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Shu-Feng Hsieh, Chiang-Ting Chou, Wei-Zhe Liang, Chun-Chi Kuo, Jue-Long Wang, Lyh-Jyh Hao, Chung-Ren Jan
OBJECTIVE: Magnolol, a polyphenol compound from herbal medicines, was shown to alter physiology in various cell models. However, the effect of magnolol on Ca2+ homeostasis and its related physiology in oral cancer cells is unclear. This study examined whether magnolol altered Ca2+ signaling and cell viability in OC2 human oral cancer cells. METHODS: Cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+ ]i ) in suspended cells were measured by using the fluorescent Ca2+ -sensitive dye fura-2...
February 14, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Mohammad Hasan Karimi, Gholam Reza Mahdavinia, Bakhshali Massoumi, Ali Baghban, Mahnaz Saraei
Magnetic bioadsorbents based on chitosan with different molecular weights were prepared. To stabilize under acidic condition the synthesized magnetic chitosan was crosslinked with κ-carrageenan. The characterization of magnetic bioadsorbents revealed that the size of magnetic nanoparticles is affected by the chitosan molecular weight. Magnetic nanoparticles with larger sizes were obtained with the high molecular weight of chitosan. The removal of eriochrome black-T (EBT) by the magnetic bioadsorbents was investigated...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Amy M Holmes, Ivan Kempson, Tyron Turnbull, David Paterson, Michael S Roberts
Zinc pyrithione is an active component incorporated in an extensive range of topically applied commercial products that are used worldwide. Despite its prevalence, no published study has investigated the penetration of zinc from the zinc pyrithione complex into human skin. Zinc is crucial for healthy skin function however an elevated concentration of labile zinc is toxic outside a narrow concentration range. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy in conjunction with X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy was used to map the deposition of zinc, quantitate the amount of zinc within the skin and to identify a change in the chemical form of zinc after application...
February 19, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Jun-Seob Kim, Allen B Schantz, Sooyeon Song, Manish Kumar, Thomas K Wood
GhoT is a bacterial toxin of the type V toxin/antitoxin system that allows Escherichia coli to reduce its metabolism in response to oxidative and bile stress. GhoT functions by increasing membrane permeability and reducing both ATP levels and the proton motive force. However, how GhoT damages the inner membrane has not been elucidated. Here we investigated how GhoT damages membranes by studying its interaction with lipid bilayers and determined that GhoT does not cause macroscopic disruption of the lipid bilayer to increase membrane permeability to the dye carboxyfluorescein...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Gang Han, Tai-Shung Chung, Martin Weber, Christian Maletzko
In this work, novel loose nanofiltration (NF) hollow fiber membranes with ultrahigh water permeability and well-defined nanopore and surface charge characteristics were developed for effective fractionation of dyes and inorganic salts in textile wastewater treatment. The as-spun NF hollow fiber possesses a high pure water permeability (PWP) of 80 with a small pore size of 1.0 nm in diameter and a MWCO of 1000 Da. The surface modification by means of hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (PEI) further lowers the pore diameter to 0...
February 22, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lama Misba, Asad U Khan
AIM: The objective of the study was to look the efficacy of fractionated light against Streptococcus mutans biofilm. MATERIALS & METHODS: Antibiofilm assays (crystal violet, congo red), electron microscopic, confocal and spectroscopic studies were performed to check the effect of fractionated light. RESULTS: 6-6.5 log10 reduction of planktonic and 3.6-4.2 log10 reduction in biofilm were observed after irradiation with fractionated as compared with continuous light...
February 22, 2018: Future Microbiology
Xingbo Shi, Yu He, Wenli Gao, Xiaoying Liu, Zhongju Ye, Hua Liu, Lehui Xiao
In this work, we demonstrated a single molecule photobleaching-based strategy for the ultrasensitive detection of adenosine. A modified split aptamer was designed to specifically recognize individual adenosine molecules in solution. The specific binding of dye-labelled short strand DNA probes onto the elongated aptamer strand in the presence of adenosine resulted in a concentration dependent self-aggregation process. The degree of aggregation (DOA) of the short DNA probes on the elongated aptamer strand could then be accurately determined based on the single molecule photobleaching measurement...
February 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Dong Chen, Jia Yao, Jingping Yin, Ruizhi Lv, Bin Huang, Siqi Liu, Chunhe Yang, Zhiguo Zhang, Lie Chen, Yiwang Chen, Yongfang Li
All-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) can offer unique advantages for applications in flexible devices, and naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based polymer acceptors are the widely used polymer acceptors. However, their power conversion efficiency (PCE) still lags behind that of state-of-the-art polymer solar cells, due to low light absorption, suboptimal energy levels and the strong aggregation of the NDI-based polymer acceptor. In this work, by means of simple random copolymerization, a rhodanine-based dye molecule was introduced into the NDI-based polymer acceptor and showed an improved light absorption coefficient, an up-shifted lowest unoccupied molecular orbital level and reduced crystallization...
February 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Kevin J McHugh, Lihong Jing, Adam M Behrens, Surangi Jayawardena, Wen Tang, Mingyuan Gao, Robert Langer, Ana Jaklenec
Approximately 1.7 million new cases of cancer will be diagnosed this year in the United States leading to 600 000 deaths. Patient survival rates are highly correlated with the stage of cancer diagnosis, with localized and regional remission rates that are much higher than for metastatic cancer. The current standard of care for many solid tumors includes imaging and biopsy with histological assessment. In many cases, after tomographical imaging modalities have identified abnormal morphology consistent with cancer, surgery is performed to remove the primary tumor and evaluate the surrounding lymph nodes...
February 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Amanda J Friend, Richard G Feltbower, Emily J Hughes, Kristian P Dye, Adam W Glaser
Childhood cancer is increasing in prevalence whilst survival rates are improving. The prevalence of adult survivors of childhood cancer is consequently increasing. Many survivors suffer long-term consequences of their cancer treatment. Whilst many of these are well documented, relatively little is known about the mental health of survivors of childhood cancer. This article aimed to describe the prevalence and spectrum of mental health problems found in adult survivors of childhood cancer using a systematic review methodology...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Akihiro Kanaya, Toshihiro Sato, Nobuo Fuse, Hiroaki Yamaguchi, Nariyasu Mano, Masanori Yamauchi
PURPOSE: Propofol is one of the most widely used fast-acting intravenously administered anesthetics. However, although large inter-individual differences in dose requirements and recovery time have been observed, there are few previous studies in which the association between several potential covariates, including genetic factors such as the UGT1A9 and CYP2B6 genotypes, and propofol pharmacokinetics was simultaneously examined. This study aimed to identify factors determining propofol pharmacokinetics...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
Claudio Zett, Deborah M Rosa Stina, Renata Tiemi Kato, Eduardo Amorim Novais, Norma Allemann
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to perform imaging of irises of different colors using spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography (AS-OCTA) and iris fluorescein angiography (IFA) and compare their effectiveness in examining iris vasculature. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational clinical study. Patients with no vascular iris alterations and different pigmentation levels were recruited. Participants were imaged using OCTA adapted with an anterior segment lens and IFA with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) adapted with an anterior segment lens...
February 21, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Hiep X Nguyen, Ajay K Banga
PURPOSE: This study investigated in vitro transdermal delivery of methotrexate through dermatomed porcine ear and cadaver human skin treated with poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) acid microneedles or fractional ablative laser. METHODS: PLGA microneedles were fabricated and characterized using scanning electron microscopy and mechanical assessment techniques. The integrity of treated skin was evaluated by rheometer, transepidermal water loss, and skin electrical resistance measurements...
February 21, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Amitabha Nandi, Archana Kushwaha, Dipanwita Das, Rajib Ghosh
We report the photophysical properties and excited state dynamics of 9-anthrylbenzimidazole (ANBI) which exhibits protonation-induced molecular rotor properties. In contrast to the highly emissive behavior of neutral ANBI, protonation of the benzimidazole group of ANBI induces efficient nonradiative deactivation by ultrafast torsional motion around the bond connecting the anthracene and benzimidazole units, as revealed by ultrafast transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Contrary to viscosity-independent fluorescence of neutral dyes, protonated ANBI is shown to display linear variation of emission yield and lifetime with solvent viscosity...
February 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Petra Kleinbongard, Georgios Amanakis, Andreas Skyschally, Gerd Heusch
<u>Rationale:</u> Reduction of infarct size (IS) by remote ischemic per-conditioning (perRIC) is evident only after several hours reperfusion. <u>Objective:</u> To develop a potential real-time estimate of cardioprotection by perRIC we have analyzed the time course of ST-segment elevation. <u>Methods and Results:</u> Anesthetized open-chest pigs were subjected to 60 min coronary occlusion and 180 min reperfusion (placebo; PLA; n=19). perRIC (n=18; 4x5 min/5 min hindlimb occlusion/reperfusion) was induced 20 min after coronary occlusion...
February 21, 2018: Circulation Research
Shengrui Zhang, Qin Wang, Xiawei Liu, Jianjian Zhang, Xiaofeng Yang, Zheng Li, Hua Li
Selenocysteine (Sec) is a primary kind of reactive selenium species in cells and its vital roles in physiological processes have been featured. Thus, the development of highly sensitive and selective methods for the sensing of Sec is of great significance. This work reports a turn-on fluorescent probe for selenol based on the unique fluorescence OFF-ON switching between the Schiff base (SB) and its complementary protonated Schiff base (PSB) form of merocyanine dyes. The probe consists of a merocyanine Schiff base fluorophore and a 2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide moiety that reacts with selenol specially...
February 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Sabine Fräbel, Bastian Wagner, Markus Krischke, Volker Schmidts, Christina M Thiele, Agata Staniek, Heribert Warzecha
Plants are versatile chemists producing a tremendous variety of specialized compounds. Here, we describe the engineering of entirely novel metabolic pathways in planta enabling generation of halogenated indigo precursors as non-natural plant products. Indican (indolyl-β-d-glucopyranoside) is a secondary metabolite characteristic of a number of dyers plants. Its deglucosylation and subsequent oxidative dimerization leads to the blue dye, indigo. Halogenated indican derivatives are commonly used as detection reagents in histochemical and molecular biology applications; their production, however, relies largely on chemical synthesis...
February 18, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Prabhani Atukorale, Zekiye P Guven, Ahmet Bekdemir, Randy Carney, Reid C Van Lehn, Dong Soo Yun, Paulo H Jacob Silva, Davide Demurtas, Yusang Sabrina Yang, Alfredo Alexander-Katz, Francesco Stellacci, Darrell J Irvine
The development of synthetic nanomaterials that could embed within, penetrate, or induce fusion between membranes without permanent disruption would have great significance for biomedical applications. Here we describe structure-function relationships of highly water-soluble gold nanoparticles comprised of a ~1.5-5 nm diameter metal core coated by an amphiphilic organic ligand shell, which exhibit membrane embedding and fusion activity mediated by the surface ligands. Using an environment-sensitive dye anchored within the ligand shell as a sensor of membrane embedding, we demonstrate that particles with core sizes of ~2-3 nm are capable of embedding within and penetrating fluid bilayers...
February 21, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Takeshi Imamura, Takashi Saitou, Ryosuke Kawakami
In vivo optical imaging using fluorescence and bioluminescence is superior to other methods in terms of spatio-temporal resolution and specificity, and represents a new technology for comprehensively studying living organisms in a less invasive manner. Nowadays, it is an indispensable technology for studying many aspects of cancer biology, including dynamic invasion and metastasis. In observations of fluorescence or bioluminescence signals in a living body, various problems were caused by optical characteristics such as absorption and scattering, and therefore observation of deep tissue portion was difficult...
February 21, 2018: Cancer Science
Mary Beth Farah, Melanie M Heuston, Annette Dye, Megan F King, Autumn Shingler-Nace
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Nursing
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