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Inessa Bekerman, Tal Sigal, Itzhak Kimiagar, Anna Ben Ely, Michael Vaiman
BACKGROUND: The changes of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) have been used to assess changes of the intracranial pressure for 20 years. The aim of this research was to further quantify the technique of measuring the ONSD for this purpose. METHODS: Retrospective study of computed tomographic (CT) data of 1766 adult patients with intracranial hypotension (n=134) or hypertension (n=1632) were analyzed. The eyeball transverse diameter (ETD) and ONSD were obtained bilaterally, and the ONSD/ETD ratio was calculated...
August 26, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Holger J Schünemann, Wojtek Wiercioch, Jan Brozek, Itziar Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta, Reem A Mustafa, Veena Manja, Romina Brignardello-Petersen, Ignacio Neumann, Maicon Falavigna, Waleed AlHazzani, Nancy Santesso, Yuan Zhang, Jörg J Meerpohl, Rebecca L Morgan, Bram Rochwerg, Andrea Darzi, Maria Ximenas Rojas, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Yaser Adi, Zulfa AlRayees, John Riva, Claudia Bollig, Ainsley Moore, Juan José Yepes-Nuñez, Carlos Cuello, Reem Waziry, Elie A Akl
BACKGROUND: Guideline developers can: 1) adopt existing recommendations from others; 2) adapt existing recommendations to their own context; or 3) create recommendations de novo. Monetary and non-monetary resources, credibility, maximization of uptake, as well as logical arguments should guide the choice of the approach and processes. OBJECTIVE: To describe a potentially efficient model for guideline production based on adoption, adaptation and/or de novo development of recommendations utilizing the GRADE Evidence to Decision (EtD) frameworks...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Mira A Patel, David J Mener, Esther Garcia-Esquinas, Ana Navas-Acien, Yuri Agrawal, Sandra Y Lin
OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between active, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and the prevalence of eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) in the U.S. pediatric population. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: U.S. representative demographic and audiometric data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES);2005-2010. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study consisted of 2,977 children aged 12-19 years...
2016: PloS One
Robert Pepin, Erik D Layton, Yang Liu, Carlos Afonso, František Tureček
Electron transfer to doubly and triply charged heptapeptide ions containing polar residues Arg, Lys, and Asp in combination with nonpolar Gly, Ala, and Pro or Leu generates stable and metastable charge-reduced ions, (M + 2H)(+●), in addition to standard electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) fragment ions. The metastable (M + 2H)(+●) ions spontaneously dissociate upon resonant ejection from the linear ion trap, giving irregularly shaped peaks with offset m/z values. The fractions of stable and metastable (M + 2H)(+●) ions and their mass shifts depend on the presence of Pro-4 and Leu-4 residues in the peptides, with the Pro-4 sequences giving larger fractions of the stable ions while showing smaller mass shifts for the metastables...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Yongsheng Xiao, Malgorzata Monika Vecchi, Dingyi Wen
Despite the great success of mass spectrometry (MS) for de novo protein sequencing, Leu and Ile have been generally considered to be indistinguishable by MS because their molecular masses are exactly the same. Positioning of incorrect Leu/Ile residues in variable domains, especially in CDRs (complementarity determining regions) of an antibody, may result in substantial loss of antigen binding affinity and specificity of the antibody. Here, we describe an integrated LC-MS based strategy, encompassing a combination of HCD (high-energy collisional dissociation) multistage mass spectrometric analysis (HCD-MSn) and ETD (electron transfer dissociation)-HCD MS3 analysis using an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer, to reliably identify Leu and Ile residues in proteins and peptides...
October 5, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Jayanta K Chakrabarty, Aishwarya G Naik, Michael B Fessler, Gerhard R Munske, Saiful M Chowdhury
Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry are now widely used to analyze large-scale protein-protein interactions. The major challenge in cross-linking approaches is the complexity of the mass spectrometric data. New approaches are required that can identify cross-linked peptides with high-confidence and establish a user-friendly analysis protocol for the biomedical scientific community. Here, we introduce a novel cross-linker that can be selectively cleaved in the gas phase using two differential tandem mass-spectrometric fragmentation methods, such as collision-induced or electron transfer dissociation (CID and ETD)...
October 18, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Camille Larracas, Ryan Hekman, Simmone Dyrness, Alisa Arata, Caroline Williams, Taylor Crawford, Craig A Vierra
The outstanding material properties of spider dragline silk fibers have been attributed to two spidroins, major ampullate spidroins 1 and 2 (MaSp1 and MaSp2). Although dragline silk fibers have been treated with different chemical solvents to elucidate the relationship between protein structure and fiber mechanics, there has not been a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the major ampullate (MA) gland, its spinning dope, and dragline silk using a wide range of chaotropic agents, inorganic salts, and fluorinated alcohols to elucidate their complete molecular constituents...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matthew A Baird, Alexandre A Shvartsburg
Precise localization of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on proteins and peptides is an outstanding challenge in proteomics. While electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has dramatically advanced PTM analyses, mixtures of localization variants that commonly coexist in cells often require prior separation. Although differential or field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) achieves broad variant resolution, the need for standards to identify the features has limited the utility of approach...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Nick DeGraan-Weber, Jun Zhang, James P Reilly
Six ion fragmentation techniques that can distinguish aspartic acid from its isomer, isoaspartic acid, were compared. MALDI post-source decay (PSD), MALDI 157 nm photodissociation, tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium bromide (TMPP) charge tagging in PSD and photodissociation, ESI collision-induced dissociation (CID), electron transfer dissociation (ETD), and free-radical initiated peptide sequencing (FRIPS) with CID were applied to peptides containing either aspartic or isoaspartic acid. Diagnostic ions, such as the y-46 and b+H2O, are present in PSD, photodissociation, and charge tagging...
September 9, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Michael Vaiman, Tal Sigal, Itzhak Kimiagar, Inessa Bekerman
The article describes the modified technique of measuring the diameters of the optic nerve sheath (ONSD) for assessment of the intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The CT scans of 443 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The ONSDs were measured at 3mm behind the globe and at the point where the ophthalmic artery crosses the optic nerve. The ONSD/eyeball transverse diameter (ETD) ratio was calculated. The correlation analysis was performed with the Glasgow Coma Scale score, Hemispheric Stroke Scale score, Glasgow Outcome Score, and invasive ICP readings...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Xueting Ye, Nan Zhao, Xi Yu, Xiaoli Han, Huiyuan Gao, Xiaozhe Zhang
Panax ginseng is an important herb that has clear effects on the treatment of diverse diseases. Until now, the natural peptide constitution of this herb remains unclear. Here, we conduct an extensive characterization of Ginseng peptidome using MS-based data mining and sequencing. The screen on the charge states of precursor ions indicated that Ginseng is a peptide-rich herb in comparison of a number of commonly used herbs. The Ginseng peptides were then extracted and submitted to nano-LC-MS/MS analysis using different fragmentation modes, including CID, high-energy collisional dissociation, and electron transfer dissociation...
September 8, 2016: Proteomics
Khalid A Jadoon, Stuart H Ratcliffe, David A Barrett, E Louise Thomas, Colin Stott, Jimmy D Bell, Saoirse E O'Sullivan, Garry D Tan
OBJECTIVE: Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) are nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids affecting lipid and glucose metabolism in animal models. This study set out to examine the effects of these compounds in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 62 subjects with noninsulin-treated type 2 diabetes were randomized to five treatment arms: CBD (100 mg twice daily), THCV (5 mg twice daily), 1:1 ratio of CBD and THCV (5 mg/5 mg, twice daily), 20:1 ratio of CBD and THCV (100 mg/5 mg, twice daily), or matched placebo for 13 weeks...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
Jingxi Pan, Suping Zhang, Christoph H Borchers
Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful technique for higher-order structural characterization of antibodies. Although the peptide-based bottom-up HDX approach and the protein-based top-down HDX approach have complementary advantages, the work done so far on biosimilars has involved only one or the other approach. Herein we have characterized the structures of two bevacizumab (BEV) biosimilars and compared them to the reference BEV using both methods. A sequence coverage of 87% was obtained for the heavy chain and 74% for the light chain in the bottom-up approach...
August 25, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jangheon Kim, Gi Gyu Kim, Soohyun Kim, Wonsuk Jung
Graphene, a two-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice structure, has been extensively investigated for research and industrial applications as a promising material with outstanding electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties. To fabricate graphene-based devices, graphene transfer to the target substrate with a clean and minimally defective surface is the first step. However, graphene transfer technologies require improvement in terms of uniform transfer with a clean, nonfolded and nontorn area, amount of defects, and electromechanical reliability of the transferred graphene...
September 7, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Inessa Bekerman, Tal Sigal, Itzhak Kimiagar, Michael Vaiman
Our objective was to apply the technique of measuring diameters of optic nerve sheath (ONSD) for the intracranial pressure assessment for the cases with traumatic head injury without hemorrhage. In a retrospective study, CT data of 720 adult patients were collected and analyzed. ONSDs were measured at the point where the ophthalmic artery crosses the optic nerve (anatomical landmark) together with the eyeball transverse diameter (ETD). The ONSD/ETD index was calculated. The correlation analysis was performed with gender, age, the Glasgow Coma Scale score, and the Glasgow Outcome Score...
September 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Marshall Bern, Richard Beniston, Stéphane Mesnage
Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential component of the bacterial cell envelope. This macromolecule consists of glycan chains alternating N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid, cross-linked by short peptides containing nonstandard amino acids. Structural analysis of PG usually involves enzymatic digestion of glycan strands and separation of disaccharide peptides by reversed-phase HPLC followed by collection of individual peaks for MALDI-TOF and/or tandem mass spectrometry. Here, we report a novel strategy using shotgun proteomics techniques for a systematic and unbiased structural analysis of PG using high-resolution mass spectrometry and automated analysis of HCD and ETD fragmentation spectra with the Byonic software...
August 13, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Chantal Mathieu, Bernard Zinman, Joanna Uddén Hemmingsson, Vincent Woo, Peter Colman, Erik Christiansen, Martin Linder, Bruce Bode
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether liraglutide added to treat-to-target insulin improves glycemic control and reduces insulin requirements and body weight in subjects with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 52-week, double-blind, treat-to-target trial involving 1,398 adults randomized 3:1 to receive once-daily subcutaneous injections of liraglutide (1.8, 1.2, or 0.6 mg) or placebo added to insulin. RESULTS: HbA1c level was reduced 0...
October 2016: Diabetes Care
Frederik Lermyte, Mateusz Krzysztof Łącki, Dirk Valkenborg, Anna Gambin, Frank Sobott
Owing to its versatility, electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has become one of the most commonly utilized fragmentation techniques in both native and non-native top-down mass spectrometry. However, several competing reactions-primarily different forms of charge reduction-occur under ETD conditions, as evidenced by the distorted isotope patterns usually observed. In this work, we analyze these isotope patterns to compare the stability of nondissociative electron transfer (ETnoD) products, specifically noncovalent c/z fragment complexes, across a range of ubiquitin conformational states...
August 5, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Melanie Göth, Frederik Lermyte, Xiao Jakob Schmitt, Stephan Warnke, Gert von Helden, Frank Sobott, Kevin Pagel
In this study the gas-phase structure of ubiquitin and its lysine-to-arginine mutants was investigated using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and electron transfer dissociation-mass spectrometry (ETD-MS). Crown ether molecules were attached to positive charge sites of the proteins and the resulting non-covalent complexes were analysed. Collision induced dissociation (CID) experiments revealed relative energy differences between the wild type and the mutant crown-ether complexes. ETD-MS experiments were performed to identify the crown ether binding sites...
October 7, 2016: Analyst
Gyati Shilakari Asthana, Abhay Asthana, Davinder Singh, Parveen Kumar Sharma
The present study aimed to investigate the delivery potential of Etodolac (ETD) containing topical niosomal gel. Niosomal formulations were prepared by thin film hydration method at various ratios of cholesterol and Span 60 and were evaluated with respect to particle size, shape, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro characteristics. Dicetyl phosphate (DCP) was also added in the niosomal formulation. Mean particle size of niosomal formulation was found to be in the range of 2 μm to 4 μm. Niosomal formulation N2 (1 : 1) ratio of cholesterol and surfactant displayed good entrapment efficiency (96...
2016: Journal of Drug Delivery
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