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Weight identity

Alice Keely, Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Lawrie Elliott, Jane Sandall, Anne Whittaker
INTRODUCTION: women with a raised BMI are more likely to gain excessive weight in pregnancy compared to women with a BMI in the normal range. Recent behaviour change interventions have had moderate to no influence on GWG, and no effect on other perinatal outcomes. Evidence is required regarding the social and cultural contexts of weight and pregnancy. No studies to date have included the views of partners. AIMS: to explore the experiences, attitudes and health-related behaviours of pregnant women with a BMI >40kg/m(2); and to identify the factors and considerations which shape their beliefs, experiences and behaviours, and how these may change during and after pregnancy...
September 28, 2016: Midwifery
Renjing Liu, Kun-Yong Kim, Yong-Wook Jung, In-Hyun Park
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression. Dnmt1 plays an important role in maintaining DNA methylation patterns on daughter DNA strands. Studies have shed light into the functional role of Dnmt1 regulation in the hematopoietic and epidermal systems. Here we show that Dnmt1 is required for myogenesis. Loss of Dnmt1 results in reduced expression of myogenic genes and defects in myogenic differentiation. We have utilized a conditional knockout mouse approach to examine the functional consequences of Dnmt1 depletion specifically in the developing muscle...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Victor Grech, Samuel Aquilina, Erin Camilleri, Karl Camilleri, Maria-Louisa Busuttil, Victoria Farrugia Sant'Angelo, Neville Calleja
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a chronic disease that often commences in childhood. Over quarter of Maltese children are overweight or obese. This study was carried out in order to measure height and weight (and Body Mass Index) for all school children in Malta in order to precisely quantify the extent of the problem. METHODS: Schooling in Malta is provided by: A. Free State schools, B. Subsidised Roman-Catholic Church-run schools and C. Independent Private schools. All were included...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Pradip Mondal, Kazi Nurul Hasan, Palash Kumar Pal, Saumen Kumar Maitra
The present study aimed to evaluate antioxidant role of melatonin in determining seasonality of ovarian growth in adult carp Catla catla. Accordingly, an identical regimen of exogenous melatonin administration (100 μg/100 g body weight per day for 15 days) was followed during the preparatory, prespawning, and spawning phases of an annual reproductive cycle. The study did not include postspawning phase, when the ovaries were completely regressed and devoid of any healthy growing follicles. The ovarian response was evaluated by determining relative number of developing oocytes as well as measuring the levels of melatonin, oxidative stress (using malondialdehyde [MDA] as the marker), both enzymatic (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and glutathione S-transferase [GST]) and nonenzymatic (reduced glutathione [GSH]) antioxidants in the ovarian homogenates...
September 19, 2016: Theriogenology
Jin Xiao, Yonghwi Moon, Lihua Li, Elena Rustchenko, Hironao Wakabayashi, Xiaoyi Zhao, Changyong Feng, Steven R Gill, Sean McLaren, Hans Malmstrom, Yanfang Ren, Robert Quivey, Hyun Koo, Dorota T Kopycka-Kedzierawski
INTRODUCTION: Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. METHODS: Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam...
2016: PloS One
Rinki Murphy, Peter Tsai, Mia Jüllig, Amy Liu, Lindsay Plank, Michael Booth
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether specific gut microbiota is associated with remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) after distinct types of bariatric surgery. AIMS: The aim of this study is to examine gut microbiota changes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) surgery in obese patients with T2D. METHODS: Whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing of DNA fragments using Illumina HiSeq2000 was obtained from stool samples collected from 14 obese T2D patients pre-operatively (while on very low calorie diet) and 1 year after randomisation to laparoscopic SG (n = 7) or RYGB (n = 7)...
October 13, 2016: Obesity Surgery
Rosalina Djatmika, Chih-Chung Hsieh, Jhih-Ming Chen, Wang-Hsien Ding
An effective method for determining four commonly detected paraben preservatives (methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl paraben) in marketed seafood is presented. This method employs matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) before identification and quantification of the paraben preservatives via on-line acetylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of MSPD were optimized through a Box-Behnken design method. Under optimal condition, 0.5-g of freeze-dried seafood was mixed with 0...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
S Farmer, V V Shanbhogue, S Hansen, C I Stahlberg, H Vestergaard, A P Hermann, H Frederiksen
: In this cross-sectional study of 45 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, we found no evidence of secondary osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythaemia vera (PV) are at increased risk of fractures but the underlying mechanisms have not been settled. We conducted a study to assess bone mineral density, microarchitecture, estimated bone strength and global bone turnover in 45 patients with ET or PV. METHODS: Patients were evaluated in a cross-sectional study with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the hip and spine; high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at the distal radius and distal tibia; and biochemical markers of bone turnover including pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide, osteocalcin, C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase...
October 13, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Arcady A Putilov, Olga G Donskaya, Evgeniy G Verevkin
One of the critical barriers to reducing the threats of sleep loss to public health, safety, and productivity is a lack of practical tools for quick identification of objective level of sleepiness. We examined a novel sleepiness measure named "spectral drowsy component score" to provide evidence for generalizability of a frequency weighting curve required for calculation of this measure. Each spectral drowsy component score is a sum of 16 weighted ln-transformed single-Hz power densities (1-16 Hz) obtained by the fast Fourier transformation of an electroencephalographic signal recorded during the first minute after closing the eyes...
October 11, 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Antonios Proestakis, Pablo Brañas-Garza
Empirical evidence suggests that obese people are discriminated in different social environments, such as the work place. Yet, the degree to which obese people are internalizing and adjusting their own behavior as a result of this discriminatory behavior has not been thoroughly studied. We develop a proxy for measuring experimentally the "self-weight bias" by giving to both self-identified obese (n = 90) and non-obese (n = 180) individuals the opportunity to request a positive amount of money after having performed an identical task...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Satoshi Yokoi, Keizo Yasui, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Kazuki Niwa, Yoshinori Noguchi, Toyonori Tsuzuki, Maya Mimuro, Jun Sone, Hirohisa Watanabe, Masahisa Katsuno, Mari Yoshida, Gen Sobue
AIMS: Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. The variable symptoms of NIID increase the difficulty in an antemortem diagnosis. NIID shows leukoencephalopathy on brain magnetic resonance imaging MRI, but the significance of the radiological findings have not been clarified. METHODS: We examined an autopsied case of NIID with subcortical linear hyperintensities on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and leukoencephalopathy on fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging...
October 10, 2016: Clinical Neuropathology
F Burger, M Walgenbach, P Göbel, S Parbs, E Neugebauer
Background: We investigated and evaluated the cost effectiveness of coding by health care economists in a centre for orthopaedics and trauma surgery in Germany, by quantifying and comparing the financial efficiency of physicians with basic knowledge of the DRG-system with the results of healthcare economists with in-depth knowledge (M.Sc.). In addition, a hospital survey was performed to establish how DRG-coding is being performed and the identity of the persons involved. Material and Methods: In a prospective and controlled study, 200 in-patients were coded by a healthcare economist (study group)...
October 7, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Julia U Brandt, Frank Jakob, Jürgen Behr, Andreas J Geissler, Rudi F Vogel
BACKGROUND: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are well known producers of commercially used exopolysaccharides, such as cellulose and levan. Kozakia (K.) baliensis is a relatively new member of AAB, which produces ultra-high molecular weight levan from sucrose. Throughout cultivation of two K. baliensis strains (DSM 14400, NBRC 16680) on sucrose-deficient media, we found that both strains still produce high amounts of mucous, water-soluble substances from mannitol and glycerol as (main) carbon sources...
October 4, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
Akihide Yoshihara, Taro Kozakai, Tomoya Shintani, Ryo Matsutani, Kouhei Ohtani, Tetsuo Iida, Kazuya Akimitsu, Ken Izumori, Pushpa Kiran Gullapalli
An enzyme that catalyzes C-3 epimerization between d-fructose and d-allulose was found in Arthrobacter globiformis strain M30. Arthrobacter species have long been used in the food industry and are well-known for their high degree of safety. The enzyme was purified by ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographies and characterized as a d-allulose 3-epimerase (d-AE). The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 128 kDa with four identical subunits. The enzyme showed maximal activity and thermostability in the presence of Mg(2+)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
F Ghezelbash, A Shirazi-Adl, N Arjmand, Z El-Ouaaid, A Plamondon, J R Meakin
Subject-specific parameters influence spinal loads and the risk of back disorders but their relative effects are not well understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of changes in age (35-60 years), sex (male, female), body height (BH: 150-190cm) and body weight (BW: 50-120kg) on spinal loads in a full-factorial simulation using a personalized (spine kinematics, geometry, musculature and passive properties) kinematics driven musculoskeletal trunk finite element model. Segmental weight distribution (magnitude and location along the trunk) was estimated by a novel technique to accurately represent obesity...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Keisuke Ejima, Peng Li, Daniel L Smith, Tim R Nagy, Inga Kadish, Thomas van Groen, John A Dawson, Yongbin Yang, Amit Patki, David B Allison
BACKGROUND: Differing opinions exist on whether associations obtained in observational studies can be reliable indicators of a causal effect if the observational study is sufficiently well controlled and executed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test this, we conducted two animal observational studies that were rigorously controlled and executed beyond what is achieved in studies of humans. In study 1, we randomized 332 genetically identical C57BL/6J mice into three diet groups with differing food energy allotments and recorded individual self-selected daily energy intake and lifespan...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Anouk J de Brouwer, Jeroen B J Smeets, Myrthe A Plaisier
The perception of object properties, such as size and weight, can be subject to illusions. Could a visual size illusion influence perceived weight? Here, we tested whether the size-weight illusion occurs when lifting two physically identical but perceptually different objects, by using an illusion of size. Participants judged the weight and length of 11 to 17 cm brass bars with equal density to which cardboard arrowheads were attached to create a Müller-Lyer illusion. We found that these stimuli induced an illusion in which the bar that was visually perceived as being shorter was also perceived as feeling heavier...
September 2016: I-Perception
Mieko Higuchi-Takeuchi, Kumiko Morisaki, Keiji Numata
Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a family of biopolyesters accumulated by a variety of microorganisms as carbon and energy storage under starvation conditions. We focused on marine purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria as host microorganisms for PHA production and developed a method for their isolation from natural seawater. To identify novel PHA-producing marine purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria, natural seawaters were cultured in nutrient-rich medium for purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria, and twelve pink- or red-pigmented colonies were picked up...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexis D J Makin, Damien Wright, Giulia Rampone, Letizia Palumbo, Martin Guest, Rhiannon Sheehan, Helen Cleaver, Marco Bertamini
A traditional line of work starting with the Gestalt school has shown that patterns vary in strength and salience; a difference in "Perceptual goodness." The Holographic weight of evidence model quantifies goodness of visual regularities. The key formula states that W = E/N, where E is number of holographic identities in a pattern and N is number of elements. We tested whether W predicts the amplitude of the neural response to regularity in an extrastriate symmetry-sensitive network. We recorded an Event Related Potential (ERP) generated by symmetry called the Sustained Posterior Negativity (SPN)...
October 4, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Yoshio Suzuki, Minoru Fukushima, Keishoku Sakuraba, Keisuke Sawaki, Kazuaki Sekigawa
BACKGROUND: Krill oil is an edible oil extracted from krill, a small red-colored crustacean found in the Antarctic Ocean. The administration of krill oil is reported to mitigate inflammation in patients with cardiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoarthritis. However, the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain has not yet been determined. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain. DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of fifty adults (38-85 years old) with mild knee pain attending the Fukushima Orthopedic Clinic (Tochigi, Japan) between September 2014 and March 2015...
2016: PloS One
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