associated with loss of muscle mass due to lack of absorption of protein. The aim of this RCT is to investigate the effectiveness of protein supplementation in reducing the risk of developing protein malnutrition and muscle wasting in post-bariatric surgery patients in Qatar. Methods and analysis: The study was based at the Department of bariatric and metabolic surgery, Doha metropolitan and regional areas...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Mark C Jenkins, Laura Stevens, Celia O'Brien, Carolyn Parker, Katrzyna Miska, Vjollca Konjufca
The purpose of this study was to determine if conjugating a recombinant Eimeria maxima protein, namely EmaxIMP1, into 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (NP) could improve the level of protective immunity against E. maxima challenge infection. Recombinant EmaxIMP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a poly-His fusion protein, purified by NiNTA chromatography, and conjugated to 20 nm polystyrene NP (NP-EmaxIMP1). NP-EMaxIMP1 or control non-recombinant (NP-NR) protein were delivered per os to newly-hatched broiler chicks with subsequent booster immunizations at 3 and 21 days of age...
February 14, 2018: Vaccine
Fumika Shigiyama, Naoki Kumashiro, Yasuhiko Furukawa, Takashi Funayama, Kageumi Takeno, Noritaka Wakui, Takashi Ikehara, Hidenari Nagai, Hikari Taka, Tsutomu Fujimura, Hiroshi Uchino, Yoshifumi Tamura, Hirotaka Watada, Tetsuo Nemoto, Nobuyuki Shiraga, Yasukiyo Sumino, Takahisa Hirose
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) plays a crucial role in type 2 diabetes and hepatocellular carcinoma. The major underlying pathogenesis is hepatic insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to characterize patients with NAFLD with paradoxically normal hepatic insulin sensitivity relative to patients with NAFLD with hepatic insulin resistance. We recruited 26 patients with NAFLD and divided them into three groups ranked by the level of hepatic insulin sensitivity (HIS; high-HIS, mid-HIS, low-HIS), as assessed by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies using stable isotope...
September 2017: Hepatology communications
Lei Yan, Zhenshan Liu, Huanwen Xu, Xiaoping Zhang, Aiju Zhao, Fei Liang, Mingming Xin, Huiru Peng, Yingyin Yao, Qixin Sun, Zhongfu Ni
BACKGROUND: Common wheat is a typical allohexaploid species (AABBDD) derived from the interspecific crossing between allotetraploid wheat (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD). Wide variation in grain size and shape observed among Aegilops tauschii can be retained in synthetic allohexaploid wheats, but the underlying mechanism remains enigmatic. Here, the natural and resynthesized allohexaploid wheats with near-identical AB genomes and different D genomes (TAA10 and XX329) were employed for analysis...
February 5, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
C V Bishop, R L Stouffer, D L Takahashi, E C Mishler, M C Wilcox, O D Slayden, C A True
STUDY QUESTION: What are the impacts of elevated testosterone (T) and an obesogenic western-style diet (WSD), either independently or together, on fertility and metabolic adaptations of pregnancy in primates? SUMMARY ANSWER: Testosterone increases the time to achieve pregnancy, while a WSD reduces overall fertility, and the combination of testosterone and WSD additionally impairs glucose tolerance and causes pregnancy loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both hyperandrogenemia and obesity are hallmarks of polycystic ovary syndrome, which is a leading cause of infertility among women worldwide...
February 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
Rui He, Yue Yin, Yin Li, Ziru Li, Jing Zhao, Weizhen Zhang
BACKGROUND: Despite of its significant therapeutic effects on obesity and metabolic diseases, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has limited clinical application because of considerable impacts on the gastrointestinal structure and postoperative complications. This study aims to develop a simplified surgical approach with less damage and complication but efficient metabolic benefit. METHODS: The effects of Esophagus-Duodenum gastric bypass (EDGB) on body weight, food intake, glucose and lipid metabolism were compared to RYGB in mice...
February 1, 2018: EBioMedicine
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