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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437704/conserved-rna-polymerase-ii-initiation-complex-structure
#1
REVIEW
Merle Hantsche, Patrick Cramer
Recent cryo-electron microscopic studies have arrived at atomic models of the core transcription initiation complex comprising RNA polymerase (Pol) II and the basal transcription factors TBP, TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIIE, and TFIIF. A detailed comparison of two independently derived yeast and human core initiation complex structures reveals that they are virtually identical, demonstrating the conservation of the basic transcription machinery amongst eukaryotes. The additional factors TFIID, TFIIH, and Mediator have been located on the periphery of the core initiation complex, providing the topology of the entire initiation assembly, which comprises approximately 70 polypeptides with a molecular weight of ∼4 Megadalton...
April 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436266/the-identity-threat-of-weight-stigma-in-adolescents
#2
Wren B Hand, Jennifer C Robinson, Mary W Stewart, Lei Zhang, Samuel C Hand
Obesity remains a serious public health issue in adolescents, who may be subjected to weight stigma leading to increased stress and poor health outcomes. Stigma can be detrimental to adolescents during self-identity formation. The purpose of this study was to examine weight stigma in adolescents in light of the Identity Threat Model of Stigma. A cross-sectional correlational design was used to examine the relationships among the variables of weight stigma, psychosocial stress, coping styles, disordered eating, and physical inactivity...
April 1, 2017: Western Journal of Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433992/the-aachen-minipig-phenotype-genotype-hematological-and-biochemical-characterization-and-comparison-to-the-g%C3%A3-ttingen-minipig
#3
Kerstin Pawlowsky, Lisa Ernst, Julia Steitz, Thaddäus Stopinski, Babette Kögel, Anna Henger, Reinhart Kluge, René Tolba
BACKGROUND: The pig is one of the most frequently used large animal models for biomedical research, especially in the field of translational research and surgical models. While standard livestock breeds are used in short-term and acute studies, minipig breeds are the preferred breeds in long-term and chronic studies due to their limited growth and body weight. OBJECTIVE: In consideration of the 3R principle (refinement, reduction, replacement) and the increasing demand, the aim of this study was to generate a new, robust, non-specific-pathogen-free minipig breed, the Aachen minipig...
April 22, 2017: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431098/egg-production-and-egg-quality-in-free-range-laying-hens-housed-at-different-outdoor-stocking-densities1
#4
D L M Campbell, C Lee, G N Hinch, J R Roberts
Free-range laying hen systems are increasing in number within Australia. Variation in outdoor stocking densities has led to development of a national information standard on free-range egg labeling, including setting a maximum density of 10,000 hens per hectare. However, there are few data on the impacts of differing outdoor densities on production and egg quality. ISA Brown hens in small (150 hens) flocks were housed in identical indoor pens, each with access (from 21 weeks) to different sized ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities (2 replicates each: 2,000 hens/hectare (ha), 10,000 hens/ha, 20,000 hens/ha)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424098/identification-of-odorant-binding-protein-genes-in-galeruca-daurica-coleoptera-chrysomelidae-and-analysis-of-their-expression-profiles
#5
L Li, Y-T Zhou, Y Tan, X-R Zhou, B-P Pang
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) play a fundamental role in insect olfaction. In recent years, Galeruca daurica (Joannis) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) has become one of the most important insect pests in the Inner Mongolian grasslands of China. This pest only feeds on the species of Allium plants, implying the central role of olfaction in its search for specific host plants. However, the olfaction-related proteins have not been investigated in this beetle. In this study, we identified 29 putative OBP genes, namely GdauOBP1-29, from the transcriptome database of G...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424091/investigations-into-the-association-between-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-haemoglobin-and-child-development-indices-in-manufahi-district-timor-leste
#6
Suzy J Campbell, Susana V Nery, Catherine A D'Este, Darren J Gray, James S McCarthy, Rebecca J Traub, Ross M Andrews, Stacey Llewellyn, Andrew J Vallely, Gail M Williams, Archie C A Clements
BACKGROUND: Timor-Leste has a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. High proportions of the population have been reported as being anaemic, and extremely high proportions of children as stunted or wasted. There have been no published analyses of the contributions of STH to these morbidity outcomes in Timor-Leste. METHODS: Using baseline cross-sectional data from 24 communities (18 communities enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial, and identically-collected data from six additional communities), analyses of the association between STH infections and community haemoglobin and child development indices were undertaken...
April 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423324/resolving-subcellular-mirna-trafficking-and-turnover-at-single-molecule-resolution
#7
Sethuramasundaram Pitchiaya, Laurie A Heinicke, Jun I Park, Elizabeth L Cameron, Nils G Walter
Regulation of microRNA (miRNA) localization and stability is critical for their extensive cytoplasmic RNA silencing activity and emerging nuclear functions. Here, we have developed single-molecule fluorescence-based tools to assess the subcellular trafficking, integrity, and activity of miRNAs. We find that seed-matched RNA targets protect miRNAs against degradation and enhance their nuclear retention. While target-stabilized, functional, cytoplasmic miRNAs reside in high-molecular-weight complexes, nuclear miRNAs, as well as cytoplasmic miRNAs targeted by complementary anti-miRNAs, are sequestered stably within significantly lower-molecular-weight complexes and rendered repression incompetent...
April 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419644/diffusion-weighted-imaging-of-hyperpolarized-13-c-urea-in-mouse-liver
#8
Irene Marco-Rius, Jeremy W Gordon, Aras N Mattis, Robert Bok, Romelyn Delos Santos, Subramanian Sukumar, Peder E Z Larson, Daniel B Vigneron, Michael A Ohliger
PURPOSE: To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of hyperpolarized (HP) [(13) C,(15) N]urea to the ADC of endogenous water in healthy and fibrotic mouse liver. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ADC measurements for water and [(13) C]urea were made in agarose phantoms at 14.1T. Next, the ADC of water and injected HP [(13) C,(15) N]urea were measured in eight CD1 mouse livers before and after induction of liver fibrosis using CCl4 . Liver fibrosis was quantified pathologically using the modified Brunt fibrosis score and compared to the measured ADC of water and urea...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419613/peg-poly-l-lysine-based-polymeric-micelle-mri-contrast-agent-feasibility-study-of-a-gd-micelle-contrast-agent-for-mr-lymphography
#9
Hiroyuki Akai, Kouichi Shiraishi, Masayuki Yokoyama, Koichiro Yasaka, Masanori Nojima, Yusuke Inoue, Osamu Abe, Kuni Ohtomo, Shigeru Kiryu
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of polymeric micelle of poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG)-b-poly(L-lysine-DOTA) (Gd-micelle) as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups of six mice each. Among them, mice of two groups were injected of complete Freund's adjuvant to obtain inflamed lymph nodes. We subcutaneously injected 0.5 μmol Gd per mouse of Gd-micelle or gadofluorine P in the right rear footpad...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417910/effects-of-three-commercially-available-sports-drinks-on-substrate-metabolism-and-subsequent-endurance-performance-in-a-postprandial-state
#10
Lu Qin, Qi-Rong Wang, Zi-Long Fang, Ting Wang, Ai-Qi Yu, Yu-Jie Zhou, Yi Zheng, Mu-Qing Yi
Purpose: To examine the effects of commercially available sports beverages with various components on substrate metabolism and subsequent performance. Methods: Two studies were conducted in a double-blinded, counterbalanced manner. Study I was designed to determine the glycemic index, while study II determined the utilization of substrates and subsequent exercise performance. Ten healthy male participants (age 21.70 ± 2.41 years, height 176.60 ± 5.23 cm, weight 66.58 ± 5.38 kg, V̇O2max 48.1 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min) participated in both study I and study II...
April 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411424/drug-use-among-transgender-people-in-ontario-canada-disparities-and-associations-with-social-exclusion
#11
Ayden I Scheim, Greta R Bauer, Mostafa Shokoohi
INTRODUCTION: We identified the prevalence and correlates of past-year illicit drug use among transgender people in Ontario, Canada, and disparities with the age-standardized non-transgender population. METHODS: Data on transgender persons aged 16+ (n=406) were obtained from Trans PULSE, a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey (2009-2010). Overall and sex-specific estimates of past-year drug use (cocaine and amphetamines, based on data availability) in the reference population were obtained from Ontario residents aged 16+ (n=39, 980) in the Canadian Community Health Survey (2009-2010), and standardized to the overall and gender-specific transgender age distributions...
March 31, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407742/higher-neonatal-growth-rate-and-body-condition-score-at-7%C3%A2-months-are-predictive-factors-of-obesity-in-adult-female-beagle-dogs
#12
Lucie Leclerc, Chantal Thorin, John Flanagan, Vincent Biourge, Samuel Serisier, Patrick Nguyen
BACKGROUND: The risks during early growth on becoming overweight in adulthood are widely studied in humans. However, early-life predictive factors for canine adult overweight and obesity have not yet been studied. To identify factors that may help explain the development of overweight and obesity at adulthood in dogs, a longitudinal study of 2 years was conducted in 24 female Beagle dogs of the same age, sexual status, and raised under identical environmental conditions. By means of a hierarchical classification on principal components with the following quantitative values: fat-free mass (FFM), percentage fat mass and pelvic circumference at 2 years of age, three groups of dogs were established and were nominally named: ideal weight (IW, n = 9), slightly overweight (OW1, n = 6) and overweight (OW2, n = 9)...
April 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406703/chronic-administration-of-quercetin-induces-biomechanical-and-pharmacological-remodeling-in-the-rat-coronary-arteries
#13
A Monori-Kiss, F Kiss, J M Restifo, E Monos, G L Nadasy
Acute dilation brought about by the dietary flavonoid quercetin in coronary arterioles has been described earlier, but no information is available on its chronic effects. Male Wistar rats (body weight about 190 g) were divided to two groups: the quercetin-treated group (n=22) had quercetin supplementation of approximately 30 mg/kg/day, whereas the control group (n=20) had none. After eight weeks of treatment, intramural coronary arterioles with identical passive diameters (178+/-14 and 171+/-9 microm) were prepared and their biomechanics and pharmacological reactivities were tested using pressure arteriography ex vivo...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406312/repeatability-of-graph-theoretical-metrics-derived-from-resting-state-functional-networks-in-pediatric-epilepsy-patients
#14
Michael J Paldino, Zili D Chu, Mary L Chapieski, Farahnaz Golriz, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To measure the repeatability of metrics that quantify brain network architecture derived from resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) in a cohort of pediatric epilepsy patients. METHODS: We identified patients with: 1. epilepsy; 2. brain MRI at 3 Tesla; 3. two identical rs-fMRI acquisitions performed on the same day. Undirected, weighted networks were constructed based on the resting state time series using a range of processing parameters including parcellation size and graph threshold...
April 13, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400629/biostatistics-series-module-8-assessing-risk
#15
Avijit Hazra, Nithya Gogtay
In observational studies, as well as in interventional ones, it is frequently necessary to estimate risk that is the association between an observed outcome or event and exposure to one or more factors that may be contributing to the event. Understanding incidence and prevalence are the starting point in any discussion of risk assessment. Incidence rate uses person-time as the denominator rather than a simple count. Ideally, rates and ratios estimated from samples should be presented with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392929/missing-the-target-including-perspectives-of-women-with-overweight-and-obesity-to-inform-stigma-reduction-strategies
#16
R M Puhl, M S Himmelstein, A A Gorin, Y J Suh
OBJECTIVE: Pervasive weight stigma and discrimination have led to ongoing calls for efforts to reduce this bias. Despite increasing research on stigma-reduction strategies, perspectives of individuals who have experienced weight stigma have rarely been included to inform this research. The present study conducted a systematic examination of women with high body weight to assess their perspectives about a broad range of strategies to reduce weight-based stigma. METHODS: Women with overweight or obesity (N = 461) completed an online survey in which they evaluated the importance, feasibility and potential impact of 35 stigma-reduction strategies in diverse settings...
March 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390717/the-effects-of-heat-stress-on-protein-metabolism-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#17
S T Gao, J Guo, S Y Quan, X M Nan, M V Sanz Fernandez, L H Baumgard, D P Bu
Heat stress (HS) decreases milk protein synthesis beyond what would be expected based on the concomitant reduction in feed intake. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the direct effects of HS on milk protein production. Four multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (101 ± 10 d in milk, 574 ± 36 kg of body weight, 38 ± 2 kg of milk/d) were individually housed in environmental chambers and randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups in a crossover design. The study was divided into 2 periods with 2 identical experimental phases (control phase and trial phase) within each period...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388108/eckart-ro-vibrational-hamiltonians-via-the-gateway-hamilton-operator-theory-and-practice
#18
Viktor Szalay
Recently, a general expression for Eckart-frame Hamilton operators has been obtained by the gateway Hamiltonian method [V. Szalay, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 174107 (2015) and V. Szalay, J. Chem. Phys. 143, 064104 (2015)]. The kinetic energy operator in this general Hamiltonian is nearly identical to that of the Eckart-Watson operator even when curvilinear vibrational coordinates are employed. Its different realizations correspond to different methods of calculating Eckart displacements. There are at least two different methods for calculating such displacements: rotation and projection...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387689/multisensory-control-of-a-straight-locomotor-trajectory
#19
Maxim Hanna, Joyce Fung, Anouk Lamontagne
Locomotor steering is contingent upon orienting oneself spatially in the environment. When the head is turned while walking, the optic flow projected onto the retina is a complex pattern comprising of a translational and a rotational component. We have created a unique paradigm to simulate different optic flows in a virtual environment. We hypothesized that non-visual (vestibular and somatosensory) cues are required for proper control of a straight trajectory while walking. This research study included 9 healthy young subjects walking in a large physical space (40×25m2) while the virtual environment is viewed in a helmet-mounted display...
2017: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381589/moving-beyond-managing-realized-genomic-relationship-in-long-term-genomic-selection
#20
Herman De Beukelaer, Yvonne Badke, Veerle Fack, Geert De Meyer
Long-term genomic selection (GS) requires strategies that balance genetic gain with population diversity, to sustain progress for traits under selection and to keep diversity for future breeding. In a simulation model for a recurrent selection scheme we provide the first head-to-head comparison of two such existing strategies: genomic optimal contributions selection (GOCS) that limits realized genomic relationship among selection candidates, and weighted genomic selection (WGS) that upscales rare allele effects in GS...
April 4, 2017: Genetics
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