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Md Habban Akhter, Saima Amin
Squamous cell carcinoma of skin has become an important matter of discussion worldwide due to high number of deaths. Treatment of such cancer involves use of drugs (chemotherapy) along with surgery or radiation therapy. The combination therapy is always preferred than single treatment modality due to poor internalization of most of the chemotherapeutics in the affected cells. Now a days, nanoparticle based drug delivery to squamous cell carcinoma is equanimous to become a leading therapeutic approach for cancer treatment...
September 6, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Anthony R Glover, Jing Ting Zhao, Anthony J Gill, Jocelyn Weiss, Nancy Mugridge, Edward Kim, Alex L Feeney, Julian C Ip, Glen Reid, Stephen Clarke, Patsy S H Soon, Bruce G Robinson, Himanshu Brahmbhatt, Jennifer A MacDiarmid, Stan B Sidhu
Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) has a poor prognosis with significant unmet clinical need due to late diagnosis, high rates of recurrence/metastasis and poor response to conventional treatment. Replacing tumor suppressor microRNAs (miRNAs) offer a novel therapy, however systemic delivery remains challenging. A number of miRNAs have been described to be under-expressed in ACC however it is not known if they form a part of ACC pathogenesis. Here we report that microRNA-7-5p (miR-7) reduces cell proliferation in vitro and induces G1 cell cycle arrest...
November 3, 2015: Oncotarget
Xiaoxi Qiao, Xiangjun Zhang, Yu Tian, Yonggang Meng
Nanorheology and boundary slip play an important role in the micro/nanofluidics, and micro/nano-electromechanical systems, especially for research on DNA, proteins and polymers. Herein, a nanoscale confinement structure, called a nanocell, is established by assembling a parallel plate on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) chip to study the nanorheology of liquids and the boundary slip on the interface. The corresponding analytical models are established and verified experimentally with high consistency. We reveal that the responses of QCM with the nanocell assembled are dependent on the nanocell confinement thickness, the acoustic impedance of the nanocell lid (parallel plate), as well as the boundary slip on the interface...
March 21, 2015: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Pinar Avci, S Sibel Erdem, Michael R Hamblin
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment modality for cancer with possible advantages over current treatment alternatives. It involves combination of light and a photosensitizer (PS), which is activated by absorption of specific wavelength light and creates local tissue damage through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce a cascade of cellular and molecular events. However, as of today, PDT is still in need of improvement and nanotechnology may play a role. PDT frequently employs PS with molecular structures that are highly hydrophobic, water insoluble and prone to aggregation...
September 2014: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Karin Taylor, Christopher B Howard, Martina L Jones, Ilya Sedliarou, Jennifer MacDiarmid, Himanshu Brahmbhatt, Trent P Munro, Stephen M Mahler
There are many design formats for bispecific antibodies (BsAbs), and the best design choice is highly dependent on the final application. Our aim was to engineer BsAbs to target a novel nanocell (EnGeneIC Delivery Vehicle or EDV(TM)nanocell) to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EDV(TM)nanocells are coated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and BsAb designs incorporated single chain Fv (scFv) fragments derived from an anti-LPS antibody (1H10) and an anti-EGFR antibody, ABX-EGF. We engineered various BsAb formats with monovalent or bivalent binding arms and linked scFv fragments via either glycine-serine (G4S) or Fc-linkers...
2015: MAbs
Pornprom Muangman, Supaporn Opasanon, Supaparn Suwanchot, Orapin Thangthed
Microbial cellulose is a natural polymer that can hold a quantity of water without any disconformities. Therefore, it is proposed for use as wound dressing material. We report a case of 28% total body surface area partial-thickness flame burn: approximately 4.5% superficial partial-thickness burns on anterior face and 23.5% combined superficial and deep partial-thickness burns on both upper arms and anterior trunk. A microbial cellulose dressing, Nanocell (Thai Nano Cellulose Co Ltd, Bangkok, Thailand), was applied to the face wound only once, without any further dressing change...
March 2011: Journal of the American College of Certified Wound Specialists
Shaker A Mousa, Dhruba J Bharali
The application of nanotechnology to biomedicine, particularly in cancer diagnosis and treatment, promises to have a profound impact on healthcare. The exploitation of the unique properties of nano-sized particles for cancer therapeutics is most popularly known as nanomedicine. The goals of this review are to discuss the current state of nanomedicine in the field of cancer detection and the subsequent application of nanotechnology to treatment. Current cancer detection methods rely on the patient contacting their provider when they feel ill, or relying on non-specific screening methods, which unfortunately often result in cancers being detected only after it is too late for effective treatment...
2011: Cancers
B Y Zong, J Y Goh, Z B Guo, P Luo, C C Wang, J J Qiu, P Ho, Y J Chen, M S Zhang, G C Han
A novel approach to the fabrication of metal-cell-metal trilayer memory devices was demonstrated by using only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures. The fabricated ultrahigh density crossbar devices can be scaled down to ≤70 nm in half-pitch without alignment issues. Depending on the different dry-etch mechanisms in transferring high and low density nanopatterns, suitable dry-etch angles and methods are studied for the transfer of high density nanopatterns. Some novel process methods have also been developed to eliminate the sidewall and other conversion obstacles for obtaining high density of uniform metallic nanopatterns...
June 21, 2013: Nanotechnology
Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino, Scott Pattison, Louie Ye, Laura Tuohey, Pavel Sluka, Jennifer MacDiarmid, Himanshu Brahmbhatt, Terrence Johns, Andrew W Horne, Jeremy Brown, Stephen Tong
Abnormal trophoblast growth can cause life-threatening disorders such as ectopic pregnancy, choriocarcinoma, and placenta accreta. EnGeneIC Delivery Vehicles (EDVs) are nanocells that can promote tissue-specific delivery of drugs and may be useful to medically treat such disorders. The objective of this study was to determine whether EDVs loaded with the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin and targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, very highly expressed on the placental surface) can regress placental cells in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo...
February 2013: Endocrinology
Sabrina A Schreiner, Katharina Hoelzle, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Anja Hamburger, Max M Wittenbrink, Manuela M Kramer, Albina Sokoli, Kathrin M Felder, Katrin Groebel, Ludwig E Hoelzle
Mycoplasma suis belongs to haemotrophic mycoplasmas (HMs) which cause infectious anaemia in a large variety of mammals. To date, no in vitro cultivation system for M. suis or other HMs has been established. We hypothesised that M. suis could grow in classical Mycoplasma media supplemented with nutrients (e.g. glucose, iron-binding proteins) which are naturally available from its host environment, the porcine blood. Blood from experimentally M. suis-infected pigs was used to inoculate either standard SP-4 Mycoplasma medium supplemented with iron-binding proteins (transferrin, haemin, and haemoglobin) or glucose-enriched Hayflick Mycoplasma medium...
November 9, 2012: Veterinary Microbiology
Armen Sargsyan, Grant Hakhumyan, Claude Leroy, Yevgenya Pashayan-Leroy, Aram Papoyan, David Sarkisyan
A simple and efficient scheme based on a one-dimensional nanometric-thin cell filled with Rb and strong permanent ring magnets allows direct observation of the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime on the D(1) line in the 0.5-0.7 T magnetic field. Experimental results are perfectly consistent with the theory. In particular, with σ(+) laser excitation, the slopes of the B-field dependence of frequency shifts for all 10 individual transitions of (85,87)Rb are the same and equal to 18.6 MHz/mT. Possible applications for magnetometry with submicron spatial resolution and tunable atomic frequency references are discussed...
April 15, 2012: Optics Letters
A A Robson
It is crucial that emergent technologies create foods that help prevent the causal mechanisms of the diet induced disease epidemic. Food nanotechnology could create modem convenience foods that mimic and improve on the nutritional value of the most nutritious cooked wild foods for humans. Structuring a solid processed food similar to a celery stalk using self-assembled, water-filled, edible nanocells or nanotubes would substantially lower its energy density (<1.6 kcal g(-1)). Food technologists could harness the natural turgor force to produce a firm chocolate bar, biscuit or breakfast cereal with a good bite, without altering the appearance or taste of the product...
2011: Nutrition and Health
Jack T Trevors
This article discusses the hypothesized composition and organization of cytoplasm in prebiotic cells from a theoretical perspective and also based upon what is currently known about bacterial cytoplasm. It is unknown if the first prebiotic, microscopic scale, cytoplasm was initially contained within a primitive, continuous, semipermeable membrane, or was an uncontained gel substance, that later became enclosed by a continuous membrane. Another possibility is that the first cytoplasm in prebiotic cells and a primitive membrane organized at the same time, permitting a rapid transition to the first cell(s) capable of growth and division, thus assisting with the emergence of life on Earth less than a billion years after the formation of the Earth...
2011: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mehrdad Hamidi, Pedram Rafiei, Amir Azadi, Soliman Mohammadi-Samani
A novel drug delivery system possessing prolonged release behavior is introduced to the field of carrier erythrocytes and nanotechnology-based drug delivery. Encapsulation of valproate-loaded nanogels inside human erythrocytes as a novel nanocell composite was the objective of the study to obtain a model novel drug delivery system with an intravenous sustained drug delivery characteristic. "Ionotropic gelation" was used for the fabrication of hydrogel nanoparticles. The nanoparticles obtained were evaluated in vitro (particle size, transmitting electron microscopy, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, etc...
May 2011: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Tamer Elbayoumi, Volkmar Weissig
An ever increasing number of diverse nanomaterials for biopharmaceutical applications is emerging, ranging from liposomes, niosomes, micelles, nanoemulsions, dendrimers, nanocells, cell ghosts, lipoproteins to solid nanoparticles and quantum dots. Several of these nanomaterials have been brought from the bench into the clinic over the last three decades giving raise to "Nanomedicine", a term implying the application of nanotechnology for therapy and diagnosis. Though pharmaceutical nanoparticular carriers have been successfully established as devices for enhancing the therapeutic index of clinically approved and experimental drugs, their utilization for imaging and monitoring biological functions has just began to materialize...
December 2009: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Gaixia Zhang, Shuhui Sun, Mihnea Ioan Ionescu, Hao Liu, Yu Zhong, Ruying Li, Xueliang Sun
We report a two-step process for the growth/patterning of Ni honeycomb nanostructures on various substrates, such as carbon paper, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), silicon wafers, and copper grids, via the combination of a sputter-coating/patterning technique and a replacement reaction solution method. The morphology, crystallinity, and chemical composition of the honeycombs were analyzed by SEM, TEM, high-resolution TEM, and EDX. These honeycombs are composed of numerous nanocells, several tens of nanometers in diameter and with cell wall thickness of approximately 10 nm, randomly connecting to each other...
March 16, 2010: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Gabriel Ohlsson, Christoph Langhammer, Igor Zorić, Bengt Kasemo
A novel device for nanometer-confinement of soft matter in one dimension (1D) is presented. This nanocell, with very large (up to 10(6):1) cell-radius to cell-height ratio, is tailored as an accessory for quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and QCM with dissipation-monitoring (QCM-D) sensing to study internal and interfacial energy dissipation phenomena in highly confined (in 1D) soft matter and fluid films (patent pending). The cell consists of two macroscopic plates (diameter of 9 mm), a top (the "lid") and a bottom (the QCM-D sensor), separated by appropriate spacers with heights ranging from below 100 nm up to 10 microm...
August 2009: Review of Scientific Instruments
Zhijun Hu, Mingwen Tian, Bernard Nysten, Alain M Jonas
Ferroelectric nanostructures are attracting tremendous interest because they offer a promising route to novel integrated electronic devices such as non-volatile memories and probe-based mass data storage. Here, we demonstrate that high-density arrays of nanostructures of a ferroelectric polymer can be easily fabricated by a simple nano-embossing protocol, with integration densities larger than 33 Gbits inch(-2). The orientation of the polarization axis, about which the dipole moment rotates, is simultaneously aligned in plane over the whole patterned region...
January 2009: Nature Materials
V V Dmitriev, N E Suzina, T G Rusakova, P Iu Petrov, R R Oleĭhikov, T Z Esikova, V P Kholodenko, V I Duda, A M Boronin
The morphology, ultrastructure, and quantity of bacterial nanoforms were studied in extreme biotopes: East Siberia permafrost soil (1-3 Ma old), petroleum-containing slimes (35 years old), and biofilms from subsurface oil pipelines. The morphology and ultrastructure of microbial cells in natural biotopes in situ were investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and various methods of sample preparation: ultrathin sectioning, cell replicas, and cryofractography. It was shown that the biotopes under study contained high numbers of bacterial nanoforms (29-43% of the total number of microorganisms) that could be assigned to ultramicrobacteria due to their size (diameter of < or =0...
January 2008: Mikrobiologiia
Xiao-ping Liu, Jing Wang, Lie-xiang Yan, Bin Shi, Dan-qing Geng
OBJECTIVE: To Study the preparation and optimization of matrine-containing nanocell. METHODS: Using the film-ultrasonic method and global optimization algorithm to prepare and formulate matrine-containing nanocell. UV spectrophotometry was used to determine the entrapment efficiency of the astragalan. Laser beacon was used to determine the diameter distribution of the nanocells. Using the scanning probe microscope to observe the surface topography of the nanocell...
October 2007: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
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