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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728583/birth-weight-differences-between-those-offered-financial-voucher-incentives-for-verified-smoking-cessation-and-control-participants-enrolled-in-the-cessation-in-pregnancy-incentives-trial-cpit-employing-an-intuitive-approach-and-a-complier-average-causal-effects
#1
Alex McConnachie, Caroline Haig, Lesley Sinclair, Linda Bauld, David M Tappin
BACKGROUND: The Cessation in Pregnancy Incentives Trial (CPIT), which offered financial incentives for smoking cessation during pregnancy showed a clinically and statistically significant improvement in cessation. However, infant birth weight was not seen to be affected. This study re-examines birth weight using an intuitive and a complier average causal effects (CACE) method to uncover important information missed by intention-to-treat analysis. METHODS: CPIT offered financial incentives up to £400 to pregnant smokers to quit...
July 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728309/escherichia-coli-outer-membrane-protein-f-ompf-an-immunogenic-protein-induces-cross-reactive-antibodies-against-escherichia-coli-and-shigella
#2
Xiao Wang, Da Teng, Qingfeng Guan, Ruoyu Mao, Ya Hao, Xiumin Wang, Junhu Yao, Jianhua Wang
Diarrhea caused by pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most serious infectious diseases in humans and animals. Due to antibiotics resistance and the lack of efficient vaccine, more attention should be paid to find potential versatile vaccine candidates to prevent diseases. In this study, the sequence homology analysis indicated that OmpF from E. coli CVCC 1515 shares a high identity (90-100%) with about half of the E. coli (46.7%) and Shigella (52.8%) strains. Then the recombinant OmpF was supposed to be developed as a versatile vaccine to prevent E...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727905/species-richness-and-traits-predict-overyielding-in-stem-growth-in-an-early-successional-tree-diversity-experiment
#3
Jake J Grossman, Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Sarah E Hobbie, Peter B Reich, Rebecca A Montgomery
Over the last two decades, empirical work has established that higher biodiversity can lead to greater primary productivity; however, the importance of different aspects of biodiversity in contributing to such relationships is rarely elucidated. We assessed the relative importance of species richness, phylogenetic diversity, functional diversity, and identity of neighbors for stem growth three years after seedling establishment in a tree diversity experiment in eastern Minnesota. Generally, we found that community-weighted means of key functional traits (including mycorrhizal association, leaf nitrogen and calcium, and waterlogging tolerance) as well as species richness were strong, independent predictors of stem biomass growth...
July 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727040/genome-wide-association-studies-and-meta-analysis-reveal-novel-quantitative-trait-loci-and-pleiotropic-loci-for-swine-head-related-traits
#4
H Chen, T Huang, Z Zhang, B Yang, C Jiang, J Wu, Z Zhou, H Zheng, W Xin, M Huang, M Zhang, C Chen, J Ren, H Ai, L Huang
The pig is an important domestic animal that provides a larger amount of meat and serves as a biomedical animal model for human. Head and facial features are closely linked to identity recognition in mammal communication. To uncover the genetic architecture of swine head and facial features, we constructed 5 experimental pig populations and accurately measured 10 traits related to head and facial features, for which genome-wide association studies and meta-analysis were later carried out. As a result, we identified a total of 24 loci harboring 437 SNP on 8 swine chromosomes (SSC) that surpassed suggestively significant levels, of which 17 loci on 6 chromosomes exceeded the 5% genome-wide significance thresholds...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722121/the-importance-of-species-identity-and-interactions-on-multifunctionality-depends-on-how-ecosystem-functions-are-valued
#5
Eleanor M Slade, Laura Kirwan, Thomas Bell, Christopher Philipson, Owen T Lewis, Tomas Roslin
Studies investigating how biodiversity affects ecosystem functioning increasingly focus on multiple functions measured simultaneously ('multifunctionality'). However, few such studies assess the role of species interactions, particularly under alternative environmental scenarios, despite interactions being key to ecosystem functioning. Here we address five questions of central importance to ecosystem multifunctionality using a terrestrial animal system: 1) Does the contribution of individual species differ for different ecosystem functions?; 2) Do inter-species interactions affect the delivery of single functions and multiple functions?; 3) Does the community composition which maximises individual functions also maximise multifunctionality?; 4) Is the functional role of individual species, and the effect of interspecific interactions, modified by changing environmental conditions?; and 5) How do these roles and interactions change under varying scenarios where ecosystem services are weighted to reflect different societal preferences? We manipulated species' relative abundance in dung beetle communities and measured 16 functions contributing to dung decomposition, plant productivity, nutrient recycling, reduction of greenhouse gases, and microbial activity...
July 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713708/the-healing-effect-of-grape-seed-oil-enema-with-or-without-sesame-oil-in-acetic-acid-induced-ulcerative-colitis-of-rats
#6
Fatemeh Hosseinzadeh, Moosa Salehi, Nader Tanideh, Davood Mehrabani, Azadeh Sayarifard, Anahita Sedighi
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases contain two digestive system diseases, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease with unclear causes. The aim of present study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of administration of the Sesame oil (SO) and grape seed oil (GSO) as enema route in rats suffering from experimental acetic acid induced UC. METHODS: Eighty male rats were randomly allocated into 8 equal groups as health control (HC1) without any disease treated with 1 ml of normal saline as enema; HC2 received SO; HC3 received GSO; negative control (NC) with induced UC receiving 1 ml of normal saline as enema; and positive control (PC) with induced UC treated by asacol...
May 2017: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712479/antiplatelet-aggregation-activity-of-walnut-hull-extract-via-suppression-of-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-and-caspase-activation
#7
Azadeh Meshkini, Masoumeh Tahmasbi
Walnut hull (wal hull) is an agricultural by-product that is widely used in traditional medicine for alleviating pain and treating skin diseases, however, recently it has gained much attention in modern pharmacology due to its antioxidant properties. The current study was aimed to determine the total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin content of Persian wal hull extract and evaluate its biological effects on platelet function. Experimental data showed that acetone extract of wal hulls has a high content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant properties...
June 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709406/using-structural-equation-modeling-for-network-meta-analysis
#8
Yu-Kang Tu, Yun-Chun Wu
BACKGROUND: Network meta-analysis overcomes the limitations of traditional pair-wise meta-analysis by incorporating all available evidence into a general statistical framework for simultaneous comparisons of several treatments. Currently, network meta-analyses are undertaken either within the Bayesian hierarchical linear models or frequentist generalized linear mixed models. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a statistical method originally developed for modeling causal relations among observed and latent variables...
July 14, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695156/extending-the-concept-of-weighted-ct-dose-index-to-elliptical-phantoms-of-various-aspect-ratios
#9
Andrey Markovich, Ashraf G Morgan, Frank F Dong, Andrew N Primak, Xiang Li
The purpose of this study was to extend the concept of weighted CT dose index ([Formula: see text]) to the elliptical phantoms. Based on the published body dimension data, eight body aspect ratios were chosen between 1 (perfectly circular) and 1.72 (extremely elliptical). For each aspect ratio, two elliptical cylinders were created digitally to represent adult and pediatric bodies. Their cross-sectional areas were identical to the standard 32- and 16-cm CTDI phantoms. For each phantom, [Formula: see text] at center and periphery were simulated for tube voltages between 70 and 140 kVp using a validated Monte Carlo program...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692946/victimization-as-a-mediator-of-alcohol-use-disparities-between-sexual-minority-subgroups-and-sexual-majority-youth-using-the-2015-national-youth-risk-behavior-survey
#10
Gregory Phillips, Blair Turner, Paul Salamanca, Michelle Birkett, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Michael E Newcomb, Rachel Marro, Brian Mustanski
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use among underage youth is a significant public health concern. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, alcohol is the "drug of choice" among adolescents, meaning more youth use and abuse alcohol than any other substance. Prevalence of alcohol use is disproportionately higher among sexual minority youth (SMY) than among their heterosexual peers. We examined sexual identity and sexual behavior disparities in alcohol use, and the mediational role of bullying in a sample of high school students...
June 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690141/molecular-characterization-and-protein-localization-of-the-antimicrobial-peptide-big-defensin-from-the-scallop-argopecten-purpuratus-after-vibrio-splendidus-challenge
#11
Roxana González, Katherina Brokordt, Claudia B Cárcamo, Teodoro Coba de la Peña, Daniel Oyanedel, Luis Mercado, Paulina Schmitt
Big defensins are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are proposed as important effectors of the immune response in mollusks, chelicerates and chordates. At present, only two members of the big defensin family have been identified in scallop. In the present work, a cDNA sequence encoding a new big defensin homologue was characterized from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, namely ApBD1. ApBD1 cDNA sequence comprised 585 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 375 bp and 5'- and 3'-UTRs of 41 and 167 bp, respectively...
July 6, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687652/high-temporal-and-spatial-variability-of-atmospheric-methane-oxidation-in-alpine-glacier-forefield-soils
#12
Eleonora Chiri, Philipp A Nauer, Edda-Marie Rainer, Josef Zeyer, Martin H Schroth
Glacier-forefield soils can provide a substantial sink for atmospheric CH4, facilitated by aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). However, MOB activity, abundance, and community structure may be affected by soil age, location in different forefield landforms, and temporal fluctuations in soil-physical parameters. We assessed spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric CH4 oxidation in an Alpine glacier forefield during the snow-free season 2013. We quantified CH4 flux in soils of increasing age and in different landforms (sandhill, terrace, floodplain) using soil-gas-profile and static flux-chamber methods...
July 7, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683753/two-stage-correction-of-type-iv-total-anomalous-pulmonary-venous-connection
#13
Hunbo Shim, Ji-Hyuk Yang, Tae-Gook Jun
BACKGROUND: The small size of the pulmonary veins in infants increases the risk of pulmonary vein obstruction (PVO) after surgical repair of type IV total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC). Here, we described the outcomes of our strategy, which delayed total correction after initial partial correction. METHODS: We reviewed the data of patients who underwent total correction for type IV TAPVC. In total, 11 out of 103 patients with TAPVC had type IV TAPVC with biventricular physiology...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678140/the-americleft-project-plaster-dental-casts-versus-digital-images-for-goslon-yardstick-ratings-when-used-in-intercenter-comparisons
#14
Ross E Long, John Daskalogiannakis, Ana M Mercado, Ronald R Hathaway, Jennifer Fessler, Kathleen A Russell
The purpose of this investigation was to determine reliability and validity of GOSLON Yardstick ratings using plaster casts versus photo galleries of digital images in actual intercenter comparisons. The dental arch relationships of 112 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate from 3 North American cleft/craniofacial centers were rated in 2 separate studies. In the first, plaster casts were used. For a later intercenter comparison, the same dental casts were scanned, digital bases added, and two-dimensional photographic galleries (6 views) were created for each set of casts...
July 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674683/infusion-of-sibling-marrow-in-a-patient-with-purine-nucleoside-phosphorylase-deficiency-leads-to-split-mixed-donor-chimerism-and-normal-immunity
#15
Laura Yeates, Mary A Slatter, Andrew R Gennery
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency, a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease causes combined immunodeficiency and developmental delay, hypotonia, and spasticity. Patients present with recurrent infections associated with T-lymphocytopenia, characteristically presenting later than patients with classical severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). PNP, with adenosine deaminase (ADA), is part of the purine salvage pathway. The only curative therapy is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Myeloablative conditioning is recommended to prevent rejection caused by residual immune function...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671933/outdoor-reproducibility-of-a-1-km-treadmill-walking-test-to-predict-peak-oxygen-uptake-in-cardiac-patients
#16
Giovanni Grazzi, Giorgio Chiaranda, Jonathan Myers, Giovanni Pasanisi, Rosario Lordi, Francesco Conconi, Gianni Mazzoni
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine whether the 1-km treadmill walking test, previously developed to predict peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in stable cardiac outpatients, could be reproduced outdoors. METHODS: Fifty male cardiac outpatients performed the 1-km walking test on a treadmill and on a flat track within 1 week. VO2peak was estimated for both testing conditions considering age, height, weight, walking speed, and heart rate. RESULTS: Average walking speed was slightly higher during outdoor conditions (5...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667590/using-nonlinear-finite-element-models-to-analyse-stress-distribution-during-subluxation-and-torque-required-for-dislocation-of-newly-developed-total-hip-structure-after-prosthetic-impingement
#17
Wei-Min Chi, Chien-Chung Lin, Ying-Jui Ho, Hsiao-Che Lin, Jian-Horng Chen
Dislocation is a serious potential complication of total hip replacement. Previous studies have proposed a newly developed total hip structure that meets the required oscillation angle of 120°, for which the chamfer on the acetabular liner rim was designed to enable the neck to impinge on the chamfer over a large area after impingement occurs. This study adopted the finite element method to further analyse the torque limits leading to dislocation and the contact stresses at the impingement and egress sites of the liner during subluxation...
July 1, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663267/comparison-of-gadoterate-meglumine-and-gadobutrol-in-the-mri-diagnosis-of-primary-brain-tumors-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-intraindividual-crossover-study-the-remind-study
#18
K R Maravilla, D San-Juan, S J Kim, G Elizondo-Riojas, J R Fink, W Escobar, A Bag, D R Roberts, J Hao, C Pitrou, A J Tsiouris, E Herskovits, J B Fiebach
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Effective management of patients with brain tumors depends on accurate detection and characterization of lesions. This study aimed to demonstrate the noninferiority of gadoterate meglumine versus gadobutrol for overall visualization and characterization of primary brain tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled intraindividual, crossover, noninferiority study included 279 patients. Both contrast agents (dose = 0...
June 29, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663127/antimicrobial-effect-of-the-60s-ribosomal-protein-l29-cgrpl29-purified-from-the-gill-of-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#19
Jung-Kil Seo, Dong-Gyun Kim, Ryunkyoung Oh, Kwon-Sam Park, In-Ah Lee, Sang-Man Cho, Ki-Young Lee, Bo-Hye Nam
We purified an ∼6.4-kDa antimicrobial peptide from an acidified gill extract of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, by cation-exchange and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identified peptide was composed of 54 amino acids and had a molecular weight of 6484.6 Da. Comparison of the amino acid sequence and molecular weight with those of other known proteins or peptides revealed that the peptide had high identity with the 60S ribosomal protein L29, and so was named cgRPL29...
August 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660475/eating-disorders-and-disordered-weight-and-shape-control-behaviors-in-sexual-minority-populations
#20
REVIEW
Jerel P Calzo, Aaron J Blashill, Tiffany A Brown, Russell L Argenal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarized trends and key findings from empirical studies conducted between 2011 and 2017 regarding eating disorders and disordered weight and shape control behaviors among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research has examined disparities through sociocultural and minority stress approaches. Sexual minorities continue to demonstrate higher rates of disordered eating; disparities are more pronounced among males...
August 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
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