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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919269/comparison-of-voluntary-food-intake-and-palatability-of-commercial-weight-loss-diets-in-healthy-dogs-and-cats
#1
Marie Anne Hours, Emmanuelle Sagols, Ariane Junien-Castagna, Alexandre Feugier, Delphine Moniot, Ingrid Daniel, Vincent Biourge, Serisier Samuel, Yann Queau, Alexander J German
BACKGROUND: Obesity in dogs and cats is usually managed by dietary energy restriction using a purpose-formulated weight loss diet, but signs of hunger and begging commonly occur causing poor owner compliance. Altering diet characteristics so as to reduce voluntary food intake (VFI) can improve the likelihood of success, although this should not be at the expense of palatability. The aim of the current study was to compare the VFI and palatibility of novel commercially available canine and feline weight loss diets...
December 5, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919260/a-frameshift-mutation-in-mocos-is-associated-with-familial-renal-syndrome-xanthinuria-in-tyrolean-grey-cattle
#2
Leonardo Murgiano, Vidhya Jagannathan, Christian Piffer, Inmaculada Diez-Prieto, Marilena Bolcato, Arcangelo Gentile, Cord Drögemüller
BACKGROUND: Renal syndromes are occasionally reported in domestic animals. Two identical twin Tyrolean Grey calves exhibited weight loss, skeletal abnormalities and delayed development associated with kidney abnormalities and formation of uroliths. These signs resembled inherited renal tubular dysplasia found in Japanese Black cattle which is associated with mutations in the claudin 16 gene. Despite demonstrating striking phenotypic similarities, no obvious presence of pathogenic variants of this candidate gene were found...
December 5, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919211/development-of-mlr-and-svm-aided-qsar-models-to-identify-common-sar-of-gaba-uptake-herbal-inhibitors-used-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia
#3
Sahila Mohammed Marunnan, Babitha Pallikkara Pulikka, V K Gopalakrishnan, Srinivas Bandaru, Mukesh Yadav, Anuraj Nayarisseri, Victor Arokia Doss
Deficits in GABAnergic system is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Available antipsychotics that target GABA receptor form a desirable therapeutic strategy in the treatment regimen of schizophrenia but, unfortunately, suffers serious setback due to their prolonged side effects. The present investigation focuses on developing QSAR models from the biological activity of herbal compounds and their derivatives that promise to be alternative candidates to GABA uptake inhibitors. Three sets of compounds were undertaken in the study to develop the QSAR models...
December 5, 2016: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916703/oogenesis_pred-a-sequence-based-method-for-predicting-oogenesis-proteins-by-six-different-modes-of-chou-s-pseudo-amino-acid-composition
#4
Maryam Rahimi, Mohammad Reza Bakhtiarizadeh, Abdollah Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh
Regarding to critical roles of oogenesis in formation of ova or unfertilized eggs from the oogonia by mitotic division and subsequent differentiation, the identification of oogenesis-related proteins is of great interest. However, the experimental determination of proteins involved in oogenesis is expensive, time consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, a new powerful discriminating model is indispensable for classifying oogenesis/non-oogenesis-related proteins with high accuracy and precision. Hereby, for the first time we developed a support vector machine based oogenesis protein prediction method which differentiates oogenesis from non-oogenesis proteins...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913274/two-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-5-genes-exhibit-different-yet-conserved-functions-in-development-and-growth
#5
Guo-Dong Zheng, Chun-Xue Zhou, Si-Tong Lin, Jie Chen, Xia-Yun Jiang, Shu-Ming Zou
Insulin-like growth factor binding-protein 5 (igfbp5), the most conserved member of the IGFBP family in vertebrates, plays a critical role in controlling cell survival, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we characterized the expression patterns of igfbp5a and igfbp5b in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which are retained in many fish species, likely from the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication. Both igfbp5a and igfbp5b encode 268- and 263-aa peptides, respectively, which share a sequence identity of 71%...
November 29, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911903/transfected-babesia-bovis-expressing-a-tick-gst-as-a-live-vector-vaccine
#6
Daiane P Oldiges, Jacob M Laughery, Nelson Junior Tagliari, Ronaldo Viana Leite Filho, William C Davis, Itabajara da Silva Vaz, Carlos Termignoni, Donald P Knowles, Carlos E Suarez
The Rhipicephalus microplus tick is a notorious blood-feeding ectoparasite of livestock, especially cattle, responsible for massive losses in animal production. It is the main vector for transmission of pathogenic bacteria and parasites, including Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic apicomplexan protozoan parasite responsible for bovine Babesiosis. This study describes the development and testing of a live B. bovis vaccine expressing the protective tick antigen glutathione-S-transferase from Haemaphysalis longicornis (HlGST)...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908189/thermoacoustic-imaging-of-rabbit-knee-joints
#7
Zihui Chi, Yuan Zhao, Lin Huang, Zhu Zheng, Huabei Jiang
PURPOSE: Knee joint is one of the largest and most complex joints of the body. Knee joint diseases are common, and current clinical imaging technologies such as x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound imaging have limitations in the diagnosis of knee joint diseases. Emerging imaging technologies such as diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic imaging (PAI) have been applied to the detection of osteoarthritis (OA). However, they are limited to small joints such as the finger and difficult to be used for large joints such as the knee...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908154/mass-detection-in-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-deep-convolutional-neural-network-with-transfer-learning-from-mammography
#8
Ravi K Samala, Heang-Ping Chan, Lubomir Hadjiiski, Mark A Helvie, Jun Wei, Kenny Cha
PURPOSE: Develop a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for masses in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) volume using a deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) with transfer learning from mammograms. METHODS: A data set containing 2282 digitized film and digital mammograms and 324 DBT volumes were collected with IRB approval. The mass of interest on the images was marked by an experienced breast radiologist as reference standard. The data set was partitioned into a training set (2282 mammograms with 2461 masses and 230 DBT views with 228 masses) and an independent test set (94 DBT views with 89 masses)...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906518/functional-development-of-the-brain-s-face-processing-system
#9
REVIEW
Frank Haist, Gizelle Anzures
In the first 20 years of life, the human brain undergoes tremendous growth in size, weight, and synaptic connectedness. Over the same time period, a person achieves remarkable transformations in perception, thought, and behavior. One important area of development is face processing ability, or the ability to quickly and accurately extract extensive information about a person's identity, emotional state, attractiveness, intention, and numerous other types of information that are crucial to everyday social interaction and communication...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906389/emulation-of-synaptic-metaplasticity-in-memristors
#10
Xiaojian Zhu, Chao Du, YeonJoo Jeong, Wei D Lu
Recent studies have shown that nanoionic-based memristors can offer rich internal dynamics during ion movement that enables these solid-state devices to emulate various synaptic functions in biological systems naturally. The experimental observations can be explained within the 2nd-order memristor theoretical framework, which states that the device conductance (weight) can be determined by multiple internal state variables that can be modulated at different time scales and lead to different activity-dependent synaptic behaviors...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906137/in-vitro-toxicity-of-carbon-nanotube-polylysine-colloids-to-colon-cancer-cells
#11
Alejandro Ansón-Casaos, Laura Grasa, Desirée Pereboom, José Emilio Mesonero, Alvaro Casanova, María Divina Murillo, María Teresa Martínez
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are thoroughly purified and dispersed in an aqueous solution of high molecular weight poly-L-lysine (pLlys). Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2/TC7 cells are incubated with the SWCNT dispersions in pLlys, and their effects on cell viability are studied by image flow cytometry. No significant changes are observed in the cell culture wells up to pLlys concentrations of 10 μg ml(-1). However, high mortality is detected at pLlys concentrations of 100 μg ml(-1). The presence of oxygen-free SWCNTs does not modify the effects of pLlys on cell cultures at any of the tested concentrations (≤1 μg ml(-1))...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903833/meal-distribution-of-dietary-protein-and-leucine-influences-long-term-muscle-mass-and-body-composition-in-adult-rats
#12
Layne E Norton, Gabriel J Wilson, Christopher J Moulton, Donald K Layman
BACKGROUND: Protein quantity and quality at a meal affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS); however, long-term effects of protein distribution at individual meals on adult muscle mass remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We used a precise feeding protocol in adult rats to determine if optimizing postmeal MPS response by modifying the meal distribution of protein, and the amino acid leucine (Leu), would affect muscle mass. METHODS: Two studies were conducted with the use of male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300 g) trained to consume 3 meals/d, then assigned to diet treatments with identical macronutrient contents (16% of energy from protein, 54% from carbohydrates, and 30% from fat) but differing in protein quality or meal distribution...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902529/perceived-exertion-during-exercise-is-associated-with-children-s-energy-intake
#13
S Nicole Fearnbach, Travis D Masterson, Haley A Schlechter, Eric Loken, Danielle S Downs, David Thivel, Kathleen L Keller
PURPOSE: To examine the individual-level factors that predict energy intake (EI) following imposed exercise (EX) and sedentary time (SED) in children. METHODS: Healthy-weight children ages 9-12 years (n = 20) reported to the laboratory for 1 baseline and 2 experimental visits (EX and SED) each separated by 1 week in a randomized crossover design. Percent body fat, weight (kg), and height (m) were used to calculate fat-mass index (FM index) and fat-free mass index (FFM index; kg/m)...
November 29, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902362/identification-and-interspecies-transmission-of-a-novel-bocaparvovirus-among-different-bat-species-in-china
#14
Susanna Kp Lau, Syed Shakeel Ahmed, Hazel C Yeung, Kenneth S M Li, Rachel Y Y Fan, Toni Y C Cheng, Jian-Piao Cai, Ming Wang, Bo-Jian Zheng, Samson S Y Wong, Patrick C Y Woo, Kwok-Yung Yuen
We report the discovery of a novel bocaparvovirus, bat bocaparvovirus (BtBoV), in one spleen, four respiratory and 61 alimentary samples from bats of six different species belonging to three families, Hipposideridae, Rhinolophidae and Vespertilionidae. BtBoV showed higher detection rate in alimentary samples of Rhinolophus sinicus (5.7%) than those of other bat species (0.43-1.59%), supporting R. sinicus as the primary reservoir and virus spill-over to accidental bat species. BtBoV peaked during lactating season of R...
October 25, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901114/genome-wide-diversity-and-association-mapping-for-capsaicinoids-and-fruit-weight-in-capsicum-annuum-l
#15
Padma Nimmakayala, Venkata L Abburi, Thangasamy Saminathan, Suresh B Alaparthi, Aldo Almeida, Brittany Davenport, Marjan Nadimi, Joshua Davidson, Krittika Tonapi, Lav Yadav, Sridhar Malkaram, Gopinath Vajja, Gerald Hankins, Robert Harris, Minkyu Park, Doil Choi, John Stommel, Umesh K Reddy
Accumulated capsaicinoid content and increased fruit size are traits resulting from Capsicum annuum domestication. In this study, we used a diverse collection of C. annuum to generate 66,960 SNPs using genotyping by sequencing. The study identified 1189 haplotypes containing 3413 SNPs. Length of individual linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks varied along chromosomes, with regions of high and low LD interspersed with an average LD of 139 kb. Principal component analysis (PCA), Bayesian model based population structure analysis and an Euclidean tree built based on identity by state (IBS) indices revealed that the clustering pattern of diverse accessions are in agreement with capsaicin content (CA) and fruit weight (FW) classifications indicating the importance of these traits in shaping modern pepper genome...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898944/life-cycle-efficiency-of-beef-production-viii-relationship-between-residual-feed-intake-of-heifers-and-subsequent-cow-efficiency-ratios
#16
M E Davis, P A Lancaster, J J Rutledge, L V Cundiff
Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896698/atmospheric-pressure-ionization-using-a-high-voltage-target-compared-to-electrospray-ionization
#17
Arnaud Lubin, Steve Bajic, Deirdre Cabooter, Patrick Augustijns, Filip Cuyckens
A new atmospheric pressure ionization (API) source, viz. UniSpray, was evaluated for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of pharmaceutical compounds by head-to-head comparison with electrospray ionization (ESI) on the same high-resolution MS system. The atmospheric pressure ionization source is composed of a grounded nebulizer spraying onto a high voltage, cylindrical stainless steel target. Molecules are ionized in a similar fashion to electrospray ionization, predominantly producing protonated or deprotonated species...
November 28, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894973/is-there-nothing-new-under-the-sun-the-influence-of-herbals-and-pharmacopoeias-on-ethnobotanical-traditions-in-albacete-spain
#18
Diego Rivera, Alonso Verde, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz, Candelaria Moreno, Teresa Egea, José Fajardo, José Antonio Palazón, Arturo Valdés, Maria Adele Signorini, Piero Bruschi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This paper has two overarching aims: (1) presenting the results of studying the Albacete tariff of medicines of 1526 and (2) broadly analyzing the origin and influences of medicinal traditional knowledge in the region of Albacete, Spain. We use historical and modern literature that may have influenced this knowledge. Our primary goal was to determine the ingredients used in the pharmacy in the 16th century CE in Albacete through the analysis of the tariff, and our secondary goal was to investigate until when ingredients and uses present in pharmacy and herbals persisted in later periods...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891245/genetic-diversity-of-halla-horses-using-microsatellite-markers
#19
Joo-Hee Seo, Kyung-Do Park, Hak-Kyo Lee, Hong-Sik Kong
BACKGROUND: Currently about 26,000 horses are breeding in Korea and 57.2% (14,776 horses) of them are breeding in Jeju island. According to the statistics published in 2010, the horses breeding in Jeju island are subdivided into Jeju horse (6.1%), Thoroughbred (18.8%) and Halla horse (75.1%). Halla horses are defined as a crossbreed between Jeju and Thoroughbred horses and are used for horse racing, horse riding and horse meat production. However, little research has been conducted on Halla horses because of the perception of crossbreed and people's weighted interest toward Jeju horses...
2016: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891059/ethnic-identity-attachment-and-motivation-for-weight-loss-and-exercise-among-rural-overweight-african-american-women
#20
K Bryant Smalley, Jacob C Warren, Sydney McClendon, Wilburn Peacock, Marisol Caro
Rural and minority women are disproportionately impacted by the obesity epidemic; however, little research has studied the intersection of these disparity groups. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of racial identity on motivation for weight loss and exercise among rural, African-American women with an obesity-linked chronic disease. A total of 154 African-American women were recruited from the patient population of a Federally Qualified Health Center in the rural South to complete a questionnaire battery including the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and separate assessments of motivation for weight loss and exercise...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Women's Health
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