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Tang-Chuan Wang, Chia-Der Lin, Tzu-Ching Shih, Hsiung-Kwang Chung, Ching-Yuang Wang, Yung-An Tsou, Ching-Hsuan Huang, Ming-Hsui Tsai
Objective We aimed to perform a meta-analysis examining balloon dilatation and laser tuboplasty for the treatment of eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD). Data Sources PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase search up to April 18, 2016, with the following keywords: eustachian, middle-ear, eustachian tuboplasty, balloon tuboplasty, laser tuboplasty, laser dilatation, and balloon dilatation. Review Methods Randomized controlled trials and prospective, retrospective, and 1-arm studies of patients with ETD treated with balloon dilatation or laser tuboplasty were included...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Moritz F Meyer, Christine Korthäuer, Stefanie Jansen, Karl-Bernd Hüttenbrink, Dirk Beutner
PURPOSE: The determination of Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) subtypes in daily routines is based on symptoms of the patient, otoscopy, nasopharyngoscopy, tympanometry, pure tone audiometry, and Valsalva's test, even though this clinical assessment is often not sufficient to clearly diagnose the subtype. In the study, we have evaluated the possibility of the determination of different subtypes of ETD by pressure chamber measurements. METHODS: In a single-person pressure chamber, we exposed 17 patients to pressure increases and decreases...
March 17, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Yunjun Rui, Weiliang Zhao, Dewei Zhu, Hengyu Wang, Guangliang Song, Mark T Swihart, Neng Wan, Dawei Gu, Xiaobing Tang, Ying Yang, Tianyou Zhang
In recent years, many research groups have synthesized ultra-thin silver nanowires (AgNWs) with diameters below 30 nm by employing Cl- and Br- simultaneously in the polyol process. However, the yield of AgNWs in this method was low, due to the production of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) as an unwanted byproduct, especially in the case of high Br- concentration. Here, we investigated the roles of Cl- and Br- in the preparation of AgNWs and then synthesized high aspect ratio (up to 2100) AgNWs in high yield (>85% AgNWs) using a Cl- and Br- co-mediated method...
March 14, 2018: Nanomaterials
Ashwini Dolle, Narasimhappagari Jagadeesh, Suman Bhaumik, Sunita Prakash, Himansu S Biswal, Konkallu Hanumae Gowd
RATIONALE: The modes of cleavages of lanthionine/methyllanthionine bridges under electron transfer dissociation (ETD) was investigated using synthetic and natural lantipeptides. Knowledge on the mass spectrometric fragmentation of lanthionine/methyllanthionine bridges may assist in the development of analytical methods for rapid discovery of new lantibiotics. Present study strengthens the advantage of ETD in the characterization of posttranslational modifications of peptides and proteins...
March 8, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Yoshitomo Hamuro, Sook Yen E
The technological goal of hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is to determine backbone amide hydrogen exchange rates. The most critical challenge to achieve this goal is obtaining the deuterium incorporation in single-amide resolution, and gas-phase fragmentation may provide a universal solution. The gas-phase fragmentation may generate the daughter ions which differ by a single amino acid and the difference in deuterium incorporations in the two analogous ions can yield the deuterium incorporation at the sub-localized site...
March 2, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Ranelle M Schaller-Duke, Mallikharjuna R Bogala, Carolyn J Cassady
Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were used to investigate underivatized, metal-cationized oligosaccharides formed via electrospray ionization (ESI). Reducing and non-reducing sugars were studied including the tetrasaccharides maltotetraose, 3α,4β,3α-galactotetraose, stachyose, nystose, and a heptasaccharide, maltoheptaose. Univalent alkali, divalent alkaline earth, divalent and trivalent transition metal ions, and a boron group trivalent metal ion were adducted to the non-permethylated oligosaccharides...
February 28, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Liana K Billings, Ankur Doshi, Didier Gouet, Alejandra Oviedo, Helena W Rodbard, Nikolaos Tentolouris, Randi Grøn, Natalie Halladin, Esteban Jodar
OBJECTIVE: In patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes on basal insulin, prandial insulin may be initiated. We assessed the efficacy and safety of initiating insulin degludec/liraglutide fixed-ratio combination (IDegLira) versus basal-bolus insulin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A phase 3b trial examined patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes on insulin glargine (IGlar U100) 20-50 units/day and metformin, randomized to IDegLira or IGlar U100 and insulin aspart four or fewer times per day...
February 26, 2018: Diabetes Care
Xiaoyan Guan, Le Zhang, Jette Wypych
Disulfide linkage is critical to protein folding and structural stability. The location of disulfide linkages for antibodies is routinely discovered by comparing the chromatograms of the reduced and non-reduced peptide mapping with location identification confirmed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. However, CID product spectra of disulfide-linked peptides can be difficult to interpret, and provide limited information on the backbone region within the disulfide loop. Here, we applied an electron-transfer dissociation (ETD)/CID combined fragmentation method that identifies the disulfide linkage without intensive LC comparison, and yet maps the disulfide location accurately...
February 22, 2018: MAbs
Jacob E Mandel, Louis Morel-Ovalle, Franz E Boas, Etay Ziv, Hooman Yarmohammadi, Amy Deipolyi, Heeralall R Mohabir, Joseph P Erinjeri
The purpose of this study is to determine whether a custom Google Maps application can optimize site selection when scheduling outpatient interventional radiology (IR) procedures within a multi-site hospital system. The Google Maps for Business Application Programming Interface (API) was used to develop an internal web application that uses real-time traffic data to determine estimated travel time (ETT; minutes) and estimated travel distance (ETD; miles) from a patient's home to each a nearby IR facility in our hospital system...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Hans-Christian Stahl, Faridullah Ahmadi, Sami Mohammad Nahzat, Heng-Jin Dong, Kurt-Wilhelm Stahl, Rainer Sauerborn
BACKGROUND: The present health economic evaluation in Afghanistan aims to support public health decision makers and health care managers to allocate resources efficiently to appropriate treatments for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) elicited by Leishmania tropica or Leishmania major. METHODS: A decision tree was used to analyse the cost and the effectiveness of two wound care regimens versus intra-lesional antimony in CL patients in Afghanistan. Costs were collected from a societal perspective...
February 14, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Frederik Lermyte, Dirk Valkenborg, Joseph A Loo, Frank Sobott
In recent years, electron capture (ECD) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) have emerged as two of the most useful methods in mass spectrometry-based protein analysis, evidenced by a considerable and growing body of literature. In large part, the interest in these methods is due to their ability to induce backbone fragmentation with very little disruption of noncovalent interactions which allows inference of information regarding higher order structure from the observed fragmentation behavior. Here, we review the evolution of electron-based dissociation methods, and pay particular attention to their application in "native" mass spectrometry, their mechanism, determinants of fragmentation behavior, and recent developments in available instrumentation...
February 9, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Xiao-Wen Zhang, Xin-Lin Zhang, Biao Xu, Li-Na Kang
AIMS: To determine the safety and efficacy of insulin degludec versus glargine in patients with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Databases were searched until July 5, 2017. We included randomized controlled trials comparing degludec with glargine in diabetic patients, each with a minimum of 16 weeks of follow-up. RESULTS: Eighteen trials with 16,791 patients were included. Degludec was associated with a statistically significant reduction in risk for all confirmed hypoglycemia at the maintenance treatment period [estimated rate ratio (ERR) 0...
February 8, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
K Jeanne Dit Fouque, H Lavanant, S Zirah, J D Hegemann, C D Fage, M A Marahiel, S Rebuffat, C Afonso
Lasso peptides constitute a structurally unique class of ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) characterized by a mechanically interlocked structure in which the C-terminal tail of the peptide is threaded and trapped within an N-terminal macrolactam ring. Tandem mass spectrometry using collision induced dissociation (CID) and electron capture dissociation (ECD) have shown previously different fragmentation patterns for capistruin, microcin J25 and their corresponding branched-cyclic forms in which the C-terminal tail is unthreaded...
February 6, 2018: Analyst
Richard E Pratley, Vanita R Aroda, Ildiko Lingvay, Jörg Lüdemann, Camilla Andreassen, Andrea Navarria, Adie Viljoen
BACKGROUND: Despite common mechanisms of actions, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists differ in structure, pharmacokinetic profile, and clinical effects. This head-to-head trial compared semaglutide with dulaglutide in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This was an open-label, parallel-group, phase 3b trial done at 194 hospitals, clinical institutions or private practices in 16 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had type 2 diabetes with HbA1c 7·0-10·5% (53·0-91·0 mmol/mol) on metformin monotherapy...
January 31, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Naruaki Imaoka, Camille Houferak, Megan P Murphy, Huong T H Nguyen, Andy Dang, František Tureček
Peptide cation radicals of the z-type were produced by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of peptide dications and studied by UV-Vis photodissociation (UVPD) action spectroscopy. Cation radicals containing the Asp (D), Asn (N), Glu (E), and Gln (Q) residues were found to spontaneously isomerize by hydrogen atom migrations upon ETD. Canonical N-terminal [z4 + H]+● fragment ion-radicals of the R-C●H-CONH- type, initially formed by N-Cα bond cleavage, were found to be minor components of the stable ion fraction...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Nicholas I Brodie, Romain Huguet, Terry Zhang, Rosa Viner, Vlad Zabrouskov, Jingxi Pan, Evgeniy V Petrotchenko, Christoph H Borchers
Top-down hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) analysis using electron capture or transfer dissociation Fourier transform mass spectrometry is a powerful method for the analysis of secondary structure of proteins in solution. The resolution of the method is a function of the extensive fragmentation of backbone bonds in the proteins. While fragmentation is usually extensive near the N- and C-termini, electron capture (ECD) or electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fragmentation methods sometimes lack good coverage of certain regions of the protein - most often in the middle of the sequence...
January 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
P Daniel Patterson, J Stephen Higgins, Hans P A Van Dongen, Daniel J Buysse, Ronald W Thackery, Douglas F Kupas, David S Becker, Bradley E Dean, George H Lindbeck, Francis X Guyette, Josef H Penner, John M Violanti, Eddy S Lang, Christian Martin-Gill
BACKGROUND: Administrators of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) operations lack guidance on how to mitigate workplace fatigue, which affects greater than half of all EMS personnel. The primary objective of the Fatigue in EMS Project was to create an evidence-based guideline for fatigue risk management tailored to EMS operations. METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted from 1980 to September 2016 and guided by seven research questions framed in the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome (PICO) framework...
February 15, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Kohei Kaku, Yuichiro Yamada, Hirotaka Watada, Atsuko Abiko, Tomoyuki Nishida, Jeppe Zacho, Arihiro Kiyosue
AIMS: Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue in development for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Safety and efficacy of once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide as monotherapy or combined with an oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) vs an additional OAD was evaluated in Japanese subjects with T2D inadequately controlled on diet/exercise or OAD monotherapy. METHODS: In this phase 3, open-label trial, adults with T2D were randomised 2:2:1 to semaglutide 0.5 mg or 1.0 mg, or one additional OAD (dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, biguanide, sulphonylurea, glinide, α-glucosidase inhibitor or thiazolidinedione) with different modes of action...
January 11, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Chantal Mathieu, Bruce W Bode, Edward Franek, Athena Philis-Tsimikas, Ludger Rose, Tina Graungaard, Anne Birk Østerskov, David Russell-Jones
AIMS: Compare safety and efficacy of fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) with conventional insulin aspart (IAsp) in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: onset 1 was a randomized, multicentre, treat-to-target, phase 3, 52-week (initial 26 weeks + additional 26 weeks) trial conducted at 165 sites across nine countries. Adults with T1D were randomly allocated to double-blind mealtime faster aspart or IAsp, each with once- or twice-daily insulin detemir...
January 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Bhavesh V Tailor, Matthew E Smith, Peter J A Hutchinson, James R Tysome
OBJECTIVES: Baro-challenge-induced Eustachian tube dysfunction (baro-induced ETD) is characterized by failure of the Eustachian tube (ET) to open adequately to permit middle-ear pressure regulation during ambient pressure changes. There are no well-characterized tests for identifying the condition, which makes both patient diagnosis and research into treatment efficacy challenging. This systematic review evaluates ET function tests as potential outcome measures for baro-induced ETD. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and CENTRAL were searched (database inception to March 2017) and reference lists reviewed for all relevant English Language articles...
February 2018: Otology & Neurotology
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